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751x MG (Media Gateway)


Fundamentals
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Objectives
z

This training document covers basic information of


media gateways in an NGN environment.

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Objectives [cont.]

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Table of Contents
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1 NGN Overview
1.1 Voice over IP (VoIP) and NGN
1.2 IP Telephony (IPT)
1.3 Class 4 Application
1.4 Border Gateway
1.5 Class 5 Application
1.6 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
2 Gateway Functions
2.1 Classification of Gateways
2.2 Monolithic and Decomposed Gateway Concept
2.3 Codecs
2.4 Silence Supression
2.5 Fax Relay (T.38)
2.6 Hairpinning
2.7 Session Border Control
3 MEGACO Protocol
3.1 MEGACO Network Elements
3.2 Definitions and Commands
3.3 Call Setup Scenario
4 Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN)
4.1 Overview
4.2 SIGTRAN IUA Example
5 Summary
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5.1 Gateway Applications

Media Gateway Basics

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Table of Contents [cont.]


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1 NGN Overview

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1 NGN Overview

1.1 Voice over IP (VoIP) and NGN


Data Network
Softphone / IP-Phone
(H.323, SIP)

Voice Communication between IP Devices


Data Network

Softphone / IP-Phone
(H.323, SIP)

PSTN

Gateway

Voice Communication between Networks


Data Network

PSTN

POTS / ISDN

PSTN

Gateway

POTS / ISDN

Softphone / IP-Phone
(H.323, SIP)

Gateway

POTS / ISDN

Data Networks to replace Long Distance Exchanges


Data Network
-own network-

PSTN
POTS / ISDN

Gateway

Data Network
-other providerBorder Gateway

Border Gateway Application


Data Network
POTS / ISDN

Gateway

Gateway

Data Networks to replace Local Exchanges


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POTS / ISDN

1 NGN Overview

1.2 IP Telephony (IPT)


Gatekeeper
ProxyServer
(IPT)
Application
Server /
Services

Data Network SIP

H.323, SIP

SIP
RTP

H.323,
SIP

H.323,
SIP
RTP

RTP

RTP

MRF

Softphone
(H.323, SIP)

IP Telephone
(H.323, SIP)

Voice
Gateway
Softphone
(H.323, SIP)

IP Internet Protocol
IPT IP Telephony
MRF Media Resource Function
PRI Primary Rate Interface
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol
SIP Session Initiating Protocol

IP Telephone
(H.323, SIP)

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PRI
PSTN

1 NGN Overview

1.3 Class 4 Application

Media
Gateway
Controller
(Class 4)

Data Network

MEGACO Media Gateway Control Protocol


RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol
SIGTRAN Signaling Transport
SIP Session Initiating Protocol

RTP
MEGACO

MEGACO
Media
Gateway

SIGTRAN

Media
Gateway

Signaling
Gateway

CCS N7
(ISUP)

ISUP

ISUP
N7
PSTN

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1 NGN Overview

1.4 Border Gateway

Media
Gateway
Controller
(IBCF)

Media
Gateway
Controller
(IBCF)
SIP / SIP-I

SIP / SIP-I

Firewall

Firewall
MEGACO

Data Network
MEGACO

MEGACO

Data Network

RTP
Media
Gateway

Border
Gateway

Border
Gateway

Media
Gateway
ISUP

ISUP
PSTN

PSTN

IBCF - Interconnection Border Control Function


MEGACO Media Gateway Control Protocol
RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol
SIP Session Initiating Protocol

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RTP

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1 NGN Overview

1.5 Class 5 Application

Media
Gateway
Controller
(Class 5)

IAD Integrated Access Device


MEGACO Media Gateway Control Protocol
MGCP - Media Gateway Control Protocol
MTA Media Terminal Adapter
RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol
SIGTRAN Signaling Transport
SIP Session Initiating Protocol

Data Network

MEGACO
SIGTRAN

RTP

MEGACO

RTP
Access
Gateway

Centralized
Access
Gateway

Access
Node

SIP, MGCP,
MEGACO

Access Network

Residential
Gateway
(MTA, IAD)

PABX

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1 NGN Overview

1.6 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)

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2 Gateway Functions

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2 Gateway Functions

2.1 Classification of Gateways


AGW - Access Gateway
AN - Access Node
c-AGW - centralized Access Gateway
BGW - Border Gateway
RGW - Residential Gateway
SGW - Signaling Gateway
TGW - Trunking Gateway

Data Network

Transit
BGW

Signaling
SGW

TGW

Access
c-AGW

AGW

BGW
RGW

Data Network
other Provider

4,000..32,000
Equivalent
Channels

AN

PSTN

250..32,000
Channels

1...64
CCS N7 Links

250..32,000
250..1,500
Channels
1,500...100,000 Subscriber
Subscriber

Packet Gateways

TDM Gateways

- Packet to Packet Gateways

- convert TDM-voice to Packet-voice and vv.


