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Beyond 2010: Leadership for the Next Generation

U.P. Academic Congress

Reaching Out for Breath: Issues and Challenges


For Disaster Risk Reduction
February 4, 2010

by
Emmanuel M. Luna, Ph D
Professor of Community Development
College of Social Work and Community Development
University of the Philippines-Diliman
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE

RP is prone to almost all types of natural


hazards because of its geographical location
Source of Slide : Duque, OCD 2006
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE

The Philippine Archipelago occupies the western ring of the Pacific


Ocean (Western Segment of the Pacific Ring of Fire), a most active
part of the earth that is characterized by an ocean-encircling belt
of active volcanoes and earthquake generators (faults).
Source of slide: Duque,OCD 2006
Huling Hininga: The Losses and Pains
From Disasters
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE
Brgy. Guinsaugon, S. Leyte Calapan City Pakistan Earthquake
Feb. 17, 2006 Dec. 2005 Oct. 2005

From 1994 to 2003, some 2.5 billion* people were


affected by natural disasters alone worldwide, which
is an increase of 60% over the past decade. More than
478,000* people were killed during this period.
Source of slide: Duque, OCD 2006
Infanta, Quezon Tsunami Southern Leyte
Nov. 2004 Dec. 2004 Dec. 2003
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE
Pakistan Earthquake Hurricane Katrina
Oct. 2005 Aug. 2005

• Floods and Earthquakes are the deadliest


accounting for more than half of the casualties.
Source of Slide : Duque 2006
Bucayao River, Calapan City Luzon Earthquake
Dec. 2005 Jul. 1990
• FLOOD DAMAGES IN RP (1990 – 2005)

 PHP 76 billion
(Out of the PHP 111.46 billion worth
of damages from natural disasters)

 Average of 750 deaths per year

Source of Slide:
Duque, OCD 2006
EFFECTS OF MAJOR & MINOR DISASTER EVENTS
IN THE PHILIPPINES (1995-2005)
Source: Duque 2006,OCD

CASUALTIES AFFECTED
POPULATION COST OF
DAMAGES
DEAD INJ MIS FAMILIES PERSONS
11,057 21,270 2,746 11,525,833 59,355,193 P 104.989 B
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE

Yearly, the country experiences an average of twenty (20)


tropical cyclones; a host to 300 volcanoes, twenty-two (22) of
which are active, together with active faults and trenches
that are potential sources of earthquakes.
Source of slide: Duque OCD 2006
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE

On February 17, 2006, another landslide hit Southern


Leyte that almost wiped out the entire 480 hectares in
Brgy. Guinsaugon, one of the 16 villages of the town of
St. Bernard, leaving in its wake 154 dead, 28 injured,
410 registered survivors and 968 still missing
RP DISASTER RISK PROFILE

Source of Slide: Duque OCD 2006


REINA Area, Quezon
November 14-26, 2004
752 dead – 616 injured
325 missing

Source: MGB-DENR
San Francisco, S. Leyte
December 2003
207 dead – 54 injured – 1 missing
P508.4M – cost of damage

Source: MGB-DENR
Source of Pictures: PAGASA
Source: PAGASA in Duque, 2006
Dingalan, Aurora
Nov. 28 - Dec. 3 2004
138 dead – 48 injured
27 missing

Source: MGB-DENR
December 18, 2005
195,000 liters of bunker fuel
Semirara Island, Antique

Source: PCG
M/V Maria Carmela Ferry
July 10, 2002
25 dead - 88 injured
108 missing

Source: PCG in Duques,OCD 2006


Payatas Dump Site Tragedy
July 10, 2000
224 dead, 38 missing
Source: Duque,OCD 2006
ULTRA Stampede
February 4, 2006
74 dead – 600 injured

Source: NDCC in Duque, OCD 2006


Buntong Hininga: Issues and Barriers to DRR

Poverty and Vulnerability

35% of estimated 92.2 million


population in 2009 live below
poverty line
This means 32.27 Filipinos

There are socio-economic, political


structures and processes that give
rise to vulnerability
Issues and Barriers to DRR

Determining how and the extent of emergency relief, given the limited resources;
when relief should end and rehabilitation should begin (Vargas, 1996: 206).

Promoting and maintaining NGO-LGU collaboration without establishing a


political dependency (Knud, 2002:30).

Duplication and overlapping of functions of government and NGOs and the unhealthy
competition in the delivery of services (Dejoras, 1996: 226).

