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CHAPTER 10

The Fundamentals of Capital Budgeting

Learning Objectives

1. Discuss why capital budgeting decisions are the most important decisions made by a

firms management.

2. Explain the benefits of using the net present value (NPV) method to analyze capital

expenditure decisions, and be able to calculate the NPV for a capital project.

3. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the payback period as a capital

expenditure decision-making tool, and be able to compute the payback period for a

capital project.

4. Explain why the accounting rate of return (ARR) is not recommended for use as a

capital expenditure decision-making tool.

5. Be able to compute the internal rate of return (IRR) for a capital project, and

discuss the conditions under which the IRR technique and the NPV technique

produce different results.

6. Explain the benefits of a postaudit review of a capital project.

I.

Chapter Outline

10.1

A.

Capital budgeting decisions are the most important investment decisions made

by management.

The goal of these decisions is to select capital projects that will increase the

value of the firm.

outlays and, once made, are not easily reversed.

potential business opportunities in order to decide which are worth

undertaking.

B.

Sources of Information

generated internally, beginning likely with the sales force.

All this information is then reviewed by the financial managers, who evaluate

the feasibility of the project.

C.

Capital budgeting projects can be broadly classified into three types: (1)

independent projects; (2) mutually exclusive projects; and (3) contingent

projects.

1. Independent Projects

no bearing on the decision on the other.

3

2. Mutually Exclusive Projects

automatically precludes the other.

3. Contingent Projects

dependent on another project.

4

D.

The cost of capital is the minimum return that a capital budgeting project

must earn for it to be accepted.

It is an opportunity cost since it reflects the rate of return investors can earn on

financial assets of similar risk.

Capital rationing implies that a firm does not have the resources necessary to

fund all of the available projects.

Thus, the available capital will be allocated to the set of projects that will

benefit the firm and its shareholders the most.

10.2

shareholder wealth.

The method estimates the amount by which the benefits or cash flows from a project

exceeds the cost of the project in present value terms.

Valuing real assets calls for the same steps as valuing financial assets.

However, there are some practical difficulties in following the process for real

assets.

First, cash flow estimates have to be prepared in-house and are not readily

available as they are for financial assets in legal contracts.

Second, estimates of required rates of return are more difficult than it is for

financial assets because no market data is available for real assets.

The present value of a project is the difference between the present value of the

expected future cash flows and the initial cost of the project.

while accepting a negative NPV project leads to a decline in shareholder wealth.

Projects that have an NPV equal to zero imply that management will be

indifferent between accepting and rejecting the project.

Our goal is to compute the net cash flow (NCF) for each time period t, where NCFt =

(Cash inflows Cash outflows) for the period t.

1. Determine the cost of the project.

Identify and add up all expenses related to the cost of the project.

While we are mostly looking at projects whose entire cost occurs at the start

of the project, we need to recognize that some projects may have costs

occurring beyond the first year also.

2. Estimate the projects future cash flows over its expected life.

Both cash inflows (CIF) and cash outflows are likely in each year of the

project. Estimate the net cash flow (NCFt) = CIFt COFt for each year of the

project.

Remember to recognize any salvage value from the project in its terminal

year.

3. Determine the riskiness of the project and the appropriate cost of capital.

The cost of capital is the discount rate used in determining the present value of

the future expected cash flows.

The riskier the project, the higher the cost of capital for the project.

Determine the difference between the present value of the expected cash flows

from the project and the cost of the project.

5. Make a decision.

Accept the project if it produces a positive NPV or reject the project if NPV is

negative.

Recognize that the estimates going into calculating NPV are estimates and not

market data. Estimates based on informed judgments are considered acceptable.

for making capital investment decisions.

Decision Rule: NPV > 0: Accept the project.

NPV < 0: Reject the project.

Key Advantages

Key Disadvantages

1. Uses the discounted cash flow

1. Difficult to understand without an

valuation technique.

a capital project will increase the value

of the firm.

3. Consistent with the goal of maximizing

shareholder wealth.

10.3

It is one of the most widely used tools for evaluating capital projects.

The payback period represents the number of years it takes for the cash flows from a

project to recover the projects initial investment.

This technique can serve as a risk indicatorthe more quickly you recover the cash,

the less risky is the project.

To compute the payback period, we need to know the projects cost and to

estimate its future net cash flows.

8

PB Years before cost recovery

Cash flow during the year

wealth maximization.

If a firm has a number of projects that are mutually exclusive, the projects are

selected in order of their payback rank: projects with the lowest payback period

are selected first.

The payback period analysis can lead to erroneous decisions because the rule does

not consider cash flows after the payback period.

A rapid payback does not necessarily mean a good investment. See Exhibit 10.6

Projects D and E.

One weakness of the ordinary payback period is that it does not take into account

the time value of money.

The discounted payback period calculation calls for the future cash flows to be

discounted by the firms cost of capital.

The major advantage of the discounted payback is that it tells management how

long it takes a project to reach a positive NPV.

However, this method still ignores all cash flows after the arbitrary cutoff period,

which is a major flaw.

It does not adjust or account for differences in the overall, or total, risk for a

project, which could include operating, financing, and foreign exchange risk.

their failure to consider cash flows after the payback.

Decision Rule: Payback period Payback cutoff point ] Accept the project.

Key Advantages

Key Disadvantages

Easy to calculate and understand for

1 Most common version does not account

people without strong finance

backgrounds.

2

liquidity.

payback period

research and development and new

product launches.

4

10.4

10

This method computes the return on a capital project using accounting numbersthe

projects net income (NI) and book value (BV) rather than cash flow data.

ARR

Average NI

Average BV

It has a number of major flaws as a tool for evaluating capital expenditure decisions.

First, the ARR is not a true rate of return. ARR simply gives us a number based on

average figures from the income statement and balance sheet.

goal of maximizing shareholders wealth.

10.5

The NPV and IRR techniques are similar in that both depend on discounting the cash

flows from a project.

When we use the IRR, we are looking for the rate of return associated with a project

so we can determine whether this rate is higher or lower than the firms cost of

capital.

The IRR is the discount rate that makes the NPV to equal zero.

The IRR is an expected rate of return, much like the yield to maturity calculation

that was made on bonds.

11

We will need to apply the same trial-and-error method to compute the IRR.

The two methods will always agree when the projects are independent and the

projects cash flows are conventional.

After the initial investment is made (cash outflow), all the cash flows in each

future year are positive (inflows).

The IRR and NPV methods can produce different accept/reject decisions if a

project either has unconventional cash flows or the projects are mutually

exclusive.

A positive initial cash flow followed by negative future cash flows.

Future cash flows from a project could include both positive and negative

cash flows.

A cash flow stream that looks similar to a conventional cash flow stream

except for a final negative cash flow.

In these circumstances, the IRR technique can provide more than one solution.

This makes the result unreliable and should not be used in deciding about

accepting or rejecting a project.

When you are comparing two mutually exclusive projects, the NPVs of the

two projects will equal each other at a certain discount rate. This point at

12

which the NPVs intersect is called the crossover point. Depending on whether

the required rate of return is above or below this crossover point, the ranking

of the projects will be different. While it is easy to identify the superior project

based on the NPV, one cannot do so based on the IRR. Thus, ranking conflicts

can arise.

