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It is a document which gives guidelines for designing of lacing in steel structures.

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LACING

Prepared and Submitted By

Herry Gulabani (13BCL028)

Sanskruti Joshi (13BCL030)

Atmiya Kachhadiya (13BCL031)

Akash Kalola (13BCL032)

Ronak Kamdar (13BCL033)

Institute of Techmology, Nirma University

Ahmedabad 382481 (India)

October 2015

Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

Introduction

Lacing

Design of Lacing

Excel Sheet Screenshot

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4

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8

Introduction

A compression member composed of two angles, channels or tees, back

to back, in contact or separated by a small distance should be

connected together by riveting, bolting or welding so that the

slenderness ratio of each member between the connections is not

greater than 40 nor greater than 0.60 times the most unfavorable

slenderness ratio of the strut as a whole. In no case, the spacing of

tacking rivets in a line exceed 600mm for such members.

For other types of built-up compression members, where cover plates

are used, the pitch of tacking rivets should not exceed 32t or 300mm,

whichever is less, where t is the thickness of the thinner outside plate.

Where plates are exposed to bad weather conditions, the pitch should

not exceed 16 t or 200mm whichever is less.

carry the shear force and bending moments, if any, specified for

battened struts.

Solid packing or washers should be used for riveting, bolting, where the

members are separated back to back.

The end struts should be connected together with not less than two

rivets or bolts or their equivalent in welding and there should be not less

than two additional connections spaced equidistant in the length of the

strut.

A minimum of two rivet or bolts should be used in each connection, one

on line of each gauge mark, where the legs of the connected angles or

tables of the connected tees are 125mm wide or over, or where the

webs of channel are 150mm wide or over.

Lacing

A system of bracing bars, not crossing each other in the middle,

connecting the channel bars of a compound strut is known as lacing.

Flat or angle sections are normally used as lacings. The purpose of

lacing is to hold the various parts of column straight, parallel, at a

correct distance apart and to equalize the stress distribution between its

various parts. There are basically two types of lacing i.e.

(a) Single lacing system

3

Various arrangements of lacings with two channels back to back are

shown in above figure. The firm lines representing lacings show single

lacing on one face and the dotted lines represent lacings on the other

face. Double lacing system is also shown in above figure. Lacings can

also be used with battens as shown, but this arrangement is not

preferred as it gives undesirable effects.

Lacing bars should not project beyond the column section. Usually these

are connected with a single rivet at the end but sometimes two rivets

are provided assuming that one rivet out of the two may be faulty,

though the stresses are normally small and only one rivet may be

sufficient.

There may be possibility that a rivet connecting the lacing flat at a point

fails, then the length of the component member will be become double.

This possibility may be overcome by either lacing the sections as shown

in figure or by lacing the column on the far end as shown in third figure.

The latter is not recommended by IS code.

Single or double lacings can be provided depending upon the criteria

discussed below and are then designed as compression members. The

properly designed is usually very small and single lacing system is

sufficient, but the designers consider double lacing system to be

superior though uneconomical, and recommend it.

A lacing system should generally conform to the following requirements:

1. The compression member comprising two main components laced

and tied should, where practicable, have a radius of gyration about

the axis perpendicular to the plane of lacing not less than the radius

of gyration at right angles to that axis.

2. The lacing system should not be varied throughout the length of the

strut as far as practicable.

3. Cross (except tie plates) should not be provided along the length of

the column with lacing system, unless all forces resulting from

deformation of column members are calculated and provided for in

the lacing and its fastening.

4. The single-laced systems on opposite sides of the main components

should preferably be in the same direction so that one system is the

shadow of the other.

5. Laced compression members should be provided with tie plates at

the ends of the lacing system and at points where the lacing systems

are interrupted. The tie plates should be designed by the same

method as followed for battens.

Design of Lacing

Step 1: Assume single or double lacing:

1. Assume angle of inclination of lacing. It should be kept between 40-

2. Find Unsupported length of lacing bar (a1).

Step 2: Check for slenderness ratio.

As per guidelines given in cl.7.6.4.1, IS 800:2007, pg-50

Slenderness Ratio = a1 / rmin < 50

Step 3: Find transverse shear in lacing

1. Transverse shear to be resisted Vt = 2.5% of the axial force

2. Compressive strength in lacing bars

T = Vt / Nsin

Step 4: Design the lacing flat

Sizing of lacing flat

1. Find the effective length of lacing (Le). (cl.7.6.6.3, IS 800:2007.pg-50)

Bolted Connection: Single Lacing Le=L

Double Lacing Le= 0.7 L

where L= S x cosec

Welded Connection:

Single and double lacing Le= 0.7 x distance between inner ends of

welds

2. Find thickness of lacing flat (cl.7.6.3, IS 800:2007.pg-50)

Minimum thickness of lacing flat = (1/40) x Le (For single lacing)

= (1/60) x Le (For double lacing)

3. Find width of lacing (cl.7.6.2, IS 800:2007.pg-50)

b = 3d (d=diameter of bolt)

4. Assume size of flat section based on length and thickness found in

the above steps.

Check for compressive strength

1. Find minimum radius of gyration of lacing bar.

r = t / 12

2. Find out slenderness ratio of lacing bar (cl.7.6.6.3, IS 800:2007.pg50)

Slenderness Ratio = l / rmin <145

3. Find design compressive strength fcd (table no 9 a,b,c,d page.40-43)

4. Find compressive strength

Pd = Ae fcd

Check for tensile strength:

Design tensile strength (cl. No. 6.3.1, IS 800.2007, pg. no.32)

Tdn = 0.9Anfu / m1

1. Force in bolt:

F = Vt / N tan

2. Find strength of bearing type bolts (minimum of bearing and shear

strength )

Find shear strength (IS 800:2007, clause 10.3.3, page no. 75)

Vdsb = fu [nnAnb + nsAsb] / 3 mb

Find bearing strength (IS 800:2007, clause 10.3.4, page no.75)

The design strength of a bolt in bearing Vdbp is given by

Vdsb = 2.5kbdtfu / mb

3. Nos. of bolts = force / design strength of bolt

Step 6: Design tie plate.(cl 7.7.2.3, IS 800:2007, page no.51)

1. Effective depth = spacing + 2 Cyy(C.G.)> 2bf

2. Overall depth required = effective depth + 2 x 30 (edge distance =

1.5 x do)

3. Thickness of tie plate Le = 1/50 (spacing + 2xg), where g= gauge

distance.

4. Length of tie plate = Spacing + 2x flange width.

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