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Mathematical Challenge for Filipino Kids Training Program

LEVEL 5 SESSION 1
SPECIAL SYMBOLS AND OPERATION
In this lecture, we learn how to solve the following types of problems using unconventional signs for the
written notation of mathematical notions and reasoning: additions, subtractions, multiplications, divisions,
exponents, and radicals.
All the rules of operations (addition, subtractions, multiplications, divisions, radicals, and exponents) we
learnt from arithmetic and algebra are still valid with these symbols.
Fundamental law of fractions:
a
a ac

.
For any fraction b and any number c 0, b b c
Division of fractions
To divide by a fraction, we simply multiply by its reciprocal.
a c a d ad

b d b c bc
Power rules of exponents
a m a n a mn
a mn a m a n

m n

a mn

a m a m
m
b
b
Properties of radicals

ab

a

b

a nbn

am
m
b

ab a b a 0, and b 0
a
a

b
b
n

am

a 0, and b 0

an

Properties of absolute value


x x
x y yx
xy x y , and

x
x

y
y

y 0.

Square binomial

x y x 2 2 xy y 2
2
x y x 2 2 xy y 2
x2 y 2 x y x y
2

Number of divisors
a
b
c
m
For an integer n greater than 1, let the prime factorization of n be n p1 p2 p3 ... pk , where a, b, c,..., and
p , p , ..., pk
m are nonnegative integers, 1 2
are prime numbers.
d n a 1 b 1 c 1 ... m 1
The number of divisors is:
Sum of the positive divisors
The sum of divisors is:
pk m1 1
p a 1
p2b 1
n 1
...


p1 1 p2 1 pk 1

Or n p1a p1a 1 ... p10 p2b p2b 1 ... p20 ... pk m pk m 1 ... pk 0

n
Pattern of the last digit of a
n
The last digits of a have patterns shown in the table below.
n
1
2
3
4
Perio
d
n
2
4
8
6
4
2
n
3
9
7
1
4
3
n
4
6
2
4
n
5
1
5
n
6
1
6
n
7
9
3
1
4
7
n
8
4
2
6
4
8
n
9
1
2
9
For example, when a 2,

21 2

22 4,

23 8,

2 4 16,

25 32,

26 64,
27 128, 28 256,...
n
The last digits of 2 demonstrate a pattern: 2, 4, 8, 6, 4, 8, 6, etc
Pythagorean triples
2
2
2
A Pythagorean triple consists of three positive integers a ,b, and c, such that a b c .
There are 16 primitive Pythagorean triples with c 100 :
(3, 4, 5)
(5, 12, 13) (8, 15, 17) (7, 24, 25)
(20, 21, 29) (12, 35, 37) (9, 40, 41) (28, 45, 53)
(11, 60, 61) (16, 63, 65) (33, 56, 65) (28, 45, 53)
(13, 84, 85) (36, 77, 85) (39, 80, 89) (65, 72, 97)

Additions
Example

For any positive integer n, define (6) n to be the sum of the positive factors of n. For example,
6 1 2 3 6 12. Find 18 .
18 1 2 3 6 9 18 39.

39 1 3 13 39 56.
Method 1:

First calculate

Method 2:

18 32 2.

Solution:

3 3 3 2 2 13 3 39.
3 3 13 13 56.
The sum of the positive factors of 39 is
18 56.
2

The sum of the positive factors of 18 is

Subtractions

3
2
h h h ?
Define x y x y . What is

Example:
h h h3 h 2 .

h h h h h 3 h 2 h3 h 3 h 2 h 2 .

Solution: By the definition we have

Multiplications
4 3 2 1,
Example:
If 4! Means
5! 5 4 3!

5 4 20.
3!
3!
Solution:

5!
?
3!
what is the value of

Divisions
Example:

For each pair of real numbers a b, define the operation as


What is the value of

a b

a b
.
a b

1 2 4 ?

1 2
3.
1 2
First we have
1 2 4 3 4 33 44 17 .
Then

1 2

Solution:

Exponents
Example:
2

1

2
1
1
1
1 2 4 4 4 2 and
2
2
4
16
2
2
2
1
1 2 4 1 1 1 1.
1
4

The operation is defined for all nonzero numbers by

a
.
b Determine 1 2 4 1 2 4 .
Solution:
We have
a b

1
15
1 2 4 1 2 4 1 .
16
16
Therefore

Radicals
Example:
Solution:

a b a 2 b2 .

For real numbers a and b, defined


It follows from the definition that

8 15 15 8

82 152

15

What is the value of

8 15 15 8 ?

8 17 17 17 2 17 2 17 2.
2

BRAIN EXERCISES
1. For the positive integer n, let n denote the sum of all the positive divisors of n with the exception of
n itself. For example, 4 1 2 3 and 12 1 2 3 4 6 16. What is 28 ?

x 8 8
x 12?

2.
Let
denote the sum of the digits of the positive integer x. For example,
123 1 2 3 6.
For how many two-digit values of x is

3.

2
2
3 2 13.
If a b a ab b , then find

a 2 b2
a b
.
b3
4.
5.

If

ab a b ab b,

what is

5 7 3?

For all real numbers a and b, where b 0, the operation is defined as

1 2
.

Compute the following, and express your answer as a common fraction:


2
2
3 2 5?
If ab a 2ab b , what is the value of

2 1

and

2
2
7. The operation is defined as m n m mn n , and the operation z is defined as
m z n 2 m n .
3 4 z 4 3 .
Compute
ab ab a b,
ab 6.
If for positive integers a and b,
find the value of a b in the equation
8.
x y to mean 2 x 3 y. Evaluate 4 3 5 3 .
. Define
9
3
2
4 2 1 ?
. Given that a b a b , what is the value of
10
1 1 1
n 1

!n n ! 1 1
1! 2! 3!
n !

