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CASE TOHONO (SWS)

1NC
Arizona state police disregard federal directives
specifically on immigration, theyll continue doing
whatever they want
Elizabeth Erwin 4/11 (Arizona lawmakers want to ignore President
Obama's executive orders, Mar 11, 2015 6:27 PM,
http://www.abc15.com/news/state/arizona-lawmakers-want-to-ignorepresident-obamas-executive-orders, Accessed 7/16/15,)
President Barack Obama has signed some big executive orders
lately. They've impacted guns and immigration , two issues Arizonans
clearly care about. But the approach some lawmakers are taking to keep us
from enforcing those rules has some questioning if the plan is even legal!
"The legislature wants to prevent enforcement of executive orders
and prevent enforcement of federal agency policy directives," said
attorney David Abner with Knapp & Roberts Law Firm. House Bill 2368 says
unless those orders have been voted on by Congress and signed into
law, Arizona wouldn't have to follow them. "It's political
grandstanding. There's nothing of substance to this. It's silly," Abner
said. "Well, unfortunately, it's a waste of time, somewhat ridiculous. In fact
very ridiculous," said House Minority Leader Bruce Wheeler. Wheeler voted
against the bill. He said the priorities of what gets floor time doesn't match
up with what Arizonans really need. "We ought to be addressing
education and jobs. Instead we're addressing these extremist bills,"
Wheeler said. Abner said even if this bill is signed into law there's no
way it would stand up in court. "If our state officials ignore federal law
they run the risk of prosecution by federal authorities," Abner said. ABC15
reached out to the bill's sponsors today for comment. We have not heard
back yet.

2NC No Solvency
Arizona will ignore the federal its happening in the
status quo with guns and immigration thats Erwin
No solvency The Mexican government and boarder
control are in cahoots
http://townhall.com/tipsheet/katiepavlich/2014/06/27/border-patrol-agentswould-not-surpise-me-if-cartels-rented-cover-by-mexican-military-helicoptern1856546
Katie Pavlich June 27 2014; Update with Correction: Border Control Agents:
Cartels May Have Rented Cover from Mexican Military Helicopter in
Shooting incident Pavlich is an editor at Townhall.com and New York Times
Best Selling author.

"Mexican military are oftentimes working hand in glove with the


cartels. The Mexican military has routinely crossed the border in areas
that Border Patrol agents are actively tracking or seizing drug loads.
Inevitably the Mexican military claim they got lost, that the border was
not clearly marked, or in extreme cases fire on agents to cover their
retreat," National Border Patrol Council Spokesman Shawn Moran
exclusively tells Townhall. "Ajo, AZ Border Patrol agents have had
several incidents like this over the years where they have taken shots
from the Mexican military. The cartels' resources are nearly limitless
and it would not surprise me if they "rented" the cover by the Mexican
military helicopter in this incident."
A Border Patrol agent stationed in Arizona, who asked to remain
anonymous, backed up Moran's statements saying the Mexican military
regularly works with cartels on the border and has been doing so for
years.
The Mexican government has apologized for the shooting, but has not
explained why the helicopter was in the area.

Laundry list The Tohono boarder is a key site for


implosions on domestic security
Sarah Singleton January 2009 Associate Professor in the Department of
Political Science at Research institute at Western Washington University
Not our borders: Indigenous people and the struggle to maintain

shared lives and cultures in post-9/11 North America


(http://www.wwu.edu/bpri/files/2009_Jan_WP_No_4.pdf)

On the opposing side, government officials might argue that the


interests of tribes must be overridden by the even stronger interest the
public has in domestic security. Much of the 260 miles of the

international border that abuts Indian reservations has been shown to


be quite porous, and the result has been a concentration of borderrelated illegal activity. Many Indian reservations are currently grappling
with crime rates that are nearly double those on non- Indian
communities, with few obvious signs of success (Perry 2004). While no
serious terrorism threats have been discovered on reservations, it
seems likely that this is not because such threats have been thwarted,
but rather that they have yet to be attempted. If we assume that
discouraging terrorism and drug trafficking or diminishing the numbers
of immigrants that enter the U.S. illegally are, either individually or in
combination, necessary, important public policy goals, then it is not
hard to see why the idea of relaxing border crossing requirements to
accommodate tribal preferences strikes many people as irrational. This
lack of confidence in the tribal law enforcement capacities is no doubt
part of what lies behind DHSs apparent usurpation of the tribal role in
ensuring domestic security.

Cartel DA Cartels bring fear and drugs over to the north


side of the border
Andrew OReilly ; August 12 2014 Mexican Drug Cartel Violence
Spreading To Rural US As Police Crack Down In Big Cities
http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2014/08/12/mexican-drug-cartelviolence-spreading-to-rural-us-as-police-crackdown-in-major/
A bloody, bullet-riddled body slumped inside of an SUV on a lonely
stretch of road. Five people shot execution-style inside a sparsely
furnished apartment. Drug disputes turning into violent kidnappings
and brutal deaths.
These stories have become commonplace in Nuevo Len, Michoacn,
Sinaloa and other Mexican states, but theyre not from Mexico. Theyre
from quiet areas in Minnesota, Oregon, South Carolina and across rest
of the U.S. as Mexican drug cartels and groups affiliated with them
move deeper into the country and bring with them their violent tactics.
While most law enforcement agencies want to make clear that the
level of violent crime currently embroiling Mexico is not likely to spread
to the U.S. anytime soon, officials from both local and federal
organizations say that the reach of that countrys feared drug cartels
has spread north and with it, at least to some degree, so has the
violence.
In recent years the DTOs [drug trafficking organizations] have
changed their tactics and become bolder, Lt. Gerry Adcock of
Oregons Marion County Sheriffs Office told Fox News Latino. The
men and women involved in todays [drug trafficking] kill or make
other drug traffickers disappear without fear of consequence. I have
personally investigated homicides and violent incidents directly related
to DTOs and have seen the destruction they have caused to families in

our community.
One such case was the murder of Rogelio Hernndez-Davalos, who was
killed at point-blank range in the front seat of his Ford Expedition in
January of 2012. The Marion County Sheriffs Office investigation found
that Hernndez-Davalos, a native of Sinaloa, Mexico, was purportedly
moving about 30 pounds of heroin every two weeks and is believed to
have been executed by a Mexican cartel for either stealing from his
bosses or attempting to branch off on his own.
In the last few years, Oregon has become a hotspot for drug trafficking
and cartel-related violence as traffickers use the Interstate-5 corridor
to run drugs from California up to Washington State and even into
Vancouver. Just like on the East Coast with the Interstate-95 corrider,
these drug organizations are finding it easier to operate in more rural
and suburban areas as law enforcement officials in major cities crack
down on organized crime groups.
The main reason for moving to these areas is that the police in cities
and along the border have become much more sophisticated in
fighting the cartels, George W. Grayson, an expert on Mexicos drug
war and a politics professor at the College of William and Mary told
FNL. When you dont deal with that type of crime day in and day out
youre not going to have the expertise in combatting the cartels.
Officials at the Drug Enforcement Administration said that the incursion
of Mexican cartels and their proxy groups in the U.S. is nothing new. A
Justice Department report from 2011 found that Mexican-based cartels
were operating in more than 1,000 U.S. cities between 2009 and 2010
and have expanded from marijuana and cocaine trafficking to heroin
and methamphetamine as well as taking part in human smuggling
operations.
Mexicos Sinaloa cartel, the countrys largest and headed by the now
incarcerated Joaqun El Chapo Guzmn, operates in every region of
the U.S., according to statistics compiled by the National Drug
Intelligence Center.
Mexican drug trafficking organizations have been in control of every
major drug market in the U.S. for a long time, DEA spokesman Rusty
Payne told FNL.
Payne added that the cartels try to keep the violence in the U.S. to a
minimum to detract from any unwanted attention from law
enforcement authorities.
The Mexican drug war has not spilled into the U.S., Payne said.
Theyre not here to cause havoc. They know its bad for business and
that they have to be well-behaved.
Well-behaved for cartels and gangs, however, is a relative term and for
regions of the country not used to violent crime, a brazen act of
gangland violence can send shockwaves through smaller communities
and regions not traditionally thought of as strongholds of cartel activity.
The Sinaloa Cartel allegedly hired members of the MS-13 street gang

to carry out torture operations in Minnesota and a series of murders in


Virginia have been attributed to drug cartel feuds. Authorities in rural
Rockingham County, North Carolina said that 15 drug cartel associates
have been arrested there in the last three years, including the arrest of
two alleged cartel associates whose home was filled with 1,060 pounds
of marijuana, more than $600,000 in cash and an AR-15 assault rifle.
A few years ago law enforcement didnt see this as a problem for
somewhere other than the border, Rockingham County Sheriff Sam
Page told FNL. What happens at the border doesnt stay at the border.
It makes its way to my county pretty soon.
Violent crime related to the cartels may occur in the U.S., but most law
enforcement officials and experts agree that the main worry for
Americans is the drugs not the violence that the cartels bring with
them. Still, many say that is something to be concerned about.
Every American needs to be concerned about drug trafficking
organizations being in the U.S., Payne said, and where they are and
where the money goes.

CASE BORDERS (MM


POLICY)

Cartels

1NC
Alt cause- new drug cartel is causing chaos
Acosta 15
Alejandro Acosta, Violent new drug cartel alarming authorities in Mexico,
CBS NEWS, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/violent-new-drug-cartel-alarmingauthorities-in-mexico/, 05/03/15//SRawal
Generation was showing off its power with a spasm of violence that
killed seven people and forced down a military helicopter in western
Mexico, analysts said Saturday. Jalisco state was relatively calm the day after gunmen set fire to cars, buses, banks
and gasoline stations and trade gunfire with soldiers and police. The violence erupted after
security forces launched a campaign against the cartel Friday. State
authorities remained on alert in and around Jalisco's capital of
Guadalajara, with heavy police patrols and fewer people than usual
on the streets Saturday. Mexico's government is going head-on against the cartel, whose leader,
Nemesio Oseguera Cervantes, alias "El Mencho," is one of the country's richest drug lords, trafficking to Europe, Asia,
Australia and South Africa, said Jose Reveles, author of several books on drug trafficking. He said the government has had
to act against the cartel, with the urgency intensifying when gunmen for the cartel ambushed a state police convoy and
killed 15 officers in April. "Everything

points to an increase in violence because


there hasn't been a cartel this strong in the state since the 1980s,"
Reveles said. The Jalisco state prosecutor issued a statement on his
Twitter account confirming a minor outburst of violence Saturday in
the resort city of Puerto Vallarta, where two cars and a business
were burned. "If the operatives continue, the same thing could happen all over
again," prosecutor Luis Carlos Najera said. The U.S. consulate in Guadalajara on Friday urged American citizens in the
area to remain indoors. It said on its website Saturday that the situation in the region was now "under control," but

The federal Attorney General's Office also


announced Saturday that it was turning over 10 people for
prosecution in another cartel attack on police - the March 30 assassination attempt on
warned that clashes could flare up again.

an Jalisco state security official and his bodyguards.

The aff doesnt stop the cartels they have diverse


sources of revenue
Villagran 11 (Lauren, Mexicos crime groups grabbing lucrative market
for pirated goods , http://www.dallasnews.com/news/20110516-mexicoscrime-groups-grabbing-lucrative-market-for-pirated-goods.ece)
Experts say criminal organizations have increasingly taken control of
Mexicos informal economy and, with it, its multibillion-dollar market
for pirated movies, music, software and other goods illegally
producing, distributing and even exporting the latest Hollywood
hits, music by popular Mexican artists, and computer programs.
Criminal organizations now make only about half their money
trafficking illegal drugs, said Edgardo Buscaglia, an expert on organized crime with Mexicos
Autonomous Technological Institute, a leading university. The other half of their revenue, in
the billions, comes from smuggling migrants, extortion, kidnappings
and Mexicos vast black market for pirated goods. The consequences are
enormous, said Jorge Amigo Castaeda, director of the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property. The institute estimates that
Mexico lost 480,000 jobs because of piracy and falsification in 2009, the latest year for which statistics are available. For
example, the faking of brand-name apparel cost the clothing industry $9.5 billion. The footwear industry, which has seen
70 percent of businesses close in recent years, must compete with the 200 million pairs of counterfeited brand-name
shoes that enter the country illegally each year. With intellectual property of all kinds at serious risk of piracy or
falsification in Mexico, the country loses its competitive edge in attracting national and foreign investment, Amigo said.
Mexico dropped six places to No. 66 in the World Economic Forums 2010-11 report on global competitiveness, falling

behind Panama, Costa Rica and Uruguay. The hand of organized crime in piracy is evident, experts say. The cartel logos
popping up on movies, music and software discs are obviously not registered trademarks, but its their own brand,
according to a government official who asked not to be named for security reasons. If someone from La Familia shows up,
enters [a store] and sees that the discs dont carry the butterfly, things are going to get ugly for the owners, the official

Drug traffickers get involved in piracy


in the same way they get involved in the kidnapping of migrants , said
Gustavo Fondevila, an expert on piracy and criminal organizations with Mexicos CIDE think tank. Theyre
looking for ways to diversify their criminal business.
said. They are forcing stores to buy their discs.

No impact to cartels
Fournier, 12 (Pierre, geopolitical analyst, National Bank Financial (a subsidiary of National Bank of Canada), 7/30/12, POSTELECTION MEXICO REMAINS A BUY, http://c3352932.r32.cf0.rackcdn.com/pdf4100207b74a22c3c754fffc3d98edf42.pdf)

Despite concerns about the newly elected government, continued drug cartel violence, and the wave of resource
nationalism sweeping much of Latin America, we reiterate our view that investors in Mexico and the Mexican markets will
outperform. What failed state? In 2009-10, negative perceptions about Mexico hit an all-time high. A
number of forecasters and think-tanks, including the U.S. Armys Southern Command, predicted that Mexico was on the verge
of becoming a failed state. In our initial country report on Mexico in March 2010 (Mexico: Too Strategic to Fail with Strong Long-Term
Fundamentals, NBF Geopolitical Research), we argued that Mexicos social, political and economic fundamentals are
far stronger than what proponents of the failed state thesis pretend . Since then, the Mexican economy
has outperformed most Latin American economies, and the Mexican Bolsa (up 30.5%) has outperformed most other global
stock markets. In this update, we reiterate our bullish view on Mexico. We believe that: (i) The rebound in economic growth after the
2009 recession is sustainable (ii) Drug violence does not represent an existential threat to the state and that
it is likely to decrease (iii) The new government will follow through on its promises to reduce PEMEXs
stronghold on the oil sector (iv) Mining companies will continue to benefit from a favourable investment climate (v) The political system
Bottom line:

will become gradually more democratic and transparent going forward. The politics of Mexico: Endemic corruption or the consolidation of
democracy? The election on July 1st of Enrique Pena Nieto of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) along with the strong showing of the PRI
in congress (240 of 500 seats) has been viewed with much scepticism. The PRI had ruled Mexico for 71 consecutive years, a period widely
associated with corruption, cronyism and autocratic rule. In the short term, media headlines have been focused on the legal challenge which
defeated Presidential candidate Manuel Lopez Obrador has filed with the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE). While Lopez Obrador from the left-wing
Democratic Revolution Party (PRD) lost by more than three million votes (38.21% to 31.59%), he has formally accused the PRI of purchasing and
manipulating millions of votes, and of overspending. Tens of thousands of Mexican youth have been demonstrating regularly in Mexico City to
denounce the election and what they view as media bias in favour of the PRI candidate. In 2006, Lopez Obrador lost the Presidential election by
0.5%, and accusations of fraud and irregularities caused significant havoc in central Mexico. This time, however, the Federal Electoral Courts
impending ruling in September, which will likely validate Pena Nietos victory, is unlikely to create much disruption. The President-elect will be
officially sworn in on Dec. 1st. More importantly, while a number of PRI officials will inevitably yearn for the good old days, Mexicos

democratic progression is unlikely to lose steam. The combined opposition the PRD and the centre-right National Action
Party (PAN), which took third place with 25.4% of the vote holds a majority in congress. The PRI itself, which campaigned on a reformist platform,
is also far less monolithic than in the past. Arguably, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) is far more institutional than revolutionary, and the

expectations should be for continuity and stability . Beyond the controversy surrounding the last two Presidential elections,
Mexico has achieved a successful transition from one-party rule to a credible multi-party system. Nonetheless, the new
government faces a number of significant challenges. The federal government is far too dependent on oil revenues from Petrleos Mexicanos
(PEMEX), and must broaden its meagre tax base, especially as the growth of the informal economy is responsible for 75% of the jobs created in the
last decade. Local and state authorities are largely unaccountable for the money they spend, and along with the police and judiciary, are the source
of pervasive corruption. Drug Violence: An existential threat? No challenge is greater than the violence and uncertainty resulting from the drug wars.
With 55,000 dead since President Felipe Calderon (PAN) decided to declare war on the cartels in 2006 with the active support of the army, drug
violence has monopolized global media coverage on Mexico. It has also cost the Mexican economy an estimated 1% of its GDP annually. While the

cartels will remain a serious issue for the foreseeable future, they are unlikely to become an existential threat to the
Mexican state and economy . The violence remains focused on northern border towns, and Michoacn and
Guerrero states. The Central American nations of Belize, Guatemala and Honduras have double the murder rates of Mexico, and those of Brazil and
Colombia are also higher. Drug-related homicides have dropped 19% in the 12 months ending June 2012. The President-elect has pledged to
continue the war on the cartels, but has given no clear indications on his strategy. While negotiating an official truce is out of the question, it appears
that a modus vivendi (an understanding) involving a less aggressive military posture in exchange for less

cartel violence involving civilians could be sought and achieved. With the Sinaloa and Los Zetas cartels gradually
eliminating their rivals, a reduction in violence between cartels and perhaps even a truce between the two top
criminal gangs is also possible. Overall, the balance of risks favours a reduction of cartel violence
rather than an increase .

2NC Alt Cause


Violence is increasing now and will continue for the
forseeable future the aff cant resolve it a new drug
cartel called Generation is wreaking havoc in a display of
power means its not deterred by government action
thats Acosta
The Mexican government cant control them
Leveille 15

David Leveille, A heavily armed 'paramilitary' cartel unleashes violence in


Mexico's second-biggest city, PRI WORLD, http://www.pri.org/stories/201505-08/heavily-armed-paramilitary-cartel-unleashes-violence-mexicos-secondbiggest-city, 05/08/15
He calls Jalisco New Generation a paramilitary organization that "has
rocket launchers, grenade launchers and was even caught
manufacturing its own assault rifles at a clandestine factory in
Guadalajara last year." The group is also willing to challenge
authorities "in almost warlike situations." Violence in Jalisco, one of
Mexico's most economically important states, has become a huge
challenge for Mexican President Enrique Pea Nieto, who has pledged to bring peace to the country following years
of brutal drug gang violence. But Tucker says "there is very little confidence in the
government's ability to ensure peace in the region," even with federal forces
deployed in the state. A civic group called Paz GDL, or Peace Guadalajara, plans #CaminataPorLaPaz, a walk for peace to
draw attention to the general breakdown of security in the city. A number of celebrities and athletes have expressed their
support, including Real Madrid star Javier Hernandez, who was born and raised in Guadalajara.

2NC No Solvency
Drug cartels will remain powerful they have lots of
sources of income thats Villagran
Specifically, the drug trade brings in billions each year

Herald Tribune 15 (Drug Cartels Make $64 Billion a Year from U.S., Mexican
Says, http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=342471&CategoryId=14091)
MEXICO CITY Drug cartels currently take in $64.34 billion from their sales
to users in the United States, Mexicos public safety secretary said. Genaro Garcia Luna cited the
figure during a speech Wednesday at the international forum organized in the northern border metropolis of Ciudad Juarez

The drugs that the mainly Mexican


cartels smuggle into the United States include marijuana, cocaine,
heroin, methamphetamines and Ecstasy. Mexico produces
substantial amounts of marijuana and crystal meth and smaller
quantities of heroin. South America is the source of the cocaine that
Mexican gangs smuggle into the United States. Garcia Luna said that organized
by the OCDA, a federation of center-right parties in the Americas.

criminal groups in particular, the cartels are a risk for public and national security in the hemisphere. He said that
according to figures compiled by international entities, the production of cocaine in Colombia, Peru and Bolivia has

in 2007 the
wholesale price of cocaine went from $2,198 per kilogram in
Colombia to $12,500 when it arrived in Mexico, and from there rose
to $97,400 per kilo in the United States and $101,490 in Europe.
Garcia Luna acknowledged that Mexico now has a domestic drug
problem and that Mexicans spend an average of $431 million per
year on illegal drugs. The secretary said that the criminal organizations are taking advantage of the
remained stable over the past nine years at an average of about 900 tons annually. He said that

phenomenon of globalization to expand their activities through the opening up of the financial markets and technological
development.

He also emphasized that organized crime is participating


not only in the shipment of drugs but also in trafficking in weapons
and migrants, smuggling other items, money laundering, vehicle
theft, kidnappings-for-ransom and extortion. EFE

Relations

1NC
Relations are resilient- multiple areas of collaboration
Wood 13
Dunan Wood, Director, Mexico Institute, Woodrow Wilson International Center
for Scholars, SECURITY COOPERATION IN MEXICO: EXAMINING THE NEXT
STEPS IN THE U.S.-MEXICO SECURITY RELATIONSHIP,
http://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Wood_Testimony.pdf,
06/18/2013//SRawal
However, we can point to a number of areas where we can expect fruitful
collaboration. First, in the area of prevention and violence reduction,
there is ample room for continued cooperation, similar to that which took place under
Pillar IV of the Merida Initiative. The work of rebuilding communities, of investing in social programs, of engaging with civil
society in crime prevention and in the justice system has attained significant success in places such as Baja California and

there is likely
to be a receptive attitude from the Mexican authorities with regards
to the issue of policing standards. As the process of unifying police
commands across communities in the states of Mexico continues,
and as police professionalization remains as key topic, there is much
that the US has to offer. Third, the creation of the gendarmerie will
likely involve the secondment or permanent transfer of military
personnel into the new force. In order to avoid the pitfalls of having troops adopt a policing
the experience of working with US agencies there provides a model for future efforts. Second,

function, there will be a need to train these individuals in policing, criminal justice and investigation techniques. Again,

the US has significant and important experience in this area. Beyond these
areas, counter- money laundering actions and intelligence gathering
and sharing continue to provide potential areas for collaboration.
Mexicos new anti-money-laundering laws require immediate implementation over the past 5 years, a mere 83
individuals were convicted of money laundering in Mexico, while we know that more than $10 billion is laundered a year
within the country. The movement of money back from the United States is an issue that needs to be addressed and high
level talks are needed on that issue. On intelligence sharing I perceive a more difficult road ahead. Trust issues and the
absence of mutual understanding, combined with the centralization of power over security policy in the Interior Ministry,
mean that the progress of the past 5 years is by no means guaranteed. At this point in time it is vital that we adopt a longterm perspective, that patience and good judgment prevails, and that we do not burden the new relationship with the

comment on the recent visit by


President Obama to Mexico, to meet with President Pea Nieto.
There can be little doubt that the visit was a huge success, both in
terms of building a relationship with the Mexican president on a
personal level, and in convincing the Mexican public that the
relationship with the United States is a positive one . In particular, the speech
expectations of the old. Lastly, I have been asked to

given by the President at the National Anthropological Museum received very favorable press and attention. On a more
substantive level,

the agreements between the two presidents on education


and the economy have injected new vigor into bilateral affairs,
helped greatly by the optimism over the prospects for immigration
reform here in Washington. Already we are seeing benefits in terms
of spill over into other areas the upcoming Inter-Parliamentary
Group meetings in Washington in the Fall, as well as the bilateral
talks on energy scheduled for October, promise to further revitalize
the relationship.

Economics, regional institutions, and democracy check


Latin instability

Coll 12 (Alberto R., Professor of International Law DePaul College of Law,


Former Chairman of the Strategic Research Department U.S. Naval War
College, Former Dean Center for Naval Warfare Studies, Former Principal
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, The Real Latin American Revolution,
Chicago Council on Global Affairs, 5-17,
http://2012summits.org/commentaries/detail/coll_2) //RL
it is easy to lose sight of
one of the key revolutions in global affairs over the past fifteen years: the rise of
Latin America. Until not long ago, Latin America was synonymous with
instability, revolution, and economic stagnation. For much of the Cold War, two highly
With the G8 gathering in Camp David and the NATO summit in Chicago,

destructive forces dominated Latin American politics. One was the tendency of its powerful militaries to
block any progressive reform by installing repressive regimes, many of which went on to commit appalling
human rights atrocities in the name of fighting communism. The other was the penchant of Latin Americas
elites for protectionism, populism, and revolution as panaceas for the regions ills. The results were
political conflict, massive poverty, and limited clout in global affairs. In the 1970s and 1980s, countries
such as Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina were left behind by the likes of China, India, Taiwan, South Korea,

Today , Latin America is an


economically dynamic region with a growing voice in international affairs. Symbolically

and Singapore, which had been backwaters only a few decades earlier.

enough, the June meeting of the G20 group of world economic powers will take place in Mexico, and three
Latin American countriesBrazil, Mexico and Argentinanow count among its highly sought-after ranks.
Elsewhere, the latest new member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD)the mostly European and North American group of democracies committed to a free market
economyis Chile, invited to join in 2010 on the basis of its impressive economic performance and

developments help to explain Latin Americas resurgence.


The first is political. With notable exceptions such as Venezuela and parts of Central America,
political institutions have matured and democratic practices have
strengthened . In most countries, the military has retreated from politics, ceding
space to a vigorous civil society . There were over thirty military coups in the region
between 1975 and 1985. In the past decade there was only one (in Honduras).
political stability. Several

Relations high now- increased trade and TPP negotiations


McKeague 15
Kezia Mckeague, 1-5-2015, "The Business That Builds North American
Prosperity," US News & World Report,
http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/world-report/2015/01/05/pena-nietoobama-meeting-key-for-us-mexico-relations//SRawal
At a minimum, rebalancing in favor of economic opportunities has
succeeded in positively changing the tone of the bilateral
relationship in ways that tough security and migration challenges could not. As Obama acknowledged during a

press conference prior to visiting Mexico in May 2013, Weve spent so much time on security issues between the United

this is a massive trading partner


responsible for huge amounts of commerce and huge numbers of
jobs on both sides of the border. Both the U.S. and Mexican private
sectors know the value of this relationship not only trading
products, but also designing and producing them together . More than $1
States and Mexico that sometimes I think we forget

billion dollars worth of goods crosses the border every single day. The United States sells more to Mexico than it does to
Brazil, Russia, India, and China combined. Moreover, it is estimated that 40 percent of the value of final goods imported

a
veritable conveyor belt of cabinet secretaries between the two
capitals has demonstrated the degree of interest in the trade and
investment agenda. As the Pea Nieto administration pushed
through landmark domestic reforms, from energy to
telecommunications, the two governments established or reinforced
from Mexico consists of U.S. content, a much higher proportion than any other trading partner. Over the last two years,

existing bilateral mechanisms to provide strategic direction to joint


economic-competitiveness initiatives. U.S. Vice President Biden launched the U.S.-Mexico
High Level Economic Dialogue in September 2013 and will host the second iteration of the annual meeting tomorrow.
Attended by several cabinet secretaries from both countries, the dialogue created a space for an ongoing conversation
around three pillars: promoting competitiveness, boosting economic growth and innovation, and fostering cooperation at
the regional and global levels. Other new bilateral dialogues focus on educational exchange and entrepreneurship

Mexico has also elevated economics on the trilateral agenda


with Canada. At the most recent North American Leaders Summit hosted by Mexico one year ago and at
promotion.

subsequent ministerial gatherings, the three governments have made substantial progress in areas such as commerce

Mexico and Canada have been party to the TransPacific Partnership negotiations since 2012, following intense
lobbying by the pro-trade Mexican government. Once concluded, the Trans-Pacific
and energy. Most importantly,

Partnership will offer the best vehicle to upgrade the North American Free Trade Agreement, now more than 20 years old.

Such summits, meetings and negotiations amount to more than an


overdose of acronyms. They are tackling nitty-gritty obstacles to the
cross-border business that undergirds North American prosperity . It is
this economic reality that lends importance to Pea Nietos trip to Washington, the first foreign visit to the White House in

As Mexico works to implement its reforms in 2015, the


United States has a strategic opportunity to capitalize on the two
countries increasingly unified and competitive economic space .
Fortunately, the bilateral mechanisms created over the last two
years have laid the foundation for continued cooperation on the
massive trade and investment agenda, though progress will require sustained senior-level
attention and close engagement with the private sector and civil society. Security concerns cannot
be ignored and will only hurt the economic agenda if they are not
addressed. Yet as security dominates the headlines following the Pea Nieto-Obama meeting, lets not forget that
the new year.

the bilateral relationship is a stronger one thanks to the rebalancing that both countries have achieved.

2NC Relations Resilient


Bilateral efforts on education, the economy, and a better
border relationship prove relations resilient thats Wood
No relations impact- this the end of their article at most
the Mexicans will get a little upset but theres no
militarization
1AC Rueda 13
Manuel Rueda, a foreign correspondent for five years, producing text, radio
and TV reports about Latin America for North American media outlets.
Currently, I am the Mexico correspondent for Fusion, a news channel for
young Americans financed by Univision and ABC News. , Mexico Slams U.S.
Border Buildup Plan, ABC News,
http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/News/mexico-slams-us-immigrationreform-bills-proposed-border/story?id=19495974, 6/23/13//SRawal
"We have things we can shut down, too," said Meyer, who suggested that in
retaliation, the Mexican government could make it harder for U.S
companies to invest in the country, or cancel laws that enable U.S.
citizens to buy property in Mexico. Meyer said that while those
measures might have a small impact, they could "send a signal" to
the U.S. government about Mexico's displeasure with the border fence.
Sergio Aguayo, a lawyer and human rights activist, had a more moderate
suggestion. He said the Mexican government should seriously lobby
the U.S. congress and American society in general for policies that
better suit the country's interests, just as Israel currently does through a
robust lobbying presence in Washington. Aguayo said that when it comes to
lobbying, Mexico has an advantage that Israel did not have: More than 30
million Mexican-Americans who already live in the U.S. and make up 10
percent of the country's population. That segment of the population, he
added, tends to sympathize with Mexico's interests.

Relationship is resilient- their ev is hype over small issues


ONeal 09
Shannon K. ONeal, senior fellow for Latin America Studies at the Council on
Foreign Relations, a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank and membership
organization, US-Mexico relationship remains strong, MARKETPLACE,
http://www.marketplace.org/topics/world/us-mexico-relationship-remainsstrong, 05/16/09//SRawal
Ryssdal: Give us a sense, would you, of the state of the economic relationship between the United States and Mexico.

Since NAFTA came into


effect 15 years ago, trade between the two nations has tripled. And
it's the most important trading relationship in many ways for both
countries -- or particularly for states in the United States. So it's the third-largest trading
partner for the United States and it's the second-largest destination
of U.S. exports. So it's quite important. Ryssdal: And yet all we've been hearing in the lead up to
this trip by the president is: drug violence, the prospect of Mexico as a failed
state, how NAFTA really hasn't worked out for Mexico. How do you explain that
O'Neil: The economic relationship with the U.S. and Mexico is really quite strong.

U.S.-Mexico relations goes through its patterns. And


as happens in many relationships, you focus on the complaints
rather than the positives, at least in the discussion. So that's really what's
happening here. We're focused on the violence -- which is really, and
has increased in the last several months -- but in many ways, the
real substance of the relationship and the positives fall by the
wayside in those sound bytes.
difference? O'Neil: You know,

2NC Instability !D
Strong economics and governance check the impact now
and Cold War empirics prove its non-unique thats Coll
No Latin American escalation
Crdenas 11 [Mauricio, senior fellow and director of the Latin America
Initiative at the Brookings Institution, 3-17, Think Again Latin America,
Foreign Policy,
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/03/17/think_again_latin_america?
page=full]
"Latin America is violent and dangerous." Yes, but not unstable. Latin American
countries have among the world's highest rates of crime, murder, and kidnapping. Pockets of abnormal
levels of violence have emerged in countries such as Colombia -- and more recently, in Mexico, Central
America, and some large cities such as Caracas. With 140,000 homicides in 2010, it is understandable how
Latin America got this reputation. Each of the countries in Central America's "Northern Triangle"
(Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador) had more murders in 2010 than the entire European Union
combined. Violence in Latin America is strongly related to poverty and inequality. When combined with the
insatiable international appetite for the illegal drugs produced in the region, it's a noxious brew. As strongly
argued by a number of prominent regional leaders -- including Brazil's former president, Fernando H.
Cardoso, and Colombia's former president, Cesar Gaviria -- a strategy based on demand reduction, rather

Although some fear the


Mexican drug violence could spill over into the southern United
States, Latin America poses little to no threat to international peace
or stability. The major global security concerns today are the
proliferation of nuclear weapons and terrorism. No country in the
region is in possession of nuclear weapons -- nor has expressed an
interest in having them. Latin American countries, on the whole, do not
have much history of engaging in cross-border wars. Despite the
recent tensions on the Venezuela-Colombia border, it should be
pointed out that Venezuela has never taken part in an international
armed conflict. Ethnic and religious conflicts are very uncommon in
than supply, is the only way to reduce crime in Latin America.

