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ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Chapter 2

Mathematical Models
of
Systems

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Outline

Introduction
Differential Equations of Physical Systems
Linear Approximation of Physical Systems
The Laplace Transform
The Transfer Function of Linear Systems
Block Diagram Models
Signal-Flow Graphs Models

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Introduction
To understand and control complex physical systems,
we need their mathematical models.
To obtain mathematical models, we need the
relationship between the system variables.
As the systems under consideration are dynamic in
nature, then this relationship is in the form of
differential equations.

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Differential Equations
In general, the linear differential equation of an nthorder system is written:
n

d y (t )
dt

a n 1

n 1

dt

y (t )
n 1

a1

dy ( t )
dt

a o y (t ) f (t )

1st order linear ordinary differential equation:


dy ( t )
dt

a o y (t ) f (t )

2nd order linear ordinary differential equations:


2

d y (t )
dt

a1

dy ( t )
dt

a o y (t ) f (t )

In this course we treat only LINEAR ORDINARY


DIFFERNTIAL EQUATIONS
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Physical Systems


Methods of Modeling Linear System:
Transfer Function Method (only linear systems)
State-Variable Method (both linear and nonlinear systems)

Most dynamic systems have nonlinear behavior:


Linearization by proper assumptions and approximations

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Mechanical Systems


The motion of a Mechanical system:
Translation
Rotation
Combination of above

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Mechanical Systems


Translational motion:
Newtons 2nd law of motion

ext

Ma

Example: A mass M under the action of force f(t).


y (t )

f (t )

f ( t ) Ma ( t ) M

d y (t )
dt

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

dv ( t )
dt
Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Mechanical Systems


Linear Spring:
Hooks law: f ( t ) Ky ( t )

Viscous Damper:
f (t ) B

dy ( t )

Bv

dt

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Mechanical Systems


Mass-spring-damper
system

f ( t ) Ky ( t ) B

dy ( t )
dt

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

d y (t )
dt

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Mechanical Systems


Rotational motion
Eulers 2nd law of motion

ext

Example: A body with inertia J under the action of a


torque (t).

d (t )
2

(t ) J (t ) J

dt
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

d (t )
dt
Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Mechanical Systems


Torsional Spring:
(t ) K (t )

Viscous damper:
(t ) B

d (t )

dt

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Mechanical Systems


A disk in a viscous medium
and supported by a shaft

ext

(t ) s (t ) d (t ) J (t )

(t ) K (t ) B

d (t )
dt

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

d (t )
2

dt

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Electrical Systems


Resistor:
I (t )

v (t )

I (t )
v (t )

R
L

Inductor:
I (t )

v ( t )dt

Capacitor:
I (t ) C

dv ( t )

I (t )

v (t )
C

I (t )
v (t )

dt
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Modeling of Electrical Systems


Kirchhoff s laws:
Current law:
The algebraic sum of all currents entering a node is zero.

Voltage law:
The algebraic sum of all voltage drops around a complete closed loop
is zero.

Example of RLC circuit:

r (t )

v (t )
R

dv ( t )
dt

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

v ( t ) dt

L
Dr. Shaukat Ali

Analogy
Spring-Mass-Damper system:
dv ( t )

f ( t ) K v ( t ) dt Bv ( t ) M

dt

RLC circuit:
r (t )

v ( t ) dt

v (t )
R

dv ( t )
dt

Rotational motion:
( t ) K ( t ) dt B ( t ) J

d (t )
dt

This is called as velocity voltage analogy (forcecurrent analogy)


ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Linearization
(Linear Approximation)

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Linearization
A linear system satisfies the following properties:
Superposition
Homogeneity
Linear
system

a1u 1 ( t ) a 2 u 2 ( t )

a1 y1 ( t ) a 2 y 2 ( t )

Example:
Test whether

f(x) 5x

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

is linear.