A second situation arises when you compare projects with different costs.

While IRR gives you a return based on the dollar invested, it does not

recognize the difference in the size of the investments. NPV does!

A major weakness of the IRR compared to the NPV method is the reinvestment

rate assumption.

IRR assumes that the cash flows from the project are reinvested at the IRR,

while the NPV assumes that they are invested at the firms cost of capital.

This optimistic assumption in the IRR method leads to some projects being

accepted when they should not be.

each operating cash flow is reinvested at the firms cost of capital.

The compounded values are summed up to get the projects terminal value.

The MIRR is the interest rate that equates the projects cost to the terminal value

at the end of the project.

13

While the IRR has an intuitive appeal to managers because the output is in the

form of a return, the technique has some critical problems.

On the other hand, decisions made based on the projects NPV are consistent with

the goal of shareholder wealth maximization. In addition, the result shows

management the dollar amount by which each project is expected to increase the

value of the firm.

For these reasons, the NPV method should be used to make capital budgeting

decisions.

14

Review of Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Decision Rule: IRR > Cost of capital ] Accept the project.

IRR < Cost of capital ] Reject the project.

Key Advantages

Key Disadvantages

1. Intuitively easy to understand.

1. With nonconventional cash flows, IRR

2. Based on the discounted cash flow

technique.

2. A lower IRR can be better if a cash inflow is

followed by cash outflows.

3. With mutually exclusive projects, IRR can

lead to incorrect investment decisions.

10.6

A. Practitioners Methods of Choice

methods of choice.

In the late 1950s, less than 20 percent of managers used the NPV or IRR methods.

By 1981, over 65 percent of financial managers surveyed used the IRR, but only

16.5 percent of managers used the NPV.

NPV while 77 percent used the IRR. Surprisingly, over 50 percent of managers

used the payback method.

projects and perform postaudits on all completed capital projects.

15

what was projected in the capital budgeting proposal.

A postaudit examination would determine why the project failed to achieve its

expected financial goals.

The review should challenge the business plan, including the cash flow

projections and the operating cost assumptions.

project.

16

II.

This chapter is about capital budgeting, a topic we first visited in Chapter 1. We open the chapter

with a discussion of the types of capital projects that firms undertake and how the capital

budgeting process is managed within the firm. Next we examine some of the techniques financial

managers use to evaluate capital budgeting decisions. We first discuss the net present value

(NPV) method, which is the capital budgeting approach recommended in this book. We then

examine two other capital budgeting techniques that have some serious deficiencies with regard

to selecting capital projectsthe payback period and the accounting rate of return. These

techniques do not consider the time value of money and can lead to decisions that decrease

stockholders wealth.

The fourth and last capital budgeting technique discussed in this chapter is the internal

rate of return (IRR), which is the expected rate of return for a capital project. We close the

chapter by looking at survey data that provide information on what capital budgeting techniques

financial managers actually use when making capital decisions.

The instructor can decide to take up the capital budgeting techniques in any order,

although the authors intent is to emphasize the net present value as the best possible approach to

capital budgeting decision making.

17

1.

Discuss why capital budgeting decisions are the most important decisions made by a

firms management.

Capital budgeting is the process by which management decides which productive assets

the firm should invest in. Because capital expenditures involve large amounts of money,

are critical to achieving the firms strategic plan, define the firms line of business over

the long term, and determine the firms profitability for years to come, they are

considered the most important investment decisions made by management.

2.

Explain the benefits of using the net present value (NPV) method to analyze capital

expenditure decisions.

The net present value (NPV) method leads to better investment decisions than other

techniques because the NPV method does the following: (1) uses the discounted cash

flow valuation approach, which accounts for the time value of money, and (2) provides a

direct measure of how much a capital project is expected to increase the dollar value of

the firm. Thus, NPV is consistent with the top management goal of maximizing

stockholders wealth. NPV calculations are described in Section 10.2 and Learning by

Doing Application 10.1.

3.

expenditure decision-making tool, and be able to compute the payback period for a

capital project.

18

The payback period is the length of time it will take for the cash flows from a project to

recover the cost of the project. The payback period is widely used, mainly because it is

simple to apply and easy to understand. It also provides a simple measure of liquidity risk

because it tells management how quickly the firm will get its money back. The payback

period has a number of shortcomings, however. For one thing, the payback period, as

most commonly computed, ignores the time value of money. We can overcome this

objection by using discounted cash flows to calculate the payback period. Regardless of

how the payback period is calculated, it fails to take account of cash flows recovered after

the payback period. Thus, the payback period is biased in favor of short-lived projects.

Also, the hurdle rate used to identify what payback period is acceptable is arbitrarily

determined. Payback period calculations are described in Section 10.3 and Learning by

Doing Application 10.2.

4.

Explain why the accounting rate of return (ARR) is not recommended as a capital

expenditure decision-making tool.

The ARR is based on accounting numbers, such as book value and net income, rather

than cash flow data. As such, it is not a true rate of return. Instead of discounting a

projects cash flows over time, it simply gives us a number based on average figures from

the income statement and balance sheet. Furthermore, as with the payback method, there

is no economic rationale for establishing the hurdle rate. Finally, the ARR does not

account for the size of the projects when a choice between two projects of different sizes

must be made.

19

5.

Be able to compute the internal rate of return (IRR) for a capital project, and

discuss the conditions under which the internal rate of return (IRR) technique and

the NPV technique produce different results.

The IRR is the expected rate of return for an investment project; it is calculated as the

discount rate that equates the present value of a projects expected cash inflows to the

present value of the projects outflowsin other words, as the discount rate at which the

NPV is equal to zero. Calculations are shown in Section 10.5 and Learning by Doing

Application 10.3. If a projects IRR is greater than the required rate of return, the cost of

capital, the project is accepted. The IRR rule often gives the same investment decision for

a project as the NPV rule. However, the IRR method does have operational pitfalls that

can lead to incorrect decisions. Specifically, when a projects cash flows are

unconventional, the IRR calculation may yield no solution or more than one IRR. In

addition, the IRR technique cannot be used to rank projects that are mutually exclusive

because the project with the highest IRR may not be the project that would add the

greatest value to the firm if acceptedthat is, the project with the highest NPV.

6.

Postaudit reviews of capital projects allow management to determine whether the

projects goals were met and to quantify the benefits or costs of the project. By

conducting these reviews, managers can avoid similar mistakes and possibly better

recognize opportunities.

20

Equation

Description

Formula

NPV NCF0

10.1

NCF1

NCF2

NCFn

1

2

(1 k )

(1 k )

(1 k ) n

NCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

10.2

Payback period

10.3

ARR

10.4

Average Book Value

n

NPV

=

t 0

CFt

=0

(1+IRR) t

PVCost = TV/ (1 + MIRR)n

10.5

return

Cash flow during year

21

V.

Section 10.1

1.

Why are capital investments considered the most important decisions made by a firms

management?

Capital investments are the most important decisions made by a firms management,

because they usually involve large cash outflows and once made are not easily reversed.