Latin America. Although the region has not been immune to radical jihadist attacks -- the 1994 attack on a

Terrorist attacks
on the civilian population have been limited to a large extent to the FARC
Jewish Community Center in Buenos Aires, for instance -- they have been rare.

organization in Colombia, a tactic which contributed in large part to the organization's loss of popular
support.

Empirically denied theyve survived much worse


Hartzell 2k (Caroline A., 4/1/2000, Middle Atlantic Council of Latin
American Studies Latin American Essays, Latin America's civil wars: conflict
resolution and institutional change.
http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-28765765_ITM) //RL
Latin America has been the site of fourteen civil wars during the post-World
War II era, thirteen of which now have ended. Although not as civil war-prone as some other areas of the
world, Latin America has endured some extremely violent and destabilizing intrastate
conflicts. (2) The region's experiences with civil wars and their resolution thus may prove
instructive for other parts of the world in which such conflicts continue to
rage. By examining Latin America's civil wars in some depth not only might we better understand the
circumstances under which such conflicts are ended but also the institutional outcomes to which they give

rise. More specifically, this paper focuses on the following central questions regarding Latin America's civil
wars: Has the resolution of these conflicts produced significant institutional change in the countries in
which they were fought? What is the nature of the institutional change that has taken place in the wake of
these civil wars? What are the factors that are responsible for shaping post-war institutional change?

2NC Relations High Now


Diplomatic agreements like TPP cement strong US-Mexico
relations for the foreseeable future thats McKeague
from January
Relations high now- leaders cooperating on trade,
education, and innovation prefer the president of Mexico
PEA NIETO 2015
Enrique PeA Nieto, President of Mexico, 1-6-2015, "Why the U.S.-Mexico
Relationship Matters," POLITICO Magazine,
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/01/us-mexico-relationshipenrique-pea-nieto-113980.html#.VbGW-bNViko//SRawal
Our countries have an intense economic relationship that is spread over a myriad
of areas. Since the beginning of my administration, I have worked with President Barack
Obama to create bilateral mechanisms that harness the full potential
of our relationship. We are already seeing concrete results from the
High Level Economic Dialogue (HLED), the Mexico-U.S. Bilateral
Forum on Higher Education, Innovation and Research (FOBESII), the
Mexico-U.S. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Council (MUSEIC) and the
21st Century Border Action Plan of 2014. We are steadfast in our belief that the
continuous promotion of bilateral trade is a win-win situation for
both our countries. Mexico is the third largest trading partner of the U.S., just behind China and Canada.
Total bilateral trade between us amounted to more than $500 billion
during 2013. Our exports to the U.S. have increased significantly since NAFTA entered into force, with roughly 80
percent of them coming to this country. Meanwhile, U.S. exports to Mexico in 2013 were $226 billion, up 443 percent since
1993. In fact, Mexico

buys more U.S. goods than all of the BRICS combined


Moreover, 5.9 million U.S. jobs depend
on trade with Mexico. Even Mexican exports benefit the American economy: 40 percent of the value of
and nearly as much as the entire European Union.

Mexican exports to the U.S. contains American inputs. By 2020, Mexico will have the capacity to build one in every four

Mexico has begun to invest in


high technology exports; we have become the leading exporter of
flat screen televisions in the world, the fourth largest computer
exporter and a growing pioneer in the aerospace industry. We are
interlinked.
vehicles in North America, up from one in six in 2012. Additionally,

CASE BORDERS (MM


CRITICAL)

Racialized Violence

1NC
THEY CANT SOLVE THE VIOLENCE PEOPLE FACE ONCE
THEYRE IN THE COUNTRY
- DONT SAY ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS

Jimenez 08

Cristina Jimenez, co-founder and Managing Director of the United We Dream


Network, Exploited: The Plot of the Undocumented Worker, ALTERNET,
http://www.alternet.org/story/94703/exploited
%3A_the_plight_of_the_undocumented_worker, 08/11/08//SRawal
We all know that undocumented workers are vulnerable to abuse and
exploitation, but under this administration, the abuses and violations of human,
labor and civil rights have become obscenely worse. A recent clear example:
Iowa's meatpacking plant raid. Much has been written about the unjust and abusive meansused by the Justice Department
and Homeland Security to deport these workers and their families. But a recent finding reported by the New York Times is

Agriprocessors, the raided meatpacking plant, hired


undocumented immigrants as young as 13. Among the 389 detained,
more than 20 workers were found to be under-age. But this is not all. The
young immigrants declared that they were exploited, mistreated,
beaten, and abused. Some of them worked 17 hours a day, six days a
week. And if you think they were making some money by getting paid overtime, you are wrong. Overtime
was rarely paid. As soon as they come to the United States, undocumented workers start desperately seeking
even more upsetting-

for job opportunities to sustain and provide a better life for their families-the very reason for migrating. And of course,

employers are more than happy to take advantage of the availability


of this vulnerable and desperate pool of workers. Conveniently, employers
create low-quality jobs that immigrants are forced to take because
their immigration status prevents them from getting or demanding
good jobs. While working, undocumented workers endure unfair treatment
and wages because they fear being fired or reported to immigration.
The existence of this under class of workers affects working class Americans more than we think. Undocumented workers'

lack of rights and vulnerable situation in the workplace enables


employers to drag down labor standards, leaving fewer decent jobs
available and forcing all workers regardless of citizenship or
immigration status to either accept the same low quality conditions
and wages or be excluded from labor sectors that mainly hire
undocumented workers. This labor dynamic is evident at Agriprocessors, the nation's largest kosher
plant.

Lack of accountability and judicial lenience mean theres


no enforcement mechanism for Border Patrol restrictions
abuses will continue
Ortega and ODell 13 (Bob Ortega is a senior reporter for the Arizona
Republic covering the border, Homeland Security and other matters, Rob
ODell is a senior investigative reporter and computer-assisted reporter at
The Arizona Republic specializing in using data to drive investigative
reporting, Deadly border agent incidents cloaked in silence, The Arizona
Republic, December 16th, 2013,
http://www.azcentral.com/news/politics/articles/20131212arizona-borderpatrol-deadly-force-investigation.html?nclick_check=1) //RL

A ghost is haunting Nogales. His face stares out from shop windows. It is
plastered on handbills and painted on walls under the shadow of the U.S.Mexican border fence here. Candles and doves are stenciled onto steel posts
of the fence itself in his memory, each a promise not to forget the night, 14
months ago, when teenager Jose Antonio Elena Rodriguez was shot
10 times in the back and head by one or more Border Patrol agents
firing through the fence into Mexico. Similar specters haunt other
border towns in Arizona, Texas and California, with the families of
the dead charging that Border Patrol agents time and again have
killed Mexicans and U.S. citizens with impunity. An Arizona Republic
investigation has found Border Patrol agents who use deadly force
face few, if any, public repercussions, even in cases in which the
justification for the shooting seems dubious. Since 2005, on-duty
Border Patrol agents and Customs and Border Protection officers
have killed at least 42 people, including at least 13 Americans.
These deaths, all but four of which occurred along or near the
southwest border, vary from strongly justifiable to highly
questionable. CBP officials say agents who use excessive force are
disciplined. But they wont say who, when, or what discipline, with
the exception of a short administrative leave . In none of the 42
deaths is any agent or officer publicly known to have faced
consequences not from the Border Patrol, not from Customs and
Border Protection or Homeland Security, not from the Department
of Justice, and not, ultimately, from criminal or civil courts. Internal
discipline is a black hole. There have been no publicly disclosed
repercussions even when, as has happened at least three times,
agents shot unarmed teenagers in the back. That appearance of a
lack of accountability has been fed by a culture of secrecy about
agents use of deadly force. CBP leaders refuse to release their
policies, calling them law-enforcement sensitive. They wont disclose
the names of agents who use deadly force. They wont say, in any instance,
whether deadly force was justified. The lack of transparency goes
against the best practices that national police organizations
recommend for dealing with deadly-force incidents. The Republic
found the vast majority of Border Patrol agents and Customs and Border
Protection officers respond to conflict with restraint. Even when facing
potentially deadly force, most agents and officers dont turn to their
firearms. But agents who killed mostly did so under circumstances
virtually identical to hundreds of encounters that other agents
resolved without lethal force and without serious injuries to either
side. In the last four years, rock-throwing incidents accounted for
eight of the 24 instances in which agents killed people. The Border
Patrol considers rocks deadly weapons that justify lethal force, even
though it is rare for agents to be injured in rockings, as they call
them, and even though, as agents reports showed, several lesslethal long-distance weapons are highly effective against rock-

throwers, The Republic found. The vast majority of rockings take place in
a few, well-known, mostly urban spots along the border. But the Border Patrol
doesnt require agents working in those areas to carry or use less-lethal
alternatives. And when agents use deadly force, investigations by
CBP and the FBI can take years to be released, yet can be
perfunctory, and are typically opaque. The Republic reviewed nearly
1,600 use-of-force cases by the Border Patrol and CBP between 2010 and May
2012 some 12,000 pages of documents that it took the agency nearly a
year to release. The Republic also examined many other documents relating
to use-of-force deaths and use of firearms by agents since 2005. (CBP
includes both Border Patrol agents, who work between ports of entry, and
Customs and Border Protection officers, who work at ports of entry.) The
investigation offers the most comprehensive look to date into the use of force
by CBP and the Border Patrol, which, with roughly 43,000 agents and officers,
comprise the countrys largest law-enforcement body. Border Patrol agents
do face dangers. Of the 22 who died in the line of duty in the last nine years,
most died in vehicle or training accidents. Four died in direct conflicts with
aggressors including one case in which Border Patrol agents fired on one
another. Of the 42 use-of-force fatalities, some such as the five cases in
which agents shot and killed people who fired at them first provoked little
dispute. But in nine of the 24 use-of-force deaths since 2010, agents
accounts were contradicted by other witnesses or by other law-enforcement
officers. In three cases, widely distributed videos conflicted with agents
reports of what happened. In reviewing these incidents, The Republic filed
more than 120 Freedom of Information Act and public-records requests (and
many appeals) with six federal departments or agencies and seven states.
Often, records were heavily redacted and incomplete. For example,
The Republic documented, through other sources, four deaths at the
hands of agents that were not included in CBPs nearly 1,600 use-offorce incident reports. In many reports, the information is so
incomplete that its impossible to determine what happened.
Because of that lack of transparency, it can be difficult to determine the truth
when agents accounts differ from witnesses. Homeland Securitys Office of
Inspector General, in a recent report requested by members of Congress,
found that many agents dont understand their use-of-force policy. Before the
report was publicly released, DHS and CBP officials blacked out
recommendations that agents being assaulted with rocks should respond with
less-lethal alternatives. Border Patrol Chief Michael Fisher insisted
agents will continue to use deadly force against rock throwers,
because rocks are potentially deadly weapons.

Extremists and private citizens use deadly force against


brown people anyway the plan cant prevent
Jenkins 2/10 (Jack, Senior Religion Reporter for ThinkProgress, What Its
Really Like To Cross The U.S.-Mexico Border, ThinkProgress, February 10 th,
2015, http://thinkprogress.org/immigration/2015/02/10/3617896/dehydrationscorpions-vigilantes-really-like-cross-border/) //RL

Even if a traveler is fortunate enough to beat the elements and


escape natures wrath, there is still another, far more dangerous
threat to evade: other humans.
Pausing for a moment during our walk across the Jacumba, Morones stooped
to pick up an empty, broken water jug.
Morones points out a gash in a water jug, possibly sliced open by antiimmigration activists.CREDIT: JACK JENKINS/THINKPROGRESSMorones points
out a gash in a water jug, possibly sliced open by anti-immigration activists.
These holes are from an animal, probably a coyote, he said, holding up the
jug and pointing to various tooth-sized punctures near the lid. He then drew
his finger across a long, slender gash that stretched along the middle of the
jug. But this might be from something else a knife. We find empty
water bottles out here with gashes like this Minutemen will come
and slice them open.
He added that people will sometimes write chilling messages on
busted jugs, such as kill these people.
The so-called Minutemen, originally formed in 2005, are a loose
collection of armed anti-immigration activists who see migrants as a
threat to American society and regularly patrol the border looking to
intercept crossers. Led by political activist James Jim Gilchrist and
named after the Minutemen of the American Revolution, the groups
website says it is dedicated to protecting the border by running
volunteer scout patrols and offering assistance to Border Patrol
agents.
Although members of Minutemen groups have not yet been found
guilty of committing violence against border crossers, their
vehement anti-immigrant stance has caused clashes with
immigrants and Hispanics living in the United States . In 2011,
Shawna Forde, founder of Minutemen American Defense, was found
guilty of breaking into the home of 29-year-old Raul Flores and
murdering him and his 9-year-old daughter. Forde, who was given
the death penalty, explained that she had planned to rob Flores to
fund her militia group. She justified the act by saying that she
thought Flores who, like his daughter and wife, held American
citizenship was a drug dealer.
Minutemen activities have lulled over the years, but Gilchrist recently tried
to rally thousands of vigilantes to capture the droves of Latin
American children who came across the border this past year a
radical move that came with the blessing of some Texas state
lawmaker s. The Minutemen Project has since announced plans for its
largest effort to date, a robust gathering of gun-toting anti-immigrant
activists codenamed Operation Normandy scheduled for May 1, 2015 the
anniversary of the famous American invasion of France during World War II.
Organizers plan to assemble thousands of armed individuals and militias
along the border, where they will encourage participants to make their
stand against any immigrants they see cross.

The Jacumba desert


The Jacumba desert.
But while the Minutemen are currently more of an existential threat
to migrants their alleged sabotage of water supplies, if true,
constitute an indirect attack on the livelihood of migrants people
crossing the border do face real violence at the hands of those who
live along the wall. Ranchers often encounter immigrants crossing
their land, for example, and some have been known to respond to
trespassers with deadly force. In 2009, one rancher reportedly held
11 immigrants at gunpoint and threatened to set his dog loose on
them, and another shot 2 men on his property in 2011 because he
thought they were border crossers. Some ranchers have even organized
teams of people to hunt for immigrants, although most insist their intention is
only to stop them and alert Border Patrol, not hurt people.

2NC Exploitation
Lack of rights and oversight prompt undocumented
worker exploitation lowered wages and bad working
conditions turn the case because undocumented
immigrants are stripped of their rights thats Jiminez
Agribusinesses get away with exploitation of
undocumented immigrants
Walshe 13

Sadhbh Walshe, Field work's dirty secret: agribusiness exploitation of


undocumented labor, THE
GUARDIAN,http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jan/31/agribusin
ess-exploitation-undocumented-labor, 1/31/13//SRawal
While we don't yet know how this will all play out, at least there will be a path. For one group of immigrants, however the
farm workers who sustain our food supply there is reason to fear that what awaits them is not a path to citizenship, but

Most farm work in America is performed


by immigrants, most of whom are undocumented and therefore
exploitable. The big agribusinesses that hire these immigrants will
tell you that they need an unfettered supply of cheap foreign labor,
their cemented status as indentured servants.

because they cannot find Americans willing to do these jobs. When you consider what these jobs entail hours of
backbreaking work in terrible and often dangerous conditions, subsistence wages with little or no time off, and none of the

it's hard to see why


anyone with other options would subject themselves to a life that is
barely a step above slavery. In the 1980s, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill into law which
protections or perks that most of us enjoy (like paid sick days, for instance)

introduced some protections for these imported serfs, under what has become known as the guest-worker program. These
protections include a minimum wage guarantee, housing that meets an acceptable standard for the duration of the
contract, and a guarantee that the worker be paid three-quarters of their full pay should should a season end early. Most
employers would be delighted to get away with all this: being able to hire low-wage workers at will, without the hassle of
paying disability insurance or other niceties. But agribusinesses find the guest-worker program's pitiful protections such a
burden that they have mounted a relentless campaign to undermine them, and for the most part, work around them

According to a report compiled by Eric


Ruark (pdf), the director of research at the Federation for American
Immigration Reform (Fair), as of 2006, only 27% of workers hired by
agribusinesses are American citizens, 21% are green card holders, around 1% are part of the guest worker
program and a whopping 51% are unauthorized immigrants . It's agriculture's worst
kept secret that farm owners routinely break the law by hiring undocumented
workers, but the crime receives tacit approval from lawmakers
sympathetic to the plight of major agribusinesses, which seem to
consider cheap labor their right. In South Carolina, for instance, lawmakers passed
their version of Arizona's draconian bill, and have mandated that
employers use an e-verify system to check the immigration status of
employees. Farm workers, however, were exempted from verification. The agribusiness sector
has gotten away with exploitative and illegal practices because of
ridiculous threats, like the suggestion that should the supply of
cheap labor dry up in the US, they will outsource our food production
to China. This idle threat is based on the absurd notion that if they
have to pay workers higher wages, somehow there will be fewer
people willing to do the jobs. The other scare tactic is spreading talk
that if they have to increase their expenditure on labor, those costs
will have to be passed on to the American consumer.
anyway; they hire undocumented workers instead.

2NC Border Patrol Circumvention


Lack of accountability and prosecution allow the Border
Patrol to continue abuses empirically proven thats
Ortega and ODell
Abuses continue prefer recent ev
Restrepo 3/12 (Catalina Restrepo is the Legal Assistant at the Legal

Action Center for Immigration Impact, Documenting Ongoing Border Patrol


Abuses, Immigration Impact, March 12th, 2015,
http://immigrationimpact.com/2015/03/12/documenting-ongoing-borderpatrol-abuses/) //RL
Sadly, this case is not unique, and U.S. Customs and Border
Protection (CBP) of which the Border Patrol is a part is no
stranger to controversy. There have been several reports and
articles detailing the abuse of authority by agents, their disregard
for the rights of immigrants and U.S. citizens, and the lack of
accountability. The website Hold CBP Accountable catalogs many
complaints and lawsuits against CBP from across the country, in an effort to
demand accountability and transparency from one of the fastest growing
agencies in the United States. The website includes cases detailing a
range of abuses from confiscation of property to use of excessive
force all of which have had and continue to have very real and lifealtering consequences for the victims. Here are a few of the
accounts of abuse: A woman in CBP custody tripped and injured her
arm. CBP brought her to the hospital, where she underwent two
surgeries and was given pain medication that made her extremely
sleepy. While recovering, a CBP agent guarded her hospital room, and her
legs were restrained in the bed. She woke to find the CBP agent sexually
abusing her, and she was not able to push him away with only one
free hand. Border Patrol agents ignored the cries for help of a
detained pregnant minor who began to have abdominal pain while in
CBP custody. Agents refused to take her to the hospital and insisted that
she remain seated even though she was in so much pain that she needed to
lie down. Agents continued to ignore her even after her water broke and she
began to bleed. She was eventually taken to the hospital by another agent,
but she lost her baby. Anastacio Hernandez-Rojas suffered a heart
attack and died after CBP agents beat him and shot him repeatedly
with a Taser. Cell phone videos taken by witnesses show HernandezRojas on the ground surrounded by agents and calling for help. Eight
agents and four supervisors are named as defendants in the lawsuit.

2NC Civilian Circumvention


Much of the violence against people crossing the USMexico border comes from racist vigilantes they will
continue post-aff because they hate brown people thats
Jenkins prefer recency its from February
Fears of property damage and crime prompt racialized
hunts for brown people by white people at the border
the aff cant resolve their motivations
Zabludovsky 14 (Karla, Latin America correspondent for Newsweek,
Hunting Humans: The Americans Taking Immigration Into Their Own Hands,
Newsweek, July 23rd, 2014, http://www.newsweek.com/2014/08/01/texanranchers-hunt-daily-illegal-immigrants-260489.html) //RL
The migrants who make it as far as Brooks County tend to be
adults, since minors who cross the border will often give
themselves up to U.S. authorities, trusting that they will not be
immediately deported. Ranchers in Brooks County complain of
property damage and trash left behind by the migrants, referred to
more often than not around here as illegals or wetbacks. One
day in early July, two men and two women from Guatemala who looked to be
in their late teens were spotted and reported to the Border Patrol. Their eyes
were sunken, their skin scorched by the relentless sun that had worn them
down as they walked for three days in 100-degree heat. When the agents
arrived, the four looked resigned, walking over and sitting down in the small
triangle of shade offered by the Border Patrol SUV. Three more migrants
emerged from the brush and joined the group. Down the road, a woman
sauntered near the entrance of a ranch, her military green T-shirt hugging her
plump curves and blending into the background. B.J., as the 53-year-old
requested to be called, manages several large ranches in Brooks County,
population 7,237. She said she had seen the migrants walking by on the
highway and notified the Border Patrol. I will do everything in my power to
send them back, she said, sitting down at a wooden picnic table next to the
main house. A pair of handcuffs hung next to a fireplace nearby. Behind B.J.
were two dozen half-empty bottles of alcohol and a sign that read, When life
gives you lemonsbreak out the Tequila and salt. Ranchers like B.J. see
themselves as the first line of defense against migrants. Before
calling the boys, as she refers to the Border Patrol agents who
make up the vast majority of her social circle, B.J. goes on a
manhunt. Its a cat-and-mouse game, says B.J. with a grin,
driving through ranch trails. Her Heckler & Koch P2000 pistol rests in the
cup holder next to her right knee. She starts by looking for footprintsthey
are most noticeable on the sand tracks she has set up next to the trails that
she smooths by dragging tires. When she sees a fresh set, she speeds
through the trails, finds the migrants, chases after them until they

tire out, corners them and then yells, Pabajo!Spanish for down.
You cant tell me this isnt fun, she said, chewing dipping tobacco and
spitting its juice out into an empty plastic water bottle. More fun than
shopping and looking at sights. As she came up to a yellow road sign that
read, Caution, she pointed out the figures of running people she had drawn
on it to make her friends laugh. What if the migrants resist when she
corners them? She smiles and says that is one question too many.

Minutemen groups are increasing patrol activities on the


border
Jenkins 15
Jack Jenkins, 2-10-15, "What Its Really Like To Cross The U.S.-Mexico Border,"
ThinkProgress,
http://thinkprogress.org/immigration/2015/02/10/3617896/dehydrationscorpions-vigilantes-really-like-cross-border//SRawal
These holes are from an animal, probably a coyote, he said, holding up the jug and pointing to various tooth-sized
punctures near the lid. He then drew his finger across a long, slender gash that stretched along the middle of the jug. But

We find empty water bottles out here with


gashes like this Minutemen will come and slice them open. He added
this might be from something else a knife.

that people will sometimes write chilling messages on busted jugs, such as kill these people. The so-called

Minutemen, originally formed in 2005, are a loose collection of armed antiimmigration activists who see migrants as a threat to American
society and regularly patrol the border looking to intercept crossers.
Led by political activist James Jim Gilchrist and named after the Minutemen of the American Revolution, the groups

it is dedicated to protecting the border by running


volunteer scout patrols and offering assistance to Border Patrol
agents. Although members of Minutemen groups have not yet been found
guilty of committing violence against border crossers, their vehement antiwebsite says

immigrant stance has caused clashes with immigrants and Hispanics living in the United States. In 2011, Shawna Forde,
founder of Minutemen American Defense, was found guilty of breaking into the home of 29-year-old Raul Flores and
murdering him and his 9-year-old daughter. Forde, who was given the death penalty, explained that she had planned to
rob Flores to fund her militia group. She justified the act by saying that she thought Flores who, like his daughter and

Gilchrist
recently tried to rally thousands of vigilantes to capture the droves
of Latin American children who came across the border this past
year a radical move that came with the blessing of some Texas
state lawmakers. The Minutemen Project has since announced plans
for its largest effort to date, a robust gathering of gun-toting antiimmigrant activists codenamed Operation Normandy scheduled for May 1, 2015 the anniversary of the
wife, held American citizenship was a drug dealer. Minutemen activities have lulled over the years, but

famous American invasion of France during World War II. Organizers plan to assemble thousands of armed individuals and
militias along the border, where they will encourage participants to make their stand against any immigrants they see
cross.

Plan will be circumvented- vigilante groups and Obamas


executive resources
Dean 14
Jake Dean, 8-2-2014, "Vigilante groups patrol the US-Mexico border," World
Socialist Web Site, https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2014/08/02/vigia02.html//SRawal
Right-wing groups such as Oathkeepers, Three Percenters and Patriots are
reported to have set up camps in the Texas desert in reaction to a wave of
child immigrants from Central America. The groups are reportedly

conducting military operations and going on daily hunts for


illegals. It is also reported that the Minutemen Project has begun
recruiting volunteers to guard the US southern border. While these
groups are small in number, they are capable of causing great harm and
danger to those who are taking the perilous journey to cross the US-Mexico
border in the hopes of seeking a better life in the US. They are equipped with
semi-automatic weapons, camouflage and advanced tactical gear, and have
a history of violence. The appearance of these groups is part of a
campaign by both Democrats and Republicans aimed at victimizing
immigrants and promoting chauvinism, while militarizing the border.
Just last week, Texas Governor Rick Perry ordered the deployment of 1,000
National Guard troops along the border until an additional 3,000 border patrol
agents can be permanently hired and deployed. Deployment of drones
and National Guard troops has been welcomed from the Democratic
Party. Obama has said that he has no philosophical objections to the
deployment of the National Guard and has supported the expanded
use of drones. In a press conference yesterday, Obama attacked the
Republicans for failing to pass an immigration reform bill that was passed in
the Senate, a bill that will effectively militarize the border and make it easier
to deport children. During the speech, Obama implied that he may be
forced to use his executive authority. Im going to have to act
alone, because we dont have enough resources. The only difference
between the Democrats and Republicans is that of a tactical nature; they
both agree that the only solution is a military one. Texas Democrat
State Senator Leticia Van de Putte criticized the vigilante groups, stating that
pointing guns at children solves nothing. Yet, that is exactly what the
Democrats hope to achieve, a surge of militarization along the southern
border. She further added, The presence of these outside independent
militia groups does nothing to secure the border; it only creates an
unsafe situation for law enforcement officials that are protecting.
Although the right-wing vigilante groups officially claim that their
only role is to give additional support to Border Patrol agents about
possible drug cartels that are smuggling illegal drugs, they are in
fact serving as an auxiliary force of the US statethat is, seeking to
take law and order into their own hand

War on Terror

1NC
The Islamophobic War on Terror is deeply ingrained in
American society it affects every level of the brown and
Muslim experience in America, not just surveillance policy
the aff cannot resolve it
Ali 12 (Yaser, J.D., University of California, Berkeley, 2012, Shariah and

CitizenshipHow Islamophobia Is Creating a Second-Class Citizenry in


America California Law Review, August 1st, 2012,
http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?
article=4176&context=californialawreview) //RL
1. A Discursive Shift in Islamophobic Rhetoric There was a clear discursive
shift in Islamophobic discourse after 9/11. What was previously
considered unacceptable speech now permeated the discourse.
During this time, pundits and public officials construed the
stereotypical Muslim malepersonifying all the Orientalist tropes
and characteristics Lewis and Huntington described in the 1990sas
the primary threat to American security.97 The discursive shift
transcended political affiliation. One prominent conservative columnist,
Ann Coulter, wrote on September 12, 2001, We should invade their
countries, kill their leaders, and convert them to Christianity. We
werent punctilious about locating and punishing only Hitler and his
top officers. We carpet-bombed German cities; we killed civilians.
Thats war. And this is war.98 Richard Cohen, writing in the Washington
Post one month after 9/11, added: One hundred percent of the terrorists
involved in the Sept. 11 mass murder were Arabs. Their accomplices, if any,
were probably Arabs too, or at least Muslims. Ethnicity and religion are the
very basis of their movement. It hardly makes sense, therefore, to ignore
that fact and, say, give Swedish au pair girls heading to the United States
the same scrutiny as Arab men coming from the Middle East.99 Politicians,
too, appeared to be competing as to who could look strongest on
national defense. Attorney General John Ashcroft, one of the most
vociferous critics of Islam in public office at the time, stated, Islam
is a religion in which God requires you to send your son to die for
him. Christianity is a faith in which God sends his son to die for
you.100 In a speech to the U.S. Conference of Mayors, he stated: Let the
terrorists among us be warned: if you overstay your visaeven by one day
we will arrest you. If you violate a local law, you will be put in jail and kept in
custody as long as possible. We will use 96. In one particularly troubling
Gallup Poll shortly after 9/11, one-third of respondents supported such drastic
measures as the internment of Arab Americans or the special surveillance of
Arabs living in the United States. See Jeffrey M. Jones, The Impact of the
Attacks on America: Americans Believe Country Already at War, Accept
Increased Security Measures, GALLUP (Sept. 25, 2001),
http://www.gallup.com/poll/4894/impact-attacks-america.aspx. 97. See, e.g.,
Sahar F. Aziz, Sticks and Stones, the Words That Hurt: Entrenched
Stereotypes Eight Years After 9/11, 13 N.Y.CITY L. REV. 33, 3739, 4243

(2009). 98. AM.-ARAB ANTI-DISCRIMINATION COMM., supra note 38, at 124.


