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Prepared and Submitted By
Herry Gulabani (13BCL028)
Sanskruti Joshi (13BCL030)
Atmiya Kachhadiya (13BCL031)
Akash Kalola (13BCL032)
Ronak Kamdar (13BCL033)

Civil Engineering Department

Institute of Techmology, Nirma University
Ahmedabad 382481 (India)
October 2015


Design of Lacing
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A compression member composed of two angles, channels or tees, back
to back, in contact or separated by a small distance should be
connected together by riveting, bolting or welding so that the
slenderness ratio of each member between the connections is not
greater than 40 nor greater than 0.60 times the most unfavorable
slenderness ratio of the strut as a whole. In no case, the spacing of
tacking rivets in a line exceed 600mm for such members.
For other types of built-up compression members, where cover plates
are used, the pitch of tacking rivets should not exceed 32t or 300mm,
whichever is less, where t is the thickness of the thinner outside plate.
Where plates are exposed to bad weather conditions, the pitch should
not exceed 16 t or 200mm whichever is less.

The rivets, welds and bolts in these connections should be sufficient to

carry the shear force and bending moments, if any, specified for
battened struts.
Solid packing or washers should be used for riveting, bolting, where the
members are separated back to back.
The end struts should be connected together with not less than two
rivets or bolts or their equivalent in welding and there should be not less
than two additional connections spaced equidistant in the length of the
A minimum of two rivet or bolts should be used in each connection, one
on line of each gauge mark, where the legs of the connected angles or
tables of the connected tees are 125mm wide or over, or where the
webs of channel are 150mm wide or over.

A system of bracing bars, not crossing each other in the middle,
connecting the channel bars of a compound strut is known as lacing.
Flat or angle sections are normally used as lacings. The purpose of
lacing is to hold the various parts of column straight, parallel, at a
correct distance apart and to equalize the stress distribution between its
various parts. There are basically two types of lacing i.e.
(a) Single lacing system

(b) Double lacing system

The above figure shows both types of lacing in compression members.

Various arrangements of lacings with two channels back to back are
shown in above figure. The firm lines representing lacings show single
lacing on one face and the dotted lines represent lacings on the other
face. Double lacing system is also shown in above figure. Lacings can
also be used with battens as shown, but this arrangement is not
preferred as it gives undesirable effects.
Lacing bars should not project beyond the column section. Usually these
are connected with a single rivet at the end but sometimes two rivets
are provided assuming that one rivet out of the two may be faulty,
though the stresses are normally small and only one rivet may be
There may be possibility that a rivet connecting the lacing flat at a point
fails, then the length of the component member will be become double.
This possibility may be overcome by either lacing the sections as shown
in figure or by lacing the column on the far end as shown in third figure.
The latter is not recommended by IS code.
Single or double lacings can be provided depending upon the criteria
discussed below and are then designed as compression members. The

transverse shear force for which the lacing system is satisfactory if

properly designed is usually very small and single lacing system is
sufficient, but the designers consider double lacing system to be
superior though uneconomical, and recommend it.
A lacing system should generally conform to the following requirements:
1. The compression member comprising two main components laced
and tied should, where practicable, have a radius of gyration about
the axis perpendicular to the plane of lacing not less than the radius
of gyration at right angles to that axis.
2. The lacing system should not be varied throughout the length of the
strut as far as practicable.
3. Cross (except tie plates) should not be provided along the length of
the column with lacing system, unless all forces resulting from
deformation of column members are calculated and provided for in
the lacing and its fastening.
4. The single-laced systems on opposite sides of the main components
should preferably be in the same direction so that one system is the
shadow of the other.
5. Laced compression members should be provided with tie plates at
the ends of the lacing system and at points where the lacing systems
are interrupted. The tie plates should be designed by the same
method as followed for battens.

Design of Lacing
Step 1: Assume single or double lacing:
1. Assume angle of inclination of lacing. It should be kept between 40-

70 degrees. (cl.7.6.4, IS

2. Find Unsupported length of lacing bar (a1).
Step 2: Check for slenderness ratio.
As per guidelines given in cl., IS 800:2007, pg-50
Slenderness Ratio = a1 / rmin < 50
Step 3: Find transverse shear in lacing
1. Transverse shear to be resisted Vt = 2.5% of the axial force
2. Compressive strength in lacing bars
T = Vt / Nsin
Step 4: Design the lacing flat
Sizing of lacing flat
1. Find the effective length of lacing (Le). (cl., IS
Bolted Connection: Single Lacing Le=L
Double Lacing Le= 0.7 L
where L= S x cosec
Welded Connection:
Single and double lacing Le= 0.7 x distance between inner ends of
2. Find thickness of lacing flat (cl.7.6.3, IS
Minimum thickness of lacing flat = (1/40) x Le (For single lacing)
= (1/60) x Le (For double lacing)
3. Find width of lacing (cl.7.6.2, IS
b = 3d (d=diameter of bolt)
4. Assume size of flat section based on length and thickness found in
the above steps.
Check for compressive strength
1. Find minimum radius of gyration of lacing bar.
r = t / 12
2. Find out slenderness ratio of lacing bar (cl., IS 800:2007.pg50)
Slenderness Ratio = l / rmin <145
3. Find design compressive strength fcd (table no 9 a,b,c,d page.40-43)
4. Find compressive strength
Pd = Ae fcd
Check for tensile strength:
Design tensile strength (cl. No. 6.3.1, IS 800.2007, pg. no.32)
Tdn = 0.9Anfu / m1

Step 5: Design of connection.

1. Force in bolt:
F = Vt / N tan
2. Find strength of bearing type bolts (minimum of bearing and shear
strength )
Find shear strength (IS 800:2007, clause 10.3.3, page no. 75)
Vdsb = fu [nnAnb + nsAsb] / 3 mb
Find bearing strength (IS 800:2007, clause 10.3.4, page no.75)
The design strength of a bolt in bearing Vdbp is given by
Vdsb = 2.5kbdtfu / mb
3. Nos. of bolts = force / design strength of bolt
Step 6: Design tie plate.(cl, IS 800:2007, page no.51)
1. Effective depth = spacing + 2 Cyy(C.G.)> 2bf
2. Overall depth required = effective depth + 2 x 30 (edge distance =
1.5 x do)
3. Thickness of tie plate Le = 1/50 (spacing + 2xg), where g= gauge
4. Length of tie plate = Spacing + 2x flange width.

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