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Technical Guide

Table of Contents
Highlight-Weighted Metering........................................... 3
When to Use Highlight-Weighted Metering...................... 3
Split-Screen Display Zoom................................................. 8
The Uses of Split-Screen Display Zoom............................... 9
Achieving Symmetry in Architectural Shots....................10
PCE Lenses and Split-Screen Display Zoom...................12
The Electronic Front-Curtain Shutter............................. 13
Using the Electronic Front-Curtain Shutter......................13
When to Use the Electronic Front-Curtain Shutter.......15

Highlight-Weighted Metering
Highlight-weighted metering is the go-to choice when you
are photographing a spotlit bride in her wedding dress, a
ballerina on the stage, or whenever you are faced with uneven lighting and a background that is much darker than
the subject. To select highlight-weighted metering, keep
the c button pressed and rotate the main command dial
until 4 is displayed.

c button

Main command dial

Top control panel

l When to Use Highlight-Weighted Metering


Use highlight-weighted metering to meter highlights
when your subject is in motion, and to meter subjects lit
by colored lighting.

Moving Subject, Dark Background


Choose highlight-weighted metering to meter highlights.
Although spot metering targets a selected area, targeting
can be difficult when your subject is in motion. Matrix metering balances exposure over the entire frame, including
the background, and may consequently leave highlights
overexposed, or washed out. In contrast, highlightweighted metering automatically detects and meters
highlights for optimal exposure with less washout (and
less fiddling with the camera).

Matrix metering;
exposure mode g; 1/100s; f/5.6

Highlight-weighted metering;
exposure mode g; 1/320s; f/5.6

Highlight-Weighted Metering
Moving Subjects in the Spotlight
Matrix metering meters exposure over the entire frame, reducing the apparent contrast between the subject and the
background. The result is spotlit subjects that blend into the
scenery. In addition, shifts in the balance of lighting over the
frame may result in changes in exposure that require frequent adjustments to exposure compensation. Compare this
to highlight-weighted metering, which, regardless of the balance of lighting in the frame, consistently matches exposure
to the highlights so that spotlit subjects stand out.
Solid Colors, Colored Lighting
Highlight-weighted metering takes the color of the light
source into account to prevent overexposure.
Matrix and spot metering tend
to wash out highlights in subjects that are a solid color or
lit by colored lighting, the former because it accepts limited
washout if it ensures optimal
exposure for the entire frame,
the latter because it meters Exposure mode g; 1/200s; f/5.6
only brightness. Highlightweighted metering takes the color of highlights into account so that they are always correctly exposed.

Compare the effects of matrix and highlight-weighted metering with different light sources.

Matrix metering;
exposure mode g; 1/60s; f/2.8

Highlight-weighted metering;
exposure mode g; 1/125s; f/2.8

Highlight-weighted meterings first priority is to reduce


washout, which may make pictures seem underexposed.
Use exposure compensation to achieve the desired result.

Matrix metering;
exposure mode g; 1/60s; f/2.8

Highlight-weighted metering;
exposure mode g; 1/200s; f/2.8

Highlight-weighted metering eliminates overexposure


even in highlights with a strong color cast.

Highlight-Weighted Metering
Highlight-Weighted Metering: Challenging Scenes
The following are situations in which highlight-weighted metering should be used only with caution:
Dark subject, bright background:
Exposure will be adjusted for
the background, throwing the
main subject into shadow.
Highlight-weighted metering
can be used for silhouettes,
but matrix metering is a better
choice if you want exposure Highlight-weighted metering;
optimized for the main subject. exposure mode g; 1/6400s; f/2.8
Bright light in frame: The camera
may treat the light as a highlight, leaving the main subject
underexposed. Compose the
shot with the light out of frame
or use matrix metering.
Highlight-weighted metering;
exposure mode g; 1/200s; f/2.8
Highlight-Weighted Metering and Active DLighting
If desired, Active DLighting can be used with highlightweighted metering to brighten shadows and reduce contrast.