99. Id. Such perverse statements were not limited to the far right
wing, but were increasing in frequency throughout mainstream
media. See id. (Those who take the Koran seriously are taught to
hate the Christian and the Jew; lands taken from Islam must be
recaptured. And to the Islamist, dying in a jihad is the only way one
can be assured of Allahs forgiveness and eternal salvation.
(quoting Chuck Coleson, Evangelizing for Evil in Our Prisons, WALL ST.J., June
24, 2002, at A16)). 100. Id. at 128. 05-Ali (Do Not Delete) 7/29/2012
12:19:06 AM 1044 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 100:1027 every available
statute. We will seek every prosecutorial advantage.101 Senator Saxby
Chambliss, a Republican Senator from Georgia, went even further,
stating that homeland security would be improved by turning the
sheriff loose to arrest every Muslim that comes across the state
line.102 Perhaps the most notorious and destructive comment was
President Bushs description of the War on Terror as a
crusade,103 a statement that outraged Muslims around the world
and led to intense damage control efforts on the part of the White
House.104 Although it was conceivably just an illadvised and
unintentional statement by the President, the comment
nonetheless suggested that the collective enemy was Islam ; and
further, to some Muslims, it engendered strong notions of the Middle Ages,
when Christian armies embarked on numerous battles with an expressed
goal of conquering Muslim lands.105 Professor Victor Romero describes
how the underlying rhetoric after 9/11 was reminiscent of that used
toward the Japanese Americans after the attack on Pearl Harbor.106
He cites a quote from General DeWitt, the chief enforcer of the internment
camps: Further evidence of the Commanding Generals attitude toward
individuals of Japanese ancestry is revealed in his voluntary testimony on
April 13, 1943, in San Francisco before the House Naval Affairs Subcommittee
to Investigate Congested Areas: . . . I dont want any of them (persons
of Japanese ancestry) here. They are a dangerous element. There is
no way to determine their loyalty. The west coast contains too many
vital installations essential to the defense of the 101. John Ashcroft, U.S. Atty
Gen., Prepared Remarks for the U.S. Mayors Conference, September 11,
2001: Attack on America (Oct. 25, 2001), available at
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/ sept11/doj_brief020.asp. Of course, although
Ashcrofts address was targeted towards terrorists, the bulk of the
detentions and deportations instituted after 9/11 disproportionately targeted
American Muslims. See infra Part I.B.2. 102. AM.-ARAB ANTI-DISCRIMINATION
COMM., supra note 38, at 12829. The report also includes similar
statements made by several other elected members of Congress as well. If I
see someone come in thats got a diaper on his head, and a fan belt
wrapped around that diaper on his head, that guy needs to be
pulled over. Id. at 128 (quoting Representative John Cooksey of
Louisiana). 103. Ron Suskind, Faith, Certainty and the Presidency of George
W. Bush, N.Y. TIMES MAG., Oct. 17, 2004, at 44. In a press conference
regarding homeland security policies, Bush responded, This is a new kind
ofa new kind of evil. And we understand. And the American people

are beginning to understand. This crusade, this war on terrorism is


going to take a while. Id. 104. White House Press Secretary Ari Fleisher
stated two days later, I think what the president was saying washad no
intended consequences for anybody, Muslim or otherwise, other than to say
that this is a broad cause that he is calling on America and the nations
around the world to join. . . . [As to] any connotations that would upset any of
our partners, or anybody else in the world, the president would regret if
anything like that was conveyed. Id. (quoting Fleisher). 105. Peter Ford,
Europe Cringes at Bush Crusade Against Terrorists, CHRISTIAN SCI.
MONITOR (Sept. 19, 2001), http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0919/p12s2woeu.html. 106. See Victor C. Romero, Proxies for Loyalty in Constitutional
Immigration Law: Citizenship and Race After September 11, 52 DEPAUL L.
REV. 871, 877 (2003) (citing United States v. Korematsu, 323 U.S. 214, 236
n.2 (1944) (Murphy, J., dissenting)). 05-Ali (Do Not Delete) 7/29/2012
12:19:06 AM 2012] SHARIAH AND CITIZENSHIP 1045 country to allow any
Japanese on this coast . . . . The danger of the Japanese was, and is nowif
they are permitted to come back espionage and sabotage. It makes no
difference whether he is an American citizen, he is still a Japanese. American
citizenship does not necessarily determine loyalty . . . . But we must worry
about the Japanese all the time until he is wiped off the map. Sabotage and
espionage will make problems as long as he is allowed in this area . . . . 107
As described above, the language employed by General DeWitt was
indeed strikingly similar to that used against American Muslims after
9/11. As a result of this framing, the average Muslim in America was
presumptively considered disloyal and a threat, irrespective of his or her
formal citizenship status. In fact, according to one poll, less than half of the
respondents during the period shortly after 9/11 believed that American
Muslims were loyal to the United States.108 In one particularly troubling
Gallup Poll shortly after 9/11, one-third of respondents supported such drastic
measures as the internment of Arab Americans or the special surveillance of
Arabs living in the United States.109 This biased public perception was no
doubt a necessary precursor to the large-scale encroachment on civil
liberties that targeted American Muslims in the following months and years.
2. Ramifications for the Muslim Community The repercussions of such
statements were severe in both the private and public spheres.
Muslims were cast as disloyal outsiders and noncitizens. Under the
broad umbrella of national security policy, the government
institutionalized numerous civil liberties violations, including
intrusive airport inspections, increased FBI surveillance and
warrantless wiretapping, the use of agents provocateurs in
mosques, and, in some cases, even torture and suspension of
habeas corpus right s.110 Within two months of 9/11, law enforcement
officials detained more than 1200 individuals in dragnet searches, most of
whom were from the Middle East, South Asia, and North Africa.111 In 2004
alone, the FBI initiated a campaign to interview 5000 Muslim men to obtain
leads on terrorist attacks.112 The government detained countless others as
107. Id. 108. JOHN L. ESPOSITO & DALIA MOGAHED, WHO SPEAKS FOR
ISLAM? WHAT A BILLION MUSLIMS REALLY THINK 155 (2007). 109. See Jones,

supra note 96. 110. COLE & DEMPSEY,supra note 27, at 107. 111. Aziz, supra
note 97, at 40 (citing Ahmad, supra note 24, at 1269). 112. Id. at 4041
(citing Susan M. Akram & Maritza Karmely, Immigration and Constitutional
Consequences of Post-9/11 Policies Involving Arabs and Muslims in the United
States: Is Alienage a Distinction Without a Difference?, 38 U.C. DAVIS L. REV.
609, 636 (2005)). 05-Ali (Do Not Delete) 7/29/2012 12:19:06 AM 1046
CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 100:1027 material witnesses, but neither
the exact number nor the names of such persons have been
revealedagain for national security purposes.113 Similarly, whereas
before 9/11 President Bush and Attorney General Ashcroft publicly
denounced racial profiling tactics,114 their positions quickly
changed after 9/11.115 Public sentiment on the issue followed suit,
with over half of Americans polled approving racial profiling at
airports nearly two weeks after the attacks.116 The government
seizing on the public endorsement of discriminatory policies toward
Muslims at the timeimplemented four distinct practices of
targeting people who appeared Muslim: profiling airline
passengers, secret arrests, the institution of new race-based
immigration policies, and selective enforcement of generally
applicable immigration laws.117 Airlines frequently removed Muslim
passengers from flights without causeeven removing one of President
Bushs Secret Service agents because he looked Muslim.118 Professor
Muneer Ahmad cites two particularly egregious examples of profiling. The
first involved a United Airlines pilot refusing to fly a U.S. citizen of Egyptian
origin out of Tampa, Florida, because his name was Mohammad, and
the second was a situation in Austin, Texas, where passengers
applauded as two Pakistani men were removed from a flight.119 113.
Ahmad, supra note 24, at 127071 (citing David Cole, Enemy Aliens, 54 STAN.
L. REV. 953, 96061 (2002)). 114. George W. Bush, President of the United
States, Remarks to the NAACP National Convention (July 9, 2001), available
at http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/
2001/07/20010709-8.html (stating emphatically, [Racial profiling is] wrong,
and it must be ended in America.). 115. See DAVID COLE, ENEMY ALIENS:
DOUBLE STANDARDS AND CONSTITUTIONAL FREEDOMS IN THE WAR ON
TERRORISM 4755 (2003) (arguing that the actions taken by the former
President and the former Attorney General after the 9/11 attacks
demonstrate their willingness to engage in racial profiling); see also Sharon
L. Davies, Profiling Terror, 1 OHIO ST.J. CRIM. L. 45, 46 50 (2003) (arguing
that the actions taken by the Justice Department demonstrate their use of
racial profiling tactics post-9/11). 116. See Daniel Eisenberg, Airline Security:
How Safe Can We Get?, TIME, Sept. 24, 2001, at 88 (citing a TIME/CNN poll in
which over half of respondents felt it was acceptable to profile on the basis of
race, age, or gender); Nicole Davis, The Slippery Slope of Racial Profiling,
COLORLINES, Dec. 15, 2001, at 2 (commenting on how Arab Americans
begrudgingly accepted racial profiling in the immediate aftermath of 9/11).
Professor Jonathon Turley of George Washington University Law School
summarized the predominant national opinion at the time in an NPR
interview, stating, There are 40 million people that travel by air in

this country. We cannot stop each one of them and make an


individualized determination of risk. We have to develop some type
of profile. The fact is profiling is a legitimate statistical device. And
its a device that we may have to use if were going to have a
meaningful security process at these airports. Morning Edition: Use of
Profiling to Discover WouldBe Terrorists (NPR radio broadcast Feb. 12, 2002),
transcript available at LEXIS (transcripts). 117. Ahmad, supra note 24, at
1269. 118. Ken Ellingwood & Nicholas Riccardi, After the Attack; Racial
Profiling; Arab Americans Enduring Hard Stares of Other Fliers; Backlash:
They Say They Have Become Victims of Profiling, L.A. TIMES, Sept. 20, 2001,
at A1. 119. See Ahmad, supra note 24, at 1270 (citing Sasha PolakowSuransky, Flying While Brown, AM. PROSPECT, Nov. 19, 2001, at 1415 and
Jonathan Osborne, Passenger Ejections Seen as Profiling, AUSTIN AM.STATESMAN, Sept. 29, 2011, at A1). 05-Ali (Do Not Delete) 7/29/2012
12:19:06 AM 2012] SHARIAH AND CITIZENSHIP 1047 The government also
instituted the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System
(NSEERS), which required immigrants from twenty-six countries
all but one of which were Muslim countriesto register in a special
program and be subjected to fingerprinting upon entry into the
country; it also instituted annual reregistration requirements.120
Muslim immigrants were further targeted through the Alien Absconder
Initiative of 2002, by which the government allegedly sought to identify and
deport 315,000 undocumented aliens who had ignored judicial
paperwork.121 Despite the general nature of the legislation and the
fact that most of the absconders were Latin American, the
government instead specifically began by targeting 6000 men from
Muslim countries.122 Similarly, the passage of the PATRIOT Act
granted even more unbridled discretion to federal officials,
allowing them to detain noncitizens who were suspected of
terrorism for up to a week without formal charges .123 There is no
evidence that the individuals detained in any of these initiatives
were actually linked to terrorism, but, rather, their detention was
based simply on the perceived disloyalty and otherness of
Muslims.124 Finally, the governments immigration-plus profiling
protocols such as NSEERS and INS Special Registration conflate[d]
nationality with religion and target[ed] immigrants from nations with sizable
Muslim populations for selective enforcement of immigration laws.125 The
reliance on Muslim identity, or Muslim racialization, throughout
these four practices mirrored the racialization of the Japanese
during World War II. While the stereotypes of the violent and
threatening Muslim were prevalent even before 9/11just as in the
case of the Japaneseit was during this phase that the government
began collectively and systematically treating the group as disloyal.
At least as far as the national security realm was concerned,
American Muslims were viewed as presumptively disloyal
noncitizens who were not entitled to the rights of citizenship. 120. Id.
at 1274. 121. Id. at 1275. 122. Id. at 1275 & n.59; see Memorandum from
the Deputy Attorney General to All U.S. Attorneys and All Members of the
Anti-Terrorism Task Forces (Nov. 9, 2001). 123. Kevin R. Johnson, The End of

Civil Rights as We Know It?: Immigration and Civil Rights in the New
Millennium, 49 UCLA L.REV. 1481, 1482 (2002). 124. Id. 125. Karen C.
Tumlin, Suspect First: How Terrorism Policy Is Reshaping Immigration Policy,
92 CALIF. L. REV. 1173, 1184 (2004); see also Mustafa Bayoumi, Racing
Religion, in AMERICAN STUDIES: AN ANTHOLOGY 99108 (Janice A. Radway et
al. eds., 2009) (describing the racialization of Muslims in the context of the
NSEERS special registration program and its discriminatory implementation
towards individuals from Muslims countries). 05-Ali (Do Not Delete)
7/29/2012 12:19:06 AM 1048 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 100:1027 3.
Private Sphere Intrusions Violence against Muslims in the private
sphere also increased precipitously after 9/11. Although most of
these crimes invariably went unreported, over 1000 incidents were
reported within the two months immediately following 9/11. 126 As
many as nineteen people were murdered in violence related to the attacks,
many of which Professor Ahmad classifies as crimes of passion.127 Ahmad
posits that these private crimes stem from the same bias, or
perhaps even as a logical result, from the governments
institutionalized racial profiling policiesthe stereotyped
otherness of the Muslim.128 The perpetrators in these hate
crimes, Ahmad argues, did not act with malice aforethought or a
callous heart, but, rather, they had visceral reactions to the
perceived threat of this foreign and disloyal Muslim.129 In their
eyes, all Muslims were assumed to have some relationship or
involvement with terrorism, and all people who appeared to look
Muslimwhether they happened to be or notwere considered
Muslim.130 Thus without formally endorsing such violence, the State
nonetheless sanctioned some of its key premises through its own nefarious
racial profiling policies that relied on the same flawed logic. The sharp
discursive shift in the tone of Islamophobia, as well as the
government policies and unsanctioned practices targeting American
Muslims during this period, actually began to affect a change in the
theoretical conception of the Muslim as a citizen. In her influential
2002 work, The Citizen and the Terrorist, Professor Leti Volpp described
how American Muslims and Arabs may formally have been U.S.
citizens, but, in practice, they were being construed as noncitizens
or, at best, as a second-class group of citizens.131 She describes
this notion of citizenship as identity through the concept of
inclusion, positing that despite their actual legal status, those who
appear Middle Eastern, Arab, or Muslim . . . are interpellated as
antithetical to the citizens sense of identity.132 This interpellation
functions as an ideological state apparatus and must be distinguished from,
for example, the government or 126. Ahmad, supra note 24, at 1266. 127.
Id. at 1266, 1302 (citing Robert Hanashiro, Hate Crimes Born out of Tragedy
Create Victims, USA TODAY (Sept. 11, 2002),
http://www.usatoday.com/news/sept11/2002-9-11-mesa_x. htm; Robert E.
Pierre, Victims of Hate, Now Feeling Forgotten, WASH. POST, Sept. 14, 2002,
at A1; Jim Walsh, Roque Guilty in Sikh Murder; Insanity Defense Fails; Jury to

Decide on Death Penalty, ARIZ. REPUBLIC, Oct. 1, 2003, at 1). 128. Ahmad,
supra note 24, at 130607 (framing the violent phenomena as a
manifestation of the perpetrators desire to protect their and their nations
honor, with misogynistic undertones). Professor Volpp also refers to this
phenomenon as extralegal racial profiling. Volpp supra, note 22, at 1580.
129. Ahmad, supra note 24, at 130708. 130. Id. at 1311. 131. See Volpp,
supra note 22. I use Professor Bosniaks definition of second-class citizen
described above. See supra note 19. 132. Volpp, supra note 22, at 1594. 05Ali (Do Not Delete) 7/29/2012 12:19:06 AM 2012] SHARIAH AND CITIZENSHIP
1049 a state actor directly assailing the rights of Muslim citizens.133
Interpellation constitutes an individual as a subject and shapes our reality of
the individuala reality that is then acknowledged by the community and
even the subject herself.134 Thus, Volpp argues that after 9/11, as a result of
being interpellated as the other, Muslims were excluded from the informal
feeling of collective membership and group solidarity, as well as the formal
exercise of some of the legal rights that are recognized as privileges of
inclusion.135 In sum, in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, Muslims
were stripped of their citizenship as identity. This bias led to a rapid
increase in private-sphere violence against those who appeared to
be Muslim. At the same time, the government used this justification
to initiate a number of stark and intrusive encroachments on the
civil rights and liberties of American Muslims. It must be reiterated
that the ostensible purpose of the legislation authorizing these
policies was, in almost all cases, framed around national security. In
other words, there was de facto targeting of Muslims under the
proffered justification that security needs at the time trumped
individual liberties, rather than de jure targeting of Muslims
because they were no longer considered to be citizens. Although the
Muslim-looking person was racialized as an entity that people
should fear and guard against, the key distinction between this
phase and the following one is that in the third phase there is an
organized movement advocating that the State should explicitly
deprive American Muslims of their citizenship rights simply because
they are Muslim. C . The Present-Day Incarnation of Islamophobia
and the Threat It Poses to the Fundamental Rights of Citizenship
One would assume that anti-Muslim sentiment reached its high
water mark after 9/11. To the contrary, however, it has increased
dramatically in the third phase of Islamophobia, which began during
President Obamas 2008 campaign. If Volpps contentions about
Muslims being relegated to secondclass citizenship were true in
2002, then today that distinction has crystallized even further.136
Whereas a vast majority of the incursions in the second phase occurred
under the umbrella of national security, Islamophobia has now evolved
beyond simply encouraging profiling and other surveillance techniques
aimed at Muslims under the professed interests of national security. An
institutionalized version of Islamophobia in this third phase now focuses on
the 133. Id. at 159395. Volpp acknowledges, however, that not having
citizenship as identity means that people will consequently be deprived of
citizenship as rights or political activity, though this is not as clear as it is in

the third phase of Islamophobia described later. 134. Id. 135. Id. 136. See
Pew Forum on Religion & Pub. Life, Public Remains Conflicted over Islam,
PEW RES. CENTER (Aug. 24, 2010), http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1706/pollamericans-views-of-muslimsobject-to-new-york-islamic-center-islam-violence
(showing that the favorability rating of American Muslims among the general
public had dropped 11 points since 2005). 05-Ali (Do Not Delete) 7/29/2012
12:19:06 AM 1050 CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW [Vol. 100:1027 creeping threat
of Shariah and, in the process, more explicitly threatens the foundational
conceptions of citizenship described by Professor Bosniak.137 Further, while
citizens enjoy some fundamental level of respect for their individual beliefs
and practices, this is no longer the case with regard to Muslims, both in
journalism and politics today.138 Whereas it is widely recognized as socially
unacceptable to be openly disparaging toward minority groups, the privilege
reflected in that norm is increasingly denied to Muslims.139 In this third
phase of Islamophobia, mainstream discourse now explicitly
challenges the notion that American Muslims deserve the same
liberal notions of rights that other citizens enjoy. One might surmise
that since the contours of this phase cannot easily be demarcated,
the third phase is in fact a difference in degree rather than in kind.
It is true that unlike the transition from the first to the second
phase, there is no single demonstrable event or tipping point that
represents the transition from the second to third period; however,
there was a gradual progression that increased in intensity since
the presidential campaign of 2008 when the term Muslim was
actually converted into a slur, as political opponents accused
then-Senator Obama of secretly being a Muslim.140 The suggestion
that a Muslim citizen would be less suited for office represents the deepseated fear and mistrust of Muslims in the American consciousness.
President Obamas opponents recognized this fact and knew that it would be
a powerful tool for discrediting him.141 Yet what was perhaps 137. See infra
Part II for a further explication of Bosniaks four discourses of citizenship and
how they apply to American Muslims in this third phase. 138. See M.J.
Rosenberg, The New Rhetoric of Islamophobia, AL JAZEERA (Jan. 13, 2011,
12:42 PM),
http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2011/01/201111074425968803.ht
ml (citing statements made by popular commentators in various media
outlets disparaging the spread of Islam in the Western society, as well as the
actions of Representative Peter King); see also WAJAHAT ALI ET AL., CTR. FOR
AM. PROGRESS, FEAR. INC.: THE ROOTS OF THE ISLAMOPHOBIA NETWORK IN
AMERICA (2011), available at
http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/08/pdf/islamophobia.pdf; Max
Blumenthal, A Nation Against Islam: Americas New Crusade,
OPENDEMOCRACY (Jan. 13, 2011), http://www.opendemocracy.net/maxblumenthal/nation-against-islam-americas-new-crusade. Blumenthal and Ali
chronicle the Islamohobia infrastructureincluding pundits, bloggers, and
think tankswhich are perpetuating exaggerate[d] threats of creeping
Sharia, Islamic domination of the West, and purported obligatory calls to
violence against all non-Muslims by the Koran. WAJAHAT ALI ET AL., supra,
at 2. 139. See, e.g., Robert Wright, Islamophobia and Homophobia, N.Y.
TIMES OPINIONATOR (Oct. 26, 2010, 9:00 PM),

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/26/islamophobiaandhomophobia. Wright argues that making slurs against homosexuals would


carry greater political costs compared to remarks made against Muslims.
Wright evaluated journalist Juan Williamss statements about how he gets
scared when he sees people wearing Muslim garb on a plane. Williams was
fired from his position at NPR for those comments, but he subsequently
received a $2 million contract with Fox News the following day. Wright argued
that although Williams probably would have been fired had he made such
statements about gays, it is highly unlikely that he would have been
rewarded with a lucrative employment contract immediately thereafter. 140.
Elliott, supra note 30. 141. See Pew Forum on Religion & Pub. Life, Growing
Number of Americans Say Obama Is a Muslim, PEW RES. CTR. (Aug. 19,
2010), http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1701/poll-obama-muslim- 05-Ali (Do Not
Delete) 7/29/2012 12:19:06 AM 2012] SHARIAH AND CITIZENSHIP 1051 most
striking about the allegations was not the partisan claims themselves, but
the responses that President Obama and other government leaders offered.
Obama felt compelled to reject the accusations, doing his best to distance
himself from the Muslim community and choosing not to make any campaign
stops in mosques or meet with any Muslim organizations during the
campaign (despite making numerous stops at churches and synagogues).142
President Obama did not state, that although he was not a Muslim,
there was nothing wrong with Muslims per se. Instead, he reiterated
the bias by referring to the accusations on his website as a
smear.143 Further, during one campaign rally, his aides asked two young
Muslim women dressed in headscarves to exit the stage area where he would
be speaking.144 Arguably, the pervasiveness of such insidious discourse
from the President helped normalize the notion to the public that American
Muslims are not citizens, but indeed others.145

2NC No Solvency
Immigration surveillance is only one product of the new
American Islamophobia the affirmative cannot resolve
terror talk by outlawing one of its many impacts it is too
deeply ingrained thats Ali
Heres more ev:
Ali 12 (Yaser, J.D., University of California, Berkeley, 2012, Shariah and
CitizenshipHow Islamophobia Is Creating a Second-Class Citizenry in
America California Law Review, August 1st, 2012,
http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?
article=4176&context=californialawreview) //RL
They came first for the Communists, and I didnt speak up because
I wasnt a Communist. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I
didnt speak up because I wasnt a trade unionist. Then they came
for the Jews, and I didnt speak up because I wasnt a Jew. Then they
came for me and by that time no one was left to speak up.245 Today
Islamophobia has colored the prism through which Muslims are
viewed. 246 It has created a social environment in which Muslims are cast
as second-class citizens whose citizenship is neither protected nor respected
in society. The discourse surrounding the threat of Shariah in this
third phase of Islamophobia pervades all other rational discourses
on the subject and challenges American Muslims notions of
citizenship as rights, identity, and political activity; indeed the only
dimension of citizenship that remains is formal legal status. As
Pastor Niemllers famous quote illustrates, history has repeatedly shown
us the consequences of remaining silent in the face of such hatred
and bigotry. More than a decade has passed since the 9/11 attacks,
and we must collectively reflect on how we arrived at this juncture
and what changes we must make. I propose a number of policies for
systematically responding to the campaign of Islamophobia.

CASE VIRTUAL WALL (KS)

The Line

1NC
FRAMING ISSUE: The affirmative claims impacts off of
resolving entire systems of biopolitical control if we win
any risk of alternative causality they dont get solvency
and presume neg. 2 important implications:
1. Gut check if you dont think solving one instance of
surveillance will topple the biopolitical regime, you dont
give them their harms
2. No new arguments the aff got 8 minutes to frame the
case and framed it badly. Thats not our fault dont let
them change what the advocacy is because that would
moot our 1NC and be a voter for fairness and education.

2NC
If we win a risk that any part of their internal link chain
has an alternative cause, you do not grant them solvency.

OFFCASE TOHONO (SWS)

Visas CP

1NC
The United States federal government should extend
section 289 of the Immigration and Nationality Act to all
Native American people in the United States and Mexico.
This right is explicitly granted to other Native groups at
the US-Mexico border and denied to the Tohono Oodham
Nickels 1 (Bryan Nickels is a Notes & Comments Editor for the Boston
College International and Comparative Law Review, NATIVE AMERICAN FREE
PASSAGE RIGHTS UNDER THE 1794 JAY TREATY: SURVIVAL UNDER UNITED
STATES STATUTORY LAW AND CANADIAN COMMON LAW, Boston College,
2001,
http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/schools/law/lawreviews/journals/bciclr/24
_2/04_TXT.htm) //RL
In at least one instance, there has been a Congressional indication of
intent not only to extend wardship over other Indians within U.S.
borders, but also to extend the right of free movement to a group
that traditionally did not inhabit the lands now bifurcated by the
U.S.-Mexico border.172 Expansion of the liberal aboriginal right
concept to free movement is demonstrated by Congress treatment
of the Texas Band of Kickapoo Indians; this group was divided by the
U.S.-Mexican border, creating essentially a rightless, landless
tribe.173 Although granted a year-to-year parole status by Congress
in the 1950s,174 living conditions of the tribe decreased so
dramatically that Congress ultimately intervened to offer health and
educational assistance in conjunction with the Mexican government.175 Most
importantly, Congress extended the benefits of Section 289 to the
band: [n]otwithstanding the Immigration and Nationality Act, all
members of the Band shall be entitled to freely pass and repass the
borders of the United States and to live and work in the United
States.176 Like [*PG335]the C.F.R. relating to Canadian Indians, this
language awards the band the statutory presumption of lawful permanent
resident (LPR) status.177 While the Texas Kickapoo are granted free
passage rights, members of the Tohono Oodham tribe in Arizona
are subject to the same admission and deportation requirements as
Mexican nationals simply for travel across their own traditional
lands. 178 Complete discussion of free passage rights for native groups
situated on the U.S.-Mexican border is beyond the scope of this Note.
However, two excellent articles have been written on the subject, one from
an aboriginal rights perspective,179 the other from a human rights
perspective.180

CP solves culture their 1AC author specifies border


crossing legislation as the key internal link
1AC Austin 91(Megan, Fall 1991, A CULTURE DIVIDED BY THE UNITED
STATES-MEXICO BORDER: THE TOHONO O'ODHAM CLAIM FOR BORDER

CROSSING RIGHTS, Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law


[Vol. 8, No. 2], Accessed 7/14/15) CH
The Tohono O'odham Tribe suffers fundamental human rights
violations under current policies governing the international border
between the United States and Mexico. The survival of this indigenous culture
depends upon its ability to pass through traditional lands freely, to collect raw materials for traditional
foods and crafts and to visit religious sites and family members .

Current policies and laws


of the United States deny the Tohono O'odham these rights. Border
crossing legislation will help to eliminate these abuses. However, in order to
be effective, the legislation must allow the Tohono O'odham people to participate in decisions regarding

The goal of the Tohono O'odham Tribe is to protect


its culture and assure its continued existence. Approaching the Tohono O'odham
regulation of the border.

claim for border crossing rights as a claim for basic human rights places indigenous groups within the

The new movements of intemational law focus


on the unique claims of indigenous groups, which amount not to
secession, but to a level of autonomy which permits the survival of
their cultures. Guided by these fundamental international principles,
the United States and neighboring nations must recognize the right
of the Tohono O'odham to keep their culture alive.
scope of international principles.

2NC Solvency
The INA empirically guarantees Native peoples on the USMexico border safe passage thats Nickels - and thats
the key internal link to solving all their impacts thats
Austin from the 1AC Solvency contention
CP Solves Canada and the Jay Treaty prove
US Embassy in Canada 9 (United States Embassy in Ottawa, last cited
date in past tense 2009, Entering the U.S.: First Nations and Native
Americans, http://canada.usembassy.gov/visas/information-forcanadians/first-nations-and-native-americans.html) //RL
The Jay Treaty The Jay Treaty, signed in 1794 between Great Britain
and the United States, provided that American Indians could travel
freely across the international boundary. The United States has codified
this obligation in the provisions of Section 289 of the Immigration and
Nationality Act (INA) as amended. Native Indians born in Canada are
therefore entitled to enter the United States for the purpose of
employment, study, retirement, investing, and/or immigration.
Qualifying as an American Indian born in Canada In order to qualify under
Section 289 of the INA, eligible persons must provide evidence of
their American Indian background to the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security Customs and Border Protection (DHS/CBP) officer
at the intended Port of Entry. The documentation must be sufficient
to show the bearer has at least fifty percent of American Indian
race. Such a person may then be admitted without a visa. Generally
such evidence would include either an identification card from the Ministry of
Indian and Northern Affairs or a written statement from an official of the tribe
from which you or your ancestors originate, substantiated by documentary
evidence (tribe records and civil long form birth certificate bearing names of
parents). Such a statement would be on the tribe's official letterhead and
should explicitly state what percentage American Indian blood you or your
parents possess, based on official documents/records. You should also provide
photograph identification, such as a driver's license or passport. The INA
does not distinguish between "treaty" and "non-treaty" or "status"
and "non-status" Indians as determined by Canadian law. The only
relevant factor is whether the individual has at least 50% American
Indian blood. Similarly, letters or identification cards from Metis associations
generally cannot be accepted, as the Metis are not an Indian Tribe. If such
identification helps to establish that an individual is at least 50% American
Indian, however, it can also be included with other conclusive evidence
Documentation Requirements The Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative
(WHTI) is the implementation plan for Section 7209 of the
Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Protection Act of 2004. It requires
generally that all travelers into the United States must be
documented with a passport or other WHTI designated document.

The first phase began in January, 2007 and affected those entering
by air.

T Surveillance

1NC
Interpretation surveillance must be covert
Baker 5 MA, CPP, CPO
(Brian, Surveillance: Concepts and Practices for Fraud, Security and Crime Investigation,
http://www.ifpo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/surveillance.pdf)
Surveillance is defined as covert observations of places and persons for the purpose of obtaining
information (Dempsey, 2003). The term covert infers that the operative conducting the surveillance is
discreet and secretive . Surveillance that maintains a concealed, hidden, undetected nature clearly has
the greatest chance of success because the subject of the surveillance will act or perform naturally.
Remaining undetected during covert surveillance work often involves physical fatigue, mental stress, and
very challenging situations. Physical discomfort is an unfortunate reality for investigators, which varies from
stinging perspiration in summer to hard shivers during the winter.

Violation- the CBP does a lot more than surveillance


US CBP

US Customs and Border Patrol, Along US Borders,


http://www.cbp.gov/border-security/along-us-borders//SRawal
One of the most important activities of a Border Patrol agent is line
watch. This involves the detection, prevention and apprehension of
terrorists, undocumented aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land
border by maintaining surveillance from a covert position, following up
leads, responding to electronic sensor television systems, aircraft sightings,
and interpreting and following tracks, marks and other physical
evidence. Some of the major activities are traffic check, traffic
observation, city patrol, transportation check, administrative,
intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities.

Reasons to prefer
a) Limitsallowing the ending of public surveillance
explodes the limits of the topic by allowing
affirmatives that deal with programs that known
surveillance like detention facilities
b) Groundkey to neg ground like terrorism and politics
disads
T is a voterLimits- They justify doing many things outside of
surveillance which expands the research too much. This
kills clash and productive debate because the negative
cant effectively prepare for those many affirmatives.

2nc Covert Extensions


Must be covert
IJ 98
(Info Justice, OPERATIONS, SURVEILLANCE AND STAKEOUT PART 1,
http://www.infojustice.com/samples/12%20Operations,%20Surveillance%20And%20Stakeout%20Part
%201.html)
Surveillance is defined as the systematic observation of persons, places, or things to obtain
information. Surveillance is carried out without the knowledge of those under surveillance and is
concerned primarily with people.

Even the broadest definition doesnt include information


provided with consent
Pounder 9 PhD, Director, Amberhawk Training and Amberhawk Associates
(Chris, NINE PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING WHETHER PRIVACY IS PROTECTED IN A
SURVEILLANCE SOCIETY, Scholar)
This paper uses the term "surveillance" in its widest sense to include data sharing and the revealing
of identity information in the absence of consent of the individual concerned. It argues that the
current debate about the nature of a "surveillance society" needs a new structural framework that allows the
benefits of surveillance and the risks to individual privacy to be properly balanced.

2nc Most Common


Surveillance is most often covert
Glancy 12 Professor of Law, Santa Clara University Law School. B.A. Wellesley College, J.D. Harvard
Law School
Dorothy, SYMPOSIUM ARTICLE: PRIVACY IN AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES, Santa Clara Law Review, 2012,
Lexis
Surveillance is a relatively modern idea. Even the word, "surveillance," is fairly new to the English language.
It was borrowed from the French by the British at the turn of the nineteenth century to refer to looking over
an area, usually from a high place, for strategic information about a battlefield or prospective confrontation.
n92 Early in the twentieth century, surveillance usually suggested use of technology to enhance human
abilities to see over wide distances to collect comprehensive information about an adversary. n93 Since
then, [*1208] the word, "surveillance," has been used in a wide variety of careful-watching contexts
from medical surveillance of diseases and immune responses, to physical stakeouts of crime
suspects, to mass-scale electronic and network surveillance for gathering intelligence or for seeking
evidence of anomalous or criminal behavior. Surveillance is also a psychological technique used to
affect human behavior through pervasive monitoring of activities and areas to discourage people from
violating rules or laws. Although surveillance most often means covert collection of information, it can
also refer to overt watching aimed at modifying the behavior of those watched. An example of overt
surveillance is red-light cameras. These devices are often prominently placed as ever-present watchers at
intersections so that drivers are deterred from entering intersections while the stoplight is red. n94 One
purpose of overt surveillance is to affect the behavior of those being watched, to assure that individual
behavior conforms to societal norms. If an autonomous vehicle user were informed that his or her vehicle
continuously reports its speed to law enforcement authorities, that user would be more likely to direct the
vehicle to conform to the speed limit, rather than exercise personal autonomy in deciding not to conform.
n95 Similarly, autonomous vehicles could overtly monitor the behavior of vehicle users so that instances of
user activities such as smoking or drinking alcohol are sensed and recorded.

