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Chapter 1

Introduction about the industry


Agriculture is very important sector of the Indian companys. It contributes
sizably to the domestic product as also to exports. More than two-third of the
work force work in agriculture and large may depend upon it, being engaged in
agricultural products, agro based industries etc.
India being an agricultural based economy provides livelihood to more
than 75% of the population. Major portion of our income that is, about 70% is
earned from agriculture, it is depressed industry because of the low productivity,
in agriculture small size of farms, finance and defective equipments. Once
government believed that only large land holdings were the most efficient and
they could use the latest techniques in cultivation. However in recent years the
emphasis has been shifted from large land holdings to small landholdings.
Agriculture is way of life, a tradition that for centuries has shaped the
thought, the outlook, the culture and the economic life of the people of India.
Agriculture is considered to be the major activity of most of the people.
Moreover 200 million farmers and farm workers have

been the

backbone of Indians agriculture. In the beginning, the farmers adopted ancient


method . The entire process that is from the sowing the seed till harvesting were
all done by thefarmers itself. It was a really time consuming one which required
lot of labour work. The cost of production was very high and the benefits are not
promising.
In the view of the spectacular success in the production and productivity
achieved in

developed

countries

through

mechanization of

agriculture, it

was being agreed that India also should fall in line with these countries. Though
India was backward in the use of machines for agricultural operations, yet in the
past few years there has been an increase in the case of modern implements. The
phase of mechanization of farming in the country was slow during 1950s.

Thereafter particularly since the mid 1960s with the coming of the new agricultu
ral
technology, this has increased. An associated effect of the new agricultural practic
es. The preparation of land, the sowing of seeds, the watering of land, the control
of seeds, the use of pesticides, the quick harvesting of crops etc, are now done
more scientifically than even before.
After the Industrial revolution even the agriculture sector all over the
world witnessed a drastic change. A number of revolution occurred during the 19th
century. Higher productivity and greater output are the two major contributions
infarm mechanization. Tillers form an integral part of farm mechanization and
have a crucial role to play in increasing agricultural productivity. Tiller is a highly
versatile piece of machinery having a multitude of uses, used in agriculture both
for land reclamation and for carrying out various crop cultivation and also
employed for carrying out various operations connected with raising the crops by
attaching suitable implements and to provide the necessary energy for performing
various crop production operations involved in the production of agricultural
crops.
Tillers are capital intensive, labour displaying used as a mode of transport,
in electricity generation, in construction industry and for haulage operation. It has
now become an integral part of farm structure .The application of tiller for
agricultural activities which swept India during the last twenty years have erased
the problem of farmers. Farm mechanization program in India aims to integrate
the use of available human and animal farm power with mechanical sources of
power for increasing the productivity.
A rapid major change in the economy was noticed by the general
introduction of power driven machineries. The entry of engineering technologies
in agricultural sector for the purpose of large production of crops using
technological know-how, Kerala Agro Machinery Corporation Limited is the
leading company in India trying for establishing engineering green revolution in
India.

Chapter 2
Introduction about the company
KAMCO was established in the year 1973 as a wholly owned subsidiary
of Kerala Agro Industries corporation limited, Thiruvanandapuram for manufactur
e of agricultural machinery specifically Power Tiller. Subsequently KAMCO
becomes a separate Government of Kerala undertaking in 1986. The objectives of
the company is to manufacture in India, either in collaboration with or otherwise
or import and trade agricultural machinery like Power Tiller, Power Reaper,
Combined

harvesters,

Harvester,

transplanted

accessories

or

spares.

The objective also include establishment of engineering workshop, repair shops to


undertake repair and servicing of agricultural machinery or other machinery,
equipment, implements and tools.
Assembly unit was established in 1970 at Athani by Kerala Agro
Industries Corporation for the assembly of KUBOTA Power Tillers in technical
collaboration with KUBOTA Ltd Japan, The worlds leading manufactures
of Tillers and Other Agricultural machinery. On the expiry of collaboration
KAMCO manufactured Power Tillers with their own facilities. KAMCO
manufacturing facilities include special purpose machines and imported
machines. The inspection facilities include modern inspection and
testing equipment KAMCO have their own methodology, calibration and engine
testing lab. KAMCO an ISO 9001:2000 is fully owned Government of Kerala
under the ministry of agriculture. KAMCO is engaged in manufacturing small
agricultural machine mainly indented for small and marginal farmers in the
country in the country established in 1973; the company has now completed 30
years of services. Company has got for

