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Introduction to Ear Training in Vocal Music

Praise and Worship

6 to 8 Sessions: Improve the quality of your singing voice and have fun in the
process! No knowledge of written music or music theory is required.
1 hour each session: This short course will provide a solid but non-technical grounding in
the fundamentals of Ear Training in vocal music for praise and worship.
Students will learn through instruction, demonstration and simple practical listening and
vocal exercises, how to be better vocalists and singers.
During 6 to 8 sessions you will learn:
How to determine your vocal range and why that is important.
How to pick out an audible tone or pitch and reproduce it exactly using your voice.
How to take a given vocal pitch and find it on the piano/keyboard
The importance of breath-control, resonance and pitch for improving the quality of
vocal performance.
Simple piano/keyboard skills and how they relate to vocal music.
How to sing harmony without getting thrown off.
Through series of demonstrations, worksheets and listening exercises, students will learn
the proper meaning and definition of approximately 30 music terms useful in learning
vocal music. Students will be provided with a hand out at the beginning of every session
used to keep orderly notes, where deemed appropriate hand outs will contain simple
graphics to aid recall of the material.

Introduction to Ear Training in Vocal Music for Praise and Worship
My philosophy Learn by doing
The Dallasian Triangle
The difference between Education and Training
The difference between Knowledge and Skill
Vocal Anatomy Diaphragm
Breath Control Timed Exercise 15 sec, 30 sec, 45 sec.
Warm Up It's importance
Getting close so you can hear
How to determine your vocal range Keyboard Exercise
Keyboard worksheet exercise
Hold your note drill unison/flat/sharp
Q & A Time
Through demonstration and worksheet

Dissonant Sharp Unison Flat Pitch Resonance Attack Cutoff Duration/Sustain-Length & sustain with harmony
Vibrato Harmony-

Introduction to Vocal Music for Praise and Worship
Breath Control Drill 15, 30 and 45 sec.
Review of Session I material
Definition of a chord 2 & 3 Part C, F, G Major
Singing in harmony 2 parts
Singing in harmony 3 parts
Warm up
Holding your note: Drill 2 part
Holding your note: Drill 3 part
Hold your note Drill: unison/flat/sharp
Ear training drill: You hit the note after note is given.
Introduction to the piano keyboard
C Scale White Notes (count them) Count with all the black notes
Count the keys exercise

Half-step/Semitone on keyboard- Definition Demonstrate
Whole-step keyboard-Definition-Demonstrate
Major Chord Drill 1,3,5,3,1 Drill (random, any root note)
Minor-Minor Chord

Session III
Introduction to Vocal Music for Praise and Worship
Review Session II material
Warm up
Breath control drill 15,30, 45 Sec.
Ear Training Drill (Find the note on the keyboard)
1,3,5,3,1 Drill Random Root note Drill
Hold your note drill flat, unison, sharp
Amazing Grace Capo 1, 2,3,4 Drill to show change of key

Tempo rate of the beat
4/4 Time and 3/4 Time

Introduction to Vocal Music for Praise and Worship
Review of session III material
Warm Up
Breath control drill 15, 30, 45 (Variation one)
Ear Training Drill (Reproduce pitch with your own voice)
1,3,5,3,1 Drill
Minor Chord flatten the third drill

Chord Progression
Transitional Chord
7th-To demonstrate Blues Chord Progressions

Introduction to Vocal Music for Praise and Worship
Review of session IV material
Warm up
Breath Control drill 15,30,45 sec. (Variation 2)
Ear Training
C,F,G on the keyboard drill
C min F min G min on keyboard drill


Introduction to Vocal Music for Praise and Worship
Review of all previous sessions
Warm up
Breath control drill 15,30,45 sec (variation 3)
Ear Training (Listening to your neighbor)