T Domestic

1NC
First, Interpretation: Domestic surveillance is surveillance
within national borders
Avilez et al 14 Marie Avilez et al, Carnegie Mellon University December
10, 2014 Ethics, History, and Public Policy Senior Capstone Project
Security and Social Dimensions of City Surveillance Policy
http://www.cmu.edu/hss/ehpp/documents/2014-City-Surveillance-Policy.pdf
Domestic surveillance collection of information about the
activities of private individuals/organizations by a government
entity within national borders; this can be carried out by federal, state and/or local officials

Violation- the border


BHC No Date
United States- Mexico Border Health Commission, a binational health commission in
July 2000 with the signing of an agreement by the Secretary of Health and Human
Services of the United States and the Secretary of Health of Mxico. On December
21, 2004, the Commission was designated as a Public International Organization by
Executive Order of the President, Border Relation,
http://www.borderhealth.org/border_region.php//SRawal

The United States-Mxico border region is defined as the area of


land being 100 kilometers (62.5 miles) north and south of the
international boundary (La Paz Agreement). It stretches approximately 2000 miles from the southern tip
of Texas to California. The population for this expanse of land is estimated to be approximately 12 million inhabitants.
This population is expected to double by the year 2025. The combined population of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and
California is 61,637,146 (2000 Census). The estimated combined population of the six Mexican border states in 1990 was
12,246,991. Two of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States - Laredo and McAllen - are located on
the Texas-Mxico border. Additionally, there are 154 Native American tribes totaling 881,070 Native Americans living in
the 4 U.S. border states. In the actual border region, there are approximately 25 Native American Nations.

Second, Domestic surveillance is surveillance of US


persons
Small 8

MATTHEW L. SMALL. United States Air Force Academy 2008


Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress, Presidential Fellows
Program paper "His Eyes are Watching You: Domestic Surveillance, Civil
Liberties and Executive Power during Times of National Crisis"
http://cspc.nonprofitsoapbox.com/storage/documents/Fellows2008/Small.pdf
Before one can make any sort of assessment of domestic surveillance policies, it is
first necessary to narrow the scope of the term domestic surveillance. Domestic
surveillance is a subset of intelligence gathering. Intelligence, as it is to be
understood in this context, is information that meets the stated or understood
needs of policy makers and has been collected, processed and narrowed to meet
those needs (Lowenthal 2006, 2). In essence, domestic surveillance is a means to
an end; the end being intelligence. The intelligence community best

understands domestic surveillance as the acquisition of nonpublic


information concerning United States persons (Executive Order 12333
(3.4) (i)). With this definition domestic surveillance remains an overly broad
concept. This papers analysis, in terms of President Bushs policies, focuses on
electronic surveillance; specifically, wiretapping phone lines and obtaining caller

information from phone companies. Section f of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 defines
electronic surveillance as:

Violation- Undocumented people are not US persons


Jackson et al 9 Brian A. Jackson, Darcy Noricks, and Benjamin W. Goldsmith,
RAND Corporation

The Challenge of Domestic Intelligence in a Free Society RAND 2009 BRIAN


A. JACKSON, EDITOR
http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG804.
pdf
3 Federal law and executive order define a U.S. person as a
citizen of the United States, an alien lawfully admitted for
permanent residence, an unincorporated association with a
substantial number of members who are citizens of the U.S. or are
aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or a corporation
that is incorporated in the U.S. (NSA, undated). Although this definition
would therefore allow information to be gathered on U.S. persons located abroad,
our objective was to examine the creation of a domestic intelligence organization
that would focus onand whose activities would center aroundindividuals and
organizations located inside the United States . Though such an agency might
receive information about U.S. persons that was collected abroad by other
intelligence agencies, it would not collect that information itself.

T is a voterThey explode limits


First, Allowing the surveillance of non-US persons means
they open the debate to immigration. This is a whole new
literature base which is large enough to be a topic in
itself.
Second, They open the topic outside of our borders which
means they justify any aff which cooperates with other
countries and transnational agreements the decrease
surveillancethis massively expands the topic and makes
for unproductive debate

SFO K

1NC
Speaking to the suffering of other bodies denies them
humanity
Alcoff 89

Linda Alcoff, The Problem of Speaking for Others, last date cited 1989,
http://www.alcoff.com/content/speaothers.html//SRawal
The recognition that there is a problem in speaking for others has followed from the widespread acceptance of two claims.

there has been a growing awareness that where one speaks from
affects both the meaning and truth of what one says, and thus that
one cannot assume an ability to transcend her location. In other words, a
speaker's location (which I take here to refer to her social location or social identity) has an
epistemically significant impact on that speaker's claims, and can
serve either to authorize or dis-authorize one's speech. The creation of
Women's Studies and African American Studies departments were founded on this very belief: that both the
study of and the advocacy for the oppressed must come to be done
principally by the oppressed themselves, and that we must finally
acknowledge that systematic divergences in social location between
speakers and those spoken for will have a significant effect on the
content of what is said. The unspoken premise here is simply that a speaker's location is epistemically
First,

salient. I shall explore this issue further in the next section. The second claim holds that not only is location epistemically

certain privileged locations are discursively dangerou s. In particular,


the practice of privileged persons speaking for or on behalf of less
privileged persons has actually resulted (in many cases) in increasing or
reenforcing the oppression of the group spoken for. This was part of the argument
made against Anne Cameron's speaking for Native women: Cameron's intentions were never in
question, but the effects of her writing were argued to be harmful to
the needs of Native authors because it is Cameron rather than they
who will be listened to and whose books will be bought by readers
interested in Native women. Persons from dominant groups who
speak for others are often treated as authenticating presences that
confer legitimacy and credibility on the demands of subjugated
speakers; such speaking for others does nothing to disrupt the discursive hierarchies that operate in public spaces.
For this reason, the work of privileged authors who speak on behalf of the
oppressed is becoming increasingly criticized by members of those
oppressed groups themselves.
salient, but

AT: were speaking ABOUT them not for


Speaking ABOUT others always results in speaking FOR
them and constructing their subject positionsthey are
intertwined
Alcoff 89
Linda Alcoff, The Problem of Speaking for Others, last date cited 1989,
http://www.alcoff.com/content/speaothers.html//SRawal
In the examples used above, there may appear to be a conflation between the
issue of speaking for others and the issue of speaking about others .
This conflation was intentional on my part, because it is difficult to distinguish speaking
about from speaking for in all cases. There is an ambiguity in the two phrases: when one is
speaking for another one may be describing their situation and thus also speaking about them. In fact , it may be
impossible to speak for another without simultaneously conferring
information about them. Similarly, when one is speaking about another,
or simply trying to describe their situation or some aspect of it, one
may also be speaking in place of them, i.e. speaking for them. One may be speaking about
another as an advocate or a messenger if the person cannot speak for herself. Thus I would maintain that
if the practice of speaking for others is problematic, so too must be
the practice of speaking about others.8 This is partly the case
because of what has been called the "crisis of representation." For in both
the practice of speaking for as well as the practice of speaking about others, I am engaging in the act
of representing the other's needs, goals, situation, and in fact, who
they are, based on my own situated interpretation. In post-structuralist terms, I
am participating in the construction of their subject-positions rather
than simply discovering their true selves. Once we pose it as a problem of representation,
we see that, not only are speaking for and speaking about analytically close, so too are the practices of speaking for

I am also representing my self in a


certain way, as occupying a specific subject-position, having certain
characteristics and not others, and so on. In speaking for myself, I (momentarily)
create my self---just as much as when I speak for others I create them as a
public, discursive self, a self which is more unified than any
subjective experience can support. And this public self will in most cases have an effect on the
others and speaking for myself. For, in speaking for myself,

self experienced as interiority.

Tuck & Yang Links

All of the following could potentially work

Recognition
The AFFs politics of recognition ties reinscribes
oppression by tying subjecthood to suffering
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In

n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative


inquiry with youth and communities (pp. 223-248). Thousand Oakes, CA:
Sage Publications. Pp. 228]
The costs of a politics of recognition that is rooted in naming pain
have been critiqued by recent decolonizing and feminist scholars
(Hartman, 1997, 2007; Tuck, 2009). In Scenes of Subjection, Sadiya Hartman
(1997) discusses how recognizing the personhood of slaves enhanced the
power of the Southern slaveowning class. Supplicating narratives of
former slaves were deployed effectively by abolitionists, mainly White,
well-to-do, Northern women, to generate portraits of abuse that ergo
recognize slaves as human (Hartman, 2007). In response, new laws
afforded minimal standards of existence, making personhood
coterminous with injury (Hartman, 1997, p. 93), while

simultaneously authorizing necessary violence to suppress


slave agency. The slave emerges as a legal person only when
seen as criminal or a violated body in need of limited forms of
protection (p. 55). Recognition humanizes the slave, but is
predicated upon her or his abjection. You are in pain, therefore you
are. [T]he recognition of humanity require[s] the event of
excessive violence, cruelty beyond the limits of the socially
tolerable, in order to acknowledge and protect the slaves person
(p. 55). Furthermore, Hartman describes how slave-as-victim as human
accordingly establishes slave-as-agent as criminal. Applying
Hartmans analysis, we note how the agency of Margaret Garner or Nat
Turner can only be viewed as outsider violence that humane society
must reject while simultaneously upholding the legitimated
violence of the state to punish such outsider violence. Hartman asks,
Is it possible that such recognition effectively forecloses agency as
the object of punishment . . . Or is this limited conferral of humanity
merely a reinscription of subjugation and pained existence? (p. 55).

The affirmative attempts to historicize the action of the


subaltern by rendering it into a recognizable people. This
project of academic integration obliterates the subaltern.
Spivak 5 [Gayatri, Prof. Comparative Literature and Society @ Columbia,

2005, Scattered speculations on the subaltern and the popular, Postcolonial


Studies Vol 8 No 4, p. 476]
Subaltern is to popular as gender is to sex, class to poverty, state to nation.
One word inclines to reasonableness, the other to cathexis / occupation
through desire. Popular divides between descriptive (as in presidential or TV ratings),
evaluative (not high, both a positive and a negative value, dependent on your politics), and
contains people, a word with immense range, from just anyone, to the masses (both a
positive and a negative political value, depending on your politics). The reasonable and rarefied

subaltern that interests me is: to be removed from all lines


of social mobility. The disciplinary interest of literary criticism is in the singular and the
unverifiable. In Can the Subaltern Speak? it was the peculiar and singular subalternity of the young
Bhubaneswari Bhaduri that seemed of interest.1 Her story was my mother Sivani Chakravortys
testimony. The question of veridicality / of the evidentiary status of
testimony, sometimes taken for granted in unexamined oral
history / has to be thought of here. Gilles Deleuzes notion of singularity is both
complex and simple. In its simplest form, the singular is not the particular because it is an unrepeatable
difference that is, on the other hand, repeated / not as an example of a universal but as an instance of a
collection of repetitions. Singularity is life as pure immanence, what will be, of this life, as life. As the
name Bhubaneswari Bhaduri became a teaching text, it took on this imperative / repeat as singular /,
as does literature.2 If the thinking of subalternity is taken in the general
sense, its lack of access to mobility may be a version of singularity.
Subalternity cannot be generalised according to hegemonic logic.
That is what makes it subaltern. Yet it is a category and therefore
repeatable. Since the general sense is always mired in narrow senses, any
differentiations between subalternity and the popular must thus concern
itself with singular cases and thus contravene the philosophical purity of Deleuzes thought.3 The
definition of the word

starting point of a singular itinerary of the word subaltern can be Antonio Gramscis Southern Question
rather than his more general discussions of the subaltern. I believe that was the basic starting point of
the South Asian Subaltern Studies collective / Gramsci, a Communist, thinking beyond capital logic in
terms of unequal development. Subsequently, Partha Chatterjee developed a nuanced reading of both
Gramsci and Foucault.4 It is from Some Aspects of the Southern Question, then, that we can move into
Ranajit Guhas On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India.5 Subaltern in the early Guha
was the name of a space of difference. And the word was indistinguishable from people. Although Guha
seems to be saying that the words people and subaltern are interchangeable, I think this is not a

in their early work, the members of the


Subaltern Studies collective would not quarrel with the notion that
the word subaltern and the idea of the popular do not inhabit a
continuous space. Yet their failure to make this distinction has led to
a certain relaxing of the word subaltern that has undermined its
usefulness. The slide into the popular may be part of this.
Subalternity is a position without identity. It is somewhat like the strict
understanding of class. Class is not a cultural origin, it is a sense of economic collectivity, of social
relations of formation as the basis of action. Gender is not lived sexual difference. It is a sense of the
collective social negotiation of sexual differences as the basis of action. Race is not originary; it
assumes racism. Subalternity is where social lines of mobility, being elsewhere,
do not permit the formation of a recognisable basis of action. The early
subalternists looked at examples where subalternity was brought to crisis, as a basis for militancy was
formed. Even then colonial and nationalist historiography did not
recognise it as such. Could the subaltern speak, then? Could it have its
insurgency recognised by the official historians? Even when, strictly speaking,
they had burst the outlines of subalternity? This last is important. Neither the groups
celebrated by the early subalternists nor Bhubaneswari Bhaduri, in so far as they had
burst their bonds into resistance, were in the position of
subalternity. No one can say I am a subaltern in whatever
substantive point for him. At least

language.

And

subaltern studies will not reduce itself to the

historical recounting of the details of the practice of


disenfranchised groups and remain a study of the subaltern.

Suffering
Research is used to commodify pain
narratives and damage representations to reproduce
oppression with the justification of the academy
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In
n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative
inquiry with youth and communities
https://faculty.newpaltz.edu/evetuck/files/2013/12/Tuck-and-Yang-RWords_Refusing-Research.pdf]
Urban communities, and other disenfranchised communities . Damage-centered
researchers may operate, even benevolently, within a theory of
change in which harm must be recorded or proven in order to
convince an outside adjudicator that reparations are deserved. These

reparations presumably take the form of additional resources, settlements, affirmative actions, and other

this theory of change as


both colonial and flawed, because it relies upon Western notions of
power as scarce and concentrated, and because it requires
disenfranchised communities to posi-tion themselves as both
singularly defective and powerless to make chang e (2010). Finally, Eve has
observed that won reparations rarely become reality, and that in many
cases, communities are left with a narrative that tells them that they
are broken.Similarly, at the center of the analysis in this chapter is a concern with the fixation social
material, political, and sovereign adjustments. Eve has described

science research has exhibited in eliciting pain stories from com-munities that are not White, not wealthy,
and not straight.

Academes demon-strated fascination with telling and


retelling narratives of pain is troubling, both for its voyeurism and
for its consumptive implacability. Imagining itself to be a voice, and
in some disciplinary iterations, the voice of the colonised (Simpson, 2007,
p. 67, emphasis in the original) is not just a rare historical occurrence in anthropology and related

We observe that much of the work of the academy is to


reproduce stories of oppression in its own voice. At first, this may read as an
fields.

intolerant condemnation of the academy, one that refuses to forgive past blunders and see how things
have changed in recent decades. However, it is our view that while many individual scholars have cho-sen
to pursue other lines of inquiry than the pain narratives typical of their disciplines, novice researchers
emerge from doctoral programs eager to launch pain-based inquiry projects because they believe that
such approaches embody what it means to do social science. The collection of pain narratives and the
theories of change that champion the value of such narratives are so prevalent in the social sciences that
one might surmise that they are indeed what the academy is about. In her examination of the symbolic
violence of the academy, bell hooks (1990) portrays the core message from the academy to those on the

No need to hear your voice when I can talk about you


better than you can speak about yourself. No need to hear your
voice. Only tell me about your pain. I want to know your story. And
then I will tell it back to you in a new way. Tell it back to you in such
a way that it has become mine, my own. Re-writing you I write
myself anew. I am still author, authority. I am still colonizer the
speaking subject and you are now at the center of my talk. ( p. 343)
margins as thus:

Hookss words resonate with our observation of how much of social science research is concerned with
providing recognition to the presumed voiceless, a recognition that is enamored with knowing through
pain. Further, this passage describes the ways in which the researchers voice is constituted by,
legitimated by, animated by the voices on the margins. The researcher-self is made anew by telling back
the story of the marginalized/subaltern subject. Hooks works to untangle the almost imperceptible
differences between forces that silence and forces that seemingly liberate by inviting those on the margins
to speak, to tell their stories. Yet the forces that invite those on the margins to speak also say, Do not
speak in a voice of resistance. Only speak from that space in the margin that is a sign of deprivation, a
wound, an unfulfilled longing. Only speak your pain (hooks, 1990, p. 343).

Research is used to commodify pain narratives- a refusal


to enagage in research is necessary
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In
n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative
inquiry with youth and communities
https://faculty.newpaltz.edu/evetuck/files/2013/12/Tuck-and-Yang-RWords_Refusing-Research.pdf]
Research is a dirty word among many Native communities (Tuhiwai Smith,1999), and
arguably, also among ghettoized (Kelley, 1997), Orientalized(Said, 1978), and other communities
of overstudied Others. The ethicalstandards of the academic industrial complex are a recent
development, and likeso many postcivil rights reforms, do not always do enough to ensure that
socialscience research is deeply ethical, meaningful, or useful for the individual or com-munity being

Social science often works to collect stories of pain


andhumiliation in the lives of those being researched for
commodification. However,these same stories of pain and humiliation are
part of the collective wisdom thatoften informs the writings of
researchers who attempt to position their intellectualwork as
decolonization. Indeed, to refute the crime, we may need to name it. Howdo we learn
from and respect the wisdom and desires in the stories that we
(over)hear, while refusing to portray/betray them to the spectacle of
the settler colonialgaze? How do we develop an ethics for research
that differentiates between powerwhich deserves a denuding,
indeed petrifying scrutinyand people? Atthe same time, as fraught as research is in
researched.

its complicity with power, it is one ofthe last places for legitimated inquiry. It is at least still a space that
proclaims tocare about curiosity. In this essay, we theorize refusal not just as a no, but as atype of
investigation into what you need to know and what I refuse to write in(Simpson, 2007, p. 72).

Therefore, we present a refusal to do research, or a refusalwithin research, as a way of


thinking about humanizing researchers. We have organized this chapter into four portions. In the first three
sections,we lay out three axioms of social science research. Following the work of EveKosofsky Sedgwick
(1990), we use the exposition of these axioms to articulateotherwise implicit, methodological, definitional,
self-evident groundings (p. 12)of our arguments and observations of refusal. The axioms are: (I) The
subalterncan speak, but is only invited to speak her/our pain; (II) there are some forms of knowledge that
the academy doesnt deserve; and (III) research may not be theintervention that is needed. We realize that
these axioms may not appear self-evident to everyone, yet asserting them as apparent allows us to
proceed towardthe often unquestioned limits of research. Indeed, in dealing with an open-secret
structure, its only by being shameless about risking the obvious that wehappen into the vicinity of the
transformative (Sedgwick, 1990, p. 22). In thefourth section of the chapter, we theorize refusal in earnest,
exploring ideas thatare still forming.Our thinking and writing in this essay is informed by our readings of
postco-lonial literatures and critical literatures on settler colonialism. We locate much ofour analysis
inside/in relation to the discourse of settler colonialism, the particu-lar shape of colonial domination in the
United States and elsewhere, includingCanada, New Zealand, and Australia. Settler colonialism can be
differentiatedfrom what one might call exogenous colonialism in that the colonizers arrive at a place
(discovering it) and make it a permanent home (claiming it). The perma-nence of settler colonialism
makes it a structure, not just an event (Wolfe, 1999).The settler colonial nation-state is dependent on
destroying and erasingIndigenous inhabitants in order to clear them from valuable land. The settlercolonial
structure also requires the enslavement and labor of bodies that have been stolen from their homelands
and transported in order to labor the land stolenfrom Indigenous people. Settler colonialism refers to a
triad relationship, betweenthe White settler (who is valued for his leadership and innovative mind), the disappeared Indigenous peoples (whose land is valued, so they and their claims to itmust be extinguished),
and the chattel slaves (whose bodies are valuable butownable, abusable, and murderable). We believe that
this triad is the basis of theformation of Whiteness in settler colonial nation-states, and that the interplay
oferasure, bodies, land, and violence is characteristic of the permanence of settlercolonial structures.Under
coloniality, Descartes formulation, cognito ergo sum (I think, thereforeI am) transforms into ego
conquiro (I conquer, therefore I am; Dussel, 1985;Maldonado-Torres, 2007; Ndlvou-Gatsheni, 2011).
Nelson Maldonado-Torres(2009) expounds on this relationship of the conquerors sense-of-self to

Knowledge of self/Others
became the philosophical justification for the acquisition of bodies
and territo-ries, and the rule over them. Thus the right to conquer is
hisknowledge-of-others (I know her, therefore I am me).

intimately connected tothe right to know (I know, therefore I


conquer, therefore I am). Maldonado-Torres (2009) explains that for Levi Strauss, the
self/Other knowledge paradigmis the methodological rule for the birth of ethnology as a science (pp. 34).
Settler colonial knowledge is premised on frontiers; conquest, then, is an exerciseof the felt entitlement to
transgress these limits. Refusal, and stances of refusal inresearch, are attempts to place limits on conquest
and the colonization of knowl-edge by marking what is off limits, what is not up for grabs or discussion,
what issacred, and what cant be known. To speak of limits in such a way makes some liberal thinkers

When access to information, to


knowledge, to theintellectual commons is controlled by the people
who generate that information[participants in a research study], it
can be seen as a violation of shared standards of justice and truth.
(Simpson, 2007, p. 74) By forwarding a framework of refusal within
(and to) research in this chapter, weare not simply prescribing limits
to social science research. We are making visibleinvisibilized limits,
containments, and seizures that research already stakes out.
uncomfortable, andmay, to them, seem dangerous.

Overcoming
The attempt to overcome the conditions of modernity, the
founding original violences which constitutes our current
epistemologies is the logic of settler colonialism. It
operates on a fetishization of woundedness.
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In

n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative


inquiry with youth and communities (pp. 223-248). Thousand Oakes, CA:
Sage Publications. Pp. 228-9]
As numerous scholars have denoted, many social science disciplines emerged from the need to provide
justifications for social hierarchies undergirded by White supremacy and manifest destiny (see also
Gould, 1981; Selden, 1999; Tuck & Guishard, forthcoming). Wolfe (1999) has explored how the
contoured logic of settler colonialism (p. 5) can be mapped onto the microactivities of anthropology;
Guthrie (1976) traces the roots of psychology to the need to scientifically prove the supremacy of the
White mind. The origins of many social science disciplines in maintaining
logics of domination, while sometimes addressed in graduate schools, are regularly
thought to be just errant or inauspicious beginningsmuch like the ways in
which the genocide of Indigenous peoples that afforded the
founding of the Unites States has been reduced to an unfortunate
byproduct of the birthing of a new and great nation. Such amnesia is
required in settler colonial societies, argues Lorenzo Veracini, because settler
colonialism is characterized by a persistent drive to supersede the
conditions of its operation, (2011, p. 3); that is, to make itself invisible,
natural, without origin (and without end), and inevitable. Social science
disciplines have inherited the persistent drive to supersede the
conditions of their operations from settler colonial logic, and it is this drive,
a kind of unquestioning push forward, and not the origins of the disciplines that we attend to now. We
are struck by the pervasive silence on questions regarding the
contemporary rationale(s) for social science research. Though a variety of ethical
and procedural protocols require researchers to compose statements regarding the objectives or
purposes of a particular project, such protocols do not prompt reflection upon the
underlying beliefs about knowledge and change that too often go unexplored
or unacknowledged. The rationale for conducting social science research that collects pain narratives
seems to be self-evident for many scholars, but when looked at more closely, the rationales may be
unconsidered, and somewhat flimsy. Like a maritime archaeological site, such rationales might be best
examined in situ, for fear of deterioration if extracted. Why do researchers collect pain
narratives? Why does the academy want them? An initial and partial answer is
because settler colonial ideology believes that, in fiction author Sherril Jaffes
words, scars make your body more interesting, (1996, p. 58). Jaffes work of
short, short of fiction bearing that sentiment as title captures the exquisite crossing of wounds and
curiosity and pleasure. Settler colonial ideology, constituted by its
conscription of others, holds the wounded body as more engrossing
than the body that is not wounded (though the person with a
wounded body does not politically or materially benefit for being
more engrossing). In settler colonial logic, pain is more compelling
than privilege, scars more enthralling than the body unmarked by
experience. In settler colonial ideology, pain is evidence of
authenticity, of the verifiability of a lived life. Academe, formed and

informed by settler colonial ideology, has developed the same


palate for pain. Emerging and established social science researchers set out to
document the problems faced by communities, and often in doing so,
recirculate common tropes of dysfunction, abuse, and neglect.

Tohono Surveillance CP
Plan: The USFG should place its border surveillance
technology and personnel along the Tohono border under
the control of the Tohono nation.
Multiculturalism DA The Affs attempt to wish away the
harms of the political system by removing surveillance at
the Tohono border risks extinction of the Tohono culture
Sarah Singleton January 2009 Associate Professor in the Department of
Political Science at Research institute at Western Washington University
Not our borders: Indigenous people and the struggle to maintain

shared lives and cultures in post-9/11 North America


(http://www.wwu.edu/bpri/files/2009_Jan_WP_No_4.pdf)

Conversely, the multiculturalism model argues that simply protecting


basic legal and political rights is insufficientthat in order to fulfill its
obligation to demonstrate equal concern for all people, government
must provide support for and in some sense endorse the distinct
cultures of minority groups. In what to some people, at least, is its
most persuasive version, the multiculturalist model is linked to
freedom and autonomy. The basic argument is that freedom involves
individuals making choices about the sort of lives they wish to lead,
and that their ability to make meaningful choices presupposes an array
of choices that arise from, and are made intelligible by, the societal
culture within which one identifies (Kymlicka 1995). Thus it is
governments obligation to provide some level of public recognition
and support for minority cultures, and, in some circumstances, to
waive certain legal requirement and/or grant categorical exceptions to
policies that run counter to cultural practices and beliefs.
Proponents of the multiculturalist position argue that failing to
undertake such measures is both wrong (in the sense that it violates
the obligations that governments have toward their citizens); and
furthermore would likely lead to the continuing erasure of distinct
minority cultures. Opponents claim that multiculturalist policies may
exacerbate existing tensions between groups in society while at the
same time misdirecting efforts away from the more important project
of greater economic and social equality between all people (Barry
2001).10

Immigration DA The Tohono border has become a key


sight to illegal immigration

Ned Norris, June 17 2004 Jr. Chairwoman, Tohono O'Odham Nation The
Testimony of Ned Norris, Jr. Chairwoman, Tohono O'Odham Nation
http://www.usborderpatrol.com/Border_Patrol704_X.htm

Again, without the benefit of consulting with US, federal border


security policy was developed focusing on closing down what were
considered to be key points of entry along the U.S. southern border.
This policy was implemented by extensively increasing manpower and
resources at ports of entry and located at popular entry points such as
San Diego (CA), Yuma (AZ), and El Paso (TX). Rather than preventing
illegal immigration into America, this policy created a funnel effect
causing the flow of undocumented immigrants, drug traffickers, and
other illegal activity to shift to other less regulated spots on the border.
Consequently, because of the lack of border security resources and
attention to the Nation, illegal immigration through our Reservation
has become a prime avenue of choice for undocumented immigrants
and drug trafficking activities traveling into the United States. This has
created urgent challenges to protect against possible terrorists coming
through a very vulnerable location on our Reservation.
Although the Nation has neither the sufficient manpower nor the
resources to adequately address this crisis, we continue to be the first
line of defense in protecting America's homeland security interests in
this highly volatile and dangerous region.