- Voice Coding, Echo Suppression, VAD, CNG
- Special treatment for other traffic (Fax)

15

- Voice Transcoding
- Network Address Translation
- SLA Mapping of QoS-Levels

1...8 Ports
1 Subscriber
+ Ethernet

4,000..16,000
Equivalent
Channels

Signaling Gateways
- converts TDM Signaling
(CCS N7, DSS, ...) to IP

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Classification of Gateways
A classification of gateways can be made via location of the gateway in the network. So we can decide
between the following types of gateways:
Transit gateways
Signaling gateways
Access gateways

Transit Gateways
Transit gateways are gateways used between different networks. Beside border gateways (BGW), used
between different packet networks, also trunking gateways (TGW) with a media conversion from circuit
switched to packet switched networks and vice versa are possible.
Signaling Gateways
Signaling gateways (SGW) are used to transport TDM based signaling messages in a packet network. In an
NGN environment signaling gateways are used for N7 signaling and DSS signaling (PRA interface)
Access Gateways
Access gateways (AGW) are used to provide the access of subscribers to the telecommunication network.
Depend on the function, size and physical location different types of access gateways are classified:
centralized Access Gateway (c-AGW)

are used to connect TDM based concentrators to the data network


Access Gateways (AGW)

contains subscriber interfaces and connect subscribers immediately the data network
Residential Gateways (RGW)

are also used to connect subscribers immediately to the data network. In difference to an AGW
the RGW is located on the subscriber premises and supports a small number of ports for analogue
or ISDN telephone sets for one subscriber. Additionally an Ethernet interface can be supported.
Border Gateways (BGW)

supports firewall functions in the access to a subscriber


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2 Gateway Functions

2.2 Monolithic and Decomposed Gateway Concept

Gatekeeper /
Proxy Server

Monolithic Gateway

H.323
SIP

ISDN

Call Control

PSTN

H.323
SIP
H.323, SIP

Media

Call Control
Media

RTP

Voice Gateway

ISUP
SIGTRAN

Decomposed Gateway

Media Gateway
Controller

ISUP
CCS N7

MEGACO

Media

Signaling GW
ISUP
CCS N7

MEGACO

Media

RTP

Media Gateway

16

ISUP
SIGTRAN

Call Control

Signaling GW

PSTN

H.323 Terminal

PSTN

Media Gateway

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Media Gateway Basics

Monolithic Gateway
A monolithic gateway is used for example in an H.323 or SIP configuration. Here the terminal contains
both the media handling (coding, packetization, ...) and the call control function. A Gatekeeper or Proxy
Server is used for support functions only (Registration, address-translation, ...). The monolithic gateway
contains also the media handling and the call control.
Monolithic gateways are used to connect a PABX or a VPN via an Primary Rate Interface
(PRI) to an existing PSTN. Its also called a Voice Gateway.
Decomposed Gateway
A decomposed gateway separates the media and call control function. So the call control function is
located on a central instance, the Media Gateway Controller (MGC). The gateway covers only the media
handling (coding, packetization, ...). Its also called a Media Gateway.

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2 Gateway Functions

2.3 Codecs
i.e.
TDM Interface

i.e.
Packet Interface

DSP

... 01101100 10110100 01010101 ...

010100

101010

011011

CODEC
i.e. 64 kBit/s PCM Bitstream (G.711)
Codec

i.e. G.729 Packets (5,3/6,3kBit/s)


Name

Pulse Code Modulation


G.711
(PCM)
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
G.726
(ADPCM)
Low Delay Code Excited Linear Prediction
G.728
(LD-CELP)
G.729 / Conjugate Structure Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction
G.729A (CS-ACELP)
Multiple Maximum Likehood Quantizatition
G.723.1
(MPMLQ)
Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction
G.723
(ACELP)

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Bitrate

MOS

56 / 64 kBit/s

4.1

16 - 40 kBit/s

3.85

16 kBit/s

3.61

8 kBit/s

3.92 /
3.7

6.3 kBit/s

3.9

5.3 kBit/s

3.65

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Media Gateway Basics

Codecs (COder/DECoder)
A Codec is used for coding of a video or audio stream into packets used in the IP network.
The codec works bi-directional. So the codec transforms also received IP packets into a video- or audiostream.
G.711 PCM Code

The ITU G.711 Standard is used in nearly all PSTNs world-wide. It describes the Pulse Code
Modulation (PCM) with 64 kBit/s.
G723.1

Low Bitrate Codec originally developed for video telephony.