Wars and conflict affecting the community, thus NGO resources are diverted
for relief and emergency purposes. ( Luna, 2001: 223).
Mga Buntong Hininga: Issues and Barriers
to DRR
Difficulty to get funds for disaster mitigation and
preparedness compared to emergency operations
because of the perception that the impact of DMP
programs is more difficult to measure while
emergency needs are more visible (Luna, 2001:223).

Perceived lack of political will among the government


organizations in implementing DM law and corruption
in times of disasters (Luna, 2001:224; Laigo, 1996: 59).

Bureaucratic procedures of the government in disaster


response, where mandated procedures cause undue
delay (Luna. 2001: 225).
Mga Buntong Hininga…….

Tendency to give priority to economic growth by


favoring development initiatives which threaten to
create disaster or environmental havoc
(Luna, 2001:225).

The lack of appropriate indicator to measure


vulnerability reduction in a systematic way.
(Donors, 1999:20 cited by Heijmans and
Victoria,2001: 22).
Agencies which have poorly integrate DRM in their sectoral plans

DOTC 55%

DENR 43%

DPWH 40%

DOST 32%

DOH 20%
Agencies where DRM is decentralized

DSWD 48%

NDCC/OCD 30%

DOH 30%

DENR 30%

LGUs 18%
Agencies with adequate manpower, competence,
budget facilities and equipment

DSWD 29%

LGUs 21%

NDCC/OCD 18%

DPWH 18%

DOH, DILG-BFP, PNP 11%


Agencies which performed their roles
and responsibilities well
DSWD 47%

DOH 35%

NDCC/OCD 32%

LGUs 18%

AFP 14%
Agencies that are well-equipped and ready
for emergency

DSWD 39%
LGUs 33%

AFP 28%

DOH 22%

NDCC/OCD, PNP 11%


Hininga ng Buhay: Hopes to Sustain DRR

1. Paradigm shift from emergency management to DRR

2. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-20015

3. The Philippine Strategic National Action Plan 2009-2019

4. The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and


Management Act of 2010

5. Community-Based Disaster Risk Management


Paradigm Shifts From Emergency Management to DRR

Emergency Management

Disaster Preparedness

Disaster Management

Disaster risk management


The Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015

A comprehensive, action oriented response to international


concern on disasters

Adopted by 168 governments including RP at the World Conference


on Disaster Reduction held in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
Emphasizes DRR as a central issue for development policies

Goal 1: integration of DRR into sustainable development policies

Goal 2: Development and strengthening of institutions,


mechanisms and capabilities to build resilience
to hazards
Goal 3: Systematic incorporation or risk reduction approaches
into the implementation of emergency preparedness,
response and recovery
Philippine Strategic National Action Plan

Contains 18 priority programs and projects for 2009-2019

Developed from consultations with the different stakeholders such as


Governmnet agencies, LGUs, NGOs, academe, PO, media, private sector
The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction
and Management Act of 2010

Upholds constitutional rights to life and property


by addressing the roots causes of vulnerabilities

Adopts DRRM approach that is holistic, comprehensive,


integrated and pro-active in lessening
the socio-economic and environmental impact of disasters

Mainstream DRR and climate change in development

Mainstream DRR into the peace process


and conflict resolution approaches
CBDRM is participatory and put
the people at the center of action.
Community-Based Disaster
Risk Management

The CBDRM hopes to accomplish both long term transformational


changes, as well as short term remedial improvements in the
well being of the people.

Reduction of people’s vulnerabilities

Transformation of structures and


relationships that generate inequity
and underdevelopment

Public safety and reduced loses


in the lives, properties, resources
and environment due to hazards

Empowered individuals and


community institutions
Community-Based Disaster
Risk Management

A more holistic disaster management framework or


comprehensive disaster risk management

Maintains the four basic categories in the disaster continuum


such as emergency response, post emergency, prevention and
mitigation, and preparedness.

Four other concerns are integrated namely the management


and reduction of risks, protection of development gains,
sustainable human development and mainstreaming disaster
reduction into development.
Community-Based Disaster
Risk Management
People and development oriented
Comprehensive
Participatory approach

Reduce possible loses in the lives, properties,


community resources and environment
due to natural and human induced hazards.
Views disasters as a question
of people’s vulnerability
Empowers people to address the roots of
vulnerabilities
Transforming structures that generate
inequity and underdevelopment

Encompasses four major processes namely


disaster prevention and mitigation,
disaster preparedness, emergency
response and post emergency
Conclusion

The promises that they bring as


stipulated in their well crafted formulations
are challenges that have to be faced,
not just by appreciating the words
but by concretizing them into actions
at the various levels, by all stakeholders,
at all times.
Maraming salamat