Allowing for local autonomy is key to preserving the


Tohono culture
Sarah Singleton January 2009 Associate Professor in the Department of
Political Science at Research institute at Western Washington University
Not our borders: Indigenous people and the struggle to maintain

shared lives and cultures in post-9/11 North America


(http://www.wwu.edu/bpri/files/2009_Jan_WP_No_4.pdf)

Yet it is here that current government policy is most mistaken. As has


been demonstrated in locations all over the world, the maintenance of
social order and law enforcement requires adequate fundingeither
internally or from higher levels of governmentand support from the
community. Failing to fund tribal law enforcement agencies and train
tribal personnel in the implementation of homeland security initiatives
and then using inadequate capacity as a reason to deny tribes own
efforts to balance security with cultural needs clearly is a case of
blaming the victim. A more reasonable, equitable and workable
approach would first focus on compensating tribes for damages that
have occurred as the unintended consequences of new border security
regimes, and then on making significant investments in building tribes

own capacities to respond to security threats, cross-border drug trade,


etc. Rather than interpreting signs of inefficiency or inadequacy as a
mandate to step in and take over, DHS should reflect on the failures of
such efforts in the past and attempt to engage tribal communities. A
variety of models are already functioning where responsibility for policy
in a particular area is shared between federal and tribal governments.
In fact, both the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Department
of Justice have institutionalized programs that create processes for
collaboration and coordination with tribes. Many states have similar
programs. There is solid evidence to indicate that heightened
responsibility or sovereignty is a necessary condition of better
performance and accountability on Indian reservations (Cornell and
Kalt, undated). The justification for such initiatives does not require an
endorsement of the entire package of multiculturalist arguments,
although it would acknowledge that social identity and indigenous
culture are important to people and worthy of protection by
government. In this case, (although perhaps not in others) most of
what I term culture-sensitive costs could be addressed without
changing underlying assumptions about impartiality and equal
treatment under the law. Government agencies could respect local
autonomy and benefit from local knowledge by allowing tribes to
devise, by whatever means they chose, a border security regime that
would function in such a way as to meet national standards. In closing,
on behalf of the Tohono O'odham Nation, I appreciate the opportunity to
present this statement to the Committee and respectfully request the
Committee's favorable consideration of the Nation's proposed amendment.
Proposed Amendment to S. 2295 to establish a Tohono O'odham Nation pilot
border project. Amend Title I to add at the end thereof a new Section 108:
SEC. 108. ESTABLISHING PILOT BORDER PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM ON
TRIBAL LANDS-- (a) PURPOSE. To establish a pilot program to enhance the
capability of Tribal governments as first responders upon Tribal lands on or
near the international borders of the United States with effective aerial and
ground surveillance technologies, integrated communications systems and
equipment, health and bioterror monitoring mechanisms, and personnel
training, and facilitate the coordination by Tribal governments of their
responses with those of federal, state, and local governments to threats and
hazards to the defense and security of the United States. (b) INITIAL PILOT
PROGRAM TO PROVIDE BORDER PREPAREDNESS ASSISTANCE. The Secretary
shall establish a pilot program to provide assistance to the Tohono O'odham
Nation, a federally recognized Indian Tribal government, that will enhance the
capability of this economically distressed Tribe carry out on a demonstration
basis the purposes described in subsection (a) and to assist in the effective
enforcement of Federal, State and Tribal law against all national security
hazards arising from the Tribe's proximity to the international border with
Mexico. (c) EXPANDED PILOT PROGRAM TO PROVIDE BORDER PREPAREDNESS
ASSISTANCE.Upon transmission of the report required in subsection (i), the
Secretary shall establish an expanded pilot program to add up to 4 federally
recognized Indian Tribal governments, in addition to the Tohono O'odham

Nation, to assist in the effective enforcement of Federal, State and Tribal law
against all national security hazards arising from their proximity to the
international borders of the United States. (d) ADMINISTRATION OF
ASSISTANCE. For each of fiscal years 2005, 2006 and 2007, the Secretary
shall provide funds and other assistance to the Tribal governments under this
section pursuant to flexible grant or contract authorities consistent with the
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, as amended (25
U.S.C. 450b et seq.), and the Tribal governments shall administer this
assistance only in accordance with the requirements of that Act. (e) USES
OF ASSISTANCE. Assistance provided to Tribal governments under this section
shall be used consistent with the purposes of subsection (a) and in a manner
that develops prototype inter-governmental agreements with Federal, Tribal,
State, regional and local governments on strategies designed to coordinate
and enhance efforts to defend against hazards to the security of the United
States. (f) AUTHORIZATION OF FUNDS. For each fiscal year, in providing
assistance under subsection (b), the Secretary shall make directly available to
the Tohono O'odham Nation such sums as may be necessary to demonstrate
the potential worth of such a pilot program. For each fiscal year, in providing
assistance under subsection (c), the Secretary shall make directly available to
the Tribal governments such sums as may be necessary to carry out the
purposes of (a). (g) REPORTING REQUIREMENTS. Not later than 1 year and 30
days after implementing the pilot program under subsection (b), the Tohono
O'odham Nation shall submit a report to the Secretary of Homeland Security
which sets out the accomplishments achieved and obstacles encountered. (h)
REPORT TO CONGRESS. Not later than 1 year and 90 days after implementing
the pilot program under subsection (b), the Secretary of Homeland Security
shall submit to the Senate Committees on Indian Affairs and on Commerce,
Science, and Transportation, and to the House Committees on Science, on
Homeland Security, and on Resources,a report describing the implementation
of the pilot tribal lands program and any recommendations for improving and
expanding the pilot program to other Tribal governments.

http://www.usborderpatrol.com/Border_Patrol704_X.htm Again, without


the benefit of consulting with us, federal border security policy was
developed focusing on closing down what were considered to be key
points of entry along the U.S. southern border. This policy was
implemented by extensively increasing manpower and resources at
ports of entry and located at popular entry points such as San Diego
(CA), Yuma (AZ), and El Paso (TX). Rather than preventing illegal into
America, this policy created a funnel effect causing the flow of
undocumented immigrants, drug traffickers, and other illegal activity
to shift to other less regulated spots on the border. Consequently,
because of the lack of border security resources and attention to the
Nation, illegal immigration through our Reservation has become a
prime avenue of choice for undocumented immigrants and drug
trafficking activities traveling into the United States. This has created
urgent challenges to protect against possible terrorists coming through
a very vulnerable location on our Reservation. Although the Nation
has neither the sufficient manpower nor the resources to adequately

address this crisis, we continue to be the first line of defense in


protecting America's homeland security interests in this highly volatile
and dangerous region http://www.usborderpatrol.com/Border_ The Tohono
Oodham Nation (pronounced TOHN-oh AUTH-um) is a sovereign
government and federally recognized Indian nation that claims 25,000
members. Their reservation established in 1917 is the second
largest in the U.S. and spans 2.8 million acres, about the size of
Connecticut. The southern boundary includes 75 miles of the U.S.Mexico international border. Estimates vary on how many Tohono
Oodham live in Mexico, and the tribal government refused to comment
on the topic. The Tohono Oodham Community College website states
that about 1,800 enrolled Tohono Oodham reside in Mexico. According
to the 2000 national census and subsequent report by Mexicos
National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, 363
Oodham were living in Sonora, Mexico. However, that tally included
only families in which someone in the household spoke the Oodham
language, iok, which has been almost entirely replaced by Spanish.
When the Tohono Oodham reservation was created, said Velz-Ibez,
it was a distinctive land base that Oodham had control over even
though it was held in trust by the U.S. government. In Mexico that
didnt happen at all. In Mexico they were at the mercy of the Mexican
government, he said. Oodham in Mexico had no special rights or
recognition, and throughout the 20th century Mexican ranchers
encroached on their land. (It wasnt until after the Zapatista movement
sprang out of the forests in Chiapas in 1996 that Mexicos federal
government officially recognized parcels of indigenous lands.) VelzIbez said the special relationship between the U.S. and native people
beginning early on provided Oodham in the U.S. opportunities for
education, economic development, housing subsidies, work and
training programs and health care not available to Oodham in
Mexico. The Indian health service is not a Cadillac program, he
explained, but its still much better than what Oodham in Mexico
had. When the border fence was erected to this day just concrete
vehicle barriers connected by chicken wire it didnt stop Oodham
from crossing between the countries. The border meant not a thing to
me, said Henry Jose, a Navy veteran whose story was included in It Is
Not Our Fault, a collection of testimonies from Oodham on both sides
of the border used to make a case to Congress for citizenship for all
Oodham. (The book was published in 2001, shortly before 9/11
changed the immigration debate drastically.) The border is between
the white people and the Mexicans but not us Oodham. These are
Indian lands, Oodham lands. We used to go back and forth freely,
confirmed Jose Garcia, lieutenant governor of the Sonoran Oodham
who serves as a liaison between their traditional leaders and the
Tohono Oodham Nation. These days Garcia, 72, splits his time
between Arizona, where he owns La Indita restaurant in downtown

Tucson, and Magdalena de Kino in Sonora, Mexico, where he advocates


for the Mexican Oodham. Garcias grandparents were born on the U.S.
side and migrated to Mexico. So I look at Sonora and I look at the
Nation as one for me, Garcia said. However, especially after the
terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Customs and Border Protection
and the Department of Homeland Security it operates under saw it
much differently. "Agents across a number of Homeland Security, Justice

and Defense agencies have all been placed on alert and instructed to
aggressively work all possible leads and sources concerning this imminent
terrorist threat," Judicial Watch stated on its website. The Texas law
enforcement bulletin cites suspected fighters from the terrorist group
previously known as ISIS and based in Syria and Iraq as eyeing a border
crossing. The identities of persons operating these accounts cannot be
independently verified; however the accounts were selected for monitoring
based on several indications that they have been used by actual ISIS
militants for propaganda purposes and collectively reach tens of thousands of
followers, states the bulletin. One account was verified as belonging to an
individual located in Mosul, Iraq. Some 32 Twitter and Facebook posts
monitored by law enforcement over one recent week reflected interest in the
southern border, according to the bulletin. The messages, which were
forwarded thousands of times, included calls for jihadists to cross over from
Mexico to carry out attacks and even alluded to a recent video by U.S. activist
James OKeefe, who was recorded coming across the Rio Grande valley in an
Usama bin Laden costume. The bulletin details numerous calls for border
infiltration on social media, including one from a militant confirmed to be in
Mosul, Iraq who explicitly beckons the Islamic State to send a special force
to America across the border with Mexico. This Twitter account holder, who
is the administrator of an ISIS propaganda trading group, stated that the time
was right for such an action because the US-Mexican border is now open
large numbers of people crossing, the bulletin said. Another message sent
out via Twitter suggested that Islamic State fighters have already entered the
U.S. via the border, warning that, as a result, Americans in for ruin (sic).
The Texas DPS bulletin comes on the heels of a federal Department of
Homeland Security and Department of Justice Joint Intelligence bulletin dated
August 22, a copy of which was also obtained by FoxNews.com.That bulletin,
entitled Online Reaction but No Known Credible Homeland Threats from ISIL
and Its Supporters Following US Air Strikes,addresses potential threats to the
Homeland in response to recent US air strikes on the Islamic State of Iraq and
the Levant (ISIL) targets in Iraq and the murder of journalist James Foley. This
bulletin notes that while the FBI and DHS are unaware of specific credible
threats against the U.S. from homegrown violent extremists, ISIL or other
violent extremist groups overseas we continue to assess that violent
extremists who support ISIL have demonstrated the capability to attempt
attacks on US targets overseas with little-to-no warning. The report also
says that because of the individualized nature of the radicalization process
it is difficult to predict triggers that will contribute to [homegrown violent
extremists] attempting acts of violencelone offenders present law
enforcement with limited opportunities to detect and disrupt plots, which
frequently involve simple plotting against targets of opportunity. This

Twitter account holder, who is the administrator of an ISIS propaganda


trading group, stated that the time was right for such an action because the
US-Mexican border is now open large numbers of people crossing, the
bulletin said. Another message sent out via Twitter suggested that Islamic
State fighters have already entered the U.S. via the border, warning that, as a
result, Americans in for ruin (sic). The Texas DPS bulletin comes on the
heels of a federal Department of Homeland Security and Department of
Justice Joint Intelligence bulletin dated August 22, a copy of which was also
obtained by FoxNews.com.That bulletin, entitled Online Reaction but No
Known Credible Homeland Threats from ISIL and Its Supporters Following US
Air Strikes,addresses potential threats to the Homeland in response to
recent US air strikes on the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) targets
in Iraq and the murder of journalist James Foley. This bulletin notes that while
the FBI and DHS are unaware of specific credible threats against the U.S. from
homegrown violent extremists, ISIL or other violent extremist groups
overseas we continue to assess that violent extremists who support ISIL
have demonstrated the capability to attempt attacks on US targets overseas
with little-to-no warning. The report also says that because of the
individualized nature of the radicalization processit is difficult to predict
triggers that will contribute to [homegrown violent extremists] attempting
acts of violencelone offenders present law enforcement with limited
opportunities to detect and disrupt plots, which frequently involve simple
plotting against targets of opportunity.

Politics Links

Obama will fight for border control- Recent meeting


proves
Wolfgang 14 (Ben Wolfgang: Covers the White House for The Washington
Times, Obama: Ive fought against activists who believe there should be
open borders, The Washington Times, 12/9/2014,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/9/obama-ive-foughtagainst-activists-open-borders/, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Critics say President Obama went too far with his executive action granting amnesty to more than 4 million illegal immigrants but behind
the scenes,

the president

said hes

pushed back against those who believe the

U.S. should have an open border with Mexico . At a town-hall meeting in Nashville on
. Obama defended the idea of a strong U.S-Mexico border and
said hes had heated debates with activists who want that border to
disappear. There have been times, honestly, Ive had arguments with immigration rights activists who say, effectively, There
Tuesday, Mr

shouldnt be any rules. These are good people. Why should we have any enforcement like this? My response is, In the eyes of God, everybody
is equal I dont make any claims my child is superior to anybody elses child. But Im the president of the United States, and nation states

the president said. If we had no system of enforcing our


borders and our laws, I promise you, everybody would try to come
here. Mr. Obama added that it would be fundamentally unfair to
erase the nations southern border. Sometimes its just an accident that one person lives in a country
have borders,

that has a border with the U.S. and another person in Somalia, its a lot harder to get here, he said.

Obama will fight the plan Currently increasing funding


for border surveillance
Knauth 14 (Dietrich Knauth, Obama Seeks $39M In Drone Funding For

Border Surveillance, Law360, 7/9/2014,


http://www.law360.com/articles/555799/obama-seeks-39m-in-drone-fundingfor-border-surveillance, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Law360, New York (July 9, 2014, 5:08 PM ET) -- The Obama administration on Tuesday
requested $39 million for aerial surveillance, including unmanned
aircraft operations, as part of an effort to stop an influx of refugee
children from crossing the U.S.'s southern border.
The administration has called on Congress to provide $3.7 billion in
emergency funding, spread out among the U.S. Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Health and Human
Services and State, to combat what it called a humanitarian crisis.

children, both accompanied and on their own, are fleeing Central


America in alarming numbers and that as a result, it needs more
border surveillance and security, as well as a surge in enforcement
personnel, from immigration judges to asylum officers.
The White House said that

The DHS would get a significant portion of the president's request, with $1.1 billion going to Immigration and Customs
Enforcement and $433 million going to Customs and Border Protection. The CBP's share includes $39.4 million to increase
air surveillance capabilities that would support 16,526 additional flight hours for border surveillance and 16 additional
crews for unmanned aerial systems to improve detection and interdiction of illegal activity, according to a White House
fact sheet.

Schumer supports systematic border surveillance and


militarization
On The Issues 14 (On The Issues, "Charles Schumer on Immigration",
www.ontheissues.org/International/Charles_Schumer_Immigration.htm,
12/14/2014, sr)

I support further
securing our borders; prohibiting hiring of undocumented
immigrants by requiring job applicants to present a secure Social
Security card; creating jobs by attracting the world's best and
brightest to America, and keeping them here; requiring
undocumented immigrants to register with the government, pay
taxes, and earn legal [status or face deportation.] Establishes specified
What changes to our current immigration policy do you support? A:

benchmarks which must be met before the guest worker and legalization programs may be initiated:

operational control of the border with Mexico; Border Patrol


increases; border barriers, including vehicle barriers, fencing, radar,
and aerial vehicles; detention capacity for illegal aliens apprehended
crossing the US-Mexico border; workplace enforcement, including an
electronic employment verification system; and Z-visa alien
processing. Within 18 months, achieves operational control over U.S. land and maritime borders,
including: systematic border surveillance through more effective use of
personnel and technology; and physical infrastructure
enhancements to prevent unlawful border entry Defines
"operational control" as the prevention of all unlawful U.S. entries,
including entries by terrorists, other unlawful aliens, narcotics, and
other contraband.

Terror DA

1NC UQ + Link
Border Patrol is stretched thin now it must be expanded,
not curtailed, in order to prevent the threat of Islamic
terrorism and specifically ISIS poses a threat to the US
through Mexico
Chiaramonte 14 (Perry Chiaramonte is a reporter for FoxNews.com,
Border crisis could provide cover to ISIS operatives, say experts Fox News,
July 7th, 2014, http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/07/07/isis-could-takeadvantage-weakened-us-border-for-terrorist-attack/) //RL
The border crisis could be the perfect opportunity for Islamic
terrorists looking to sneak sleeper cells into the U.S., say experts.

Patrols on the Mexican border have been stretched to the breaking


point in recent weeks by a tidal wave of immigrants from Central America.
Among the estimated 60,000 people who have streamed across is a
small percentage of what agents term "Special Interest Aliens," or
SIAs. Terrorism experts say airport security is effective at keeping
dangerous jihadists out, but the border breakdown could be
America's Achilles heel - providing an entry point for groups like
ISIS. It's impossible to say that ISIS will soon be active on our
border, but some groups will be, said retired Army Lt. Col. Ralph
Peters, a security and defense analyst and Fox News contributor.
The one thing that all of the squabbling jihadi groups in the Middle
East and North Africa have in common is that they want to strike the
U.S., both for what they view as vengeance and because, in terrorist
circles, striking the U.S. is how you confirm that you're a major
player. If you pay the cartels enough, they will sneak you across or
assist in getting anything you want across the border." - Shawn
Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border Patrol Council Its
long been known that a percentage, albeit small, of illegals caught
sneaking across from Mexico hail from terror-sponsoring states. And
some of the Islamic terror groups have ties to Latin American drug
cartels and gangs, including MS-13. The combination of terrorists'
desire to infiltrate the border and gangs' know-how could prove
dangerous to American security, say experts. Its obviously a
concern, Shawn Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border
Patrol Council, told FoxNews.com. If you pay the cartels enough, they will
sneak you across or assist in getting anything you want across the border.
Its definitely a nightmare scenario if they use the borders, north
or south, to cross and conduct a terrorist attack, Moran added. Texas
Gov. Rick Perry said the record wave of illegal immigrants includes record
numbers of SIAs. We have record high numbers of other than Mexicans
being apprehended at the border, Perry told Fox News. These are people
that are coming from states like Syria that have substantial
connections back to terrorist regimes and terrorist operations. So

we're seeing record, historic high numbers of these individuals being


apprehended.

2NC UQ
ISIS plans a nuclear strike on the US through Mexico in
the next 10 months - and specifically such a WMD terrorist
attack would have drastic effects on the US economy
Slavo 5/26 (Marc, journalist, http://www.infowars.com/report-terroristnuke-attack-may-be-carried-out-inside-the-united-states-in-next-12months/) //RL
With nuclear material having been stolen on multiple occasions in
Mexico, and close terrorist ties to intelligence organizations in the
middle east, it appears that if an organization was committed to
acquiring nuclear material they could do so . Finding the scientists
to build such a weapon, whether dirty or actual, wouldnt be all that
difficult. Moreover, smuggling such a device into the U.S. is possible,
as evidenced by a 2011 report which confirms that at least one
nuclear weapon of mass destruction was seized as it entered the
United States. According to a report from Zero Hedge, such a plan may
be in the works over the next twelve months, as the Islamic State
claims it may be actively pursuing a nuclear weapon intended for
detonation on American soil. Three weeks after the first supposed
attack by Islamic State supporters in the US, in which two ISIS
soldiers wounded a security guard before they were killed in
Garland, Texas, the time has come to raise the fear stakes. In an
article posted in the terrorist groups English-language online magazine Dabiq
(which as can be see below seems to have gotten its design cues straight
from Madison Avenue and is just missing glossy pages filled with scratch and
sniff perfume ads ) ISIS claimed that it has enoughmoney to buy a
nuclear weapon from Pakistan and carry out an attack inside the
United States next year. In the article, the ISIS columnist said the
weapon could be smuggled into the United States via its southern
border with Mexico. Curiously, the author of the piece is John Cantlie, a
British photojournalist who was abducted by ISIS in 2012 and has been held
hostage by the organization ever since; he has appeared in several videos
since his kidnapping and criticized Western powers. As the Telegraph notes,
Mr Cantlie, whose fellow journalist hostages have all either been released or
beheaded, has appeared in the groups propaganda videos and written
previous pieces. In his latest work, presumed to be written under pressure but
in his hall-mark style combining hyperbole, metaphor and sarcasm, he says
that President Obamas policies for containing Isil have demonstrably failed
and increased the risk to America. Cantlie describes the following
hypothetical scenario in Dabiq : Let me throw a hypothetical operation
onto the table. The Islamic State has billions of dollars in the bank,
so they call on their wilayah in Pakistan to purchase a nuclear device
through weapons dealers with links to corrupt officials in the region.
The weapon is then transported overland until it makes it to Libya,

where the muj?hid?n move it south to Nigeria. Drug shipments from


Columbia bound for Europe pass through West Africa, so moving
other types of contraband from East to West is just as possible. The
nuke and accompanying mujahadin arrive on the shorelines of South
America and are transported through the porous borders of Central
America before arriving in Mexico and up to the border with the
United States. From there its just a quick hop through a smuggling
tunnel and hey presto, theyre mingling with another 12 million
illegal aliens in America with a nuclear bomb in the trunk of their
car. Cantlie continues: Perhaps such a scenario is far-fetched but its
the sum of all fears for Western intelligence agencies and its
infinitely more possible today than it was just one year ago. And if
not a nuke, what about a few thousand tons of ammonium nitrate
explosive? Thats easy enough to make. The Islamic State make no
secret of the fact they have every intention of attacking America on
its home soil and theyre not going to mince about with two muj?
hid?n taking down a dozen casualties if it originates from the
Caliphate. Theyll be looking to do something big, something that would
make any past operation look like a squirrel shoot, and the more groups that
pledge allegiance the more possible it becomes to pull off something truly
epic. Remember, all of this has happened in less than a year. How
more dangerous will be the lines of communication and supply a
year on from today? If the West completely failed to spot the
emergence of the Islamic State and then the allies who so quickly
pledged allegiance to it from around the world, what else of massive
significance are they going to miss next? One can, of course, debate
just how much the West failed to spot the emergence of ISIS considering it
was not only the CIA which initially trainedthe terrorist organization in Jordan
in 2012, but according to recently declassified Pentagon documents, the US
was well aware the outcome its attempt to overthrow Syrias Assad would
have on the region, in the process creating ISIS, aka al Qaeda 2.0. In other
words, even the hypothetical operation involving a nuclear attack
on US soil would implicitly have the blessing of the US government.
Which, considering the way the stock market surges every time the
US economy deteriorates further on its way towards recession,
probably means that a mushroom cloud appearing in some major US
metropolitan area is just what the E-mini algos would need to send
the S&P500 limit up . Source: Zero Hedge We have definitive confirmation
via declassified documents that the Islamic State is a creation of the U.S.
Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency, and their influence
across the middle east was predicted well in advance of anyone ever having
heard the name ISIS or ISIL. We also know that false flag operations, such as
the German Reichstag fire of 1933, are often used by governments (or rogue
elements within a government) to implement changes to existing political
and social paradigms. It could be that this nuclear threat is a psychological

operation designed to elicit fear in the populace so that they go along


willingly with legislative actions like the Patriot Act which further erode
individual rights in the name of protecting us from terrorism, or to justify
large scale military operations on U.S. soil, including but not limited to this
summers Jade Helm exercises. Or, certainly within the realm of
possibility, is the notion that at some point a rogue terror element,
the origination and loyalty of which makes absolutely no difference
in the end, is planning on detonating a nuclear device on U.S. soil.
Perhaps this is one reason for why the elite are rapidly investing in secret
hideaways. Perhaps they know its time to start exiting large metropolitan
areas ahead of whatever is coming. Perhaps it all starts with a bang and a
mushroom cloud, soon followed by panic, riots, looting, and of course, the
unprecedented domestic military response that would be necessitated by a
widespread breakdown of civil order. We can only speculate, but the fact is
that another large-scale attack on U.S. soil would usher in a new era in the
Land of the Free. Admittedly, we have delved deep into the rabbit hole of
conspiracy theory, but we leave the reader the following quote to consider
within the context of this current threat: The process of transformation,
even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one,
absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event like a new Pearl
Harbor. Project for a New American Century, 2000 (PDF Link) Signed by Jeb
Bush, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, et. al. At the very least the American
people are being psychologically conditioned to accept their own
enslavement. At worst, an event such as this would be used to
plunge the world into the next great war.

2NC Link
Terrorists use lax border security to get to the US from
Mexico ISIS is just 8 miles from the border
Chasmar 4/14 (Jessica, continuous news writer for The Washington Times,
covering topics on culture and politics, Islamic State operating in Mexico just
8 miles from U.S. border: report, The Washington Times, April 14 th, 2015,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/apr/14/islamic-state-operatingin-mexico-just-8-miles-fro/) //RL
The Islamic State terror group is operating a camp in the northern
Mexican state of Chihuahua, just eight miles from the U.S. border,
Judicial Watch reported Tuesday. Citing sources that include a
Mexican Army field grade officer and a Mexican Federal Police
Inspector, the conservative watchdog group reported that the
Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, is organizing only a few
miles from El Paso, Texas, in the Anapra neighborhood of Jurez and
in Puerto Palomas. Judicial Watch sources said that coyotes working
for the notorious Juarez Cartel are smuggling Islamic State terrorists
across the U.S. border between the New Mexico cities of Santa
Teresa and Sunland Park, as well as through the porous border
between Acala and Fort Hancock, Texas. These specific areas
were targeted for exploitation by ISIS because of their understaffed
municipal and county police forces, and the relative safe-havens the
areas provide for the unchecked large-scale drug smuggling that
was already ongoing, Judicial Watch reported. Mexican intelligence
sources say the Islamic State intends to exploit the railways and
airport facilities in the vicinity of Santa Teresa, New Mexico. The
sources also say that ISIS has spotters located in the East Potrillo
Mountains of New Mexico (largely managed by the Bureau of Land
Management) to assist with terrorist border crossing operations,
Judicial Watch reported. ISIS is conducting reconnaissance of
regional universities; the White Sands Missile Range; government
facilities in Alamogordo, NM; Ft. Bliss; and the electrical power
facilities near Anapra and Chaparral, NM.

OFFCASE BORDERS (MM


POLICY)

T - Surveillance

Interpretation surveillance must be covert


Baker 5 MA, CPP, CPO
(Brian, Surveillance: Concepts and Practices for Fraud, Security and Crime Investigation,
http://www.ifpo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/surveillance.pdf)
Surveillance is defined as covert observations of places and persons for the purpose of obtaining
information (Dempsey, 2003). The term covert infers that the operative conducting the surveillance is
discreet and secretive . Surveillance that maintains a concealed, hidden, undetected nature clearly has
the greatest chance of success because the subject of the surveillance will act or perform naturally.
Remaining undetected during covert surveillance work often involves physical fatigue, mental stress, and
very challenging situations. Physical discomfort is an unfortunate reality for investigators, which varies from
stinging perspiration in summer to hard shivers during the winter.

Violation- the CBP does a lot more than surveillance


US CBP
US Customs and Border Patrol, Along US Borders,
http://www.cbp.gov/border-security/along-us-borders//SRawal
One of the most important activities of a Border Patrol agent is line
watch. This involves the detection, prevention and apprehension of
terrorists, undocumented aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land
border by maintaining surveillance from a covert position, following up
leads, responding to electronic sensor television systems, aircraft sightings,
and interpreting and following tracks, marks and other physical
evidence. Some of the major activities are traffic check, traffic
observation, city patrol, transportation check, administrative,
intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities.

Reasons to prefer
a) Limitsallowing the ending of public surveillance
explodes the limits of the topic by allowing
affirmatives that deal with programs that known
surveillance like detention facilities
b) Groundkey to neg ground like terrorism and politics
disads
T is a voterLimits- They justify doing many things outside of
surveillance which expands the research too much. This
kills clash and productive debate because the negative
cant effectively prepare for those many affirmatives.

Relations Adv CP

Note: They decrease surveillance because they have a card that says that
federal money is used to surveillance rather than ports of entry and sufficient
infrastructure to have good trading. The CP basically goes around their
internal link (stopping all border surveillance) and solves the advantage w/o
linking to ptx.

Text: The United States federal government should


substantially increase its transportation infrastructure
investment at United States ports-of-entry along the
official US-Mexico border.
Cross apply their Crawford 13 evidence from the 1NC
Surveillance infrastructure is the only thing stopping
effective border infrastructure in the status-quo, the CP
diverts funds directly to border transportation
infrastructure
Their trade cards are wrong its only a question of
border infrastructure
PEA NIETO 2015 /ENRIQUE, The President of Mexico, January 06 2015,
Why the U.S.-Mexico Relationship Matters,
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/01/us-mexico-relationshipenrique-pea-nieto-113980.html#.Va-yhni4lao/ Franzy
To ensure the prosperity of our border we have worked together to

improve security and facilitate trade. Every minute, nearly a million


dollars worth of products cross our land border. Additionally, our
countries have begun several infrastructure projects to make the
border region a catalyst for growth and innovation. These projects
include the San Diego-Tijuana airport pedestrian bridge, the railway
crossing at Matamoros-Brownsville, and six new inspection booths at
the Nogales port of entry. We have also reduced average waiting
times at the San Ysidro-Chaparral crossing on the California-Baja
California border from 3.5 hours to half-an-hour.
Our commitment to education has allowed us to take advantage of the
synergies built through FOBESII and between our initiatives Proyecta
100,000 and 100,000 Strong in the Americas. Last year, we launched the
webpage Mobilitas, a platform to help students find educational opportunities
in both countries. Furthermore, 23 cooperation agreements have been signed
between Mexican and American states and universities. Altogether, we were
able to reach our 2014 goal: 27,000 Mexican students are attending almost
200 universities across the U.S.
The United States and Mexico have recognized that the challenges
and opportunities we face on immigration should be addressed from
a broad regional perspective and based upon the principle of shared
responsibility. Consequently, we are committed to working with our

neighbors in Central America to foster development and prosperity in that


region.
Over 34 million people of Mexican origin live in the U.S., 22.9 million of whom
were born here. Mexican-Americans are socially and economically active
members of their communities, and they maintain a strong binational
identity. These communities are pillars of the relationship between our
countries and will help us build a more prosperous shared future.
My government applauds President Obamas recently announced
Immigration Accountability Executive Action, which acknowledges
the positive economic and social impact of Mexican immigrants to
their communities in the U.S. Furthermore, these measures will
allow immigrants to increase their contributions to American society
and live without fear of being separated from their families. My
administration will continue to work with the U.S. government by
providing services and consular assistance in order to improve the
well-being of the Mexican community in this country. In order to
raise living standards in Mexicowhich will discourage
undocumented immigrationmy government has embarked upon a
transformational path. We have sought to enhance my countrys
competitiveness, strengthen the rights of the Mexican people and
consolidate our democracy.

More solvency evidence


Lee & Wilson 12 /Erik Lee serves as Associate Director at the North

American Center for Transborder Studies (NACTS) at Arizona State University,


Christopher Wilson is Deputy Director of the Mexico Institute at the Woodrow
Wilson International Center for Scholars, where he leads the Institutes
research and programming on regional economic integration and U.S.-Mexico
border affairs., June 2012, The State of Trade, Competitiveness and Economic
Well-being in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region/
A key component of how the U.S.-Mexico border functions to
facilitate trade has to do with transportation planning because in its
absence infrastructure investments on one side of the border or in
one region can simply feed traffic into a bottleneck in another area.
This process is largely managed by the Joint Working Committee, a binational
entity comprised of representatives from the two countries transportation
agencies, the State Department, Mexicos Foreign Ministry, other federal
agencies and state departments of transportation, but as border communities
felt themselves increasingly affected by decisions made in Washington and
Mexico City, their insistence in being included in these discussions led to the
regional border master plan process, in which state DOTs lead stakeholder
discussions on border infrastructure priorities. While this process makes
sense from a U.S. perspective (in the absence of a national transportation
plan, state DOTs essentially manage and spend federal transportation
dollars), this process is somewhat of a mismatch for Mexicos more
centralized political system. The system seems to work better in certain
cross-border communities, as is seen with California and Baja Californias
award-winning master plan.

There is no simple answer to the complex challenge of coordinating border


planning and management, but a few key ingredients for success can be
identified. First, border stakeholders need to be at the tableborder experts
in Washington and Mexico City are no substitute for those living the
implications of policy on a daily basis. Nonetheless, a strong federal role
is important. Border communities often work together, but they also
compete to attract federal resources and trade flows. The federal
agencies are well placed to analyze and balance competing needs,
especially in dialogue with border communities. Finally, and
hopefully obviously, cross-border collaboration is vital. To
strengthen regional competitiveness and security, we need regional
coordination.

Cartels Adv CP

1NC
Text: The United States Federal Government should
legalize marijuana in the United States.
Marijuana prohibition drives cartel violence Legalization
is key
Armentano 9 /Paul, Deputy Director of the National Organization for the

Reform of Marijuana Laws, an expert in the field of marijuana policy, health,


and pharmacology, has served as a consultant for Health Canada and the
Canadian Public Health Association, "How to End Mexico's Deadly Drug War",
1/18/09, The Foundation for Economic Education,
http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/how-to-end-mexicos-deadly-drug-war/
Franzy
The U.S. Office of Drug Control Policy (more commonly known as the
drug czars office) says more than 60 percent of the profits reaped by
Mexican drug lords are derived from the exportation and sale of
cannabis to the American market. To anyone who has studied the
marijuana issue, this figure should come as no surprise. An estimated 100
million Americans age 12 or olderor about 43 percent of the
countryadmit to having tried pot, a higher percentage, according
to the World Health Organization, than any other country on the
planet. Twenty-five million Americans admit (on government surveys,
no less) to smoking marijuana during the past year, and 15 million say
that they indulge regularly. This high demand, combined with the
drugs artificially inflated black-market value (pot possession has been
illegal under federal law since 1937), now makes cannabis Americas top
cash crop.
In fact, according to a 2007 analysis by George Mason University professor
Jon Gettman, the annual retail value of the U.S. marijuana market is some
$113 billion.
How much of this goes directly to Mexican cartels is difficult to quantify, but
no doubt the percentage is significant. Government officials estimate
that approximately half the marijuana consumed in the United
States originates from outside its borders, and they have identified
Mexico as far and away Americas largest pot provider. Because
Mexican-grown marijuana tends to fetch lower prices on the black market
than domestically grown weed (a result attributed largely to lower production
coststhe Mexican variety tends to be grown outdoors, while an increasing
percentage of American-grown pot is produced hydroponically indoors), it
remains consistently popular among U.S. consumers, particularly in
a down economy. As a result, U.S. law officials now report that some
Mexican cartels are moving to the United States to set up shop permanently.
A Congressional Research Service report says low-level cartel
members are now establishing clandestine growing operations
inside the United States (thus eliminating the need to cross the border), as
well as partnering with domestic gangs and other criminal enterprises. A

March 23 New York Times story speculated that Mexican drug gangs
or their affiliates are now active in some 230 U.S. cities, extending
from Tucson, Arizona, to Anchorage, Alaska.
In short, Americas multibillion-dollar demand for pot is fueling the Mexican
drug trade and much of the turf battles and carnage associated with it.
Same Old Solutions
So what are the administrations plans to quell the cartels growing influence
and surging violence? Troublingly, the White House appears intent on
recycling the very strategies that gave rise to Mexicos infamous drug lords in
the first place.
In March the administration requested $700 million from Congress to bolster
existing efforts by Washington and Mexican President Felipe Calderns
administration to fight violent trafficking in drugs . . . into the United States.
These efforts, as described by the Los Angeles Times, include: vowing to
send U.S. money, manpower, and technology to the southwestern border
and reducing illegal flows (of drugs) in both directions across the border.
The administration also announced that it intends to clamp down on the U.S.
demand for illicit drugs by increasing funding for drug treatment and drug
courts.
There are three primary problems with this strategy.
First, marijuana production is a lucrative business that attracts criminal
entrepreneurs precisely because it is a black-market (and highly sought after)
commodity. As long as pot remains federally prohibited its retail price to the
consumer will remain artificially high, and its production and distribution will
attract criminal enterprises willing to turn to violence (rather than the judicial
system) to maintain their slice of the multi-billion-dollar pie.
Second, the United States is already spending more money on illicit-drug law
enforcement, drug treatment, and drug courts than at any time in our history.
FBI data show that domestic marijuana arrests have increased from under
300,000 annually in 1991 to over 800,000 today. Police seizures of marijuana
have also risen dramatically in recent years, as has the amount of taxpayer
dollars federal officials have spent on so-called educational efforts to
discourage the drugs use. (For example, since the late 1990s Congress has
appropriated well over a billion dollars in anti-pot public service
announcements alone.) Yet despite these combined efforts to discourage
demand, Americans use more pot than anyone else in the world.
Third, law enforcements recent attempts to crack down on the cartels
marijuana distribution rings, particularly new efforts launched by the
Caldern administration in Mexico, are driving the unprecedented wave in
Mexican violencenot abating it. The New York Times states: A crackdown
begun more than two years ago by President Felipe Caldern, coupled with
feuds over turf and control of the organizations, has set off an unprecedented
wave of killings in Mexico. . . . Many of the victims were tortured. Beheadings
have become common. Because of this escalating violence, Mexico now
ranks behind only Pakistan and Iran as the administrations top international
security concern.
Despite the rising death toll, drug war hawks at the U.S. Drug Enforcement
Administration (DEA) remain adamant that the United States and Mexicos
supply side strategies are in fact successful. Our view is that the violence
we have been seeing is a signpost of the success our very courageous

Mexican counterparts are having, acting DEA administrator Michele Lionhart


said recently. The cartels are acting out like caged animals, because they are
caged animals. President Obama also appears to share this view. After
visiting with the Caldern government in April, he told CNN he intended to
beef up security on the border. When asked whether the administration
would consider alternative strategies, such as potentially liberalizing pots
criminal classification, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano replied
that such an option is not on the table.
A New Remedy
By contrast the Caldern administration appears open to the idea of
legalizing marijuanaor at least reducing criminal sanctions on the
possession of small quantities of drugsas a way to stem the tide of
violence. Last spring Mexican lawmakers made the possession of personaluse quantities of cannabis and other illicit substances a noncriminal offense.
And in April Mexicos ambassador to the United States, Arturo
Sarukhan, told CBSs Face the Nation that legalizing the marijuana
trade was a legitimate option for both the Mexican and U.S.
governments. [T]hose who would suggest that some of these
measures [legalization] be looked at understand the dynamics of the
drug trade, Sarukhan said.
Former Mexican President Vicente Fox recently echoed Sarukhans remarks,
as did a commission of former Latin American presidents. I believe its time
to open the debate over legalizing drugs, Fox told CNN in May. It cant be
that the only way [to try to control illicit drug use] is for the state to use
force.
Writing recently on CNN.com, Harvard economist and Freeman
contributor Jeffrey Miron said that ending drug prohibitionon both
sides of the borderis the only realistic and viable way to put a
permanent stop to the rising power and violence associated with
Mexicos drug traffickers. Prohibition creates violence because it
drives the drug market underground, he wrote. This means
buyers and sellers cannot resolve their disputes with lawsuits,
arbitration or advertising, so they resort to violence instead. . . .
The only way to reduce violence, therefore, is to legalize drugs.