manufacturing units now in Athani,

Kalamassery, Mala and Kanjikode. Athani unit is also the Registered Office of the
company. At present company employees approximately 750 persons in four units
. The company is working profitably for the past fifteen years. The company was

incorporated with the intention of manufacturing and marketing agricultural


machines useful for small and marginal farmers. Companys products are 9 to
12HP kerosene. Athani, Palakkad and Kalamassery units manufactures Power Till
ers and Mala unit manufactures Power Tillers and Power Reapers.
Power Tillers is equipment suitable for small farm holding for basic
tilling operations instead of conventional plugging, the tiller breaks the soil into
fine parts which is highly suited for paddy and wheat cultivation, originally
of Japaneese design, the machines has been modified later to perfectly suit Indian
conditions. The company plans to diversify its activities further in acquiring
technical know how and going into regular manufactures, under license of machin
es suitable for other agricultural purposes with the small and marginal farmers in
mind.
2.1 Objectives of the Company
The main objective of the company is to manufacture or assemble in
India, either in collaboration or otherwise tractors, power tillers, power reapers,
combineharvesters, transplanters, diesel engines, pump sets, accessories and
attachments and spares there to.
The other objectives are as follows;

To organize, conduct or manage engineering workshops or repair shop.


To manufacture, import, buy, sell, or deal in workshop machinery, machine

tools and metals of all kinds and to undertake repairs.


Servicing of agricultural machinery or other equipments, implements and

tools
Rendering other kinds of services for services for consideration
or otherwise.

2.2 Organsation Structure of KAMCO


KAMCO is governed by the Board of Directors. Board includes Chairman,
Managing Director and other Directors. The Government of Kerala nominates the
Chairman of the Board. The Chief Executive Officer of the company is the
Managing Director who shall exercise powers, subject to the overall control and
supervision of the Board. The Managing Director is the top most official and the

Government gives delegation of authority to the Managing Director. He may be


entrusted and delegated power from time to time by the Board. The Managing
Director is the operational head of the company supported by General Manager
and Deputy General Managers for different sections. Managers and Deputy
Managers will assist the General Manager and Deputy General Manager.
2.3 Pollution Controlling System of KAMCO
Athani unit of the company have installed effluent treatment systems
designed by the LBS centre for science and Technology and approved by State
Pollution Control Board. The all new engines will reduce pollution and it also
reduces the fuel consumption than the ordinary engine.
2.4 Quality of Products
The company enjoys the position of premier manufacture in the field. The
products manufactured are indigenized and there is no imported content in any of
the items. The machines have acquired a reputation for quality and reliability.
KAMCO is an ISO 9001 organisation with the aim of providing quality products
at reasonable price to the satisfaction of customers. The company enjoys all India
market through a network of about 45 dedicated dealers. Products are sold on
premium at several places. They have acquired a brand preference because of the
high quality and reliability associated with machineries.

Chapter 3
Product Details
Today KAMCOs well-known product range includes the KAMCO
power tiller. KAMCO power reaper, KAMCO Agria Garden tiller and last but not
the least, KAMCO Diesel Engine, each Of these products are time tested and
have proven their worth many times over for their owners. KAMCO at Athani, is
the prime centre for the manufacture of Power Tillers and Tractors.
Power tiller is the main product of KAMCO. It is a versatile machine that
has radically changed the old labour intensive methods of agriculture, by making
almost all farming operations faster, cheaper and easier. The cost on tiller is
around 1.10 lakh.
Features

Simple movement and control for easy of handling


Perfectly balanced and vibration- free engine to reduce operator fatigue
Unique radiator cooling system helps in non stop operation
Fail -safe safety devices to prevent accidents
Automatic fuel control to save precious energy
Distinctive radiator control system for continuous operations
It is faster
Make cleaner windrows for easier collection
6 Forward speed, 2 Reverse speed, 4 Tilling
Rotary, diesel-powered, water cooled, with radiator
KAMCOs Power Tiller have more than 850 different components,

majority of which are supplied by dedicated small and medium scale industries
from nearby states. Functionally critical components (almost 13) are manufactured
in KAMCOs house itself. Company has got a modern machine shop with special
purpose machines, which ensure conformity with prescribed quality standards.