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Linearization
Examples of physical systems
RC

dy ( t )

LC

d y (t )

dt

dt

d y (t )
dt

dy ( t )

y (t ) u (t )

u (t )

dt

dy ( t )
dt

d y (t )
dt

dy ( t )

f ( y ( t )) u ( t )

dt
B

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Linearization
Examples of physical systems
2

d y (t )
dt

dy ( t )

f ( y ( t )) u ( t )

dt

A nonlinear system can be described by a linear model


for a small range of input values around an operating
point.
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Linearization
To find the linear model of a nonlinear system f(y)
We expand f(y) into a Taylor series around the operating
point or equilibrium point (yo, f(yo)):
f ( y ) f ( yo )

y o df

1!

dy

y yo

yo d f

2!

dy

2
y yo

If the variation around the operating point, y y y o is


small, then we may neglect the higher-order terms:
f ( y ) c y

This approximation results in a linear (straight line)


relationship
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Linearization
Linearization of differential equations
Example: Pendulum oscillator model
T ( ) MgL sin

Linearization around the equilibrium point o 0 o


T ( ) T ( o )

dT
d

( o )
o

T ( ) MgL
This approximation is reasonably accurate for
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Laplace Transform (LT)

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Laplace Transform (LT)


LT is a mathematical tool that:
Transforms many time (t) domain functions f(t) into algebraic
functions F(s) of a complex domain (s).
Provides an algebraic way to solve linear time invariant
differential equations.
Can be used to predict the system performance without
actually solving system differential equations.

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Laplace Transform (LT)


Solution of differential equations

Obtain linearized differential equation.


Obtain the Laplace transform of the differential equation.
Solve the algebraic equation by the inverse Laplace transform.

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Laplace Transform (LT)


Laplace Transform of a function f(t):
f ( t ) F ( s )

f t e

st

dt

t0

is the Laplace transform operator


(s) is a complex variable: s j
f(t) is a function of time (t) with f(t)=0 for t<0

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Theorems of Laplace Transform


Theorem 1: Multiplication by a constant
kf ( t ) kF ( s )

Theorem 2: Sum and differences


f 1 ( t ) f 2 ( t ) F1 ( s ) F2 ( s )

Theorem 3: Differentiation
df ( t )

sF ( s ) f ( 0 )
dt
d 2 f (t )
df ( t )
2

s F ( s ) sf ( 0 )
2
dt
dt

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t0

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LTs of Simple Functions


Step function:
t0

0
f (t )
c

t0

F (s)

f t e

st

dt

t0

F (s)

ce

t0

st

dt

c
s

st

c
s

c
s

Unit step function:


F (s)

1
s

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Dr. Shaukat Ali

LTs of Simple Functions


Ramp function:
0
f (t )
ct

t0
t0

F (s)

c
s

Exponential function:
0
f ( t ) at
e

t0
t0

F (s)

1
sa

Sinusoidal function:
0
f (t )
sin t

t0
t0

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

F (s)

s
2

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Table of LTs

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Dr. Shaukat Ali

LTs of Differential Equations


First order linear differential equation
dy ( t )
dt

a o y (t ) f (t )

Let f ( t ) 0 , y ( 0 ) y o ,
Now, as:
y ( t ) Y ( s )

(1)

ao

dy ( t )

sY ( s ) y ( 0 )
dt

LT of equation (1) is:

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Y s

yo
s

Dr. Shaukat Ali

LTs of Differential Equations


Second order linear differential equation (Spring-MassDamper)
2

d y (t )
dt

dy ( t )

Ky ( t ) f ( t )

(1)

dt

Let
f (t ) 0 ,

y (0) yo ,

dy ( t )
dt

0
t0

LT of equation (1) is:


Y s

Ms

B yo

Ms Bs K

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Inverse Laplace Transform


The inverse LT of F(s) is:

F s f t

1
2 j

F s e

st

ds

This is a complex integral and is rarely used.


For simple functions, we directly refer to the LTs table.
For complex functions, we first perform the partial-fraction
expansion on F(s) and then use the LTs table.

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Partial-Fraction Expansion
Consider the following Laplace Transform function:
N s
Ms B y o
G s
Y s
2
D s

Ms Bs K

N(s) and D(s) are the polynomials of (s).