Silence suppression is possible.
G.729 / G.729A

Low Bit Rate Codec used for integrated speech and data applications. It is similar to G.723.1 but
less delay.
Silence suppression is possible.
Mean Opinion Score (MOS)
Usually technical procedures are used to measure the voice quality in a objective way. But these
mechanisms cant describe the real perception. So additionally a Mean Opinion Score is defined as an
average over a big number of individual opinions. The MOS ranges from 1 to 5.
Processor Power
The reduction of bitrate required processor power. So this parameter describes the effort that has to be
spend in the Digital Signal Processor (DSP).

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2 Gateway Functions

2.4 Silence Supression


Voice Activity Detection
Comfort Noise Generation

Data Network

PSTN

PSTN

without Voice Activity Detection


1101

1010

0000

0000

1111

1010

with Voice Activity Detection


1101

18

1010

1111

1010

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Media Gateway Basics

Voice Activity Detection (VAD)


is a process used to identify presence or absence of speech data bits. The result can be used to reduce
the bandwidth for a communication channel in a data network. So in case of no speech information only
a no-information-but-still-alive indication is transmitted. This indication is send with one UDP packet
i.e. all 300 ms. Compared with one UDP packet all i.e. 30 ms for speech data there is a reduction of up
to 90% of bandwidth.
Comfort Noise Generation (CNG)
To avoid the feeling of a dead line during a running Voice Activity Detection in a no-data-phase on the
receiver side a quiet noise is generated.

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2 Gateway Functions

2.5 Fax Relay (T.38)

Data Network

PSTN

A
A

19

0100 1011 1100

PSTN

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Fax Relay (T.38)

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A
A

2 Gateway Functions

2.6 Hairpinning
TDM Hairpinning

Media
Gateway
Controller
Media
Gateway

Media
Gateway
Controller

AN

Media Gateway
Controller

Media
Gateway
AN

TEX /
LEX

Media
Gateway

AN

AN
AN - Access Network
LEX - Local Exchange
TEX - Toll Exchange

IP Hairpinning (RTP Hairpinning)


Data Network 1

Data Network 2

Data Network

IP Telephone
IP Telephone

IP Telephone
Media Gateway

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Subscriber with
Call Forwarding

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IP Telephone
Media
Gateway

2 Gateway Functions

2.7 Session Border Control

Data Center of Voice


Application Service Providers

21

Law Enforcement
Requirements

Hosted IP Based Interactive


Communication Services (IC)

Critical Security

Peering Service
Provider Networks

Service Assurance

Applications for Session Border Control

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Media Gateway Basics

Session Border Controllers (SBC)


is a new category of network equipment that provides critical control functions to enable high quality
interactive communications across IP network borders.
Session

A "session" is any real-time, interactive voice, video or multimedia communication using layer 5 IP
session signaling protocols such as SIP, H.323, MGCP or Megaco/H.248.
Border

The "border" is any IP-IP network border such as those between service provider and
customer/subscriber, or between two service providers.
Control

The "control" functions span security, service assurance and law enforcement requirements.
Applications for Session Border Controllers (SBC)
Peering service provider networks

Today many providers employ managed IP networks with softswitches and gateways. The next step
in this network evolution entails connecting these softswitch -gateway islands to expand
network reach and minimize PSTN termination costs. SBCs enable these VoIP providers to peer
networks for PSTN origination and termination, IP transit and, ultimately, IP termination and
origination.
Facilities-based providers offering hosted IP-based interactive communication (IC) services will

also benefit from the use of SBCs at the borders to their business and residential customers.
(voice, video, unified messaging, conferencing, gaming, IP-PBX transport)
Doorway to the data centers of voice applications service providers delivered to other retail

providers or directly to users.


(calling card, directory, messaging)
Across all of these applications, there are critical security, service assurance and

law enforcement requirements that must be satisfied.