11. 10. Subfactorials, !n, are defined by the formula:


!x
x 6:
.
! x 1
Express the following where for
n{ n 2 1. 12. The operation { is defined by
What is the value of the following:

10 3{ 5 4{ ?

2 3 4.
find
3
a b a 3 b3 and a b a b .
14. Two binary operations are defined by the rules
What is the value
4 6 8 3 5 .
2 3 9?
of
a b ab 1,
15. Given
evaluate:
4 6 8 3 5 ?
a b ab 1 and a b a b 1,
16. If
what is the value of
a b 13. If

is defined as

a 1 b 1 ,

6@ 3
?
17. Define a @ b ab b and a # b a b ab . What is 6 #3
abc
.
a, b, c
a b c Find 2, 5, 8 .
18. For the nonzero numbers a, b, c, define
ab
a b
.
3 4 5
a b
19. Express
as a common fraction given
3 1 2.
a b ,
a b
b
20. If
compare
1 1

b a
a b
,
a b

21. If
express 5 7 as a common fraction.
a b
a b
, find 5 6 1.
a b
22. Given
a b
,
6 3 5 ?
. If a b is defined as 2
what is the value of
23
2

x y xy ,
x

what is the units digit of 4 10?


b
4 2 3 ?
. If a b means 3a 2 , then what value is associated with

24. If
25

b
a
4 3 3 4 ?
. If a b a b , what is

26

a
2 3 3 2 .
27. For natural numbers a and b, a b b 2ab. Find the value of
y
y
4 V 2 3 V 1 .
28. If x V y = x x y , find the value of

x y xy ,
x

29. If

what is the units digits of 7 5?

30.

3a b
a2
a Wb
,
ab= a,
2 3 W 2 1 .
ab
b and
Given
find the common fraction equivalent to

s a, b a 2 b 2 ,
31. Let s be defined as
for all real numbers a and b. Find

a, b a 2 b 2 ,
16,63 , 33,56
32. Let be defined as
for all real numbers a and b. Find
and
express in simplest radical form.
2 3
x y xy ,
x 2 find the value of 4 4 3. Express your answer as a common fraction.
33. If
MIND STRAINERS
1. Let the operations and be defined for all real numbers a and b as follows:
a b a 3b
a b a 4b

4 5 y 5 y 4,
If
what is the value of y?
.
For
the
positive
integer
n,
let n denote the sum of all the positive divisors of n with the exception of
2
n itself. For example, 4 = 1 2 3 and 12 = 1 2 3 4 6 16. What is 18 ?
A B
AV B ,
B A what is the value of 3 V 2 2 V 3 ?
. If
3
3
1 2 3
4. If represents an operation defined by a b a b, find
.
a b

5.

If

6.

Given that

8.
9.
10.
11.

1 1
,
a b for what decimal value of a is a 0.2 10?

a V b a 2 b 2.

What is the value of 5 V 3?

2
4 3 18.
If a b a b, evaluate
3
h h h ?
Define x y x y. What is
2
2
3 2 4?
If x y x y , what is

If

ab ab a b,

find the value of b in the equation

3b 5.

If a b 2a b, what does 3 4 equal?

3 2 ?
12. Suppose that a b ab b for all integers a and b. What is the value of
A B 3 A2 2 B3 , find 7 3.
13. If
2
9 < <.
. If y < y 1, find
14
2
2 q 3 q 1 .
If aq b 3a b , find
15.
8!
16. If 4! means 4 3 2 1, express 6!2!2! in simplest form.
9 7. 17.

Given

a b a a b b a b ,

find

a c
5
x
ab cd .
8,
d
b

2
6
a
,
b
,
c
,
and
d
,
18. For all values
If
what is x?
2
3 2 2 3 .
If a b a b, find
19.
x
3 3
x y xy,

y
20. If
express 8 4 as a common fraction.

23.
24.
25.

b2

express 6 2 as a common fraction.


a b
a b
,
b evaluate: 6 3 9 .
Given the operations: a b 2 a b and
a 2 b2
a b
.
a b Express your answer as a common fraction.
Evaluate 3 4 if
8a 2b
a b
.
2ab Express 3 3 3 as a common fraction.
The operation is defined to be
ab
,

abc
c what is the value of 123 231 312?
If

21. Given
22.

a
b

26. If

A B

a b

a b
,
2

ab

2A B
,
3 4 5? Express your answer as a common fraction.
2
what is the value of

27. If

what is the value of

7 9 3017 ?

ab
,
2 find 7 9 12.

a b

28. Given
a
a b ab ,
29. If
find 5 2. Express the answer as a whole number.
a
a b a b , then what value is associated with 2 3?
30. If
BRAIN PROVOKERS

1.
2.
3.
4.

a
5 2 3 2 ?
If a b is defined as 2a b , what value is associated with
a
b
2 { 3 3 { 2 .
Given a { b b ba a , find
a
4 T 2 2 T 4 .
For natural numbers, a and b a T b b a b. Find the value of

b
a
a b a b a b ,
a a b a 3 and b 2?
Given the a b a b , and
what is the value of
if

a b a b a b b a , find

3 5.

5.

If

6.

1 1
a b ,
a b
If
find 2 3.

7.

1
2 6

If a b a b , find the value of 2


and express the result as a common fraction.

8.
9.
10.

Let be defined as

a, b a 2 b 2 ,

for all real numbers a and b. Find

8,5 ,144 .

2
2
13 84 36 77 .
Given a b a b , find
6 10 5.
Given that x y x y , find

, , , or , and x is a positive integer. Find


11. The symbols and represent different operations, either
x if 17 x 54* x.

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