These are usually long-term projects that will define the firms line of business and

significantly contribute to the total revenue figure for years to come.

2.

What are the differences between capital projects that are independent, mutually exclusive,

and contingent?

A project is independent if the decision to accept or reject it does not affect the decision

to accept or reject another project. On the other hand, projects are mutually exclusive if

the acceptance of one implies rejection of the other. Contingent projects are those in

which the acceptance of one project is dependent on another project.

Section 10.2

1. What is the NPV of a project?

22

NPV is simply the difference between the present value of a projects expected future

cash flows and its cost. It is the recommended technique used to value capital

investments, as it takes into account both the timing of the cash flows and their risk.

2. If a firm accepts a project with a $10,000 NPV, what is the effect on the value of the

firm?

If a firm accepts a project with a $10,000 NPV, it will increase its value by $10,000.

3.

The five-step process used in the NPV analysis can be listed as follows:

(1) Determine the cost of the project.

(2) Estimate the projects future cash flows over its expected life.

(3) Determine the riskiness of a project and the appropriate cost of capital.

(4) Compute the projects NPV.

(5) Make a decision.

Section 10.3

1. What is the payback period?

The payback period is defined as the number of years it takes to recover the projects

initial investment. All other things being equal, the project with the shortest payback

period is usually the optimal investment.

23

2. Why does the payback period provide a measure of a projects liquidity risk?

The payback period determines how quickly you recover your investment in a project.

Thus, it serves as a good measure of the projects liquidity.

3.

The payback method does not account for time value of money, nor does it distinguish

between high- and low-risk projects. In addition, there is no rationale behind choosing the

cutoff criteria. For all these reasons, the payback method is not the ideal capital decision

rule.

Section 10.4

1.

What are the major shortcomings of using the ARR method as a capital budgeting

method?

The biggest shortcoming of using ARR as a capital budgeting tool is that it uses

historical, or book value data rather than cash flows and thus disregards the time value of

money principle. In addition, as in the payback method, it fails to establish a rationale

behind picking the appropriate hurdle rate.

Section 10.5

24

1.

The IRR, or the internal rate of return, is the discount rate that makes the net present

value of the projects future cash flows zero. The IRR determines whether the projects

return rate is higher or lower than the required rate of return, which is the firms cost of

capital. As a rule, a project should be accepted if the IRR exceeds the firms cost of

capital; otherwise the project should be rejected.

2.

A conventional project cash flow in capital budgeting is one in which an initial cash

outflow is followed by one or more future cash inflows.

3.

Why should the NPV method be the primary decision tool used in making capital

investment decisions?

Given all the different methods to evaluate capital investment decisions, the NPV method

is the preferred valuation tool as it accounts for both time value of money and the

projects risk. Furthermore, NPV is not sensitive to nonconventional projects, and

therefore it is superior to the IRR technique and it gives a measure of the value

increase/decrease to the firm by taking the project.

Section 10.6

25

1.

What shifts have taken place in the capital budgeting techniques used by U.S.

companies?

Over the years, there has been a shift from using payback and ARR as the primary capital

budgeting tools to using NPV and IRR instead. Managers nowadays understand the

importance of the time value of money and discounting and thus regard ARR as an

inaccurate and obsolete decision tool.

26

10.1

Premium Manufacturing Company is evaluating two forklift systems to use in its plant that

produces the towers for a windmill power farm. The costs and the cash flows from these

systems are shown here. If the company uses a 12 percent discount rate for all projects,

determine which forklift system should be purchased using the net present value (NPV)

approach.

Year 0

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Otis Forklifts

$3,123,450

$979,225

$1,358,886

$2,111,497

Craigmore Forklifts

$4,137,410

$875,236

$1,765,225

$2,865,110

Solution:

NPV for Otis Forklifts:

CFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1 0.12)1

(1.12) 2

(1.12) 3

$3,123,450 $874,308 $1,083,296 $1,502,922

$3,123,450

$337,075

27

CFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1 0.12)1

(1.12) 2

(1.12) 3

$4,137,410 $781,461 $1,407,229 $2,039,227

$4,137,410

$90,606

Premium should purchase the Otis forklift since it has a larger NPV.

10.2

Rutledge, Inc., has invested $100,000 in a project that will produce cash flows of

$45,000, $37,500, and $42,950 over the next three years. Find the payback period for the

project.

Solution:

Payback period for Rutledge project:

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

CF

(100,000)

45,000

37,500

42,950

Cash Flow

(100,000)

(55,000)

(17,500)

25,450

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 2 + ($17,500 / $42,950)

= 2.41 years

10.3

Perryman Crafts Corp. is evaluating two independent capital projects that together will

cost the company $250,000. The two projects will provide the following cash flows:

28

Which

chosen if

Year

1

2

3

4

Project A

$80,750

$93,450

$40,325

$145,655

Project B

$32,450

$76,125

$153,250

$96,110

project will be

the companys

payback criterion is three years? What if the company accepts all projects as long as the

payback period is less than five years?

Solution:

Payback periods for Perryman projects A and B:

Project A

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

Cash Flow

$(250,000)

80,750

93,450

40,235

145,655

Cash Flows

$(250,000)

(169,250)

(75,800)

(35,565)

110,090

Project B

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

Cash Flow

$(250,000)

32,450

76,125

153,250

96,110

Cash Flows

$(250,000)

(217,550)

(141,425)

11,825

107,935

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 3 + ($35,565 / $145,655)

= 3.24 years

29

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 2 + ($141,425/ $153,250)

= 2.92 years

If the payback period is three years, project B will be chosen. If the payback criterion is five

years, then both A and B will be chosen.

10.4

Terrell Corp. is looking into purchasing a machine for its business that will cost $117,250

and will be depreciated on a straight-line basis over a five-year period. The sales and

expenses (excluding depreciation) for the next five years are shown in the following table.

The companys tax rate is 34 percent.

Year 1

Year 2

$176,875

$126,488

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

The company will accept all projects that provide an accounting rate of return (ARR) of at

least 45 percent. Should the company accept this project?

Solution:

Sales

Expenses

Depreciation

EBIT

Taxes (34%)

Net Income

Year 1

$123,450

137,410

23,450

$ (37,410)

12,719

$ (24,691)

Year 2

$176,875

126,488

23,450

$ 26,937

9,159

$ 17,778

Year 3

$242,455

141,289

23,450

$ 77,716

26,423

$ 51,293

Year 4

$255,440

143,112

23,450

$ 88,878

30,219

$ 58,659

Year 5

$267,125

133,556

23,450

$110,119

37,440

$ 72,679

30

Beginning Book Value

Less: Depreciation

Ending Book Value

Average net income

117,250

(23,450)

$ 93,800

93,800

(23,450)

$ 70,350

70,350

(23,450)

$ 46,900

46,900

(23,450)

$ 23,450

23,450

(23,450)

$

0

= $35,143.60

= $46,900.00

= 74.93%

The company should accept the project.