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3 MEGACO Protocol

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3 MEGACO Protocol

3.1 MEGACO Network Elements

Media
Gateway
Controller

MEGACO
H.248
TCP
IP

MEGACO
#7
ISUP

PSTN

Ethernet

#7
ISUP

Sign GW

Sign GW

Data
Network

Media
Gateway

Media
Gateway
Media
Gateway

23

UDP

PSTN

Media
Gateway

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Media Gateway Basics

Media gateway Control Protocol (MEGACO)


Is a Protocol between a Media Gateway Controller (MGC) and a Media Gateway (MG). It is used to control
Media Gateways (MG).
MEGACO covers thefunctionality to set up and release cross-connection between media streams in a
circuit-switched and packed-based network.
official industry-standard for Media Gateway Control Protocol

cooperation of IETF (Megaco RFC3015) and ITU-T (H.248 v1.0)


important component of Next Generation Network
(decomposed model)
RFC-3015
Competitive protocols: MGCP IETF only (RFC-2705)
Runs over TCP and UDP

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3 MEGACO Protocol

3.2 Definitions and Commands


Gateway
Context
PSTN

Data Network

Termination
Message
Add
Modify

Description
Addition of a termination to a context. The first add-message
creates a new context
Modification of features and signals of a termination.

Subtract

Removal of a termination from a context. Removing the last


termination causes the deletion of the context.

Move

Removal of a termination from a context and addition of this


termination to another context.

AuditValue

Requests information about features, events and signals of a


termination

AuditCapablities

Requests information about all possible features, events and


signals allowed for this termination

Notify
ServiceChange

24

Notification on events.
Notification on changes in the status of a termination,
also used for registration with an MGC

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Media Gateway Basics

Termination
A termination is a logical entity that sources and/or sinks media and/or control streams (virtual or
logical)
Context
A context is an association between a number of terminations while a call is in progress.
Package
A package is a collection of properties, events, signals and statistics associated with a termination
Commands
Add: to place a termination in a context
Modify: to change the properties of a termination
Subtract: to remove a termination from a context
Move: to move a termination to another context (f.ex. Call Waiting)
Audit value: a query for all information about a (set of) termination(s)
Notify: allows the MG to inform MGC of the occurrence of an event (e.g. off-hook detected)
Service change: to register with MGC and to report change to MGC (e.g. termination out of

service/in service)
Audit capabilities: to audit the capabilities of MG

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3 MEGACO Protocol

3.3 Call Setup Scenario


Media Gateway
Controller
Local
Exchange

Local
Exchange

PSTN

Data Network

PSTN

Media
Gateway

Media
Gateway

1 Initial Address Message (IAM)


2 Add
3 Add-Reply

#7 ISUP
MEGACO
Speech, VoIP

6 Modify

4 Add
5 Add-Reply

7 Modify-Reply
8 Initial Address Message (IAM)
9 Addr. Complete Message (ACM)
10 Addr. Complete Message (ACM)
11 Answer Message (ANM)
12 Answer Message (ANM)
Exchange of User Data

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(1) The Media Gateway Controller (MGC) is notified by the Local Exchange (LEX) about a new call with
the ss7 message - Initial Address Message (IAM). This message contains important parameters as Called
Number, Calling Number, Circuit Identification Code (identification for the ds0 reserved for this call),
...
(2) Upon reception of this IAM, the MGC will generate an ADD REQUEST, requesting the Media Gateway
(MG) to create a context for this new call, and add a TDM termination link (=the reserved ds0) to the
newly created context. Physically, the MG will also allocate a DSP resource for the call.
With the same or a second ADD message, the MGC will request the MG to add an RTP termination to
the same context. When two terminations (a TDM and an RTP in this case) are placed in the same
context, they have the potential to exchange media. The MG will add an RTP termination to the
context, and set-up the DSP with the appropriate values (e.g. for codec, packetization time).
(3) The MG generates an ADD-REPLY to confirm that the TDM termination has been placed in the new
context, and a DSP resource has been allocated for the call. Also the RTP termination (IP address and
port number) are given back to the MGC.
(4) The routing in the MGC defines the terminating media gateway. Once determined, exactly the same
procedure as on the origination gateway is repeated. So the MGC generates in the next step an
ADD_REQUEST to request creation of a new context for this new call. This message contains a specific
TDM termination that identifies the outgoing TDM termination link (outgoing ds0).
The MG generates an RTP Termination, that is linked to the RTP IP address and port of the originating
MG. For the incoming RTP traffic an own IP address and port number will be created. After allocation
of an DSP both terminations are through connected.
(5)The ADD_REPLY message indicates the successful context allocation to the MGC. Furthermore the RTP
address information is given back to the MGC.
(6) This information has to be forwarded to the originating MG. Now both terminations can be through
connected.