Allows US to take down Cartels


legalization weakens the cartels sufficiently to allow
current operations to succeed
Grillo 12 /Ioan, author, journalist, writer and TV producer based in Mexico

City, has reported on Mexico and Latin American since 2001, "Hit Mexico's
Cartels With Legalization", 11/1/12, NYT,
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/02/opinion/hit-mexicos-cartels-withlegalization.html/ Franzy
Marijuana is just one of the drugs that the cartels traffic. Chemicals such as
crystal meth may be too venomous to ever be legalized. But cannabis is a
cash crop that provides huge profits to criminal armies, paying for
assassins and guns south of the Rio Grande. The scale of the
Mexican marijuana business was illustrated by a mammoth 120hectare plantation busted last year in Baja California. It had a
sophisticated irrigation system, sleeping quarters for 60 workers
and could produce 120 metric tons of cannabis per harvest.
Again, nobody knows exactly how much the whole Mexico-U.S.
marijuana trade is worth, with estimates ranging from $2 billion to
$20 billion annually. But even if you believe the lowest numbers,
legal marijuana would take billions of dollars a year away from
organized crime. This would inflict more financial damage than
soldiers or drug agents have managed in years and substantially
weaken cartels.
It is also argued that Mexican gangsters have expanded to a portfolio of
crimes that includes kidnapping, extortion, human smuggling and theft from
oil pipelines. This is a terrifying truth. But this does not take away from the
fact that the marijuana trade provides the crime groups with major resources.
That they are committing crimes such as kidnapping, which have a horrific
effect on innocent people, makes cutting off their financing all the more
urgent.
The cartels will not disappear overnight. U.S. agents and the
Mexican police need to continue battling hit squads that wield
rocket-propelled grenades and belt-driven machine guns. Killers who
hack off heads still have to be locked away. Mexico needs to clean up
corruption among the police and build a valid justice system. And
young men in the barrios have to be given a better option than
signing up as killers. All these tasks will be easier if the flow of
money to the cartels is dramatically slowed down. Do we really want
to hand them another trillion dollars over the next three decades?

Takes away Cartel revenue stream


Legalization solves cartel violence and strength
Reisenwitz 2014 /Cathy, Aug 11th, Cathy Reisenwitz is a Young Voices
Associate and a D.C.-based writer and political commentator. She is Editor-inChief of a news and politics blog and her writing has appeared in Forbes, the
Chicago Tribune, Reason magazine, Talking Points Memo, the Washington
Examiner and the Daily Caller, US Marijuana Legalization Already Weakening
Mexican Cartels, Violence Expected to Decline,
http://townhall.com/columnists/cathyreisenwitz/2014/08/11/us-marijuanalegalization-already-weakening-mexican-cartels-violence-expected-to-declinen1876088/page/full/ Franzy
Americas first foray into rolling back prohibition 2.0 is barely
underway, and already marijuana prices have dropped low enough
to convince some cartel farmers in Mexico to abandon the crop .
Mere months after two US states legalized marijuana sales, five
Nobel Prize-winning economists released a UN report
recommending that countries end their war on drugs . It would seem
they were onto something. But in order to further decrease drug-trade
violence in so-called producer states, the US first needs to legalize
marijuana, but then also the US must stop using the UN to pressure
producer countries into supply-based drug prohibition.
Latin America is the largest global exporter of cannabis and cocaine. In 2011
the DOJs now-shuttered National Drug Intelligence Center found that the top
cartels controlled the majority of drug trade in marijuana, heroin, and
methamphetamine in over 1,000 US cities.
Research into black markets shows that producer countries experience more
violence than consumer countries. In essence, the global war on drugs is a
UN scheme to shrug drug war costs off rich countries shoulders and onto
poor Latin American countries, with horrifyingly violent results. Much of the
recent child migrant crisis is a direct result of children fleeing cartel
violence and conscription into criminal gangs.
When drug prices are high, cartels will step up and produce. By
keeping demand for cannabis and cocaine high, but supply low, the
US in essence forced the Latin America economy to revolve around
drugs. Under prohibition, there is no more profitable export. And of course
violence proliferates in illegal industries. So in countries where the dominant
export is illegal, violence will be endemic.
Thats exactly what the five economists found.
Every single one of the 20 cities with the highest murder rates in the world
are in Latin America. Half of the top 10 global kidnapping hotspots are Latin
American countries. Time magazine reports that the violence in the murder
capital of the world, San Pedro Sula, Honduras, is due to the influx of Mexican
drug cartels that funnel U.S.-bound drugs through the country. The cartels

are also responsible for an increase in atrocious crimes like


decapitation, usually used against rival gangs.
Ending the Drug Wars describes drug prohibition as a transfer of the costs of
the drug problem from consumer to producer and transit countries. It
references a report called Drugs and Democracy: Toward a Paradigm Shift by
the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy, headed by former
Latin American presidents Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Cesar Gaviria and
Ernesto Zedillo found that Latin Americas willingness to cave to first-world
pressure has had horrific results, including:
A rise in organized crime caused both by the international narcotics trade and
by the growing control exercised by criminal groups over domestic markets
and territories
A growth in unacceptable levels of drug-related violence affecting the whole
of society and, in particular, the poor and the young
The criminalization of politics and the politicization of crime, as well as the
proliferation of the linkages between them, as reflected in the infiltration of
democratic institutions by organized crime
The corruption of public servants, the judicial system, governments, the
political system and, especially the police forces in charge of enforcing law
and orders
The 200-percent growth rate of the illegal drug market between
1994 and 2008 explains roughly 25 percent of the current homicide
rate in Colombia, according to recent research. That means Colombia
sees about 3,800 more homicides per year on average associated
with the war on drugs.
But when drug prices drop, the cartels will move onto other
schemes. VICE News asked retired federal agent Terry Nelson
whether legalization was hurting the cartels. The cartels are
criminal organizations that were making as much as 35-40 percent of
their income from marijuana, Nelson said, They arent able to
move as much cannabis inside the US now.
America, the United Kingdom and other wealthy states are epicenters of
demand. Not only do demand states prohibit drug production and sales within
their borders, but have traditionally used the UN to bully producer countries
to do the same through moves such as the United Nations Convention
Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 or
the US annual certification process.
And for what? The report points out that worldwide drug prohibition
has succeeded in raising prices on illicit drugs. This may have
impacted rates of use in consumer nations. Even if higher prices
suppress demand, for which theres little evidence, there is simply
no way to look at the worldwide cost of prohibition as being worth
that possible outcome.
There is now a new willingness among certain states, particularly in Latin
America, to be vocal about the inherent problems within the system and to
try to extricate themselves from the global drug war quagmires, according
to Ending the Drug Wars.
Ending the Drug Wars acknowledges the microeconomic contradictions
inherent in the supply-centric model of control. It calls out the UN for trying

to enforce a uniform set of prohibitionist oriented policies often at the


expense of other, arguably more effective policies that incorporate broad
frameworks of public health and illicit market management.
However, the ultimately unresolvable problem with prohibition is that:
In a world where demand remains relatively constant, suppressing
supply can have short-run price effects. However, in a footloose industry
like illicit drugs, these price increases incentivise a new rise in supply, via
shifting commodity supply chains. This then feeds back into lower prices
and an eventual return to a market equilibrium similar to that which
existed prior to the supply-reduction intervention.
Fixing this problem might be the most exciting part about ending
Americas war on cannabis. Prices will continue to drop as American
growth flourishes. Get ready for cheap, high-quality weed. And as
prices drop and the supply side moves into the white market,cartels
will get out of the game. And just as ending alcohol prohibition
greatly diminished the size, influence, and brutality of organized
crime, so will legalizing weed diminish the size, influence, and
brutality of Mexican cartels.

Politics Links

Obama will fight for border control- Recent meeting


proves
Wolfgang 14 (Ben Wolfgang: Covers the White House for The Washington
Times, Obama: Ive fought against activists who believe there should be
open borders, The Washington Times, 12/9/2014,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/9/obama-ive-foughtagainst-activists-open-borders/, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Critics say President Obama went too far with his executive action granting amnesty to more than 4 million illegal immigrants but behind
the scenes,

the president

said hes

pushed back against those who believe the

U.S. should have an open border with Mexico . At a town-hall meeting in Nashville on
. Obama defended the idea of a strong U.S-Mexico border and
said hes had heated debates with activists who want that border to
disappear. There have been times, honestly, Ive had arguments with immigration rights activists who say, effectively, There
Tuesday, Mr

shouldnt be any rules. These are good people. Why should we have any enforcement like this? My response is, In the eyes of God, everybody
is equal I dont make any claims my child is superior to anybody elses child. But Im the president of the United States, and nation states

the president said. If we had no system of enforcing our


borders and our laws, I promise you, everybody would try to come
here. Mr. Obama added that it would be fundamentally unfair to
erase the nations southern border. Sometimes its just an accident that one person lives in a country
have borders,

that has a border with the U.S. and another person in Somalia, its a lot harder to get here, he said.

Obama will fight the plan Currently increasing funding


for border surveillance
Knauth 14 (Dietrich Knauth, Obama Seeks $39M In Drone Funding For

Border Surveillance, Law360, 7/9/2014,


http://www.law360.com/articles/555799/obama-seeks-39m-in-drone-fundingfor-border-surveillance, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Law360, New York (July 9, 2014, 5:08 PM ET) -- The Obama administration on Tuesday
requested $39 million for aerial surveillance, including unmanned
aircraft operations, as part of an effort to stop an influx of refugee
children from crossing the U.S.'s southern border.
The administration has called on Congress to provide $3.7 billion in
emergency funding, spread out among the U.S. Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Health and Human
Services and State, to combat what it called a humanitarian crisis.

children, both accompanied and on their own, are fleeing Central


America in alarming numbers and that as a result, it needs more
border surveillance and security, as well as a surge in enforcement
personnel, from immigration judges to asylum officers.
The White House said that

The DHS would get a significant portion of the president's request, with $1.1 billion going to Immigration and Customs
Enforcement and $433 million going to Customs and Border Protection. The CBP's share includes $39.4 million to increase
air surveillance capabilities that would support 16,526 additional flight hours for border surveillance and 16 additional
crews for unmanned aerial systems to improve detection and interdiction of illegal activity, according to a White House
fact sheet.

Schumer supports systematic border surveillance and


militarization
On The Issues 14 (On The Issues, "Charles Schumer on Immigration",
www.ontheissues.org/International/Charles_Schumer_Immigration.htm,
12/14/2014, sr)

I support further
securing our borders; prohibiting hiring of undocumented
immigrants by requiring job applicants to present a secure Social
Security card; creating jobs by attracting the world's best and
brightest to America, and keeping them here; requiring
undocumented immigrants to register with the government, pay
taxes, and earn legal [status or face deportation.] Establishes specified
What changes to our current immigration policy do you support? A:

benchmarks which must be met before the guest worker and legalization programs may be initiated:

operational control of the border with Mexico; Border Patrol


increases; border barriers, including vehicle barriers, fencing, radar,
and aerial vehicles; detention capacity for illegal aliens apprehended
crossing the US-Mexico border; workplace enforcement, including an
electronic employment verification system; and Z-visa alien
processing. Within 18 months, achieves operational control over U.S. land and maritime borders,
including: systematic border surveillance through more effective use of
personnel and technology; and physical infrastructure
enhancements to prevent unlawful border entry Defines
"operational control" as the prevention of all unlawful U.S. entries,
including entries by terrorists, other unlawful aliens, narcotics, and
other contraband.

Terror DA

1NC UQ + Link
Border Patrol is stretched thin now it must be expanded,
not curtailed, in order to prevent the threat of Islamic
terrorism and specifically ISIS poses a threat to the US
through Mexico
Chiaramonte 14 (Perry Chiaramonte is a reporter for FoxNews.com,
Border crisis could provide cover to ISIS operatives, say experts Fox News,
July 7th, 2014, http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/07/07/isis-could-takeadvantage-weakened-us-border-for-terrorist-attack/) //RL
The border crisis could be the perfect opportunity for Islamic
terrorists looking to sneak sleeper cells into the U.S., say experts.

Patrols on the Mexican border have been stretched to the breaking


point in recent weeks by a tidal wave of immigrants from Central America.
Among the estimated 60,000 people who have streamed across is a
small percentage of what agents term "Special Interest Aliens," or
SIAs. Terrorism experts say airport security is effective at keeping
dangerous jihadists out, but the border breakdown could be
America's Achilles heel - providing an entry point for groups like
ISIS. It's impossible to say that ISIS will soon be active on our
border, but some groups will be, said retired Army Lt. Col. Ralph
Peters, a security and defense analyst and Fox News contributor.
The one thing that all of the squabbling jihadi groups in the Middle
East and North Africa have in common is that they want to strike the
U.S., both for what they view as vengeance and because, in terrorist
circles, striking the U.S. is how you confirm that you're a major
player. If you pay the cartels enough, they will sneak you across or
assist in getting anything you want across the border." - Shawn
Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border Patrol Council Its
long been known that a percentage, albeit small, of illegals caught
sneaking across from Mexico hail from terror-sponsoring states. And
some of the Islamic terror groups have ties to Latin American drug
cartels and gangs, including MS-13. The combination of terrorists'
desire to infiltrate the border and gangs' know-how could prove
dangerous to American security, say experts. Its obviously a
concern, Shawn Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border
Patrol Council, told FoxNews.com. If you pay the cartels enough, they will
sneak you across or assist in getting anything you want across the border.
Its definitely a nightmare scenario if they use the borders, north
or south, to cross and conduct a terrorist attack, Moran added. Texas
Gov. Rick Perry said the record wave of illegal immigrants includes record
numbers of SIAs. We have record high numbers of other than Mexicans
being apprehended at the border, Perry told Fox News. These are people
that are coming from states like Syria that have substantial
connections back to terrorist regimes and terrorist operations. So

we're seeing record, historic high numbers of these individuals being


apprehended.

2NC UQ
ISIS plans a nuclear strike on the US through Mexico in
the next 10 months - and specifically such a WMD terrorist
attack would have drastic effects on the US economy
Slavo 5/26 (Marc, journalist, http://www.infowars.com/report-terroristnuke-attack-may-be-carried-out-inside-the-united-states-in-next-12months/) //RL
With nuclear material having been stolen on multiple occasions in
Mexico, and close terrorist ties to intelligence organizations in the
middle east, it appears that if an organization was committed to
acquiring nuclear material they could do so . Finding the scientists
to build such a weapon, whether dirty or actual, wouldnt be all that
difficult. Moreover, smuggling such a device into the U.S. is possible,
as evidenced by a 2011 report which confirms that at least one
nuclear weapon of mass destruction was seized as it entered the
United States. According to a report from Zero Hedge, such a plan may
be in the works over the next twelve months, as the Islamic State
claims it may be actively pursuing a nuclear weapon intended for
detonation on American soil. Three weeks after the first supposed
attack by Islamic State supporters in the US, in which two ISIS
soldiers wounded a security guard before they were killed in
Garland, Texas, the time has come to raise the fear stakes. In an
article posted in the terrorist groups English-language online magazine Dabiq
(which as can be see below seems to have gotten its design cues straight
from Madison Avenue and is just missing glossy pages filled with scratch and
sniff perfume ads ) ISIS claimed that it has enoughmoney to buy a
nuclear weapon from Pakistan and carry out an attack inside the
United States next year. In the article, the ISIS columnist said the
weapon could be smuggled into the United States via its southern
border with Mexico. Curiously, the author of the piece is John Cantlie, a
British photojournalist who was abducted by ISIS in 2012 and has been held
hostage by the organization ever since; he has appeared in several videos
since his kidnapping and criticized Western powers. As the Telegraph notes,
Mr Cantlie, whose fellow journalist hostages have all either been released or
beheaded, has appeared in the groups propaganda videos and written
previous pieces. In his latest work, presumed to be written under pressure but
in his hall-mark style combining hyperbole, metaphor and sarcasm, he says
that President Obamas policies for containing Isil have demonstrably failed
and increased the risk to America. Cantlie describes the following
hypothetical scenario in Dabiq : Let me throw a hypothetical operation
onto the table. The Islamic State has billions of dollars in the bank,
so they call on their wilayah in Pakistan to purchase a nuclear device
through weapons dealers with links to corrupt officials in the region.
The weapon is then transported overland until it makes it to Libya,

where the muj?hid?n move it south to Nigeria. Drug shipments from


Columbia bound for Europe pass through West Africa, so moving
other types of contraband from East to West is just as possible. The
nuke and accompanying mujahadin arrive on the shorelines of South
America and are transported through the porous borders of Central
America before arriving in Mexico and up to the border with the
United States. From there its just a quick hop through a smuggling
tunnel and hey presto, theyre mingling with another 12 million
illegal aliens in America with a nuclear bomb in the trunk of their
car. Cantlie continues: Perhaps such a scenario is far-fetched but its
the sum of all fears for Western intelligence agencies and its
infinitely more possible today than it was just one year ago. And if
not a nuke, what about a few thousand tons of ammonium nitrate
explosive? Thats easy enough to make. The Islamic State make no
secret of the fact they have every intention of attacking America on
its home soil and theyre not going to mince about with two muj?
hid?n taking down a dozen casualties if it originates from the
Caliphate. Theyll be looking to do something big, something that would
make any past operation look like a squirrel shoot, and the more groups that
pledge allegiance the more possible it becomes to pull off something truly
epic. Remember, all of this has happened in less than a year. How
more dangerous will be the lines of communication and supply a
year on from today? If the West completely failed to spot the
emergence of the Islamic State and then the allies who so quickly
pledged allegiance to it from around the world, what else of massive
significance are they going to miss next? One can, of course, debate
just how much the West failed to spot the emergence of ISIS considering it
was not only the CIA which initially trainedthe terrorist organization in Jordan
in 2012, but according to recently declassified Pentagon documents, the US
was well aware the outcome its attempt to overthrow Syrias Assad would
have on the region, in the process creating ISIS, aka al Qaeda 2.0. In other
words, even the hypothetical operation involving a nuclear attack
on US soil would implicitly have the blessing of the US government.
Which, considering the way the stock market surges every time the
US economy deteriorates further on its way towards recession,
probably means that a mushroom cloud appearing in some major US
metropolitan area is just what the E-mini algos would need to send
the S&P500 limit up . Source: Zero Hedge We have definitive confirmation
via declassified documents that the Islamic State is a creation of the U.S.
Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency, and their influence
across the middle east was predicted well in advance of anyone ever having
heard the name ISIS or ISIL. We also know that false flag operations, such as
the German Reichstag fire of 1933, are often used by governments (or rogue
elements within a government) to implement changes to existing political
and social paradigms. It could be that this nuclear threat is a psychological

operation designed to elicit fear in the populace so that they go along


willingly with legislative actions like the Patriot Act which further erode
individual rights in the name of protecting us from terrorism, or to justify
large scale military operations on U.S. soil, including but not limited to this
summers Jade Helm exercises. Or, certainly within the realm of
possibility, is the notion that at some point a rogue terror element,
the origination and loyalty of which makes absolutely no difference
in the end, is planning on detonating a nuclear device on U.S. soil.
Perhaps this is one reason for why the elite are rapidly investing in secret
hideaways. Perhaps they know its time to start exiting large metropolitan
areas ahead of whatever is coming. Perhaps it all starts with a bang and a
mushroom cloud, soon followed by panic, riots, looting, and of course, the
unprecedented domestic military response that would be necessitated by a
widespread breakdown of civil order. We can only speculate, but the fact is
that another large-scale attack on U.S. soil would usher in a new era in the
Land of the Free. Admittedly, we have delved deep into the rabbit hole of
conspiracy theory, but we leave the reader the following quote to consider
within the context of this current threat: The process of transformation,
even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one,
absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event like a new Pearl
Harbor. Project for a New American Century, 2000 (PDF Link) Signed by Jeb
Bush, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, et. al. At the very least the American
people are being psychologically conditioned to accept their own
enslavement. At worst, an event such as this would be used to
plunge the world into the next great war.

2NC Link
Terrorists use lax border security to get to the US from
Mexico ISIS is just 8 miles from the border
Chasmar 4/14 (Jessica, continuous news writer for The Washington Times,
covering topics on culture and politics, Islamic State operating in Mexico just
8 miles from U.S. border: report, The Washington Times, April 14 th, 2015,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/apr/14/islamic-state-operatingin-mexico-just-8-miles-fro/) //RL
The Islamic State terror group is operating a camp in the northern
Mexican state of Chihuahua, just eight miles from the U.S. border,
Judicial Watch reported Tuesday. Citing sources that include a
Mexican Army field grade officer and a Mexican Federal Police
Inspector, the conservative watchdog group reported that the
Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, is organizing only a few
miles from El Paso, Texas, in the Anapra neighborhood of Jurez and
in Puerto Palomas. Judicial Watch sources said that coyotes working
for the notorious Juarez Cartel are smuggling Islamic State terrorists
across the U.S. border between the New Mexico cities of Santa
Teresa and Sunland Park, as well as through the porous border
between Acala and Fort Hancock, Texas. These specific areas
were targeted for exploitation by ISIS because of their understaffed
municipal and county police forces, and the relative safe-havens the
areas provide for the unchecked large-scale drug smuggling that
was already ongoing, Judicial Watch reported. Mexican intelligence
sources say the Islamic State intends to exploit the railways and
airport facilities in the vicinity of Santa Teresa, New Mexico. The
sources also say that ISIS has spotters located in the East Potrillo
Mountains of New Mexico (largely managed by the Bureau of Land
Management) to assist with terrorist border crossing operations,
Judicial Watch reported. ISIS is conducting reconnaissance of
regional universities; the White Sands Missile Range; government
facilities in Alamogordo, NM; Ft. Bliss; and the electrical power
facilities near Anapra and Chaparral, NM.

T Domestic

1NC
First, Interpretation: Domestic surveillance is surveillance
within national borders
Avilez et al 14 Marie Avilez et al, Carnegie Mellon University December
10, 2014 Ethics, History, and Public Policy Senior Capstone Project
Security and Social Dimensions of City Surveillance Policy
http://www.cmu.edu/hss/ehpp/documents/2014-City-Surveillance-Policy.pdf
Domestic surveillance collection of information about the
activities of private individuals/organizations by a government
entity within national borders; this can be carried out by federal, state and/or local officials

Violation- the border


BHC No Date
United States- Mexico Border Health Commission, a binational health commission in
July 2000 with the signing of an agreement by the Secretary of Health and Human
Services of the United States and the Secretary of Health of Mxico. On December
21, 2004, the Commission was designated as a Public International Organization by
Executive Order of the President, Border Relation,
http://www.borderhealth.org/border_region.php//SRawal

The United States-Mxico border region is defined as the area of


land being 100 kilometers (62.5 miles) north and south of the
international boundary (La Paz Agreement). It stretches approximately 2000 miles from the southern tip
of Texas to California. The population for this expanse of land is estimated to be approximately 12 million inhabitants.
This population is expected to double by the year 2025. The combined population of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and
California is 61,637,146 (2000 Census). The estimated combined population of the six Mexican border states in 1990 was
12,246,991. Two of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States - Laredo and McAllen - are located on
the Texas-Mxico border. Additionally, there are 154 Native American tribes totaling 881,070 Native Americans living in
the 4 U.S. border states. In the actual border region, there are approximately 25 Native American Nations.

Second, Domestic surveillance is surveillance of US


persons
Small 8

MATTHEW L. SMALL. United States Air Force Academy 2008


Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress, Presidential Fellows
Program paper "His Eyes are Watching You: Domestic Surveillance, Civil
Liberties and Executive Power during Times of National Crisis"
http://cspc.nonprofitsoapbox.com/storage/documents/Fellows2008/Small.pdf
Before one can make any sort of assessment of domestic surveillance policies, it is
first necessary to narrow the scope of the term domestic surveillance. Domestic
surveillance is a subset of intelligence gathering. Intelligence, as it is to be
understood in this context, is information that meets the stated or understood
needs of policy makers and has been collected, processed and narrowed to meet
those needs (Lowenthal 2006, 2). In essence, domestic surveillance is a means to
an end; the end being intelligence. The intelligence community best

understands domestic surveillance as the acquisition of nonpublic


information concerning United States persons (Executive Order 12333
(3.4) (i)). With this definition domestic surveillance remains an overly broad
concept. This papers analysis, in terms of President Bushs policies, focuses on
electronic surveillance; specifically, wiretapping phone lines and obtaining caller

information from phone companies. Section f of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 defines
electronic surveillance as:

Violation- Undocumented people are not US persons


Jackson et al 9 Brian A. Jackson, Darcy Noricks, and Benjamin W. Goldsmith,
RAND Corporation

The Challenge of Domestic Intelligence in a Free Society RAND 2009 BRIAN


A. JACKSON, EDITOR
http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG804.
pdf
3 Federal law and executive order define a U.S. person as a
citizen of the United States, an alien lawfully admitted for
permanent residence, an unincorporated association with a
substantial number of members who are citizens of the U.S. or are
aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or a corporation
that is incorporated in the U.S. (NSA, undated). Although this definition
would therefore allow information to be gathered on U.S. persons located abroad,
our objective was to examine the creation of a domestic intelligence organization
that would focus onand whose activities would center aroundindividuals and
organizations located inside the United States . Though such an agency might
receive information about U.S. persons that was collected abroad by other
intelligence agencies, it would not collect that information itself.

T is a voterThey explode limits


First, Allowing the surveillance of non-US persons means
they open the debate to immigration. This is a whole new
literature base which is large enough to be a topic in
itself.
Second, They open the topic outside of our borders which
means they justify any aff which cooperates with other
countries and transnational agreements the decrease
surveillancethis massively expands the topic and makes
for unproductive debate

OFFCASE BORDERS (MM


CRITICAL)

T - Domestic

1NC
1. Domestic is within a country
YourDictionary 15 YourDictionary definition and usage example.
Copyright 2015 by LoveToKnow Corp
http://www.yourdictionary.com/domestic
domestic [d mestik, d-]
adjective

Domestic is defined as something related to the home or family, something


occurring within a country, an animal that has been tamed, or a person who is fond of the
tasks of running a home.
Family relations are an example of domestic relations.

Terrorism that occurs within your own country is referred to as


domestic terrorism.
A dog that is kept as a house pet is an example of a domestic animal.
A woman who likes to cook and clean and bake is an example of someone who is domestic.

2. Violation the border is not domestic


BHC No Date
United States- Mexico Border Health Commission, a binational health commission in
July 2000 with the signing of an agreement by the Secretary of Health and Human
Services of the United States and the Secretary of Health of Mxico. On December
21, 2004, the Commission was designated as a Public International Organization by
Executive Order of the President, Border Relation,
http://www.borderhealth.org/border_region.php//SRawal

The United States-Mxico border region is defined as the area of


land being 100 kilometers (62.5 miles) north and south of the
international boundary (La Paz Agreement). It stretches approximately 2000 miles from the southern tip
of Texas to California. The population for this expanse of land is estimated to be approximately 12 million inhabitants.
This population is expected to double by the year 2025. The combined population of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and
California is 61,637,146 (2000 Census). The estimated combined population of the six Mexican border states in 1990 was
12,246,991. Two of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States - Laredo and McAllen - are located on
the Texas-Mxico border. Additionally, there are 154 Native American tribes totaling 881,070 Native Americans living in
the 4 U.S. border states. In the actual border region, there are approximately 25 Native American Nations.

T is a voterThey explode limits


They open the topic outside of our borders which means
they justify any aff which cooperates with other countries
and transnational agreements the decrease surveillance
this massively expands the topic and makes for
unproductive debate

2NC
Domestic is in a country's territory
American Heritage 14 The American Heritage Roget's Thesaurus.
Copyright 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights
reserved.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/domestic
domestic adjective
1. Of or relating to the family or household:
familial, family, home, homely, household.
2. Trained or bred to live with and be of use to people:
tame.
3. Of, from, or within a country's own territory: home, internal, national, native.

T Surveillance

1NC
Interpretation surveillance must be covert
Baker 5 MA, CPP, CPO
(Brian, Surveillance: Concepts and Practices for Fraud, Security and Crime Investigation,
http://www.ifpo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/surveillance.pdf)
Surveillance is defined as covert observations of places and persons for the purpose of obtaining
information (Dempsey, 2003). The term covert infers that the operative conducting the surveillance is
discreet and secretive . Surveillance that maintains a concealed, hidden, undetected nature clearly has
the greatest chance of success because the subject of the surveillance will act or perform naturally.
Remaining undetected during covert surveillance work often involves physical fatigue, mental stress, and
very challenging situations. Physical discomfort is an unfortunate reality for investigators, which varies from
stinging perspiration in summer to hard shivers during the winter.

Violation- the CBP does a lot more than surveillance


US CBP

US Customs and Border Patrol, Along US Borders,


http://www.cbp.gov/border-security/along-us-borders//SRawal
One of the most important activities of a Border Patrol agent is line
watch. This involves the detection, prevention and apprehension of
terrorists, undocumented aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land
border by maintaining surveillance from a covert position, following up
leads, responding to electronic sensor television systems, aircraft sightings,
and interpreting and following tracks, marks and other physical
evidence. Some of the major activities are traffic check, traffic
observation, city patrol, transportation check, administrative,
intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities.