10.5

Refer to Problem 10.1. Compute the IRR for each of the two systems. Is the choice different

Solution:

IRR for two forklift systems:

Otis Forklifts:

First compute the IRR by the trial-and-error approach:

NPV (Otis) = $337,075 > 0

Use a higher discount rate to get NPV = 0!

At k = 15%,

31

$979,225 $1,358,886 $2,111,497

(1 0.15)1

(1.15) 2

(1.15) 3

$3,123,450 $851,500 $1,027,513 $1,388,344

$143,907.

NPV $3,123,450

$24,536.

Try a higher rate. At k = 17.5%,

$4,215

Thus the IRR for Otis is less than 17.5 percent. Using a financial calculator, you can find

that the exact rate to be 17.43 percent.

Craigmore Forklifts:

First compute the IRR by the trial-and-error approach:

NPV (Craigmore) = $90,606 > 0

Use a higher discount rate to get NPV = 0! At k = 15%,

$875,236 $1,765,225 $2,865,110

(1.15)1

(1.12) 2

(1.12) 3

$4,137,410 $761,075 $1,334,764 $1,883,856

NPV $4,137,410

$157,715

$5,230

Try a higher rate. At k = 13.1%,

$3,161

32

Thus the IRR for Craigmore is less than 13.1 percent. The exact rate is 13.06 percent.

Based on the IRR, we would still pick Otis over Craigmore forklift systems.

33

10.1

Explain why the cost of capital is referred to as the hurdle rate in capital budgeting.

The cost of capital is the minimum required return on any new investment that allows a

firm to break even. Since we are using the cost of capital as a benchmark or hurdle to

compare the return earned by any project, it is sometimes referred to as the hurdle rate.

10.2

a. A company is building a new plant on the outskirts of Smallesville. The town has

offered to donate the land, and as part of the agreement, the company will have to

build an access road from the main highway to the plant. How will the project of

building the road be classified in capital budgeting analysis?

b. Sykes, Inc., is considering two projectsa plant expansion and a new computer

system for the firms production department. Classify each of these projects as

independent, mutually exclusive, or contingent projects and explain your reasoning.

c. Your firm is currently considering the upgrading of the operating systems of all the

firms computers. The firm can choose the Linux operating system that a local

computer services firm has offered to install and maintain. Microsoft has also put in a

bid to install the new Windows Vista operating system for businesses. What type of

project is this?

on the new plant being a financially viable project. If the new plant will not have

a positive value, then the firm will not even consider this project. However, this

34

projects cost will have to be considered along with the cost of building the new

plant in the capital budgeting analysis.

b. These two projects are independent projects. Accepting or rejecting one will not

influence the decision on the other project. The cash flows of the two projects are

unrelated.

c. These are two mutually exclusive projects. The companys computers need only

one operating system. Either the Linux or the Windows operating system needs to

be installed, not both. Hence, the selection of one will eliminate the other from

consideration.

10.3

Capital rationing implies that a firm does not have the resources necessary to fund all of

the available projects. In other words, funding needs exceed funding resources. Thus, the

available capital will be allocated to the projects that will benefit the firm and its

shareholders the most. Projects that create the largest increase in shareholder wealth will

be accepted until all the available resources have been allocated.

10.4

Explain why we use discounted cash flows instead of actual market price data.

While market price data would be preferable to estimating future cash flows in

determining an assets value, it is often not available. Thus, the discounted cash flow

approach is used as a proxy for actual market price of an assets value.

35

10.5

a. A firm takes on a project that would earn a return of 12 percent. If the appropriate

cost of capital is also 12 percent, did the firm make the right decision. Explain.

b. What is the impact on the firm if it accepts a project with a negative NPV?

a. We would normally argue that a firm should only accept projects in which the

projects return exceeds the cost of capital. In other words, only if the net present

value exceeds zero should a project be accepted. But in reality, projects with a

zero NPV should also be accepted because the project earns a return that equals

the cost of capital. For some firms like the one above, this could be the situation

because they may not have projects that provide a return greater than the cost of

capital for the firm.

b. When a firm takes on positive NPV projects, the value of the firm increases. By

the same token, when a project undertaken has a negative NPV, the value of the

firm will decrease by the amount of the net present value.

10.6

There are several critical weaknesses in the payback period approach of evaluating

capital projects.

The payback period ignores the time value of money by not discounting future

cash flows.

36

A firm may establish payback criteria with no economic basis for that decision

and thereby run the risk of losing out on good projects.

The method ignores cash flows beyond the payback period, thus leading to

nonselection of projects that may produce cash flows well beyond the payback

period or more cash flows than accepted projects. This leads to a bias against

longer-term projects.

10.7

What are the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting rate of return (ARR) approach?

The biggest advantage of ARR is that it is easy to compute since accounting data is

readily available, whereas estimating cash flows is more difficult. However, the

disadvantages outweigh this specific advantage. Similar to the payback, it does not

discount cash flows, but merely averages net income over time. No economic rationale is

used in establishing an ARR cutoff rate. Finally, the ARR uses net income to evaluate the

project and not cash flows or market data. This is a serious flaw in this approach.

10.8

Under what circumstances might the IRR and NPV approaches have conflicting results?

IRR and the NPV methods of evaluating capital investment projects might produce

dissimilar results under two circumstances. First, if the projects cash flows are not

conventionalthat is, if the sign of the cash flow changes more than once during the life

of a projectthen multiple IRRs can be obtained as solutions. We would be unable to

identify the correct IRR for decision making. (See Learning by Doing Application 10.3.)

37

The second situation occurs when two or more projects are mutually exclusive. The

project with the highest IRR may not necessarily be the one with the highest NPV and

thereby be the right choice. There is an important reason for this. IRR assumes that all

cash flows received during the life of a project are reinvested at the IRR, whereas the

NPV method assumes that they are reinvested at the cost of capital. Since the cost of

capital is the better proxy for opportunity cost, NPV uses the better proxy, while the IRR

uses an unrealistically higher rate as proxy.

10.9

A company estimates that an average-risk project has a cost of capital of 8 percent, a belowaverage risk project has a cost of capital of 6 percent, and an above-average risk project has a

cost of capital of 10 percent. Which of the following independent projects should the

company accept? Project A has below-average risk and a return of 6.5 percent. Project B has

above-average risk and a return of 9 percent. Project C has average risk and a return of 7

percent.

percent, which is the cost of capital for projects of this risk type. Project A earns a return

of 6.5 percent and hence should be accepted. Project B is an above-average risk type and

only earns 9 percent, while the required rate of return is 10 percent. Thus, this project is a

negative NPV project and should be rejected. This is the case with Project C whose return

of 7 percent is below the cost of capital of 8 percent and should be rejected. Thus, only

Project A is accepted.

38

10.10 Elkridge Construction Company has an overall (composite) cost of capital of 12 percent. This

cost of capital reflects the cost of capital for an Elkridge Construction project with average

risk. However, the firm takes on projects of various risk levels. The company experience

suggests that low-risk projects have a cost of capital of 10 percent and high-risk projects have

a cost of capital of 15 percent. Which of the following projects should the company select to

maximize shareholder wealth?