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3 MEGACO Protocol

3.3 Call Setup Scenario [cont.]


Media Gateway
Controller
Local
Exchange

Local
Exchange

PSTN

Data Network

PSTN

Media
Gateway

Media
Gateway

1 Initial Address Message (IAM)


2 Add
3 Add-Reply

#7 ISUP
MEGACO
Speech, VoIP

6 Modify

4 Add
5 Add-Reply

7 Modify-Reply
8 Initial Address Message (IAM)
9 Addr. Complete Message (ACM)
10 Addr. Complete Message (ACM)
11 Answer Message (ANM)
12 Answer Message (ANM)
Exchange of User Data

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Media Gateway Basics

(7) The MG sends with the MODIFY-REPLY message a successful acknowledge back to the MGC.
(8) Now the MGC indicates to the terminating exchange the seizure of a trunk circuit with an INITIAL
ADDRESS MESSAGE (IAM).
(9) (12) All further messages in the call setup scenario will be transmitted via the MGC without any
messages to the gateways. So the ADDRESS COMPLETE MESSAGE (ACM) indicates the successful end to
end call setup. With the ANSWER MESSAGE (ANM) the conversation phase starts.

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4 Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN)

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4 Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN)

4.1 Overview

M2PA

M2UA

M3UA

IUA

SUA

V5UA

SCTP

IUA - Q.921 User Adaptation Layer (ISDN)


M2PA - MTP2 User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer
M2UA - MTP2 User Adaptation Layer
M3UA - MTP3 User Adaptation Layer
SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SUA - SCCP User Adaptation Layer
V5UA - V5 User Adaptation Layer

IP
Ethernet, ATM, ...

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SIGTRAN Model
SIGTRAN was developed by the IETF working group SIGTRAN and defines the control protocol between the
Signaling Gateway, Media Gateway Controllers and IP based Signaling Points. The Sigtran protocol
consists of a modular, extensible structure with a common reliable transport protocol used for all
signaling transport. The protocol transports message based signaling protocols messages, usually SS7,
transparently over IP networks.
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol is a reliable transport protocol operating on top of a
connectionless packet network such as IP. SCTP is designed to transport PSTN signaling messages over IP
networks, but is capable of broader applications.
It offers the following services to its users:
Acknowledged error-free non-duplicated transfer of user data.
Data fragmentation to conform to discovered path MTU size.
Sequenced delivery of user messages within multiple streams, with an option for order-ofarrival delivery of individual user messages.
Optional bundling of multiple-user messages into a single SCTP packet.
Network-level fault tolerance through supporting of multi-homing at either or both ends
of an association.
Signaling Functions in SIGTRAN
On top of SCTP there can be used different signaling applications depend on the network request. The
most important signaling applications are the following:
- M2UA - MTP2 User Adaptation Layer
- M3UA - MTP3 User Adaptation Layer
- IUA - Q.921 User Adaptation Layer
- SUA - SCCP User Adaptation Layer
- V5UA - V5 User Adaptation Layer
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4 Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN)

4.1 Overview [cont.]

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ISDN User Adaptation (IUA)


This layer provides functionality to transport ISDN signals from Switched Circuit Network (SCN) to IP network
by back-hauling the Q.921 user messages over SCTP (Stream Control Transport Protocol) as per the IETF
RFC 3057. IUA supports both ISDN Primary Rate access (PRA) as well as Basic Rate Access (BRA) including
the support for both point-to-point and point-to-multi-point modes of communication.
MTP2 User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer (M2PA)
is a SIGTRAN protocol for transporting SS7 MTP Level 2 user part signaling messages (i.e. MTP Level 3) over
IP using the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). Unlike M2UA, M2PA is used to support full MTP
Level 3 message handling and network management between any two SS7 nodes communicating over an IP
network. IP signaling points function as traditional SS7 nodes using the IP network instead of the SS7
network. Each switched circuit or IP signaling point has an SS7 point code. The M2PA protocol layer provides
the same set of services as MTP Level 2 provides to MTP Level 3.
M2PA can be used between a signaling gateway and a media gateway controller, between a signaling
gateway and an IP signaling point, and between two IP signaling points. Signaling points may use M2PA
over IP or MTP Level 2 over standard SS7 links to send and receive MTP Level 3 messages.
MTP2 User Adaptation Layer (M2UA)
is a protocol defined by the IETF Sigtran Working Group for transporting SS7 MTP Level 2 user (i.e. MTP
Level 3) signaling messages over IP using the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). The M2UA
protocol layer provides the equivalent set of services to its users as MTP Level 2 provides to MTP Level 3.
M2UA is used between the Signaling Gateway and Media Gateway Controller in VoIP networks. The
signaling gateway receives SS7 messages over an MTP Level 1 and Level 2 interface from a signaling end
point (SCP or SSP) or signal transfer point (STP) in the public switched telephone networks. The signaling
gateway terminates the SS7 link at MTP Level 2 and transports MTP Level 3 and above to a Media Gateway
Controller or other IP endpoint using M2UA over SCTP/IP. The signaling gateway maintains the Availability
State of all media gateway controllers to manage signaling traffic flows across active SCTP associations.
3FL 36201 AAAA WBZZA Ed. 02P01.02/2008
MTP3 User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
293 user signaling messages over IP using the Stream
is used for the transport of Signaling System 7 (SS7)Page
MTP