D s s a n 1 s
n

n 1

an2 s

n2

a1 s a o
1

Characteristic equation: D s 0
Roots (s1, s2, sn) of this characteristic equation are called
the poles of the system.
Distinct poles
Repeated poles

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Partial-Fraction Expansion
Case 1: Distinct poles
G s

Consider the function

N s
D s

s2

s 1 s 3

Write G(s) in terms of partial-fraction expansion:


G s

k1

k2

s 1 s 3

Determine the coefficient k1 and k2


k 1 s 1

k 2 s 3

N s
D s

D s

s 1

N s

s 3

1
2

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Partial-Fraction Expansion
The simplified function is:
G s

1
2 s 1

1
2 s 3

Now taking the inverse LT:


g t 0 . 5 e

0 .5 e

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

3t

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Partial-Fraction Expansion
Case 2: Repeated poles
Consider the function

G s

N s
D s

s2

s 1 2

Write G(s) in terms of partial-fraction expansion:


G s

k1

k2

s 1 s 12

Determine the coefficient k1 and k2


k 2 s 1

N s
D s

1
s 1

d
2 N s
k1
s 1

ds
D s

1
s 1

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Partial-Fraction Expansion
The simplified function is:
G s

s 1 s 12

Now taking the inverse LT:


g t e

te

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Dr. Shaukat Ali

Example
Solve the following 2nd order linear ODE
d y t
2

dt

dy t
dt

2 y t 5 u s t

With us(t) as unit step function and following initial


conditions:
y 0 1,

dy t

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

dt

2
t0

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Transfer Function

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Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function
The ratio of the Laplace Transform of the output variable to
the Laplace Transform of the input variable, with all initial
conditions to be zero.
G s

Output
Input

s
s

Consider the spring mass damper system: input is r(t), output


is y(t).
d y t
2

dt

dy t
dt

r t

Ky t r t
G s

Ms Y s BsY s KY s R s
2

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Y s
R s

1
Ms Bs K
2

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function
Write the transfer function of the following circuit,
where:
Input: source voltage v1
Output: voltage drop across capacitor v2

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


DC Motor
Converts DC electrical energy into rotational mechanical
energy

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


DC Motor
Input: voltage (field, armature)
Output: speed of shaft, position of the shaft
v a t armature

voltage

v f t field voltage
t rotor displaceme nt
i f t field current
i a t armature current

G s

s
V s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


Two types of control of dc motor
Field control
(variable field voltage and fixed armature voltage)

Armature control
(variable armature voltage and fixed field voltage)

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


Field control of dc motor
G s

s
V f s

angular displaceme nt
field voltage

s G s V f s

Km

s Js B L f s R f

V f s

The angular displacement is proportional to the field


voltage
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


The air gap-flux is proportional to the field current
t K f i f t

The motor torque Tm is assumed to be related linearly to


and the armature current:
T m t K 1 t i a t
T m t K 1 K f i f t i a t

In case of field control, armature current is kept constant:


T m t K m i f t

Tm s K m I f s

Km is the motor constant


ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


Relating armature voltage to armature current:
di f t

v f t R f i f t L f

dt

In s-domain
I f s

L f s

V f s

Thus the motor torque is:


Tm s

Km
f

L f s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

V f s

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


The load torque in time domain:
T L t

d t
dt

B t

d t
dt

In s-domain:
T L s s Js B s

Now:

G s

Tm s T L s Td s

s
V f s

Km

s Js B L f s R f

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


Transfer function
I f s
V f s

L f s

Tm s
I f s

Km

T L s Tm s Td s

TL s

Js B

s
s

1
s

Block diagram

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


Armature control of dc motor
G s

s
V a s

angular displaceme nt
Armature voltage

s G s V a s

Km

s R a L a s Js B K b K m

V a s

The angular displacement is proportional to the armature


voltage
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


The air gap-flux is proportional to the field current
t K f i f t

The motor torque Tm is assumed to be related linearly to


and the armature current:
T m t K 1 t i a t
T m t K 1 K f i f t i a t

In case of armature control, field current is kept constant:


T m t K m i a t

Tm s K m I a s

Km is the motor constant


ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


Relating armature voltage to armature current:
v a t R a i a t L a

di a t
dt

v b t

Where vb is the back emf voltage:


v b t K b t

In s-domain
I a s

V a s K b s

Ra La s

Thus the motor torque is:


Tm s

Km

Ra La s

V a s K b s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor


Transfer function of armature controlled dc motor
G s

s
V a s

Km

s R a L a s Js B K b K m

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function DC Motor

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function Gear Trains


Gear ratio:

N1
N2

Relate shaft torques:

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Tm
TL

N1
N2

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function Tachometer


Tachometer
An electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy
into electrical energy.
Input: shaft angular velocity
Output: voltage
G s

V 2 s

Kt

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Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function Fluid System


Consider an incompressible fluid in a tank:
A:

uniform cross - sectional area

density of fluid

q o (t ) :
h (t ) :
qi :

volumetric

flow rate at outlet

head of fluid in tank


volumetric

flow rate at inlet

Determine the transfer function which relates head to inflow


G s

H s
Q i s

head
inflow

Mass balance:
mass flow in mass flow out = accumulation rate of mass in tank
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Transfer Function Thermal System


Consider an incompressible fluid in a tank:
A:

uniform cross - sectional area

density of fluid

C:

specific heat

volumetric

q:

heat from heat source

Ti :

inlet temp eratue

To :

outlet tem peratue

flow rate at outlet and inlet

Determine the transfer function which relates head to inflow

G s

To s
Ti s

Outlet Temperatur e
Inlet Temperatur e

Energy balance:
energy in energy out = accumulation of energy in tank
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Block Diagram Models (BDM)

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Introduction
So far:
Dynamic systems are represented by mathematical models:
Set of simultaneous differential equations in time domain.
Set of linear algebraic equations in the s-domain.

Transfer function:
Mathematically relating the output variable to the input variable in the
s-domain.

Block Diagram Model (BDM)


Graphical technique for modeling control systems.
Graphical relationship between the variables of interest.
G s

Output
Input

s
s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Input s

G s

Output s
Dr. Shaukat Ali

Introduction
Block Diagram Model Usage
BDM provides a better understanding of the composition
and interconnection of the components of a system.
BDM describes the input-output relationship throughout the
system with the help of transfer functions.
Ref. +
Input

Error

Actuating
Controller
signal

Measured output

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Actuator

Process
or
Plant

Actual
Output

Feedback

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Introduction
Linear spring
Transfer function:
G s

X s
F s

Block diagram model:


F s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

X s

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Introduction
Field control DC motor
Transfer function: G s

Block diagram model:

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

V f s

s
V f s

Km

s Js B L f s R f

Km

s Js B L f s R f

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Block Diagram Model


Elements of BDM
Blocks
The rectangular box that contains a component of a system.

Signals
Arrowed lines from one block to another representing input/output
variables.

Comparators (summing point)


Junction point for signals comparison.
Ref. +
Input

Error
_

Controller

Actuating
signal

Measured output
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Actuator

Process
or
Plant

Actual
Output

Feedback
Dr. Shaukat Ali

Block Diagram Algebra


Comparator (summing point)
To perform simple mathematical operations (addition or
subtraction)
R s

+
_

E s R s Y s

Y s

R s

+
+

E s R s Y s

Y s
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Block Diagram Algebra


Block
To represent the transfer function of a component of a
system or the system as a whole.

G s

U s

Y s

Y s G s U s

Transfer function
G s

Y s
U s

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Block Diagram Algebra


Combining blocks in cascade

X 3 s G 1 s G 2 s X 1 s

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Block Diagram Algebra


Combining blocks in Parallel

X 2 s

X 1 s

X 2 s G1 s G 2 s X 1 s
X 1 s
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

G 1 s G 2 s

X 2 s

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Block Diagram Algebra


Feedback control system
G c s

G a s

G p s

H s

Transfer function:
Y s
R s

G s
1 G s H s

Forward-path TF:

G s G c s G a s G p s

Loop TF: L s G s H s
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Block Diagram Algebra


Eliminating a feedback loop

Unity feedback loop


X1

X2

X1
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

1 G

X2
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Block Diagram Algebra


Moving a summing point to the right of a block

X 3 G X 1 X 2

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

X 3 GX 1 GX

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Block Diagram Algebra


Moving a summing point to the left of a block

X 3 GX 1 X 2

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

X3
G

X1

X2
G

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Block Diagram Algebra


Moving a takeoff point (pickoff point)to the left of a
block

X 2 GX

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Block Diagram Algebra


Moving a takeoff point (pickoff point)to the right of a
block

X1

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

X2
G

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Block Diagram Reduction


Example: reduce the following block diagram and
determine the transfer function

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Block Diagram Reduction


Example: reduce the following block diagram and
determine the transfer function

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Block Diagram Reduction

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Block Diagram Reduction

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Block Diagram Reduction

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Block Diagram Reduction

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Block Diagram Reduction


Example: reduce the following block diagram and
determine the transfer function

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Block Diagram Reduction


Multiple Inputs
1. Set all inputs except one equal to zero
2. Determine the output signal due to this one non-zero
input
3. Repeat the above steps for each of the remaining inputs in
turn
4. The total output of the system is the algebraic sum
(superposition) of the outputs due to each of the inputs.