Vocal Music Glossary and Worksheets

A capella without ___________________ accompaniment
Alto High; often refers to a particular range of voice, higher than _________but lower than _________
Bass The lowest of the standard four voice ranges (bass, tenor, alto, soprano); the lowest melodic line
in a musical composition, often thought of as defining and supporting the harmony

S.A.T.B. Stands for [ ____________],[______________],[_____________],[__________]

Beat 1. The pronounced [___________ ]of music 2. One single stroke of a rhythmic accent
Bend term referring either to establishing a pitch, sliding down [____________ ]a step
(also called a semi-[__________]) and and returning to the original pitch or sliding up half a step from
the original note.
Bridge Transitional passage connecting [____________] [ ________________] of a composition,
also transition. Also the part of a stringed instrument that holds the strings in place and transmits their
vibrations to the resonant body of the instrument.
Broken chord A chord in which the notes are not all played at once, but in some more or less
consistent sequence. They may follow singly one after the other, or two notes may be immediately
followed by another two, for example.
Capo 1. (short for capotasto: "nut") : A] __________]-changing device for stringed instruments (e.g.
guitars and banjos)
1, 3, 5, 3, 1 Drill Repeating the 1-3-5-3-1 of any given ROOT NOTE in order to commit the
interval [the ______________between the___________] to memory. (Think of the first few notes of
TAPS or E.T., Twinkle-Twinkle).

Chord, in music, is any harmonic set of [_____________] or [___________] [______________]


is heard [________________] sounding simultaneously.These need not actually be played together:

arpeggios and broken chords (these involve the notes of the chord played one after the other, rather than
at the same time) may, for many practical and theoretical purposes, constitute chords. Chords and
sequences of chords are frequently used in modern Western music; a group of (typically three or more)
notes sounded together, as a basis of harmony. crescendo Growing; (i.e. progressively louder) (contrast

Duration/Sustain in music refers to how [___________] or [____________] notes are. It can also
refer to how long an entire piece of music lasts. The concept of duration can be further broken down into
those of beat and rhythm, where beat is seen as (usually, but certainly not always) a 'constant', and
rhythm being longer, shorter or the same length as the beat. a tone may be sustained for varying lengths
of time. It is often cited as one of the fundamental aspects of music, encompassing rhythm, form, and
even pitch. Cut-off-

FLAT A symbol () that lowers the pitch of a note by a semitone. The term may also be used as an
adjective to describe a situation where a singer or musician is performing a note in which the
intonation is too low.

UNISON is two or more musical parts (OR VOICES) sounding the same pitch or at an octave
interval, usually at the same time.

SHARP A symbol () that raises the pitch of the note by a semitone. The term may also be used as
an adjective to describe a situation where a singer or musician is performing a note in which the
intonation is somewhat too high in pitch.

Enunciate say or pronounce clearly. "she enunciated each word slowly"

pronounce, articulate; More
say, speak, utter, voice, vocalize, sound
"she enunciated each word slowly"
express (a proposition or theory) in clear or definite terms.
"a written document enunciating this policy"
express, state, put into words, declare, profess, set forth, assert,
affirm; More


Strong (i.e. to be played or sung loudly)

G.P.General Pause; indicates to the performers that the entire ensemble has a rest of
indeterminate length, often as a dramatic effect during a loud section


Below Count all Black and white keys in an OCTAVE:________


Halfstep/Semitone On the piano/key the very next key REGARDLESS of color of the key.
Interval-The distance between any ________________


KeyMelody (from Greek , melida, "singing, chanting"),[1] also tune, voice, or line, is a linear
succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. [the line of notes that help you
identify the song-the tune] In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while
more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color. It may
be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground
melody. Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, and are usually repeated
throughout a composition in various forms.

Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. The common elements of music are pitch
(which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and
articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are
sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize,
de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and
with vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping, and there are solely instrumental pieces, solely
vocal pieces and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek
(mousike; "art of the Muses").