Inspection at various stages of manufacturing is carried out, which help in


reducing the process to the minimum.
The power tillers produced here are of two types namely ER 90 and DI
120. DI 120 is the newly designed product which meets all the requirements of the
pollution control board without reducing the machine power from 12 HP. The
main difference between DI (Direct Injection) engine and ER engine is the
position of combustion chamber. In ER engine there is a seperate combustion
chamber and the compressed fluid is transmitted from chamber to piston. So there
will be power loss during transmission. But in the case of DI engine the
combustion chamber is just above the piston or over the piston surface and it can
avoid the power loss. So it has several advantages such as less fuel consumption,
less exhaust and more power output.

Fig 3.1 Power Tiller


3.1 Specifications of Power Tiller model ER 90
Type

: Horizontal Water Cooled, 4 stroke

Number of cylinders

:1

Bore stroke

: 95 105

Compression ratio

: 20:1

Rated Power

: 9 HP

Rated Speed : 2100 25


Specific Fuel Consumption

: 190-210 g/HP/Hr.

Stroke volume, flywheel surface

: 0.3 mm

Thrust movement of crank shaft

: 0.1 0.3 mm

Cylinder lever projection

: 0.15 0.25 mm

Exhaust gas temperature

: 370 4300C

Engine oil capacity

: 3 litre

Engine oil grade (temp)

: SAE 40/900C

Lubrication oil consumption

: 5 6 cc/Hr.

Cooling water capacity

: 4 litre

Cooling water consumption

: 4 5 cc/Hr.

Valve clearance

: 0.15 0.25 mm

Injection pressure

: 155 160 Kg/cm2

3.2 Specifications of Power Tiller model DI 120


Type

: Horizontal Water Cooled, 4 stroke

Number of cylinders

:1

Compression ratio

: 18:1

Rated Power

: 12 HP

Rated Speed

: 2180 20

Specific Fuel Consumption

: 175 - 190 g/HP/Hr.

Stroke volume, flywheel surface

: 0.3 mm

Thrust movement of crank shaft

: 0.1 0.3 mm

Cylinder lever projection

: 0.8 + 0.05 mm

Exhaust gas temperature

: 370 4300C

Engine oil capacity

: 3 litre

Engine oil grade (temp)

: SAE 40/900C

Lubrication oil consumption

: 5 6 cc/Hr.

Cooling water capacity

: 4 litre

Cooling water consumption

: 4 5 cc/Hr.

Valve clearance

: 0.3 mm

Injection pressure

: 255 263 Kg/cm2

Chapter 4
Study of the Plant
The infrastructure of the plant consists of the following sections.

Machine shop
Assembly line
Quality assurance section
Pre treatment & Painting booth

4.1 Plant Layout

Fig 4.1
4.2 Machine Shop
10

Company has a modern machine shop with Special Purpose Machines


(SPM),

which

ensures

conformity

with

prescribed

quality

standards.

Machine Shop is responsible for ensuring the conformity with prescribed standard
s, the workers in the machine shop are fully experienced. 14 components are
manufactured in the Machine Shop. These components are called as critical
components. The materials purchased by the Purchase Department, are then send
to the stores. From there the materials are forwarded to the Q.A. department. From
Q.A Department the materials are forwarded to the machine shop. Processes like
milling, drilling, boring etc are doing on the materials to get products which are
used in the assembly.They inspect the various stages of production. This reduces
rejection to a great extend. Shift officers are in charge of machine shop. From
machine shop the finished products are sent to Quality checking and from there
to stores.
The various processes in the machine shop of KAMCO are

4.2.1

Vertical milling of engine block


Horizontal milling of engine block
Vertical milling of side cover
Horizontal millig of main gear case
Gang drilling (Vertical)
Gang drilling (Horizontal)
Boring machine
Drilling of governor lever
Grinding of cam shaft
Grinding of fuel cam
The machines provided in the shop include
Vertical Milling Machine 1
It is mainly used for grinding the cylinder frame or engine block.