Project

1. Single-family homes

2. Multifamily residential

3. Commercial

4. Single-family homes

5. Commercial

Project

1. Single-family homes

2. Multifamily residential

3. Commercial

4. Single-family homes

5. Commercial

Expected Return

13%

12

18

9

13

Risk

Low

Average

High

Low

High

Required

Expected

Return

10%

12

15

10

15

Return

13%

12

18

9

13

Risk

Low

Average

High

Low

High

Decision

Accept

Accept / Indifferent

Accept

Reject

Reject

39

VIII.

BASIC

10.1

Net present value: Riggs Corp. is planning to spend $650,000 on a new marketing

campaign. It believes that this action will result in additional cash flows of $325,000 over

the next three years. If the firm uses a discount rate of 17.5 percent, what is the NPV on

this project?

Solution:

Initial investment = $650,000

Annual cash flows = $325,000

Length of project = n = 3 years

Required rate of return = k = 17.5%

Net present value = NPV

NCFt

$325,000 $325,000 $325,000

$650,000

t

(1.175)1

(1.175) 2

(1.175) 3

t 0 (1 k )

$650,000 276,596 $235,401 $200,341

$62,337

n

NPV

10.2

Net present value: Kingston, Inc., is looking to add a new machine at a cost of

$4,133,250. The company expects this equipment will lead to cash flows of $814,322,

$863,275, $937,250, $1,017,112, $1,212,960, and $1,225,000 over the next six years. If

the appropriate discount rate is 15 percent, what is the NPV of this investment?

Solution:

40

Cost of new machine = $4,133,250

Length of project = n = 6 years

Required rate of return = k = 15%

NCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.15)1

(1.15) 2

(1.15)3

(1.15) 4

(1.15)5

(1.15) 6

$4,133,250 708,106 $$652,760 $616257 $581,537 $603,055 $529,601

$4,133,250

$441,933

10.3

Net present value: Crescent Industries is planning to replace some existing machinery in

its plant. The cost of the new equipment and the resulting cash flows are shown in the

accompanying table. If the firm uses an 18 percent discount rate, should the firm go

ahead with the project?

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Solution:

Initial investment = $3,300,000

Length of project = n = 5 years

Required rate of return = k = 18%

Cash Flow

$3,300,000

$875,123

$966,222

$1,145,000

$1,250,399

$1,504,445

41

NCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.18)1

(1.18) 2

(1.18)3

(1.18) 4

(1.18)5

$3,300,000 $741,630 $693,926 $696,882 $644,942 $657,607

$134,986

$3,300,000

Since the NPV is positive, the firm should accept the project.

10.4

jellybean-making machine at a cost of $312,500. The company projects that the cash

flows from this investment will be $121,450 for the next seven years. If the appropriate

discount rate is 14 percent, what is the NPV for the project?

Solution:

Initial investment = $312,500

Annual cash flows = $121,450

Length of project = n = 7 years

Required rate of return = k = 14%

NCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.14)1

(1.14) 2

(1.14) 3

(1.14) 4

(1.14)5

$121,450 $121,450

(1.14)6

(1.14) 7

$312,500 $106,535 $93,452 $81,975 $71,908 $63,077 $55,331 $48,536

$208,315

$312,500

42

10.5

expects, as a result, cash flows of $979,225, $1,158,886, and $1,881,497 over the next

three years. What is the payback period?

Solution:

Cumulative

Year

CF

Cash Flow

0

$(3,768,966) $(3,768,966)

1

979,225

(2,789,741)

2

1,158,886

(1,630,855)

3

1,881,497

250,642

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 2 + ($1,630,855 / $1,881,497) = 2.87 years

10.6

at a cost of $1,645,276. Cost savings from the investment over the next six years will be

reflected in the following cash flow stream: $212,455, $292,333, $387,479, $516,345,

$645,766, and $618,325. What is the payback period on this investment?

Solution:

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

CF

$(1,645,276)

212,455

292,333

387,479

516,345

645,766

618,325

Cash Flow

$(1,645,276)

(1,432,821)

(1,140,488)

(753,009)

(236,664)

409,102

1,027,427

43

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 4 + ($236,664 / $645,766)

= 4.37 years

10.7

$1,875,000. The institution expects productivity gains and cost savings over the next

several years. If the firm is expected to generate cash flows of $586,212, $713,277,

$431,199, and $318,697 over the next four years, what is the investments payback

period?

Solution:

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

CF

$(1,875,000)

586,212

713,277

431,199

318,697

Cash Flow

$(1,875,000

(1,288,788)

(575,511)

(144,312)

174,385

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 3 + ($144,312 / $318,697)

= 3.45 years

10.8

income of $63,435 over each of the next three years. The average book value of its

equipment over that period will be $212,500. If the firms acceptance decision on any

project is based on an ARR of 37.5 percent, should this project be accepted?

44

Solution:

Annual after-tax income = $63,435

Average after-tax income = ($63,435 +$63,435 + $63,435) / 3 = $63,435

Average book value of equipment = $212,500

Average book value

$63,435

29.9%

$212,500

Since the projects ARR is below the acceptance rate of 37.5 percent, the project should be

rejected.

10.9

Internal rate of return: Refer to Problem 10.4. What is the IRR that Franklin Mints can

expect on this project?

Solution:

Initial investment = $312,500

Annual cash flows = $121,450

Length of project = n = 7 years

Required rate of return = k = 14%

To determine the IRR, a trial-and-error approach can be used. Set NPV = 0.

Since the project had a positive NPV of $134,986, try IRR > k.

Try IRR = 25%.

45

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.25)7

0 $312,500 $121,450

0.25

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.34) 7

0 $312,500 $121,450

0.34

Try a lower rate, IRR = 33.8%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1 (1.338) 7

0 $312,500 $121,450

0.338

The IRR of the project is 33.8 percent. Using a financial calculator, we find that the IRR

is 33.83 percent.

10.10 Internal rate of return: Hathaway, Inc., a resort company, is refurbishing one of its

hotels at a cost of $7.8 million. The firm expects that this improvement will lead to

additional cash flows of $1.8 million for the next six years. What is the IRR of this

46

project? If the appropriate cost of capital is 12 percent, should it go ahead with this

project?

Solution:

Initial investment = $7,800,000

Annual cash flows = $1,800,000

Length of project = n = 6 years

Required rate of return = k = 12%

To determine the IRR, a trial-and-error approach can be used. Set NPV = 0.

Try IRR = 12%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.12) 6

0 $7,800,000 $1,800,000

0.12

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.10)6

0 $7,800,000 $1,800,000

0.10

Try IRR = 10.2%.

47

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1 (1.102) 6

0 $7,800,000 $1,800,000

0.102

Try IRR = 10.15%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1 (1.1015)6

0 $7,800,000 $1,800,000

0.1015

The IRR of the project is between 10.15 and 10.2 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 10.1725 percent. Since IRR < k, reject the project.

INTERMEDIATE

10.11 Net present value: Champlain Corp. is investigating two computer systems. The Alpha

8300 costs $3,122,300 and will generate annual cost savings of $1,345,500 over the next

five years. The Beta 2100 system costs $3,750,000 and will produce cost savings of

$1,125,000 in the first three years and then $2 million for the next two years. If the

companys discount rate for similar projects is 14 percent, what is the NPV for the two

systems? Which one should be chosen based on the NPV?