4 Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN)

4.2 SIGTRAN IUA Example

PABX

Media Gateway

Softswitch

Q.931
Q.921
E1

Softswitch

Q.931
Q.921
E1

IUA

IUA

SCTP

SCTP

IP

IP

ATM, ...

ATM, ...
Data
Network
PABX

ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode


IP - Internet Protocol
IUA - Q.921 User Adaptation Layer (ISDN)
SCTP - Stream Control Transmission Protocol
PABX - Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PRI - Primary Rate Interface
Q.921 - ISDN Layer 2 Protocol
Q.931 - ISDN Layer 3 Protocol

30

PRI
(30B+D)
Media Gateway
with SIGTRAN

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

Media Gateway Basics

3FL 36201 AAAA WBZZA Ed. 02P01.02/2008


Page 30

SIGTRAN
(IUA)

5 Summary

31

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

Media Gateway Basics

3FL 36201 AAAA WBZZA Ed. 02P01.02/2008


Page 31

5 Summary

5.1 Gateway Applications


SCP/OSP Application Server
3rd party Application Server

Media gateway
controller

PSTN

LEX

TDM-TDM
Hairpinning

Alcatel
7510 MG

DLC Access

DLC

LEX

SGW

LEX

VoIP Trunking

VoPacket
Backbone

Alcatel
7510 MG

IP Hairpinning

Alcatel
7510 MG

VoIP
Termination

PBX
Access

32

LEX

Packet2Packet
Gateway
Alcatel
7510 MG

PBX
IP Phones

PSTN

IP-PBX

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008

Media Gateway Basics

3FL 36201 AAAA WBZZA Ed. 02P01.02/2008


Page 32

VoPacket
Backbone
DLC Digital Loop Carrier
LEX Local Exchange
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network

Abbreviations and Acronyms


#

Switch to notes view!

A
AGW
AN
ATM

Access Gateway
Access Node
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

B
BGW

Border Gateway

P
PABX
PCM
PRI
PSTN
Q

C
CNG
Comfort Noise Generation
CODEC CODer/DECoder
D
DLC
DSP
DSS

Digital Loop Carrier


Digital Signal Processor
Digital Subscriber Signaling

E
F
G

33
Media Gateway Basics

Interconnection Border Control Function


Internet Engineering Task Force
Internet Protocol
IP Telephony
Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN User Part
International Telecommunications Union
ISDN User Adaptation Layer

Residential Gateway
Real-Time Transport Protocol

S
SBC
SGW
SIGTRAN
SLA

Session Border Control


Signaling Gateway
Signaling Transport
Service Level Agreement
Transmission Control Protocol
Time Division Multiplex
Tall Exchange
Trunking Gateway

U
UDP

User Datagram Protocol

V
VAD
VoIP

Voice Activity Detection


Voice over IP

W
X
Y
Z

K
L
LEX

R
RGW
RTP

T
TCP
TDM
TEX
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008
TGW

H
I
IBCF
IETF
IP
IPT
ISDN
ISUP
ITU-T
IUA

Private Automatic Branch Exchange


Pulse Code Modulation
Primary Rate Interface
Public Switched Telephone Network

Local Exchange

M
M2PA
MTP Level 2 Peer to Peer Adaptation Layer
M2UA
MTP Level 2 Adaptation Layer
MEGACO Media Gateway Control Protocol
MGC
Media Gateway Controller
MGW
Media Gateway
MOS
Mean Opinion Score
N
NGN

Next Generation Network

O
3FL 36201 AAAA WBZZA Ed. 02P01.02/2008
Page 33