OCTAVE [THE MAJOR CLUE IS THE NUMER_______]In music, an octave (Latin: octavus:
eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its
frequency. It is defined by ANSI. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred
to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems". The most
important musical scales are typically written using eight notes, and the interval between the first and
last notes is an octave. For example, the C Major scale is typically written C D E F G A B C, the initial
and final Cs being an octave apart. Two notes separated by an octave have the same letter name and are
of the same pitch class.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or
more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in
the sense associated with musical melodies. Pitch can only be determined in sounds that have a
frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. Pitch is a major auditory attribute of
musical tones, along with duration, loudness, and timbre. Pitch may be quantified as a frequency, but
pitch is not a purely objective physical property; it is a subjective psychoacoustical attribute of sound.
Historically, the study of pitch and pitch perception has been a central problem in psychoacoustics, and
has been instrumental in forming and testing theories of sound representation, processing, and
perception in the auditory system.

Resonance-(And Vocal anatomy) The quality of the human voice produced when pushing
[______________ _______________S of ______________] out through both the mouth and the nose at
the same time when producung a musical tone. (The Vocal performances of Elvis Presley are a good
example of a voice with rich RESONANCE). Resonance, and in fact most of your ability to produce
pleasing tones with your voice, boil down to control of two-three muscle [____________]s.

Reprise-The repeating of a musical [_____________]or [___________] from the melody, the lyrics
or the chord progression to recall the mood of a segment of music. Repeat a phrase or verse; return to
the original theme (Carrying the theme or phrase of a song throughout the service).

Staccato Making each note brief and detached; [SHORT AND QUICK; WITH EXACT STOPS

Syncopation A disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of downbeat rhythm with emphasis
on the sub-division or up-beat (e.g. in Ragtime music).

Tempo Time (i.e. the overall [________________] of a piece of music) SEE BEAT/ RYTHYM
Tenor second lowest of the standard four voice ranges (bass, tenor, alto, soprano)
Timbre The quality of a musical tone that distinguishes voices and instruments
Trill A rapid, usually unmeasured alternation between two harmonically adjacent notes (e.g. a interval
of a semitone or a whole tone). A similar alternation using a wider interval is called a tremolo.

Vibrato (Italian, from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a
regular, pulsating change of pitch. It is used to add expression to vocal and instrumental music. Vibrato
is typically characterised in terms of two factors: the amount of pitch variation ("extent of vibrato") and
the speed with which the pitch is varied ("rate of vibrato"). In singing it can occur spontaneously through
a variations in the [________________]. The vibrato of a string instrument and wind instrument is an
imitation of that vocal function. Vibrating (i.e. a more or less rapidly repeated slight variation in the
pitch of a note, used as a means of expression). Often confused with tremolo, which refers either to a
similar variation in the volume of a note, or to rapid repetition of a single note. [Goat BAAAAH

Dynamic's note velocity



Almost at a whisper
Softer than speaking voice
Speaking voice
Louder than speaking
Speaking loud

*Note velocity adopted from Logic Pro

S.A.T.B.-Short for S-oprano, A-lto, T-enor, B-ase
Soprano Range: The soprano is the highest singing voice. The typical soprano voice lies between
C4 (middle C) and C6 (high C). The low extreme for sopranos is roughly A3 (just below middle C).[6]
Most soprano roles do not extend above C6

Alto Range: The 2nd highest singing voice. The typical alto F4 to F6

Tenor range: The tenor is the highest male voice within the modal register. The typical tenor voice
lies between C3 (one octave below middle C) to C5 (one octave above middle C). The low extreme for
tenors is roughly B2 (the second B-flat below middle C). At the highest extreme, some tenors can sing
up to F5 (the second F above middle C).

Bass range: The bass is the lowest male voice. The bass voice has the lowest of all the voices. The
typical bass range lies between E2 (the second E below middle C) to E4 (the E above middle C). In the
lower and upper extremes of the bass voice, some basses can sing from C2 (two octaves below middle
C) to G4 (the G above middle C).[3]