48

Solution:

Cost of Alpha 8300 = $3,122,300

Annual cost savings = $1,345,500

Length of project = n = 5 years

Required rate of return = k = 14%

1

1

FCFt

(1.14)5

NPV

$

3

,

122

,

300

$

1

,

345

,

500

t

0.14

t 0 (1 k )

$3,122,300 $4,619,210

$1,496,910

n

Length of project = n = 5 years

Required rate of return = k = 14%

1

1

FCFt

(1.14)3 $2,000,000 $2,000,000

NPV

$

3

,

750

,

000

$

1

,

125

,

500

t

4

0

.

14

(

1

.

14

)

(1.14)5

t 0 (1 k )

$1,084,734

Based on the NPV, the Alpha 8300 system should be chosen.

10.12 Net present value: Briarcrest Condiments is a spice-making firm. Recently, it developed

a new process for producing spices. This calls for acquiring machinery that would cost

$1,968,450. The machine will have a life of five years and will produce cash flows as

shown in the table. What is the NPV if the firm uses a discount rate of 15.9 percent?

49

Year

1

2

3

4

5

Cash Flow

$512,496

$(242,637)

$814,558

$887,225

$712,642

Solution:

Cost of equipment = $1,968,450

Length of project = n = 5 years

Required rate of return = k = 15.9%

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.159)1

(1.159) 2

(1.159) 3

(1.159) 4

(1.159) 5

$1,968,450 $442,188 $180,630 $523,205 491,700 340,764

$1,968,450

$351,223

10.13 Net present value: Cranjet Industries is expanding its product line and its production

capacity. The costs and expected cash flows of the two independent projects are given in

the following table. The firm typically uses a discount rate of 16.4 percent.

a.

b.

c.

Year

0

Product Line

Production Capacity

Expansion

$(2,575,000)

Expansion

$(8,137,250)

50

1

2

3

4

5

$600,000

$875,000

$875,000

$875,000

$875,000

$2,500,000

$2,500,000

$2,500,000

$3,250,000

$3,250,000

Solution:

a.

b.

Product Line Expansion:

Cost of product line expansion = $2,575,000

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.164)1

(1.164) 2

(1.164 )3

(1.164) 4

(1.164)5

$2,575,000 $515,464 $645,806 $554,816 476,646 409,490

$27,222

$2,575,000

Production CapacityExpansion:

Cost of production capacity expansion = $8,137,250

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

$8,137,250 $2,500,000

0.164

(1.164) 4

(1.164) 5

$732,228

c.

Since they are independent, and both have NPV > 0, both projects should be

accepted.

51

10.14 Net present value: Emporia Mills is evaluating two heating systems. Costs and projected

energy savings are given in the following table. The firm uses 11.5 percent to discount

such project cash flows. Which system should be chosen?

Year

0

1

2

3

4

System 100

$(1,750,000)

$275,223

$512,445

$648,997

$875,000

System 200

$(1,735,000)

$750,000

$612,500

$550,112

$384,226

Solution:

Required rate of return = 11.5%

System 100:

Cost of product line expansion = $1,750,000

FCFt

$275,223 $512,445 $648,997 $875,000

$1,750,000

t

(1.115)1

(1.115) 2

(1.115)3

(1.115) 4

t 0 (1 k )

$1,750,000 $246,837 $412,190 $468,186 566,120

$56,667

n

NPV

System 200:

Cost of product line expansion = $1,735,000

FCFt

$750,000 $612,500 $550,112 $384,226

$1,735,000

t

(1.115)1

(1.115) 2

(1.115) 3

(1.115) 4

t 0 (1 k )

$1,735,000 $672,446 $492,670 $396,850 248,592

$75,758

n

NPV

Since System 200 has a positive NPV, select that system. Reject System 100 as it has

negative NPV.

52

10.15 Payback: Creative Solutions, Inc., has invested $4,615,300 in equipment. The firm uses

payback period criteria of not accepting any project that takes more than four years to

recover costs. The company anticipates cash flows of $644,386, $812,178, $943,279,

$1,364,997, $2,616,300, and $2,225,375 over the next six years. Does this investment

meet the firms payback criteria?

Solution:

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

CF

$(4,615,300)

644,386

812,178

943,279

1,364,997

2,616,300

2,225,375

Cash Flow

$(4,615,300)

(3,970,914)

(3,158,736)

(2,215,457)

(850,460)

1,765,840

3,991,215

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 4 + ($850,460 / $2,616,300)

= 4.33 years

Since the project payback period exceeds the firms target of four years, it should not be

accepted.

10.16 Discounted payback: Timeline Manufacturing Co. is evaluating two projects. It uses

payback criteria of three years or less. Project A has a cost of $912,855, and project Bs

cost will be $1,175,000. Cash flows from both projects are given in the following table.

What are the discounted payback periods, and which will be accepted if the firm uses a

53

discount rate of 8 percent?

Year

1

2

3

4

Project A

$ 86,212

$313,562

$427,594

$285,552

Project B

$586,212

$413,277

$231,199

Solution:

Project A

Cumulativ

Year

0

1

2

3

4

CF

$(912,855)

86,212

313,562

427,594

285,552

e CF

$(912,855)

(826,643)

(513,081)

(85,487)

200,065

Cumulative

PVCF

$(912,855)

79,826

268,829

339,438

209,889

PVCF

$(912,855)

(833,029)

(564,200)

(224,762)

(14,873)

Project B

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

Cumulative

CF

$(1,175,000)

CF

$(1,175,000

PVCF

$(1,175,000)

PVCF

$(1,175,000)

586,212

413,277

231,199

)

(588,788)

(175,511)

55,688

542,789

354,318

183,533

(632,211)

(277,893)

(94,359)

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 3 + years

Since the firms acceptance criteria is three years, neither project will be accepted.

10.17 Payback: Regent Corp. is evaluating three competing pieces of equipment. Costs and

54

cash flow projections for all three are given in the following table. Which would be the

best choice based on payback period?

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Type 1

$(1,311,450)

$212,566

$269,825

$455,112

$285,552

$121,396

Type 2

$(1,415,888)

$586,212

$413,277

$331,199

$141,442

Type 3

$(1,612,856)

$786,212

$175,000

$175,000

$175,000

$175,000

$175,000

Solution:

Type 1

Cumulativ

Type 2

Cumulativ

Type 3

Cumulative

Year

CF

e CF

CF

e CF

CF

CF

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

$(1,311,450)

212,566

269,825

455,112

285,552

121,396

$(1,311,450)

(1,098,884)

(829,059)

(373,947)

(88,395)

33,001

$(1,415,888)

586,212

413,277

331,199

141,442

$(1,415,888)

(829,676)

(416,399)

(85,200)

56,242

$(1,612,856)

786,212

175,000

175,000

175,000

175,000

175,000

($1,612,856)

(826,644)

(651,644)

(476,644)

(301,644)

(126,644)

48.356

Type 1:

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 4 + ($88,395 / $121,396)

= 4.73 years

Type 2:

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 3 + ($85,200 / $141,442)

= 3. 6 years

Type 3:

55

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 5 + ($126,644 / $175,000)

= 5.72 years

Select Type 2 because it has the lowest payback period.

technologies. The company expects significant benefits in the first three years after

installation (as can be seen by the cash flows), and a constant amount for four more years.