Specifications of the machine :


Machine code
Make

: FN3V
: HMT, Pinjore

Machine no
Rated current

: 1997
: 22A

Main fuse rating: 63A


It uses a squirrel cage 3 induction motor (make: ABB).

11

Main lubricant used is a lithium based anti-friction bearing grease.


The machine uses a carbide tip tool consisting of 14 tools in it.
There are mainly three vertical milling machine here.
4.2.2

Overhead Crane (Hoist)


Used for material handling in the factory.
The crane is a KEL, Kochi make lifting a maximum of 750kg.
(Machine no: WRH 13385)

4.2.3

Horizontal Milling Machine 1


It has none other functions than the vertical, instead used for horizontal

surfaces.
Specifications of machine:
Machine code: FN3H
Machine no: 1681
All other specifications same of FN3V.
4.2.4

Vertical Milling Machine 2


It is mainly used for the finishing of the side cover of the engine block.

The material of the side block is aluminum, which caused high sound
and jerking.

The main tool used in it was a CI-k20 tip tool.


The side cover is made at Coimbatore or Bangalore.
Specification of the machine:
Machine code: FN2EV
Machine no: 3011-EV
Make: HMT LTD, Pinjore
Supply voltage: 3, 415V
Control voltage: 220(with t/r)
Clutch voltage: 24V
Rated current: 15A
Main fuse rating: 50A
Average speed: 450 rpm.

12

4.2.5

Horizontal Milling Machine 2


Mainly used for grinding the 2-3 sides of the main gear case.
Machine code: FN3H4
Machine no: 1680
Lubricating oil: ISO grade VG68.

4.2.6

Grinding Machine
It is used for grinding of the top side of side block.
There are lot of electrical cams in it.
It has also stoppers in it to follow the electrical cams.
It has manual, semi-automatic and auto options.
A rough layout of the stoppers may be like this.

Specifications for machine:


3 AC 50Hz
Working voltage: 415V
Control voltage: 220/24
4.2.7

Capstan Lathe
Used for making the hole for Governor Level. It uses a coolant which is a

mixture of oil and water. The machine operates at speed of 500 rpm.
Specifications of the machine:
Type: HIC-4
Supply: 415V
Control voltage: 200V, 3-50Hz
F/C amps: 12.34A
Make: Mysore Kirloskar Ltd
4.2.8

Special Purpose Machines (SPM 1)


Mainly used for side boring of the block.
The bore is calculated using dial bore gauge.
There are mainly electrical cams 2 slots.
There are also mechanical cams.
There are separate speed, for each bore.

Specifications of the machine:


13

Make: MT Hyderabad
Machine no: Y649
Operating voltage: 3, 50Hz, 415V
Connecting load: 22/30 KW/HP
Maximum fuel load current: 16.7A
Protective switch gear: 100A
4.2.9

Gang Drilling Machine (SPM 2)


It is used for mass production.
It has a cluster plate arrangement.
No marking or punching required instead it drills automatically.
It has 16 spindle.
Also has telescopic shafts.

Specifications of the machine:


Connecting load:16.5/22.5 KW/HP
Maximum feed load current: 27.6A
Protective switch gear: 100A
Rough casted main enginr block is purchased from Auto Kast Ltd. (AKL),
Aleppey and is machined to desired dimensions. The tool used for this purpose is
carbide tipped tool which suits for the machining process of cast iron.
The side cover is made up of Aluminium which creates much vibration
during machining. Aluminiun and cast iron doesnot require any coolants during
machining. The rough casted piece is purchased from Coimbathore.
In addition to common purpose machines, there are some special purpose
machine tools which are designed exclusively for KAMCO. They are special
purpose gang Drilling Machine vertial and horizontal, special purpose boring
machine. Here boring machine can be used for boring more than one hole at a
time. Horizontal and vertical gang Drilling Machines can be used to drill 16 holes
at a time.The alignment of holes can be changed by changing cluster plate.
Capstan lathe is used to drill hole on governer lever. At a time we can fix
tools such as centre drill, champhering tool, hole milling tool and reaming tool.
Cam grinding machine is used to grind heat treated cam. Coolants are provided