Reasons to prefer
c) Limitsallowing the ending of public surveillance
explodes the limits of the topic by allowing
affirmatives that deal with programs that known
surveillance like detention facilities
d) Groundkey to neg ground like terrorism and politics
disads
T is a voterLimits- They justify doing many things outside of
surveillance which expands the research too much. This
kills clash and productive debate because the negative
cant effectively prepare for those many affirmatives.

2nc Covert Extensions


Must be covert
IJ 98
(Info Justice, OPERATIONS, SURVEILLANCE AND STAKEOUT PART 1,
http://www.infojustice.com/samples/12%20Operations,%20Surveillance%20And%20Stakeout%20Part
%201.html)
Surveillance is defined as the systematic observation of persons, places, or things to obtain
information. Surveillance is carried out without the knowledge of those under surveillance and is
concerned primarily with people.

Even the broadest definition doesnt include information


provided with consent
Pounder 9 PhD, Director, Amberhawk Training and Amberhawk Associates
(Chris, NINE PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSING WHETHER PRIVACY IS PROTECTED IN A
SURVEILLANCE SOCIETY, Scholar)
This paper uses the term "surveillance" in its widest sense to include data sharing and the revealing
of identity information in the absence of consent of the individual concerned. It argues that the
current debate about the nature of a "surveillance society" needs a new structural framework that allows the
benefits of surveillance and the risks to individual privacy to be properly balanced.

2nc Most Common


Surveillance is most often covert
Glancy 12 Professor of Law, Santa Clara University Law School. B.A. Wellesley College, J.D. Harvard
Law School
Dorothy, SYMPOSIUM ARTICLE: PRIVACY IN AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES, Santa Clara Law Review, 2012,
Lexis
Surveillance is a relatively modern idea. Even the word, "surveillance," is fairly new to the English language.
It was borrowed from the French by the British at the turn of the nineteenth century to refer to looking over
an area, usually from a high place, for strategic information about a battlefield or prospective confrontation.
n92 Early in the twentieth century, surveillance usually suggested use of technology to enhance human
abilities to see over wide distances to collect comprehensive information about an adversary. n93 Since
then, [*1208] the word, "surveillance," has been used in a wide variety of careful-watching contexts
from medical surveillance of diseases and immune responses, to physical stakeouts of crime
suspects, to mass-scale electronic and network surveillance for gathering intelligence or for seeking
evidence of anomalous or criminal behavior. Surveillance is also a psychological technique used to
affect human behavior through pervasive monitoring of activities and areas to discourage people from
violating rules or laws. Although surveillance most often means covert collection of information, it can
also refer to overt watching aimed at modifying the behavior of those watched. An example of overt
surveillance is red-light cameras. These devices are often prominently placed as ever-present watchers at
intersections so that drivers are deterred from entering intersections while the stoplight is red. n94 One
purpose of overt surveillance is to affect the behavior of those being watched, to assure that individual
behavior conforms to societal norms. If an autonomous vehicle user were informed that his or her vehicle
continuously reports its speed to law enforcement authorities, that user would be more likely to direct the
vehicle to conform to the speed limit, rather than exercise personal autonomy in deciding not to conform.
n95 Similarly, autonomous vehicles could overtly monitor the behavior of vehicle users so that instances of
user activities such as smoking or drinking alcohol are sensed and recorded.

Politics Links

Obama will fight for border control- Recent meeting


proves
Wolfgang 14 (Ben Wolfgang: Covers the White House for The Washington
Times, Obama: Ive fought against activists who believe there should be
open borders, The Washington Times, 12/9/2014,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/9/obama-ive-foughtagainst-activists-open-borders/, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Critics say President Obama went too far with his executive action granting amnesty to more than 4 million illegal immigrants but behind
the scenes,

the president

said hes

pushed back against those who believe the

U.S. should have an open border with Mexico . At a town-hall meeting in Nashville on
. Obama defended the idea of a strong U.S-Mexico border and
said hes had heated debates with activists who want that border to
disappear. There have been times, honestly, Ive had arguments with immigration rights activists who say, effectively, There
Tuesday, Mr

shouldnt be any rules. These are good people. Why should we have any enforcement like this? My response is, In the eyes of God, everybody
is equal I dont make any claims my child is superior to anybody elses child. But Im the president of the United States, and nation states

the president said. If we had no system of enforcing our


borders and our laws, I promise you, everybody would try to come
here. Mr. Obama added that it would be fundamentally unfair to
erase the nations southern border. Sometimes its just an accident that one person lives in a country
have borders,

that has a border with the U.S. and another person in Somalia, its a lot harder to get here, he said.

Obama will fight the plan Currently increasing funding


for border surveillance
Knauth 14 (Dietrich Knauth, Obama Seeks $39M In Drone Funding For

Border Surveillance, Law360, 7/9/2014,


http://www.law360.com/articles/555799/obama-seeks-39m-in-drone-fundingfor-border-surveillance, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Law360, New York (July 9, 2014, 5:08 PM ET) -- The Obama administration on Tuesday
requested $39 million for aerial surveillance, including unmanned
aircraft operations, as part of an effort to stop an influx of refugee
children from crossing the U.S.'s southern border.
The administration has called on Congress to provide $3.7 billion in
emergency funding, spread out among the U.S. Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Health and Human
Services and State, to combat what it called a humanitarian crisis.

children, both accompanied and on their own, are fleeing Central


America in alarming numbers and that as a result, it needs more
border surveillance and security, as well as a surge in enforcement
personnel, from immigration judges to asylum officers.
The White House said that

The DHS would get a significant portion of the president's request, with $1.1 billion going to Immigration and Customs
Enforcement and $433 million going to Customs and Border Protection. The CBP's share includes $39.4 million to increase
air surveillance capabilities that would support 16,526 additional flight hours for border surveillance and 16 additional
crews for unmanned aerial systems to improve detection and interdiction of illegal activity, according to a White House
fact sheet.

Schumer supports systematic border surveillance and


militarization
On The Issues 14 (On The Issues, "Charles Schumer on Immigration",
www.ontheissues.org/International/Charles_Schumer_Immigration.htm,
12/14/2014, sr)

I support further
securing our borders; prohibiting hiring of undocumented
immigrants by requiring job applicants to present a secure Social
Security card; creating jobs by attracting the world's best and
brightest to America, and keeping them here; requiring
undocumented immigrants to register with the government, pay
taxes, and earn legal [status or face deportation.] Establishes specified
What changes to our current immigration policy do you support? A:

benchmarks which must be met before the guest worker and legalization programs may be initiated:

operational control of the border with Mexico; Border Patrol


increases; border barriers, including vehicle barriers, fencing, radar,
and aerial vehicles; detention capacity for illegal aliens apprehended
crossing the US-Mexico border; workplace enforcement, including an
electronic employment verification system; and Z-visa alien
processing. Within 18 months, achieves operational control over U.S. land and maritime borders,
including: systematic border surveillance through more effective use of
personnel and technology; and physical infrastructure
enhancements to prevent unlawful border entry Defines
"operational control" as the prevention of all unlawful U.S. entries,
including entries by terrorists, other unlawful aliens, narcotics, and
other contraband.

Terror DA

1NC UQ + Link
Border Patrol is stretched thin now it must be expanded,
not curtailed, in order to prevent the threat of Islamic
terrorism and specifically ISIS poses a threat to the US
through Mexico
Chiaramonte 14 (Perry Chiaramonte is a reporter for FoxNews.com,
Border crisis could provide cover to ISIS operatives, say experts Fox News,
July 7th, 2014, http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/07/07/isis-could-takeadvantage-weakened-us-border-for-terrorist-attack/) //RL
The border crisis could be the perfect opportunity for Islamic
terrorists looking to sneak sleeper cells into the U.S., say experts.

Patrols on the Mexican border have been stretched to the breaking


point in recent weeks by a tidal wave of immigrants from Central America.
Among the estimated 60,000 people who have streamed across is a
small percentage of what agents term "Special Interest Aliens," or
SIAs. Terrorism experts say airport security is effective at keeping
dangerous jihadists out, but the border breakdown could be
America's Achilles heel - providing an entry point for groups like
ISIS. It's impossible to say that ISIS will soon be active on our
border, but some groups will be, said retired Army Lt. Col. Ralph
Peters, a security and defense analyst and Fox News contributor.
The one thing that all of the squabbling jihadi groups in the Middle
East and North Africa have in common is that they want to strike the
U.S., both for what they view as vengeance and because, in terrorist
circles, striking the U.S. is how you confirm that you're a major
player. If you pay the cartels enough, they will sneak you across or
assist in getting anything you want across the border." - Shawn
Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border Patrol Council Its
long been known that a percentage, albeit small, of illegals caught
sneaking across from Mexico hail from terror-sponsoring states. And
some of the Islamic terror groups have ties to Latin American drug
cartels and gangs, including MS-13. The combination of terrorists'
desire to infiltrate the border and gangs' know-how could prove
dangerous to American security, say experts. Its obviously a
concern, Shawn Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border
Patrol Council, told FoxNews.com. If you pay the cartels enough, they will
sneak you across or assist in getting anything you want across the border.
Its definitely a nightmare scenario if they use the borders, north
or south, to cross and conduct a terrorist attack, Moran added. Texas
Gov. Rick Perry said the record wave of illegal immigrants includes record
numbers of SIAs. We have record high numbers of other than Mexicans
being apprehended at the border, Perry told Fox News. These are people
that are coming from states like Syria that have substantial
connections back to terrorist regimes and terrorist operations. So

we're seeing record, historic high numbers of these individuals being


apprehended.

2NC UQ
ISIS plans a nuclear strike on the US through Mexico in
the next 10 months - and specifically such a WMD terrorist
attack would have drastic effects on the US economy
Slavo 5/26 (Marc, journalist, http://www.infowars.com/report-terroristnuke-attack-may-be-carried-out-inside-the-united-states-in-next-12months/) //RL
With nuclear material having been stolen on multiple occasions in
Mexico, and close terrorist ties to intelligence organizations in the
middle east, it appears that if an organization was committed to
acquiring nuclear material they could do so . Finding the scientists
to build such a weapon, whether dirty or actual, wouldnt be all that
difficult. Moreover, smuggling such a device into the U.S. is possible,
as evidenced by a 2011 report which confirms that at least one
nuclear weapon of mass destruction was seized as it entered the
United States. According to a report from Zero Hedge, such a plan may
be in the works over the next twelve months, as the Islamic State
claims it may be actively pursuing a nuclear weapon intended for
detonation on American soil. Three weeks after the first supposed
attack by Islamic State supporters in the US, in which two ISIS
soldiers wounded a security guard before they were killed in
Garland, Texas, the time has come to raise the fear stakes. In an
article posted in the terrorist groups English-language online magazine Dabiq
(which as can be see below seems to have gotten its design cues straight
from Madison Avenue and is just missing glossy pages filled with scratch and
sniff perfume ads ) ISIS claimed that it has enoughmoney to buy a
nuclear weapon from Pakistan and carry out an attack inside the
United States next year. In the article, the ISIS columnist said the
weapon could be smuggled into the United States via its southern
border with Mexico. Curiously, the author of the piece is John Cantlie, a
British photojournalist who was abducted by ISIS in 2012 and has been held
hostage by the organization ever since; he has appeared in several videos
since his kidnapping and criticized Western powers. As the Telegraph notes,
Mr Cantlie, whose fellow journalist hostages have all either been released or
beheaded, has appeared in the groups propaganda videos and written
previous pieces. In his latest work, presumed to be written under pressure but
in his hall-mark style combining hyperbole, metaphor and sarcasm, he says
that President Obamas policies for containing Isil have demonstrably failed
and increased the risk to America. Cantlie describes the following
hypothetical scenario in Dabiq : Let me throw a hypothetical operation
onto the table. The Islamic State has billions of dollars in the bank,
so they call on their wilayah in Pakistan to purchase a nuclear device
through weapons dealers with links to corrupt officials in the region.
The weapon is then transported overland until it makes it to Libya,

where the muj?hid?n move it south to Nigeria. Drug shipments from


Columbia bound for Europe pass through West Africa, so moving
other types of contraband from East to West is just as possible. The
nuke and accompanying mujahadin arrive on the shorelines of South
America and are transported through the porous borders of Central
America before arriving in Mexico and up to the border with the
United States. From there its just a quick hop through a smuggling
tunnel and hey presto, theyre mingling with another 12 million
illegal aliens in America with a nuclear bomb in the trunk of their
car. Cantlie continues: Perhaps such a scenario is far-fetched but its
the sum of all fears for Western intelligence agencies and its
infinitely more possible today than it was just one year ago. And if
not a nuke, what about a few thousand tons of ammonium nitrate
explosive? Thats easy enough to make. The Islamic State make no
secret of the fact they have every intention of attacking America on
its home soil and theyre not going to mince about with two muj?
hid?n taking down a dozen casualties if it originates from the
Caliphate. Theyll be looking to do something big, something that would
make any past operation look like a squirrel shoot, and the more groups that
pledge allegiance the more possible it becomes to pull off something truly
epic. Remember, all of this has happened in less than a year. How
more dangerous will be the lines of communication and supply a
year on from today? If the West completely failed to spot the
emergence of the Islamic State and then the allies who so quickly
pledged allegiance to it from around the world, what else of massive
significance are they going to miss next? One can, of course, debate
just how much the West failed to spot the emergence of ISIS considering it
was not only the CIA which initially trainedthe terrorist organization in Jordan
in 2012, but according to recently declassified Pentagon documents, the US
was well aware the outcome its attempt to overthrow Syrias Assad would
have on the region, in the process creating ISIS, aka al Qaeda 2.0. In other
words, even the hypothetical operation involving a nuclear attack
on US soil would implicitly have the blessing of the US government.
Which, considering the way the stock market surges every time the
US economy deteriorates further on its way towards recession,
probably means that a mushroom cloud appearing in some major US
metropolitan area is just what the E-mini algos would need to send
the S&P500 limit up . Source: Zero Hedge We have definitive confirmation
via declassified documents that the Islamic State is a creation of the U.S.
Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency, and their influence
across the middle east was predicted well in advance of anyone ever having
heard the name ISIS or ISIL. We also know that false flag operations, such as
the German Reichstag fire of 1933, are often used by governments (or rogue
elements within a government) to implement changes to existing political
and social paradigms. It could be that this nuclear threat is a psychological

operation designed to elicit fear in the populace so that they go along


willingly with legislative actions like the Patriot Act which further erode
individual rights in the name of protecting us from terrorism, or to justify
large scale military operations on U.S. soil, including but not limited to this
summers Jade Helm exercises. Or, certainly within the realm of
possibility, is the notion that at some point a rogue terror element,
the origination and loyalty of which makes absolutely no difference
in the end, is planning on detonating a nuclear device on U.S. soil.
Perhaps this is one reason for why the elite are rapidly investing in secret
hideaways. Perhaps they know its time to start exiting large metropolitan
areas ahead of whatever is coming. Perhaps it all starts with a bang and a
mushroom cloud, soon followed by panic, riots, looting, and of course, the
unprecedented domestic military response that would be necessitated by a
widespread breakdown of civil order. We can only speculate, but the fact is
that another large-scale attack on U.S. soil would usher in a new era in the
Land of the Free. Admittedly, we have delved deep into the rabbit hole of
conspiracy theory, but we leave the reader the following quote to consider
within the context of this current threat: The process of transformation,
even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one,
absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event like a new Pearl
Harbor. Project for a New American Century, 2000 (PDF Link) Signed by Jeb
Bush, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, et. al. At the very least the American
people are being psychologically conditioned to accept their own
enslavement. At worst, an event such as this would be used to
plunge the world into the next great war.

2NC Link
Terrorists use lax border security to get to the US from
Mexico ISIS is just 8 miles from the border
Chasmar 4/14 (Jessica, continuous news writer for The Washington Times,
covering topics on culture and politics, Islamic State operating in Mexico just
8 miles from U.S. border: report, The Washington Times, April 14 th, 2015,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/apr/14/islamic-state-operatingin-mexico-just-8-miles-fro/) //RL
The Islamic State terror group is operating a camp in the northern
Mexican state of Chihuahua, just eight miles from the U.S. border,
Judicial Watch reported Tuesday. Citing sources that include a
Mexican Army field grade officer and a Mexican Federal Police
Inspector, the conservative watchdog group reported that the
Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, is organizing only a few
miles from El Paso, Texas, in the Anapra neighborhood of Jurez and
in Puerto Palomas. Judicial Watch sources said that coyotes working
for the notorious Juarez Cartel are smuggling Islamic State terrorists
across the U.S. border between the New Mexico cities of Santa
Teresa and Sunland Park, as well as through the porous border
between Acala and Fort Hancock, Texas. These specific areas
were targeted for exploitation by ISIS because of their understaffed
municipal and county police forces, and the relative safe-havens the
areas provide for the unchecked large-scale drug smuggling that
was already ongoing, Judicial Watch reported. Mexican intelligence
sources say the Islamic State intends to exploit the railways and
airport facilities in the vicinity of Santa Teresa, New Mexico. The
sources also say that ISIS has spotters located in the East Potrillo
Mountains of New Mexico (largely managed by the Bureau of Land
Management) to assist with terrorist border crossing operations,
Judicial Watch reported. ISIS is conducting reconnaissance of
regional universities; the White Sands Missile Range; government
facilities in Alamogordo, NM; Ft. Bliss; and the electrical power
facilities near Anapra and Chaparral, NM.

T Domestic

1NC
First, Interpretation: Domestic surveillance is surveillance
within national borders
Avilez et al 14 Marie Avilez et al, Carnegie Mellon University December
10, 2014 Ethics, History, and Public Policy Senior Capstone Project
Security and Social Dimensions of City Surveillance Policy
http://www.cmu.edu/hss/ehpp/documents/2014-City-Surveillance-Policy.pdf
Domestic surveillance collection of information about the
activities of private individuals/organizations by a government
entity within national borders; this can be carried out by federal, state and/or local officials

Violation- the border


BHC No Date
United States- Mexico Border Health Commission, a binational health commission in
July 2000 with the signing of an agreement by the Secretary of Health and Human
Services of the United States and the Secretary of Health of Mxico. On December
21, 2004, the Commission was designated as a Public International Organization by
Executive Order of the President, Border Relation,
http://www.borderhealth.org/border_region.php//SRawal

The United States-Mxico border region is defined as the area of


land being 100 kilometers (62.5 miles) north and south of the
international boundary (La Paz Agreement). It stretches approximately 2000 miles from the southern tip
of Texas to California. The population for this expanse of land is estimated to be approximately 12 million inhabitants.
This population is expected to double by the year 2025. The combined population of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and
California is 61,637,146 (2000 Census). The estimated combined population of the six Mexican border states in 1990 was
12,246,991. Two of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States - Laredo and McAllen - are located on
the Texas-Mxico border. Additionally, there are 154 Native American tribes totaling 881,070 Native Americans living in
the 4 U.S. border states. In the actual border region, there are approximately 25 Native American Nations.

Second, Domestic surveillance is surveillance of US


persons
Small 8

MATTHEW L. SMALL. United States Air Force Academy 2008


Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress, Presidential Fellows
Program paper "His Eyes are Watching You: Domestic Surveillance, Civil
Liberties and Executive Power during Times of National Crisis"
http://cspc.nonprofitsoapbox.com/storage/documents/Fellows2008/Small.pdf
Before one can make any sort of assessment of domestic surveillance policies, it is
first necessary to narrow the scope of the term domestic surveillance. Domestic
surveillance is a subset of intelligence gathering. Intelligence, as it is to be
understood in this context, is information that meets the stated or understood
needs of policy makers and has been collected, processed and narrowed to meet
those needs (Lowenthal 2006, 2). In essence, domestic surveillance is a means to
an end; the end being intelligence. The intelligence community best

understands domestic surveillance as the acquisition of nonpublic


information concerning United States persons (Executive Order 12333
(3.4) (i)). With this definition domestic surveillance remains an overly broad
concept. This papers analysis, in terms of President Bushs policies, focuses on
electronic surveillance; specifically, wiretapping phone lines and obtaining caller

information from phone companies. Section f of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 defines
electronic surveillance as:

Violation- Undocumented people are not US persons


Jackson et al 9 Brian A. Jackson, Darcy Noricks, and Benjamin W. Goldsmith,
RAND Corporation

The Challenge of Domestic Intelligence in a Free Society RAND 2009 BRIAN


A. JACKSON, EDITOR
http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG804.
pdf
3 Federal law and executive order define a U.S. person as a
citizen of the United States, an alien lawfully admitted for
permanent residence, an unincorporated association with a
substantial number of members who are citizens of the U.S. or are
aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or a corporation
that is incorporated in the U.S. (NSA, undated). Although this definition
would therefore allow information to be gathered on U.S. persons located abroad,
our objective was to examine the creation of a domestic intelligence organization
that would focus onand whose activities would center aroundindividuals and
organizations located inside the United States . Though such an agency might
receive information about U.S. persons that was collected abroad by other
intelligence agencies, it would not collect that information itself.

T is a voterThey explode limits


First, Allowing the surveillance of non-US persons means
they open the debate to immigration. This is a whole new
literature base which is large enough to be a topic in
itself.
Second, They open the topic outside of our borders which
means they justify any aff which cooperates with other
countries and transnational agreements the decrease
surveillancethis massively expands the topic and makes
for unproductive debate

OFFCASE VIRTUAL WALL


(KS)

Politics Links

Obama will fight for border control- Recent meeting


proves
Wolfgang 14 (Ben Wolfgang: Covers the White House for The Washington
Times, Obama: Ive fought against activists who believe there should be
open borders, The Washington Times, 12/9/2014,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/9/obama-ive-foughtagainst-activists-open-borders/, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Critics say President Obama went too far with his executive action granting amnesty to more than 4 million illegal immigrants but behind
the scenes,

the president

said hes

pushed back against those who believe the

U.S. should have an open border with Mexico . At a town-hall meeting in Nashville on
. Obama defended the idea of a strong U.S-Mexico border and
said hes had heated debates with activists who want that border to
disappear. There have been times, honestly, Ive had arguments with immigration rights activists who say, effectively, There
Tuesday, Mr

shouldnt be any rules. These are good people. Why should we have any enforcement like this? My response is, In the eyes of God, everybody
is equal I dont make any claims my child is superior to anybody elses child. But Im the president of the United States, and nation states

the president said. If we had no system of enforcing our


borders and our laws, I promise you, everybody would try to come
here. Mr. Obama added that it would be fundamentally unfair to
erase the nations southern border. Sometimes its just an accident that one person lives in a country
have borders,

that has a border with the U.S. and another person in Somalia, its a lot harder to get here, he said.

Obama will fight the plan Currently increasing funding


for border surveillance
Knauth 14 (Dietrich Knauth, Obama Seeks $39M In Drone Funding For

Border Surveillance, Law360, 7/9/2014,


http://www.law360.com/articles/555799/obama-seeks-39m-in-drone-fundingfor-border-surveillance, Accessed: 7/17/15, RRR)
Law360, New York (July 9, 2014, 5:08 PM ET) -- The Obama administration on Tuesday
requested $39 million for aerial surveillance, including unmanned
aircraft operations, as part of an effort to stop an influx of refugee
children from crossing the U.S.'s southern border.
The administration has called on Congress to provide $3.7 billion in
emergency funding, spread out among the U.S. Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Health and Human
Services and State, to combat what it called a humanitarian crisis.

children, both accompanied and on their own, are fleeing Central


America in alarming numbers and that as a result, it needs more
border surveillance and security, as well as a surge in enforcement
personnel, from immigration judges to asylum officers.
The White House said that

The DHS would get a significant portion of the president's request, with $1.1 billion going to Immigration and Customs
Enforcement and $433 million going to Customs and Border Protection. The CBP's share includes $39.4 million to increase
air surveillance capabilities that would support 16,526 additional flight hours for border surveillance and 16 additional
crews for unmanned aerial systems to improve detection and interdiction of illegal activity, according to a White House
fact sheet.

Schumer supports systematic border surveillance and


militarization
On The Issues 14 (On The Issues, "Charles Schumer on Immigration",
www.ontheissues.org/International/Charles_Schumer_Immigration.htm,
12/14/2014, sr)

I support further
securing our borders; prohibiting hiring of undocumented
immigrants by requiring job applicants to present a secure Social
Security card; creating jobs by attracting the world's best and
brightest to America, and keeping them here; requiring
undocumented immigrants to register with the government, pay
taxes, and earn legal [status or face deportation.] Establishes specified
What changes to our current immigration policy do you support? A:

benchmarks which must be met before the guest worker and legalization programs may be initiated:

operational control of the border with Mexico; Border Patrol


increases; border barriers, including vehicle barriers, fencing, radar,
and aerial vehicles; detention capacity for illegal aliens apprehended
crossing the US-Mexico border; workplace enforcement, including an
electronic employment verification system; and Z-visa alien
processing. Within 18 months, achieves operational control over U.S. land and maritime borders,
including: systematic border surveillance through more effective use of
personnel and technology; and physical infrastructure
enhancements to prevent unlawful border entry Defines
"operational control" as the prevention of all unlawful U.S. entries,
including entries by terrorists, other unlawful aliens, narcotics, and
other contraband.

Terror DA

1NC UQ + Link
Border Patrol is stretched thin now it must be expanded,
not curtailed, in order to prevent the threat of Islamic
terrorism and specifically ISIS poses a threat to the US
through Mexico
Chiaramonte 14 (Perry Chiaramonte is a reporter for FoxNews.com,
Border crisis could provide cover to ISIS operatives, say experts Fox News,
July 7th, 2014, http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/07/07/isis-could-takeadvantage-weakened-us-border-for-terrorist-attack/) //RL
The border crisis could be the perfect opportunity for Islamic
terrorists looking to sneak sleeper cells into the U.S., say experts.

Patrols on the Mexican border have been stretched to the breaking


point in recent weeks by a tidal wave of immigrants from Central America.
Among the estimated 60,000 people who have streamed across is a
small percentage of what agents term "Special Interest Aliens," or
SIAs. Terrorism experts say airport security is effective at keeping
dangerous jihadists out, but the border breakdown could be
America's Achilles heel - providing an entry point for groups like
ISIS. It's impossible to say that ISIS will soon be active on our
border, but some groups will be, said retired Army Lt. Col. Ralph
Peters, a security and defense analyst and Fox News contributor.
The one thing that all of the squabbling jihadi groups in the Middle
East and North Africa have in common is that they want to strike the
U.S., both for what they view as vengeance and because, in terrorist
circles, striking the U.S. is how you confirm that you're a major
player. If you pay the cartels enough, they will sneak you across or
assist in getting anything you want across the border." - Shawn
Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border Patrol Council Its
long been known that a percentage, albeit small, of illegals caught
sneaking across from Mexico hail from terror-sponsoring states. And
some of the Islamic terror groups have ties to Latin American drug
cartels and gangs, including MS-13. The combination of terrorists'
desire to infiltrate the border and gangs' know-how could prove
dangerous to American security, say experts. Its obviously a
concern, Shawn Moran, vice president and spokesperson for the Border
Patrol Council, told FoxNews.com. If you pay the cartels enough, they will
sneak you across or assist in getting anything you want across the border.
Its definitely a nightmare scenario if they use the borders, north
or south, to cross and conduct a terrorist attack, Moran added. Texas
Gov. Rick Perry said the record wave of illegal immigrants includes record
numbers of SIAs. We have record high numbers of other than Mexicans
being apprehended at the border, Perry told Fox News. These are people
that are coming from states like Syria that have substantial
connections back to terrorist regimes and terrorist operations. So

we're seeing record, historic high numbers of these individuals being


apprehended.

2NC UQ
ISIS plans a nuclear strike on the US through Mexico in
the next 10 months - and specifically such a WMD terrorist
attack would have drastic effects on the US economy
Slavo 5/26 (Marc, journalist, http://www.infowars.com/report-terroristnuke-attack-may-be-carried-out-inside-the-united-states-in-next-12months/) //RL
With nuclear material having been stolen on multiple occasions in
Mexico, and close terrorist ties to intelligence organizations in the
middle east, it appears that if an organization was committed to
acquiring nuclear material they could do so . Finding the scientists
to build such a weapon, whether dirty or actual, wouldnt be all that
difficult. Moreover, smuggling such a device into the U.S. is possible,
as evidenced by a 2011 report which confirms that at least one
nuclear weapon of mass destruction was seized as it entered the
United States. According to a report from Zero Hedge, such a plan may
be in the works over the next twelve months, as the Islamic State
claims it may be actively pursuing a nuclear weapon intended for
detonation on American soil. Three weeks after the first supposed
attack by Islamic State supporters in the US, in which two ISIS
soldiers wounded a security guard before they were killed in
Garland, Texas, the time has come to raise the fear stakes. In an
article posted in the terrorist groups English-language online magazine Dabiq
(which as can be see below seems to have gotten its design cues straight
from Madison Avenue and is just missing glossy pages filled with scratch and
sniff perfume ads ) ISIS claimed that it has enoughmoney to buy a
nuclear weapon from Pakistan and carry out an attack inside the
United States next year. In the article, the ISIS columnist said the
weapon could be smuggled into the United States via its southern
border with Mexico. Curiously, the author of the piece is John Cantlie, a
British photojournalist who was abducted by ISIS in 2012 and has been held
hostage by the organization ever since; he has appeared in several videos
since his kidnapping and criticized Western powers. As the Telegraph notes,
Mr Cantlie, whose fellow journalist hostages have all either been released or
beheaded, has appeared in the groups propaganda videos and written
previous pieces. In his latest work, presumed to be written under pressure but
in his hall-mark style combining hyperbole, metaphor and sarcasm, he says
that President Obamas policies for containing Isil have demonstrably failed
and increased the risk to America. Cantlie describes the following
hypothetical scenario in Dabiq : Let me throw a hypothetical operation
onto the table. The Islamic State has billions of dollars in the bank,
so they call on their wilayah in Pakistan to purchase a nuclear device
through weapons dealers with links to corrupt officials in the region.
The weapon is then transported overland until it makes it to Libya,

where the muj?hid?n move it south to Nigeria. Drug shipments from


Columbia bound for Europe pass through West Africa, so moving
other types of contraband from East to West is just as possible. The
nuke and accompanying mujahadin arrive on the shorelines of South
America and are transported through the porous borders of Central
America before arriving in Mexico and up to the border with the
United States. From there its just a quick hop through a smuggling
tunnel and hey presto, theyre mingling with another 12 million
illegal aliens in America with a nuclear bomb in the trunk of their
car. Cantlie continues: Perhaps such a scenario is far-fetched but its
the sum of all fears for Western intelligence agencies and its
infinitely more possible today than it was just one year ago. And if
not a nuke, what about a few thousand tons of ammonium nitrate
explosive? Thats easy enough to make. The Islamic State make no
secret of the fact they have every intention of attacking America on
its home soil and theyre not going to mince about with two muj?
hid?n taking down a dozen casualties if it originates from the
Caliphate. Theyll be looking to do something big, something that would
make any past operation look like a squirrel shoot, and the more groups that
pledge allegiance the more possible it becomes to pull off something truly
epic. Remember, all of this has happened in less than a year. How
more dangerous will be the lines of communication and supply a
year on from today? If the West completely failed to spot the
emergence of the Islamic State and then the allies who so quickly
pledged allegiance to it from around the world, what else of massive
significance are they going to miss next? One can, of course, debate
just how much the West failed to spot the emergence of ISIS considering it
was not only the CIA which initially trainedthe terrorist organization in Jordan
in 2012, but according to recently declassified Pentagon documents, the US
was well aware the outcome its attempt to overthrow Syrias Assad would
have on the region, in the process creating ISIS, aka al Qaeda 2.0. In other
words, even the hypothetical operation involving a nuclear attack
on US soil would implicitly have the blessing of the US government.
Which, considering the way the stock market surges every time the
US economy deteriorates further on its way towards recession,
probably means that a mushroom cloud appearing in some major US
metropolitan area is just what the E-mini algos would need to send
the S&P500 limit up . Source: Zero Hedge We have definitive confirmation
via declassified documents that the Islamic State is a creation of the U.S.
Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency, and their influence
across the middle east was predicted well in advance of anyone ever having
heard the name ISIS or ISIL. We also know that false flag operations, such as
the German Reichstag fire of 1933, are often used by governments (or rogue
elements within a government) to implement changes to existing political
and social paradigms. It could be that this nuclear threat is a psychological

operation designed to elicit fear in the populace so that they go along


willingly with legislative actions like the Patriot Act which further erode
individual rights in the name of protecting us from terrorism, or to justify
large scale military operations on U.S. soil, including but not limited to this
summers Jade Helm exercises. Or, certainly within the realm of
possibility, is the notion that at some point a rogue terror element,
the origination and loyalty of which makes absolutely no difference
in the end, is planning on detonating a nuclear device on U.S. soil.
Perhaps this is one reason for why the elite are rapidly investing in secret
hideaways. Perhaps they know its time to start exiting large metropolitan
areas ahead of whatever is coming. Perhaps it all starts with a bang and a
mushroom cloud, soon followed by panic, riots, looting, and of course, the
unprecedented domestic military response that would be necessitated by a
widespread breakdown of civil order. We can only speculate, but the fact is
that another large-scale attack on U.S. soil would usher in a new era in the
Land of the Free. Admittedly, we have delved deep into the rabbit hole of
conspiracy theory, but we leave the reader the following quote to consider
within the context of this current threat: The process of transformation,
even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one,
absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event like a new Pearl
Harbor. Project for a New American Century, 2000 (PDF Link) Signed by Jeb
Bush, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, et. al. At the very least the American
people are being psychologically conditioned to accept their own
enslavement. At worst, an event such as this would be used to
plunge the world into the next great war.