What is the discounted payback period for the project assuming a discount rate of 10

percent?

Years

Cash flows

1

$2,265,433

2

$4,558,721

3

$3,378,911

47

$1,250,000

Solution:

Discount rate = k = 10%

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Cumulative

CF

$(9,365,000)

CF

$(9,365,000

PVCF

$(9,365,000)

PVCF

$(9,365,000)

2,265,433

4,588,721

3,378,911

1,250,000

1,250,000

1,250,000

1,250,000

)

(7,099,567)

(2,540,846)

838,065

2,088,065

3,338,065

4,588,065

5,838,065

2,059,485

3,767,538

2,538,626

853,767

776,152

705,592

641,448

(7,305,515)

(3,537,977)

(999,352)

(145,585)

630,567

1,336,159

1,977,607

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 4 + ($145,585 / $1,250,000)

56

= 4.19 years

10.19 Modified internal rate of return (MIRR): Morningside Bakeries has recently purchased

equipment at a cost of $650,000. The firm expects to generate cash flows of $275,000 in each

of the next four years. The companys cost of capital is 14 percent. What is the MIRR for this

project?

Solution:

PV of costs = $650,000

Length of project = n = 4 years

Cost of capital = k = 14%

Annual cash flows = CFt = $275,000

TV CF1 (1 k ) n 1 CF2 (1 k ) n 2 CFn (1 k ) n n

$275,000(1.14)3 $275,000(1.14) 2 $275,000(1.14)1 $275,000(1.14)0

$407,425 $357,390 $313,500 $275,000 $1,353,315

TV

(1 MIRR ) t

$1,353,315

$650,000

(1 MIRR ) 4

$1,353,315

(1 MIRR ) 4

2.0820

$650,000

PVCosts

1

10.20 Modified internal rate of return (MIRR): Sycamore Home Furnishings is looking to

acquire a new machine that can create customized window treatments. The equipment will

57

cost $263,400 and will generate cash flows of $85,000 over each of the next six years. If the

companys cost of capital is 12 percent, what is the MIRR on this project?

Solution:

PV of costs = $263,400

Length of project = n = 6 years

Cost of capital = k = 12%

Annual cash flows = CFt = $85,000

$85,000(1.12)5 $85,000(1.12) 4 $85,000(1.12)3 $85,000(1.12) 2

$85,000(1.12)1 $85,000(1.12)0

$149,799 $133,749 $119,419 $106,624 $95,200 $85,000

$689,791

Now we can solve for the MIRR using Equation 10.5.

TV

(1 MIRR ) t

$689,791

$263,400

(1 MIRR )6

$689,791

(1 MIRR ) 6

2.6188

$263,400

PVCosts

MIRR 0.1740 17.4%

1

10.21 Internal rate of return: Great Flights, Inc., an aviation firm, is exploring the purchase of

three aircraft at a total cost of $161 million. Cash flows from leasing these aircraft are

58

expected to build slowly as shown in the following table. What is the IRR on this project?

The firms required rate of return is 15 percent.

Solution:

Initial investment =

Years

14

57

810

Cash Flow

$23,500,000

$72,000,000

$80,000,000

$161,000,000

Required rate of return = k = 15%

To determine the IRR, the trial-and-error approach can be used. Set NPV=0.

Try a higher rate than k = 15%; try IRR = 22%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1

1 (1.22) 4

1 (1.22) 3

1

0 $161,000,000 $23,500,000

$72,000,000

0.22

0.22 (1.22) 4

1 (1.22) 3

1

$80,000,000

0.22 (1.22)7

Try IRR = 23%.

59

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1

1 (1.23) 4

1 (1.23)3

1

0 $161,000,000 $23,500,000

$72,000,000

0.23

0.23 (1.23) 4

1 (1.23) 3

1

$80,000,000

0.23 (1.23)7

Try IRR = 22.7%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1

1 (1.227) 4

1 (1.227) 3

1

0 $161,000,000 $23,500,000

$72,000,000

0.227

0.227 (1.227) 4

1 (1.227) 3

1

$80,000,000

0.227 (1.227) 7

The IRR of the project is between 22 and 23 percent. Using a financial calculator, we find

that the IRR is 22.65 percent.

10.22 Internal rate of return: Compute the IRR on the following cash flow streams:

a.

year 6

b.

in year 4

60

c.

$1,250,000 in years 2 and 4, respectively

Solution:

a.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$37,450

0 $25,000

(1.07) 6

$25,000 $24,955 $45

n

NPV 0

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$37,450

0 $25,000

(1.0697)6

$25,000 $24,997 $3

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 6.97 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 6.968 percent.

b.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$1,650,000

0 $1,000,000

(1.12) 4

$1,000,000 $1,048,605 $48,605

n

NPV 0

61

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$1,650,000

0 $1,000,000

(1.13) 4

$1,000,000 $1,011,976 $11,976

n

NPV 0

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$1,650,000

0 $1,000,000

(1.133) 4

$1,000,000 $1,1,001,300 $1,300

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 13.3 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 13.337 percent.

c.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$1,650,000 $1,250,000

0 $2,000,000

(1.15) 2

(1.15) 4

$2,000,000 $1,247,637 $714,692 $37,671

n

NPV 0

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$1,650,000 $1,250,000

0 $2,000,000

(1.14) 2

(1.14) 4

$2,000,000 $1,269,621 $740,100 $9,721

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is between 14 and 15 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 14.202 percent.

10.23 Internal rate of return: Compute the IRR for the following project cash flows.

62

a.

An initial outlay of $3,125,000 followed by annual cash flows of $565,325 for the

next eight years

b.

An initial investment of $33,750 followed by annual cash flows of $9,430 for the

next five years

c.

An initial outlay of $10,000 followed by annual cash flows of $2,500 for the next

seven years

Solution:

a.

Annual cash flows = $565,325

Length of investment = n = 8 years

1

1

n

FCFt

(1.08)8

NPV

$

3

,

125

,

000

$

565

,

325

t

0.08

t 0 (1 k )

$3,125,000 $3,249,006

$124,006

Try a higher rate, IRR = 9%.

1

1

FCFt

(1.09)8

NPV

$

3

,

125

,

000

$

565

,

325

t

0.09

t 0 (1 k )

$3,125,000 $3,129,248

$4,248

n

63

The IRR of the project is approximately 9 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 9.034 percent.

b.

Annual cash flows = $9,430

Length of investment = n = 5 years

Try IRR = 12%.

1

1

FCFt

(1.12)5

NPV

$

33

,

750

$

9

,

430

t

0.12

t 0 (1 k )

$33,750 $33,993

n

$243

n

FCFt

(1.123)

NPV

$33,750 $9,430

t

0.123

t 0 (1 k )

$33,750 $33742

$8 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 12.3 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 12.29 percent.

c.