14

during cam grinding and drilling of governer lever. The coolant is a mixture of
water and oil.
In each work stations properly designed jigs and fixtures are used to hold
work piece properly and guide the tool. Over head rail crain is used to transfer
work from one station to another. A Quality Assurance section is working for
assuring the quality of each parts. As the present work policy of KAMCO, each
worker is the customer of former and every customer should be satisfied.
4.3 Assembly Line
Assembly is one of the major sections in production department. All the
parts are assembled in this department. A chief mechanic is present in this section.
The engine assembly is one of the major works in the assembly. After testing the
assembled engines, it is sent to the painting section. Through different
transmissions in the assembly we get the finished product.
Assembly section consists of mainly three areas

Engine line

Transmission line

Tiller assembly line

Engine line consists of five work stations namely E1, E2, E3, Engine
testing and Engine finishing. Transmission line consists of work stations namely
T1, T2 and T3. The work stations in the Tiller assembly line are K1, K2, K3 and
K4.
At the engine line, the assembly of entire engine takes place. The power
transmission gears are assembled in the sections T1, T2 and T3. The triller
attachments are assembled in the sections K1, K2, K3 and K4.
At E1, liner is inserted into the main engine block with o-rings. Stud is
fitted on the engine bock. Water and oil drain plugs are screwed. Engine number is
punched. The engine block is then placed on the conveyor system for furthur
assembling activities. Piston consists of two oil rings, two compression rings and a
top ring. After inserting all these rings piston is heated to expand and connecting
rod is connected to the expanded piston, using a sir clip.

15

Crank shaft consisting of two balancing weight, both of them have


150050 gm. The difference between two should not exceed 5 gm. A torque
wrench is used to screw balancing weight on crank shaft. The specified torque is
5.6 to 5.8 kgfm. The main bearing case are pressed to crank shaft using a press.
Speed governer is also developed using press. The gears, crank shaft and piston
are inserted to engine block. With the assembly of radiator, the first stage of
engine assembly completes.
After E1 the incompleted engine block is moved to the section E2. Here the
assembly of the side cover, racker case, fan bracket, fly wheel,vfuel injector etc
takes place. A dynamo is attached to the fan bracket for the generation of power
for the head light. The governer lever is attached to the speed governer. Pressure
inside the liner is tested. Inlet and exhaust valves are fitted in tis section.
The completed engine block is then moved to engine testing room. Here
the speed of rotation in rpm, crank case pressure and fuel consumption are
measured and forward the satisfactory engines and reject the undesired ones. The
load test is conducted using Prony Brake system.
From the engine testing section engine moves to the engine finishing
section. Here the cleaning and painting of the engine takes place. First the engine
is washed using hot, high speed water jet and is cleaned with compressed air flow.
The paint used here is poly urathane paint. After cleaning and painting the engine
is covered using guard plates. Air filter and exhaust is fitted and moved to the
mounting section.
The assembly of the transmissin system takes place in T1, T2 and T3. At
the T1 work station the axile shaft of the power triller is fitted to the main gear
case and is moved to the section T2. Here the assembly of drive shaft (first shaft),
second shaft, third shaft, first auxiliary speed change shaft, second auxiliary speed
control shaft, reverse shaft and blade shaft takes place. The drive from engine is
coming to the first shaft through belt drives and clutch. The first, second, third and
reverse gears are implemented by the engagement and disengagement of dogs in
first shaft. The steering clutch is attached to the third shaft.
The main gear case is then moved to the section T3. The upper cover, side
cover, and clutch plates are attached in this section. The side cover consists of
16