Split-Screen Display Zoom


Split-screen display zoom, which shows two parallel areas
of the frame side-by-side at a high zoom ratio, can be used
to frame buildings or similar objects from the front so that
left and right sides are symmetrical.
Split-screen display zoom is available during live view photography.
Press the b button and select Splitscreen display zoom. Two areas of
the frame will be displayed side-byside at a high zoom ratio, with the
Navigation window
positions of the magnified areas
shown in a navigation window. Use the X and W buttons
to zoom in and out, or use the L (Z/Q) button to select
a box and press 4 or 2 to scroll the selected area left or
right. Pressing 1 or 3 scrolls both areas up or down simultaneously. To focus on the subject at
the center of the selected area, press
the shutter-release button halfway.
To exit the split-screen display, press
the b button.
Area in focus
If you reactivate the split-screen display before the standby
timer expires, the same areas will be magnified. Zoom is reset
when the timer expires or the camera is turned off.

l The Uses of Split-Screen Display Zoom


You may think youre framing an object symmetrically, but
if you zoom in you may notice that the sides are at different
angles to the camera and the perspective is asymmetrical.

To frame an object dead on so that the two sides are symmetrical and the camera angle on the left side mirrors that
on the right, use the split-screen display to zoom in and
compare areas from the left and right side of the frame.

l Achieving Symmetry in Architectural Shots


Precise horizontal symmetry in ar- Pitch
chitectural shots requires close attention to camera angle. Use the virtual horizon to adjust roll and pitch
and split-screen display zoom to rotate (yaw) the camera horizontally.

Yaw

Roll

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Level the camera.


Start live view photography and
press the R button to display
the virtual horizon, then level
the camera using the pitch and
roll indicators as a guide. The
camera is level when both the
roll reference line and the dot in the center of the display turn green.

Split-Screen Display Zoom

Adjust the camera angle.


Using the split-screen display as
a guide

rotate the camera horizontally until the angle on the left side
mirrors that on the right.

Choose On for Custom Setting d7 (Viewfinder grid display)


to display grid lines in the viewfinder for reference when
composing photographs.

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l PCE Lenses and Split-Screen Display Zoom


PCE perspective control lenses can be shifted or tilted
without angling the camera.
Shift: Perspective Control
Shift slides the lens parallel to your
subject without changing camera
pitch, reducing the effects of perspective when tall buildings are
photographed from street level. If
the camera is in portrait (tall) orientation, split-screen display zoom
can be used to align the top and
bottom for more accurate perspective control.
Tilt: Focus Control
Tilt allows you to swivel the lens without rotating the camera, giving you control over which part of the subject is in
focus. When adjusting tilt, use split-screen display zoom
for a better view of the area that is in focus.

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The Electronic Front-Curtain Shutter


The camera focal-plane shutter is comprised of two curtains: a front curtain that opens to start each exposure
and a rear curtain that closes to end it. With the electronic
front-curtain shutter, exposure is started electronically after the front curtain opens; exposure ends when the rear
curtain closes. Opening the mechanical shutter before the
exposure starts eliminates vibrations caused by the shutter, reducing camera blur.
l Using the Electronic Front-Curtain Shutter
Follow the steps below to take photos with the electronic
front-curtain shutter.

Enable the electronic front-curtain shutter.


Select Enable for Custom Setting d5 (Electronic front-curtain
shutter).

Select mirror-up mode.


Pressing the release mode dial
lock release, rotate the release
mode dial to Mup.
Release mode dial

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Raise the mirror.


After pressing the shutter-release button halfway to
set focus and exposure, press the button the rest of
the way down to raise the mirror.

Take a photograph.
Press the shutter-release button all the way down to
take a photograph using the electronic front-curtain
shutter. The mirror lowers when shooting ends.

Use of a tripod is recommended. To prevent blur, use an optional wireless remote controller or remote cord and release
the shutter a couple of seconds after raising the mirror.
A picture will be taken automatically if no operations are performed for 30s after the mirror is raised.
When using the electronic front-curtain shutter with a shifted
or tilted PCE lens, adjust settings for a shutter speed slower
than 1/250s. Faster speeds may result in uneven exposure.

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The Electronic Front-Curtain Shutter


l When to Use the Electronic Front-Curtain Shutter
Camera blur is particularly visible when vibration-sensitive
equipment is used for microscope photography or shots
taken with a telephoto lens or teleconverter at high zoom
ratios, as can be seen below in photos taken with a tripodmounted AFS NIKKOR 80400mm f/4.55.6G ED VR lens.
Use the electronic front-curtain shutter in these situations
and for high-precision photos of documents and the like.

Exposure mode g; 1/50s;


f/11; focal length 195mm

Electronic front-curtain enabled

Electronic front-curtain disabled

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Custom Setting d4: Exposure Delay Mode


Although exposure delay mode can be used to reduce camera blur caused by the mirror, it has no effect on camera blur
caused by the shutter.

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