2NC Link
Terrorists use lax border security to get to the US from
Mexico ISIS is just 8 miles from the border
Chasmar 4/14 (Jessica, continuous news writer for The Washington Times,
covering topics on culture and politics, Islamic State operating in Mexico just
8 miles from U.S. border: report, The Washington Times, April 14 th, 2015,
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/apr/14/islamic-state-operatingin-mexico-just-8-miles-fro/) //RL
The Islamic State terror group is operating a camp in the northern
Mexican state of Chihuahua, just eight miles from the U.S. border,
Judicial Watch reported Tuesday. Citing sources that include a
Mexican Army field grade officer and a Mexican Federal Police
Inspector, the conservative watchdog group reported that the
Islamic State, also known as ISIS or ISIL, is organizing only a few
miles from El Paso, Texas, in the Anapra neighborhood of Jurez and
in Puerto Palomas. Judicial Watch sources said that coyotes working
for the notorious Juarez Cartel are smuggling Islamic State terrorists
across the U.S. border between the New Mexico cities of Santa
Teresa and Sunland Park, as well as through the porous border
between Acala and Fort Hancock, Texas. These specific areas
were targeted for exploitation by ISIS because of their understaffed
municipal and county police forces, and the relative safe-havens the
areas provide for the unchecked large-scale drug smuggling that
was already ongoing, Judicial Watch reported. Mexican intelligence
sources say the Islamic State intends to exploit the railways and
airport facilities in the vicinity of Santa Teresa, New Mexico. The
sources also say that ISIS has spotters located in the East Potrillo
Mountains of New Mexico (largely managed by the Bureau of Land
Management) to assist with terrorist border crossing operations,
Judicial Watch reported. ISIS is conducting reconnaissance of
regional universities; the White Sands Missile Range; government
facilities in Alamogordo, NM; Ft. Bliss; and the electrical power
facilities near Anapra and Chaparral, NM.

T Domestic

1NC
First, Interpretation: Domestic surveillance is surveillance
within national borders
Avilez et al 14 Marie Avilez et al, Carnegie Mellon University December
10, 2014 Ethics, History, and Public Policy Senior Capstone Project
Security and Social Dimensions of City Surveillance Policy
http://www.cmu.edu/hss/ehpp/documents/2014-City-Surveillance-Policy.pdf
Domestic surveillance collection of information about the
activities of private individuals/organizations by a government
entity within national borders; this can be carried out by federal, state and/or local officials

Violation- the border


BHC No Date
United States- Mexico Border Health Commission, a binational health commission in
July 2000 with the signing of an agreement by the Secretary of Health and Human
Services of the United States and the Secretary of Health of Mxico. On December
21, 2004, the Commission was designated as a Public International Organization by
Executive Order of the President, Border Relation,
http://www.borderhealth.org/border_region.php//SRawal

The United States-Mxico border region is defined as the area of


land being 100 kilometers (62.5 miles) north and south of the
international boundary (La Paz Agreement). It stretches approximately 2000 miles from the southern tip
of Texas to California. The population for this expanse of land is estimated to be approximately 12 million inhabitants.
This population is expected to double by the year 2025. The combined population of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and
California is 61,637,146 (2000 Census). The estimated combined population of the six Mexican border states in 1990 was
12,246,991. Two of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States - Laredo and McAllen - are located on
the Texas-Mxico border. Additionally, there are 154 Native American tribes totaling 881,070 Native Americans living in
the 4 U.S. border states. In the actual border region, there are approximately 25 Native American Nations.

Second, Domestic surveillance is surveillance of US


persons
Small 8

MATTHEW L. SMALL. United States Air Force Academy 2008


Center for the Study of the Presidency and Congress, Presidential Fellows
Program paper "His Eyes are Watching You: Domestic Surveillance, Civil
Liberties and Executive Power during Times of National Crisis"
http://cspc.nonprofitsoapbox.com/storage/documents/Fellows2008/Small.pdf
Before one can make any sort of assessment of domestic surveillance policies, it is
first necessary to narrow the scope of the term domestic surveillance. Domestic
surveillance is a subset of intelligence gathering. Intelligence, as it is to be
understood in this context, is information that meets the stated or understood
needs of policy makers and has been collected, processed and narrowed to meet
those needs (Lowenthal 2006, 2). In essence, domestic surveillance is a means to
an end; the end being intelligence. The intelligence community best

understands domestic surveillance as the acquisition of nonpublic


information concerning United States persons (Executive Order 12333
(3.4) (i)). With this definition domestic surveillance remains an overly broad
concept. This papers analysis, in terms of President Bushs policies, focuses on
electronic surveillance; specifically, wiretapping phone lines and obtaining caller

information from phone companies. Section f of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 defines
electronic surveillance as:

Violation- Undocumented people are not US persons


Jackson et al 9 Brian A. Jackson, Darcy Noricks, and Benjamin W. Goldsmith,
RAND Corporation

The Challenge of Domestic Intelligence in a Free Society RAND 2009 BRIAN


A. JACKSON, EDITOR
http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG804.
pdf
3 Federal law and executive order define a U.S. person as a
citizen of the United States, an alien lawfully admitted for
permanent residence, an unincorporated association with a
substantial number of members who are citizens of the U.S. or are
aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or a corporation
that is incorporated in the U.S. (NSA, undated). Although this definition
would therefore allow information to be gathered on U.S. persons located abroad,
our objective was to examine the creation of a domestic intelligence organization
that would focus onand whose activities would center aroundindividuals and
organizations located inside the United States . Though such an agency might
receive information about U.S. persons that was collected abroad by other
intelligence agencies, it would not collect that information itself.

T is a voterThey explode limits


First, Allowing the surveillance of non-US persons means
they open the debate to immigration. This is a whole new
literature base which is large enough to be a topic in
itself.
Second, They open the topic outside of our borders which
means they justify any aff which cooperates with other
countries and transnational agreements the decrease
surveillancethis massively expands the topic and makes
for unproductive debate

SFO K

1NC
Speaking to the suffering of other bodies denies them
humanity
Alcoff 89

Linda Alcoff, The Problem of Speaking for Others, last date cited 1989,
http://www.alcoff.com/content/speaothers.html//SRawal
The recognition that there is a problem in speaking for others has followed from the widespread acceptance of two claims.

there has been a growing awareness that where one speaks from
affects both the meaning and truth of what one says, and thus that
one cannot assume an ability to transcend her location. In other words, a
speaker's location (which I take here to refer to her social location or social identity) has an
epistemically significant impact on that speaker's claims, and can
serve either to authorize or dis-authorize one's speech. The creation of
Women's Studies and African American Studies departments were founded on this very belief: that both the
study of and the advocacy for the oppressed must come to be done
principally by the oppressed themselves, and that we must finally
acknowledge that systematic divergences in social location between
speakers and those spoken for will have a significant effect on the
content of what is said. The unspoken premise here is simply that a speaker's location is epistemically
First,

salient. I shall explore this issue further in the next section. The second claim holds that not only is location epistemically

certain privileged locations are discursively dangerou s. In particular,


the practice of privileged persons speaking for or on behalf of less
privileged persons has actually resulted (in many cases) in increasing or
reenforcing the oppression of the group spoken for. This was part of the argument
made against Anne Cameron's speaking for Native women: Cameron's intentions were never in
question, but the effects of her writing were argued to be harmful to
the needs of Native authors because it is Cameron rather than they
who will be listened to and whose books will be bought by readers
interested in Native women. Persons from dominant groups who
speak for others are often treated as authenticating presences that
confer legitimacy and credibility on the demands of subjugated
speakers; such speaking for others does nothing to disrupt the discursive hierarchies that operate in public spaces.
For this reason, the work of privileged authors who speak on behalf of the
oppressed is becoming increasingly criticized by members of those
oppressed groups themselves.
salient, but

AT: were speaking ABOUT them not for


Speaking ABOUT others always results in speaking FOR
them and constructing their subject positionsthey are
intertwined
Alcoff 89
Linda Alcoff, The Problem of Speaking for Others, last date cited 1989,
http://www.alcoff.com/content/speaothers.html//SRawal
In the examples used above, there may appear to be a conflation between the
issue of speaking for others and the issue of speaking about others .
This conflation was intentional on my part, because it is difficult to distinguish speaking
about from speaking for in all cases. There is an ambiguity in the two phrases: when one is
speaking for another one may be describing their situation and thus also speaking about them. In fact , it may be
impossible to speak for another without simultaneously conferring
information about them. Similarly, when one is speaking about another,
or simply trying to describe their situation or some aspect of it, one
may also be speaking in place of them, i.e. speaking for them. One may be speaking about
another as an advocate or a messenger if the person cannot speak for herself. Thus I would maintain that
if the practice of speaking for others is problematic, so too must be
the practice of speaking about others.8 This is partly the case
because of what has been called the "crisis of representation." For in both
the practice of speaking for as well as the practice of speaking about others, I am engaging in the act
of representing the other's needs, goals, situation, and in fact, who
they are, based on my own situated interpretation. In post-structuralist terms, I
am participating in the construction of their subject-positions rather
than simply discovering their true selves. Once we pose it as a problem of representation,
we see that, not only are speaking for and speaking about analytically close, so too are the practices of speaking for

I am also representing my self in a


certain way, as occupying a specific subject-position, having certain
characteristics and not others, and so on. In speaking for myself, I (momentarily)
create my self---just as much as when I speak for others I create them as a
public, discursive self, a self which is more unified than any
subjective experience can support. And this public self will in most cases have an effect on the
others and speaking for myself. For, in speaking for myself,

self experienced as interiority.

Tuck & Yang

All of the following could potentially work

Recognition
The AFFs politics of recognition ties reinscribes
oppression by tying subjecthood to suffering
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In

n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative


inquiry with youth and communities (pp. 223-248). Thousand Oakes, CA:
Sage Publications. Pp. 228]
The costs of a politics of recognition that is rooted in naming pain
have been critiqued by recent decolonizing and feminist scholars
(Hartman, 1997, 2007; Tuck, 2009). In Scenes of Subjection, Sadiya Hartman
(1997) discusses how recognizing the personhood of slaves enhanced the
power of the Southern slaveowning class. Supplicating narratives of
former slaves were deployed effectively by abolitionists, mainly White,
well-to-do, Northern women, to generate portraits of abuse that ergo
recognize slaves as human (Hartman, 2007). In response, new laws
afforded minimal standards of existence, making personhood
coterminous with injury (Hartman, 1997, p. 93), while

simultaneously authorizing necessary violence to suppress


slave agency. The slave emerges as a legal person only when
seen as criminal or a violated body in need of limited forms of
protection (p. 55). Recognition humanizes the slave, but is
predicated upon her or his abjection. You are in pain, therefore you
are. [T]he recognition of humanity require[s] the event of
excessive violence, cruelty beyond the limits of the socially
tolerable, in order to acknowledge and protect the slaves person
(p. 55). Furthermore, Hartman describes how slave-as-victim as human
accordingly establishes slave-as-agent as criminal. Applying
Hartmans analysis, we note how the agency of Margaret Garner or Nat
Turner can only be viewed as outsider violence that humane society
must reject while simultaneously upholding the legitimated
violence of the state to punish such outsider violence. Hartman asks,
Is it possible that such recognition effectively forecloses agency as
the object of punishment . . . Or is this limited conferral of humanity
merely a reinscription of subjugation and pained existence? (p. 55).

The affirmative attempts to historicize the action of the


subaltern by rendering it into a recognizable people. This
project of academic integration obliterates the subaltern.
Spivak 5 [Gayatri, Prof. Comparative Literature and Society @ Columbia,

2005, Scattered speculations on the subaltern and the popular, Postcolonial


Studies Vol 8 No 4, p. 476]
Subaltern is to popular as gender is to sex, class to poverty, state to nation.
One word inclines to reasonableness, the other to cathexis / occupation
through desire. Popular divides between descriptive (as in presidential or TV ratings),
evaluative (not high, both a positive and a negative value, dependent on your politics), and
contains people, a word with immense range, from just anyone, to the masses (both a
positive and a negative political value, depending on your politics). The reasonable and rarefied

subaltern that interests me is: to be removed from all lines


of social mobility. The disciplinary interest of literary criticism is in the singular and the
unverifiable. In Can the Subaltern Speak? it was the peculiar and singular subalternity of the young
Bhubaneswari Bhaduri that seemed of interest.1 Her story was my mother Sivani Chakravortys
testimony. The question of veridicality / of the evidentiary status of
testimony, sometimes taken for granted in unexamined oral
history / has to be thought of here. Gilles Deleuzes notion of singularity is both
complex and simple. In its simplest form, the singular is not the particular because it is an unrepeatable
difference that is, on the other hand, repeated / not as an example of a universal but as an instance of a
collection of repetitions. Singularity is life as pure immanence, what will be, of this life, as life. As the
name Bhubaneswari Bhaduri became a teaching text, it took on this imperative / repeat as singular /,
as does literature.2 If the thinking of subalternity is taken in the general
sense, its lack of access to mobility may be a version of singularity.
Subalternity cannot be generalised according to hegemonic logic.
That is what makes it subaltern. Yet it is a category and therefore
repeatable. Since the general sense is always mired in narrow senses, any
differentiations between subalternity and the popular must thus concern
itself with singular cases and thus contravene the philosophical purity of Deleuzes thought.3 The
definition of the word

starting point of a singular itinerary of the word subaltern can be Antonio Gramscis Southern Question
rather than his more general discussions of the subaltern. I believe that was the basic starting point of
the South Asian Subaltern Studies collective / Gramsci, a Communist, thinking beyond capital logic in
terms of unequal development. Subsequently, Partha Chatterjee developed a nuanced reading of both
Gramsci and Foucault.4 It is from Some Aspects of the Southern Question, then, that we can move into
Ranajit Guhas On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India.5 Subaltern in the early Guha
was the name of a space of difference. And the word was indistinguishable from people. Although Guha
seems to be saying that the words people and subaltern are interchangeable, I think this is not a

in their early work, the members of the


Subaltern Studies collective would not quarrel with the notion that
the word subaltern and the idea of the popular do not inhabit a
continuous space. Yet their failure to make this distinction has led to
a certain relaxing of the word subaltern that has undermined its
usefulness. The slide into the popular may be part of this.
Subalternity is a position without identity. It is somewhat like the strict
understanding of class. Class is not a cultural origin, it is a sense of economic collectivity, of social
relations of formation as the basis of action. Gender is not lived sexual difference. It is a sense of the
collective social negotiation of sexual differences as the basis of action. Race is not originary; it
assumes racism. Subalternity is where social lines of mobility, being elsewhere,
do not permit the formation of a recognisable basis of action. The early
subalternists looked at examples where subalternity was brought to crisis, as a basis for militancy was
formed. Even then colonial and nationalist historiography did not
recognise it as such. Could the subaltern speak, then? Could it have its
insurgency recognised by the official historians? Even when, strictly speaking,
they had burst the outlines of subalternity? This last is important. Neither the groups
celebrated by the early subalternists nor Bhubaneswari Bhaduri, in so far as they had
burst their bonds into resistance, were in the position of
subalternity. No one can say I am a subaltern in whatever
substantive point for him. At least

language.

And

subaltern studies will not reduce itself to the

historical recounting of the details of the practice of


disenfranchised groups and remain a study of the subaltern.

Suffering
Research is used to commodify pain
narratives and damage representations to reproduce
oppression with the justification of the academy
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In
n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative
inquiry with youth and communities
https://faculty.newpaltz.edu/evetuck/files/2013/12/Tuck-and-Yang-RWords_Refusing-Research.pdf]
Urban communities, and other disenfranchised communities . Damage-centered
researchers may operate, even benevolently, within a theory of
change in which harm must be recorded or proven in order to
convince an outside adjudicator that reparations are deserved. These

reparations presumably take the form of additional resources, settlements, affirmative actions, and other

this theory of change as


both colonial and flawed, because it relies upon Western notions of
power as scarce and concentrated, and because it requires
disenfranchised communities to posi-tion themselves as both
singularly defective and powerless to make chang e (2010). Finally, Eve has
observed that won reparations rarely become reality, and that in many
cases, communities are left with a narrative that tells them that they
are broken.Similarly, at the center of the analysis in this chapter is a concern with the fixation social
material, political, and sovereign adjustments. Eve has described

science research has exhibited in eliciting pain stories from com-munities that are not White, not wealthy,
and not straight.

Academes demon-strated fascination with telling and


retelling narratives of pain is troubling, both for its voyeurism and
for its consumptive implacability. Imagining itself to be a voice, and
in some disciplinary iterations, the voice of the colonised (Simpson, 2007,
p. 67, emphasis in the original) is not just a rare historical occurrence in anthropology and related

We observe that much of the work of the academy is to


reproduce stories of oppression in its own voice. At first, this may read as an
fields.

intolerant condemnation of the academy, one that refuses to forgive past blunders and see how things
have changed in recent decades. However, it is our view that while many individual scholars have cho-sen
to pursue other lines of inquiry than the pain narratives typical of their disciplines, novice researchers
emerge from doctoral programs eager to launch pain-based inquiry projects because they believe that
such approaches embody what it means to do social science. The collection of pain narratives and the
theories of change that champion the value of such narratives are so prevalent in the social sciences that
one might surmise that they are indeed what the academy is about. In her examination of the symbolic
violence of the academy, bell hooks (1990) portrays the core message from the academy to those on the

No need to hear your voice when I can talk about you


better than you can speak about yourself. No need to hear your
voice. Only tell me about your pain. I want to know your story. And
then I will tell it back to you in a new way. Tell it back to you in such
a way that it has become mine, my own. Re-writing you I write
myself anew. I am still author, authority. I am still colonizer the
speaking subject and you are now at the center of my talk. ( p. 343)
margins as thus:

Hookss words resonate with our observation of how much of social science research is concerned with
providing recognition to the presumed voiceless, a recognition that is enamored with knowing through
pain. Further, this passage describes the ways in which the researchers voice is constituted by,
legitimated by, animated by the voices on the margins. The researcher-self is made anew by telling back
the story of the marginalized/subaltern subject. Hooks works to untangle the almost imperceptible
differences between forces that silence and forces that seemingly liberate by inviting those on the margins
to speak, to tell their stories. Yet the forces that invite those on the margins to speak also say, Do not
speak in a voice of resistance. Only speak from that space in the margin that is a sign of deprivation, a
wound, an unfulfilled longing. Only speak your pain (hooks, 1990, p. 343).

Research is used to commodify pain narratives- a refusal


to enagage in research is necessary
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In
n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative
inquiry with youth and communities
https://faculty.newpaltz.edu/evetuck/files/2013/12/Tuck-and-Yang-RWords_Refusing-Research.pdf]
Research is a dirty word among many Native communities (Tuhiwai Smith,1999), and
arguably, also among ghettoized (Kelley, 1997), Orientalized(Said, 1978), and other communities
of overstudied Others. The ethicalstandards of the academic industrial complex are a recent
development, and likeso many postcivil rights reforms, do not always do enough to ensure that
socialscience research is deeply ethical, meaningful, or useful for the individual or com-munity being

Social science often works to collect stories of pain


andhumiliation in the lives of those being researched for
commodification. However,these same stories of pain and humiliation are
part of the collective wisdom thatoften informs the writings of
researchers who attempt to position their intellectualwork as
decolonization. Indeed, to refute the crime, we may need to name it. Howdo we learn
from and respect the wisdom and desires in the stories that we
(over)hear, while refusing to portray/betray them to the spectacle of
the settler colonialgaze? How do we develop an ethics for research
that differentiates between powerwhich deserves a denuding,
indeed petrifying scrutinyand people? Atthe same time, as fraught as research is in
researched.

its complicity with power, it is one ofthe last places for legitimated inquiry. It is at least still a space that
proclaims tocare about curiosity. In this essay, we theorize refusal not just as a no, but as atype of
investigation into what you need to know and what I refuse to write in(Simpson, 2007, p. 72).

Therefore, we present a refusal to do research, or a refusalwithin research, as a way of


thinking about humanizing researchers. We have organized this chapter into four portions. In the first three
sections,we lay out three axioms of social science research. Following the work of EveKosofsky Sedgwick
(1990), we use the exposition of these axioms to articulateotherwise implicit, methodological, definitional,
self-evident groundings (p. 12)of our arguments and observations of refusal. The axioms are: (I) The
subalterncan speak, but is only invited to speak her/our pain; (II) there are some forms of knowledge that
the academy doesnt deserve; and (III) research may not be theintervention that is needed. We realize that
these axioms may not appear self-evident to everyone, yet asserting them as apparent allows us to
proceed towardthe often unquestioned limits of research. Indeed, in dealing with an open-secret
structure, its only by being shameless about risking the obvious that wehappen into the vicinity of the
transformative (Sedgwick, 1990, p. 22). In thefourth section of the chapter, we theorize refusal in earnest,
exploring ideas thatare still forming.Our thinking and writing in this essay is informed by our readings of
postco-lonial literatures and critical literatures on settler colonialism. We locate much ofour analysis
inside/in relation to the discourse of settler colonialism, the particu-lar shape of colonial domination in the
United States and elsewhere, includingCanada, New Zealand, and Australia. Settler colonialism can be
differentiatedfrom what one might call exogenous colonialism in that the colonizers arrive at a place
(discovering it) and make it a permanent home (claiming it). The perma-nence of settler colonialism
makes it a structure, not just an event (Wolfe, 1999).The settler colonial nation-state is dependent on
destroying and erasingIndigenous inhabitants in order to clear them from valuable land. The settlercolonial
structure also requires the enslavement and labor of bodies that have been stolen from their homelands
and transported in order to labor the land stolenfrom Indigenous people. Settler colonialism refers to a
triad relationship, betweenthe White settler (who is valued for his leadership and innovative mind), the disappeared Indigenous peoples (whose land is valued, so they and their claims to itmust be extinguished),
and the chattel slaves (whose bodies are valuable butownable, abusable, and murderable). We believe that
this triad is the basis of theformation of Whiteness in settler colonial nation-states, and that the interplay
oferasure, bodies, land, and violence is characteristic of the permanence of settlercolonial structures.Under
coloniality, Descartes formulation, cognito ergo sum (I think, thereforeI am) transforms into ego
conquiro (I conquer, therefore I am; Dussel, 1985;Maldonado-Torres, 2007; Ndlvou-Gatsheni, 2011).
Nelson Maldonado-Torres(2009) expounds on this relationship of the conquerors sense-of-self to

Knowledge of self/Others
became the philosophical justification for the acquisition of bodies
and territo-ries, and the rule over them. Thus the right to conquer is
hisknowledge-of-others (I know her, therefore I am me).

intimately connected tothe right to know (I know, therefore I


conquer, therefore I am). Maldonado-Torres (2009) explains that for Levi Strauss, the
self/Other knowledge paradigmis the methodological rule for the birth of ethnology as a science (pp. 34).
Settler colonial knowledge is premised on frontiers; conquest, then, is an exerciseof the felt entitlement to
transgress these limits. Refusal, and stances of refusal inresearch, are attempts to place limits on conquest
and the colonization of knowl-edge by marking what is off limits, what is not up for grabs or discussion,
what issacred, and what cant be known. To speak of limits in such a way makes some liberal thinkers

When access to information, to


knowledge, to theintellectual commons is controlled by the people
who generate that information[participants in a research study], it
can be seen as a violation of shared standards of justice and truth.
(Simpson, 2007, p. 74) By forwarding a framework of refusal within
(and to) research in this chapter, weare not simply prescribing limits
to social science research. We are making visibleinvisibilized limits,
containments, and seizures that research already stakes out.
uncomfortable, andmay, to them, seem dangerous.

Overcoming
The attempt to overcome the conditions of modernity, the
founding original violences which constitutes our current
epistemologies is the logic of settler colonialism. It
operates on a fetishization of woundedness.
Tuck and Yang 14 [Eve, & K.W., 2014, R-Words: Refusing Research. In

n D. Paris & M. T. Winn (Eds.) Humanizing research: Decolonizing qualitative


inquiry with youth and communities (pp. 223-248). Thousand Oakes, CA:
Sage Publications. Pp. 228-9]
As numerous scholars have denoted, many social science disciplines emerged from the need to provide
justifications for social hierarchies undergirded by White supremacy and manifest destiny (see also
Gould, 1981; Selden, 1999; Tuck & Guishard, forthcoming). Wolfe (1999) has explored how the
contoured logic of settler colonialism (p. 5) can be mapped onto the microactivities of anthropology;
Guthrie (1976) traces the roots of psychology to the need to scientifically prove the supremacy of the
White mind. The origins of many social science disciplines in maintaining
logics of domination, while sometimes addressed in graduate schools, are regularly
thought to be just errant or inauspicious beginningsmuch like the ways in
which the genocide of Indigenous peoples that afforded the
founding of the Unites States has been reduced to an unfortunate
byproduct of the birthing of a new and great nation. Such amnesia is
required in settler colonial societies, argues Lorenzo Veracini, because settler
colonialism is characterized by a persistent drive to supersede the
conditions of its operation, (2011, p. 3); that is, to make itself invisible,
natural, without origin (and without end), and inevitable. Social science
disciplines have inherited the persistent drive to supersede the
conditions of their operations from settler colonial logic, and it is this drive,
a kind of unquestioning push forward, and not the origins of the disciplines that we attend to now. We
are struck by the pervasive silence on questions regarding the
contemporary rationale(s) for social science research. Though a variety of ethical
and procedural protocols require researchers to compose statements regarding the objectives or
purposes of a particular project, such protocols do not prompt reflection upon the
underlying beliefs about knowledge and change that too often go unexplored
or unacknowledged. The rationale for conducting social science research that collects pain narratives
seems to be self-evident for many scholars, but when looked at more closely, the rationales may be
unconsidered, and somewhat flimsy. Like a maritime archaeological site, such rationales might be best
examined in situ, for fear of deterioration if extracted. Why do researchers collect pain
narratives? Why does the academy want them? An initial and partial answer is
because settler colonial ideology believes that, in fiction author Sherril Jaffes
words, scars make your body more interesting, (1996, p. 58). Jaffes work of
short, short of fiction bearing that sentiment as title captures the exquisite crossing of wounds and
curiosity and pleasure. Settler colonial ideology, constituted by its
conscription of others, holds the wounded body as more engrossing
than the body that is not wounded (though the person with a
wounded body does not politically or materially benefit for being
more engrossing). In settler colonial logic, pain is more compelling
than privilege, scars more enthralling than the body unmarked by
experience. In settler colonial ideology, pain is evidence of
authenticity, of the verifiability of a lived life. Academe, formed and

informed by settler colonial ideology, has developed the same


palate for pain. Emerging and established social science researchers set out to
document the problems faced by communities, and often in doing so,
recirculate common tropes of dysfunction, abuse, and neglect.

MISC
AFF CARD
JAMES JAY CARAFANO 7/13/14 (Immigrants ignore U.S. immigration

laws because Obama won't enforce them, June 13 th, 2014,


http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/immigrants-ignore-u.s.-immigrationlaws-because-obama-wont-enforce-them/article/2550787, Accessed 7/16/15,
EHS MSK)
Today, the flood of unaccompanied minors illegally crossing the
border makes Napolitano's declaration look foolish. Last year, the
Department of Health and Human Services reported it had custody of about
2,000 minors who had entered illegally, without a parent. This year more than
52,000 unaccompanied children have been apprehended at the South Texas
border alone. Why the dramatic upsurge? It comes following the
president's 2012 declaration that his administration would defer,
virtually automatically, deportation of minors unlawfully present in the
U.S. Over the last year, coyotes have been using that promise as a
marketing tool for their people smuggling business. Coupling this
announcement with disastrous policies towards El Salvador, Honduras, and
Guatemala -- the three countries from which most of these children come -Obama has done much to undermine all the enforcement measures
that had stemmed the tide of illegal migration. Now Washington has
stepped in with three proposals to solve the problem. First, the president
has asked for $3.8 billion in emergency spending. That's a
laughable request intended mostly as a sound bite for the White
House to claim it is doing something. Little of the money would go
toward making the border more secure. A lot would go to hiring
immigration judges -- a two-year process that hardly qualifies as emergency
spending . If there are legitimate additional needs Congress should
just address them in the annual appropriations bill. Second, some
want to cut foreign aid to punish El Salvador, Honduras, and
Guatemala. But, Congress has to be careful not to gut programs that help
those nations battle the gangs and cartels that have made life there so
difficult. Indeed, by withholding security assistance funds over the last
few years, Washington has inadvertently fueled the problems many
Central Americans seek to flee. Third, there is a move to amend
current law to allow for expedited removal of minors from countries
that are noncontiguous with the United States. If done right, that
policy change would actually help over the long-term. Even under
expedited removal, U.S. officials must fully consider a childs safety in their
decision-making. After all, once the U.S. takes custody of a minor, its
responsible for that child. Today's border crisis offers an important lesson:
When an administration ignores the law or only pretends to enforce
it, no one pretends to obey it. The consequences are self-evident.

AFF CARD
PEA NIETO 2015 /ENRIQUE, The President of Mexico, January 06 2015,
Why the U.S.-Mexico Relationship Matters,
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/01/us-mexico-relationshipenrique-pea-nieto-113980.html#.Va-yhni4lao/ Franzy
To ensure the prosperity of our border we have worked together to

improve security and facilitate trade. Every minute, nearly a million


dollars worth of products cross our land border. Additionally, our
countries have begun several infrastructure projects to make the
border region a catalyst for growth and innovation. These projects
include the San Diego-Tijuana airport pedestrian bridge, the railway
crossing at Matamoros-Brownsville, and six new inspection booths at
the Nogales port of entry. We have also reduced average waiting
times at the San Ysidro-Chaparral crossing on the California-Baja
California border from 3.5 hours to half-an-hour.
Our commitment to education has allowed us to take advantage of the
synergies built through FOBESII and between our initiatives Proyecta
100,000 and 100,000 Strong in the Americas. Last year, we launched the
webpage Mobilitas, a platform to help students find educational opportunities
in both countries. Furthermore, 23 cooperation agreements have been signed
between Mexican and American states and universities. Altogether, we were
able to reach our 2014 goal: 27,000 Mexican students are attending almost
200 universities across the U.S.
The United States and Mexico have recognized that the challenges
and opportunities we face on immigration should be addressed from
a broad regional perspective and based upon the principle of shared
responsibility. Consequently, we are committed to working with our
neighbors in Central America to foster development and prosperity in that
region.
Over 34 million people of Mexican origin live in the U.S., 22.9 million of whom
were born here. Mexican-Americans are socially and economically active
members of their communities, and they maintain a strong binational
identity. These communities are pillars of the relationship between our
countries and will help us build a more prosperous shared future.
My government applauds President Obamas recently announced
Immigration Accountability Executive Action, which acknowledges
the positive economic and social impact of Mexican immigrants to
their communities in the U.S. Furthermore, these measures will
allow immigrants to increase their contributions to American society
and live without fear of being separated from their families. My
administration will continue to work with the U.S. government by
providing services and consular assistance in order to improve the
well-being of the Mexican community in this country. In order to
raise living standards in Mexicowhich will discourage
undocumented immigrationmy government has embarked upon a
transformational path. We have sought to enhance my countrys

competitiveness, strengthen the rights of the Mexican people and


consolidate our democracy.