shift fork which transmits power to the triller attachments. The clutch plate is used
to control the power from engine to the driver shaft (first shaft) of the main gear
case.
The tiller assembly line consists of four work stations namely K1, K2, K3 amd
K4. The tiller attachments are assembled in K1 section. Tiller attachments consists
of right and left side arm, frame, chain drive, blade and wheel hub. Only left side
arm consist of shaft and other is meant for suport. Chain drive is used to meet high
load requirements. Chasis number is punched and moved for cleaning (with air
and hot water) and painting (PU paint). The painted chasis is moved to section K2
and assembly of left and right side plate, mud guard, front cover, rear wheel
bracket, inner and outer pipe and rear cover takes place.
The incompleted chasis is then moved to the section K3. Here the asembly
of front frame, tyres, wheel cover, front stand, hub wheel auxillary, tensin pulley
and protector takes place. Front frame sould be able to carrry enough weight as
the engine block is placed over it. The front stand is provided with a spring
attachment to prevent slipping. The completed chasis is moved to the section K4.
Lubricants are applied and tested using an electric motor. After fixing the
problems, the chasis is move to the mounting section.
The engine block and chasis is mounted to form the finished product. The
wiring for head light is done. The fuel tank and fuel filter is fitted. After the
assembling is over the tiller will go to the quality assurance department for final
inspection .they will check the tillers as per assembly quality plans are satisfied
tillers will go to the central store department where they are stocked.
4.4 Quality Assurance Section
Quality Assurance clarifies the components into two critical component
and non critical components. Critical components are crank shaft, all engine parts,
gear wheels etc. non critical components are nuts, bolts, and screws etc. The
clarificationis mainly for ignoring the practical difficulty in checking. Complete
inspection occurs in critical components and only sample inspection in non critical
components. Practical difficulty in checking non critical components is the
problem there from herethe production department as their requirements takes the
components. After getting a finished product from the assembly department for

17

the final checking. If it is OK itis gone to the store. From these the machine will
enter into marker through dealers.
Calibration cell:- Q.A departments are equipped with all modal facilities.
The company has a calibration cell to check and correct the measurements of
allmeasuring instruments.

Ensure the quality of line procedures.


Purchased products quality is assessed by quality assurance department.
Assembly line inspection done at each work centre.
Final inspection of the finished products is done.
Calibration is done by the Quality Assurance.
The various measuring instruments used in the calibration cell are

4.4.1 Profile projector


It is also known as an optical comparator, or even called a shadowgraph, a
profile projector is an optical instrument that can be used for measuring. It is a
useful item in a small parts machine shop or production line for the quality control
inspection team. The projector magnifies the profile of the specimen, and displays
this on the built-in projection screen. On this screen there is typically a grid that
can be rotated 360 degrees so the X-Y axis of the screen can be aligned with a
straight edge of the machined part to examine or measure. This projection screen
displays the profile of the specimen and is magnified for better ease of calculating
linear measurements. An edge of the specimen to examine may be lined up with
the grid on the screen. From there, simple measurements may be taken for
distances to other points. This is being done on a magnified profile of the
specimen. It can be simpler as well as reduce errors by measuring on the
magnified projection screen of a profile projector.
Profile projector consists of a main scale and vernier scale. It has a least
count of 1 minute or 1/60 degree.
Fig 4.2 Profile projector

18

4.4.2 Slip gauge


A slip gauge (also known as a Johansson gauge, gauge block, or Jo block)
is a precision length measuring standard consisting of a ground and lapped metal
or ceramic block.
4.4.3 Sine bar
A device consisting of a steel straight edge with two cylinders of equal
diameter attached near the ends with their centers equidistant from the
straightedge; used to measure angles accurately and to lay out work at a desired
angle in relationship to a surface. Angles are measured using a sine bar with the
help of gauge blocks and a dial gauge or a spirit level. When a sine bar is placed

19

on a level surface the top edge will be parallel to that surface. If one roller is
raised by a known distance, usually using gauge blocks, then the top edge of the
bar will be tilted by the same amount forming an angle that may be calculated by
the application of the sine rule.

Fig 4.3 Sine bar


4.4.4 Micrometers
Instrument for making precise linear measurements of dimensions such as
diameters, thicknesses, and lengths of solid bodies. It consists of a C-shaped frame
with a movable jaw operated by a screw. The accuracy of the measurements
depends on the accuracy of the screw-nut combination. Micrometers are of
various types such as normal, spline, point, flange, depth, 3 pin and height
micrometers.
4.4.5 Radius gauges
A radius gauge, also known as a fillet gauge, is a tool used to measure the
radius of an object. Radius gauges require a bright light behind the object to be
measured. The gauge is placed against the edge to be checked and any light
leakage between the blade and edge indicates a mismatch that requires correction.

