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Fine Chemical Technology

CLL786
Lecture 1
Prof. Rajesh Khanna
Department of Chemical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

January 11, 2016

Lecture 1

Fine Chemical Technology

Fine chemicals

Products of high and well defined purity


Manufactured in reasonably small amounts
Sold at relatively high prices
Types:

Intermediates
Final products

Active ingredients
Additives
Aids in processing

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Fine Chemical Technology

Fine chemicals industry

Drug industry (50%)


Agriculture industry (25%)
Fragrances/Flavors
Dyes/Pigments
Food additives

Trends in Industry

Custom synthesis
Chemical trees

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Fine Chemical Technology

Manufacturing processes
Differences between Commodity chemicals
and fine chemicals

Complex multifunctional molecules

labile
unstable at high temperature
sensitive to environment (pH etc.,)

Hence, inherently safer designs and high levels


of controls
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Fine Chemical Technology

Manufacturing processes

High added value products

Expensive raw material


Selectivity is crucial
Degree of utilization
isolation/purification is difficult
large stream of pollutants

Use of hazardous chemicals for production

safety
effluent disposal

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Fine Chemical Technology

Manufacturing processes

Batch/stirred tank reactors

Great variety of products

Large inventory
Heat transfer limitation unlike continuous processes
multipurpose plants

Accurate analytical methods (ppm or ppb


levels)
Chemistry + Catalysis + Process intensification

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Fine Chemical Technology

How a Chemist works?

Focus on properties (end result)


Means are not so important

Raw material
Time
Waste disposal
Exothermic reactions
Less inventory
Diff. conditions

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Fine Chemical Technology

Course Overview?

Course deals with issues which


chemists neglect to lead to economic
manufacture of fine chemicals.

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Fine Chemical Technology

Course Content

Introduction to fine chemicals


Catalysis and selectivity

homogeneous vs. heterogeneous catalysis


Bio-catalysis
Clays (Zeolites)
Phase transfer catalysis

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Fine Chemical Technology

Course Content

Selectivity knowledge about elementary


steps
Process intensification

Manipulating equilibrium
Large surface area for mass transfer controlled
reactions

Solvents (Ionic liquids)

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Fine Chemical Technology

Process Development

Impurities in raw material


Recycled streams
Level of understanding
Numerical methods
Different steps
Accessing hazard/safety
Development personnel

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Fine Chemical Technology

Process Development

Separation methods

RO
Filtration
Chromatography

Plants (Multipurpose)

Batch or Continuous
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous

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Fine Chemical Technology

Objective

Process development and scale up


Techniques for product isolation
Implementation of new processes

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Fine Chemical Technology

Textbook
Fine Chemicals Manufacture: Technology and Engineering

Andrezi Cybulski

M. M. Sharma

J. A. Moulign

R. A. Sheldon

Elsevier Science and Technology Books (2001)

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Fine Chemical Technology

Evaluation

Minor I 20%
Minor II 20%
Major 40%
Term Paper 10%
Assignments 10%

Open book, Open notes examination


Non graded courses unit: 20 design projects

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Fine Chemical Technology

Classifications of Chemicals
Chemicals are classified based on production volume
and character.
Commodities: large volume and industry
specification (acetone, ethylene oxide phenol
etc.)
Pseudo Commodities: large volume but sold on
the basis of performance (polymers,
surfactants, paints etc.)
Speciality: low volume but sold on the basis of
performance (pharmaceuticals, pesticides,
flavours, fragrances)
fine: low volume but sold as per customers
specification (intermediates for speciality)
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Fine Chemical Technology

Example

Ampicillin Production
Commodities: Toluene and Glucose
Fine Chemicals: D-Phenylglycine,
6-Aminopenicillanic acid, bulk ampicillin
Speciality: Formulated ampicillin

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Fine Chemical Technology

Process Selection
Cost of goods (raw material, energy, labour)
supplied (CGS) approach does not work.
Process Profile Analysis is much more useful.
Operating cost
Capital investement
Process control
Risk to personnel and plant
External factors
developed in 1980s, less emphasis on environmental
impact
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Fine Chemical Technology

Volume Value Factor (VVF)


VVF is used to further subdivide the categories
VVF =

(kg /yr ) $/kg


103

High VVF > 70


Medium VVF 10 69
Low VVF < 10

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Fine Chemical Technology

Operating Cost Analysis by VVF


Parameter
raw material cost
($/kg)
yield efficiency
(avg. yield)
throughput time
(time per cycle)
throughput volume
(reactor space/kg product)
Subtotal

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High Medium Low


16
13
10
15

13

10

10

50

43

35

Fine Chemical Technology

Capital Investment Analysis by VVF

Parameter
Number of steps
Special equipment/technology
Subtotal

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High
4
2
6

Fine Chemical Technology

Medium
6
7
13

Low
8
12
20

Process Control Analysis by VVF

Parameter
Reproducibility
Tolerance to abuse
Linearity
Subtotal

High
6
6
2
14

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Medium
4
4
2
10

Low
3
3
3
9

Fine Chemical Technology

Process Profile Analysis Scores


Parameter
High
Operating Costs
50
Capital investment
6
Process control
14
Risk to plant and personnel 16 21
External factors
14
Subtotal
100

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Fine Chemical Technology

Medium
43
13
10
24
13
100

Low
35
20
9
12
100

Risk to Plant and Personnel

Environmental abuse potential


Occupational health/safety hazard

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Fine Chemical Technology

External Factors

raw material availability


susceptibility to regulatory changes
patent protection

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Fine Chemical Technology

Example

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Fine Chemical Technology

Example

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Fine Chemical Technology

Example

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Fine Chemical Technology

Example

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Fine Chemical Technology