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Signal-Flow Graphs (SFG)

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Introduction
Signal-flow graphs (SFG)
A graphical representation of control systems (a simplified
version of Block diagram model)
The cause-and-effect relationship among the variables of a
set of linear algebraic equations (like we have in case of linear
control systems)
A diagram consisting of nodes that are connected by several
directed branches.
s G s V f s

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Signal-Flow Graph Basic Elements


Node (junction point):
To represent the variables of the system

Branch (line segment):


To connect the nodes according to the cause-and-effect
equations
Branch is a unidirectional line segment (from input toward
the output)
s G s V f s

V f s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

G s

s
Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal-Flow Graph Basic Properties


Basic properties
SFG applies only to linear systems
The equations must be in algebraic form (in s-domain) in the
form of cause-and-effect relationship.
Example:



Y 2 s G 12 s Y1 s G 32 s Y 3 s

Y 3 s G 23 s Y 2 s G 43 s Y 4 s
Y 4 s G 24 s Y 2 s G 34 s Y 3 s
N

For N equations; Y j s G kj s Y k s ,

j 1 N

k 1

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Signal-Flow Graph Terms


Input node (Source)
A node that has only outgoing branches (example: node Y1)

Output node (Sink)


A node that has only incoming branches (example: Y4)

Path
A branch or a continuous sequence of branches that can be
traversed from one node to another node

Forward path
A path that starts at an input node and ends at an output node with
no node traversed more than once (example: Y1 to Y2 to Y3 )

Loop
A path that originates and terminates on the same node with no
other node traversed more than once. (four loops in example)
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Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal-Flow Graph Terms


Path gain
The product of the branch gains encountered in traversing a
path.
For example, the path gain for the path Y1-Y2-Y3-Y4 is
G12G23G34

Forward-path gain
The path gain of a forward path

Loop gain
The path gain of a loop

Non-Touching loops
Two loops are non-touching if they do not have a common
node
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal-Flow Graph Terms


2 Forward paths:
P1 G 1G 2 G 3 G 4

P2 G 5 G 6 G 7 G 8

4 Loops:
L1 G 2 H 2
L3 G 6 H 6

L2 G 3 H 3
L4 G 7 H 7

Non-touching loops:
L1 and L3, L1 and L4, L2 and L3, L2 and L4
ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graphs Algebra


Series connection of branches
Parallel branches
Feedback control system

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graphs Gain Formula


Gain Formula
The linear dependence between input variable and output
N
variable
T

output

P
k

k 1

input

P1 1 P2 2 PN N

Pk = Gain of the kth path from input variable to output variable


= Determinant of the SFG
k = Cofactor of the path Pk
N = the total number of forward paths between input and
output variable

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graphs Gain Formula


1

L
n ,m
nontoching

Lm

Lm L p

n ,m , p
nontoching

= 1 (sum of all loop gains)


+ (sum of the gain products of all combination of two non-touching loops)
(sum of the gain products of all combination of three non-touching loops)
+
k = with all the loops touching the kth forward path put to zero

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graphs Example


Find the system transfer function by using the gain
formula of SFG

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graph DC motor control


Field-controlled motor

Draw the signal-flow graph for the above block


diagram

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graph DC motor control


Armature-controlled motor
D s

D s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graphs Exercises (E2.22)


Determine the transfer function of the system from the
following signal flow graph, by using Masons Gain
formula.
P

P P P
Y s
N

T s

R s

k 1

Also draw the equivalent block diagram

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali

Signal Flow Graphs Problems (P2.33)


Y2 s

Determine the following transfer function:


R s
Determine a relationship for the system that will make
Y2(s)independent of R1(s)
Draw the equivalent block diagram
T s

ME464-Sys Dyn & Ctrl Spring-2013

Dr. Shaukat Ali