20

A good set of gauges will offer both convex and concave sections, and
allow for their application in awkward locations.

Fig 4.4 Radius Gauge


4.4.6 Dual Protractor
It is an instrument used to measure angle with a least count of 5 minutes. Various
elements of industry find these protractors a much needed necessity to accurately
measure or set-up angles, saving time and money in the process.
4.4.7 Dial bore gauge
A dial or vernier bore gauge measures a bore directly. The gauge has three
symmetrical anvils that protrude from the gauge body that are connected to the

21

dial or micrometer mechanism. As the knob is rotated it moves the anvils in or out
with respect to the measurements. The knob usually has a slipping mechanism to
take the feel out of the device and increase reliability between measurements.
4.4.8 Thread gauge

Fig 4.5 Thread gauge


Thread gauge is used to measure the tolerance range of threads. A gauge
that uses its threads to measure the accuracy of other screw threads. A thread
gauge is either a working gage, an inspection gage, or a reference gage.
4.4.9 Dial test indicator

22

Fig 4.6 Dial test indicator


A dial test indicator, also known as a lever arm test indicator or finger
indicator, has a smaller measuring range than a standard dial indicator. A test
indicator measures the deflection of the arm, the probe does not retract but swings
in an arc around its hinge point. The lever may be interchanged for length or ball
diameter, and permits measurements to be taken in narrow grooves and small
bores where the body of a probe type may not reach.
4.4.10 Trimos

23

Fig 4.7 Trimos


The instrument offers various possibilities of application such as
measuring of heights, depths, diameters and centerline distances, checking of
squareness deviation and angles and tolerance limits indication. Additional
functions such as the 2-coordinate measuring system, programming of measuring
sequences, statistical analysis of memorized values and display of the
environmental temperature extend the measurement capability range of 300, 600
and 1000mm. The instruments comprise quite a number of new innovations: An
extremely resistive double measuring carriage, a clearly defined color touchscreen display unit, optimum repeatability of measurements obtained by a
motorised probing system as well as an entire digital measuring system. All

24

measuring and user functions are clearly displayed on the large bright LCD
screen. Graphic help as well as on-line instructions guide the operator through
most of the measuring functions. The operating handle for the displacement of the
instrument, provided with programmable function keys, has been designed for
optimum operator comfort. The entire system floats on a air cusion to prevent
operator fatiuge. It has a particulaar extend of memory power as like a computer
and an output to a printer. The trimos should be calibrated after changing its probe
using standard height block.
4.5 Pre treatment & Painting booth
In KAMCO they are using a good advanced booth. After cleaning the
components it will go for painting through a conveyer belt and after painting it
will go to the oven through the belt. The painting process is full automated and
will done automatically through machine. Spray painting method is used for
painting process adopted with wet system and stowing enamel paint is used .
Mainly they are using two colours for painting, one is Ash and the other one is
Post office Red.
Tank pre-treatment process include

Process 1: Degreasing - In this process the item or product that is to be


cleaned is dipped in the tank with chemical at 60-degree temperature for

about 20-25 minutes.


Process 2: Water rinsing - Here the item is simply rinsed with water for

about 2 minutes.
Process 3: Acid treatment - Again the item is dipped in a solution
containing 35% HCl for about 20 minutes. This is mainly done to remove

rust.
Process 4: The component is again passed through two cold-water tanks

and rinsed.
Process 5: Phosphating - Again the item is dipped in a solution containing
phosphate content for about 45 minutes. After this process the surface of

the component will be completely cleaned.


Process 6: Water rinsing - The component is washed with water.
Process 7: Passivation - Here the component is dipped in a solution
containing chromic acid for about 20 minute.

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Chapter 5
Conclusion
KAMCO is one of the profit making company in the state government.
The training was helpful in getting an understanding of the company, various
departments and their functions in a factory and overall operations of company.
The study enabled to collect much more information about the industry and have
helped in knowing the practica lsituation prevailing in the company. The training
enabled us to understand the assembly of engine, gear box and also helped to
collect more details about the various machine tools and instruments that are used
in the company.
Each and every staff of this company co-operated with us and so we were
able to understood almost all processes, plant layout and production details from
this short period of days. So we are expressing our sincere gratitude to this
company and its staff.

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