Annual cash flows = $2,500

Length of investment = n = 7 years

Try IRR = 16%.

64

1

1

FCFt

(1.16) 7

NPV

$

10

,

000

$

2

,

500

t

0.16

t 0 (1 k )

$10,000 $10,096

$96

1

7

FCFt

(1.163)

NPV

$10,000 $2,500

t

0.163

t 0 (1 k )

$10,000 $10,008

$8 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 16.3 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 16.327 percent.

ADVANCED

10.24 Draconian Measures, Inc., is evaluating two independent projects. The company uses a

13.8 percent discount rate for such projects. Cost and cash flows are shown in the table.

What are the NPVs of the two projects?

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Project 1

$(8,425,375)

$3,225,997

$1,775,882

$1,375,112

$1,176,558

$1,212,645

$1,582,156

$1,365,882

Project 2

$(11,368,000)

$2,112,589

$3,787,552

$3,125,650

$4,115,899

$4,556,424

65

Solution:

Project 1:

Cost of Project 1 = $8,425,375

Length of project = n = 7 years

Required rate of return = k = 13.8%

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.138)1

(1.138) 2

(1.138) 3

(1.138) 4

(1.138)5

$1,582,156 $1,365,882

(1.138) 6

(1.138)7

$8,425,375 $2,834,795 $1,371,291 $933,064 701,527 $635,364 $728,443

$552,608

$668,283

$8,425,375

Project 2:

Cost of Project 2 = $11,368,000

Length of project = n = 5 years

Required rate of return = k = 13.8%

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.138)1

(1.138) 2

(1.138) 3

(1.138) 4

(1.138)5

$11,368,000 $1,856,405 $2,924,651 $2,120,868 $2,454,119 $2,387,332

$375,375

$11,368,000

66

a.

b.

Does the IRR decision criterion differ from the earlier decisions?

c.

Explain how you would expect the management of Draconian Measures to decide.

Solution:

a.

Project 1:

At the required rate of return of 13.8 percent, Project 1 has a NPV of $(668,283).

To find the IRR, try lower rates.

Try IRR = 11%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.11)1

(1.11) 2

(1.11)3

(1.11) 4

(1.11)5

$1,582,156 $1,365,882

(1.11)6

(1.11)7

$8,425,375 $2,906,304 $1,441,346 $1,005,470 $775,035 $719,646

$845,885 $657,889

$73,801

$8,425,375

67

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.107)1

(1.107) 2

(1.107)3

(1.107) 4

(1.107)5

$1,582,156 $1,365,882

(1.107)6

(1.107)7

$8,425,375 $3,225,997 $1,775,882 $1,375,112 $1,176,558 $1,212,645

$1,582,156 $1,365,882

$5,235

$8,425,375

The IRR of the project is approximately 10.7 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 10.677 percent.

Project 2:

At the required rate of return of 13.8 percent, Project 1 has a NPV of 375,375. To

find the IRR, try higher rates.

Try IRR = 15%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$2,112,589 $3,787,552 $3,125,650 $4,115,889 $4,556,424

0 $11,368,000

(1.15)1

(1.15) 2

(1.15) 3

(1.15) 4

(1.15)5

$11,368,000 $1,837,034 $2,863,933 $2,055,166 $2,353,279 $2,265,348

$6,760

n

NPV 0

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$2,112,589 $3,787,552 $3,125,650 $4,115,889 $4,556,424

0 $11,368,000

(1.151)1

(1.151) 2

(1.151) 3

(1.151) 4

(1.151)5

$11,368,000 $1,835,438 $2,858,959 $2,049,814 $2,345,111 $2,255,524

$23,154

n

NPV 0

68

The IRR of the project is between 15 and 15.1 percent. Using a financial

calculator, we find that the IRR is 15.023 percent.

b.

Based on the IRR, Project 1 will be rejected and Project 2 will be accepted. These

decisions are identical to those based on NPV.

c.

Management would use the decision spelled out by NPV, although in this case the

IRR has come up with the same decision.

10.26 Dravid, Inc., is currently evaluating three projects that are independent. The cost of funds

can be either 13.6 percent or 14.8 percent depending on their financing plan. All three

projects cost the same at $500,000. Expected cash flow streams are shown in the

following table. Which projects would be accepted at a discount rate of 14.8 percent?

What if the discount rate was 13.6 percent?

Year

1

2

3

4

Solution:

Cost

Project 1

0

$125,000

$150,000

$375,000

Project 2

0

0

$500,000

$500,000

Project 3

$245,125

$212,336

$112,500

$74,000

of projects =

$500,000

Length of project = n = 4 years

Required rate of return = k = 14.8%

Project 1:

FCFt

$0

$125,000 $150,000 $375,000

$500,000

t

1

(1.148)

(1.148) 2

(1.148) 3

(1.148) 4

t 0 (1 k )

$500,000 $0 $94,848 $99,144 $215,906

$90,103

n

NPV

69

Project 2:

FCFt

$0

$0

$500,000 $500,000

$500,000

t

1

2

(1.148) (1.148)

(1.148) 3

(1.148) 4

t 0 (1 k )

$500,000 $0 $0 $330,479 $287,874

$118,353

n

NPV

Project 3:

FCFt

$245,125 $212,336 $112,500 $74,000

$500,000

t

(1.148)1

(1.148) 2

(1.148)3 (1.148) 4

t 0 (1 k )

$500,000 $213,524 $161,116 $74,358 $42,605

$8,397

n

NPV

At a discount rate of 14.8 percent, only project 2 will be accepted. At a discount rate of

13.6 percent, the NPVs of the three projects are -$75,645, $141,295, and $1,491

respectively. Both projects 2 and 3 have positive NPVs and will be accepted.

Year

0

1

2

3

4

NPV

Project 1

$(500,000)

125,000

150,000

375,000

PVCF

$(500,000)

96,862

102,319

225,175

(75,645)

Project 2

$(500,000)

500,000

500,000

PVCF

$(500,000)

341,063

300,232

141,295

Project 3

$(500,000)

245,125

212,336

112,500

74,000

PVCF

$(500,000)

215,779

164,538

76,739

44,434

1,491

10.27 Intrepid, Inc., is looking to invest in two or three independent projects. The costs and the

cash flows are given in the following table. The appropriate cost of capital is 14.5

percent. Compute the IRRs and identify the projects that will be accepted.

Year

Project 1

Project 2

Project 3

70

0

1

2

3

4

$(275,000)

$63,000

$85,000

$85,000

$100,000

$(312,500)

$153,250

$167,500

$112,000

$(500,000)

$212,000

$212,000

$212,000

$212,000

Solution:

Project 1:

Cost of Project 1 = $275,000

Length of project = n = 4 years

Required rate of return = k = 14.5%

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

$275,000 55,022 $64,835 $56,624 $58,181

$40,338

$275,000

At the required rate of return of 14.5 percent, Project 1 has a NPV of $(40,338). To find

the IRR, try lower rates.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$63,000 $85,000 $85,000 $100,000

0 $275,000

$275,000 58,550 $73,417 $68,231 $74,602

$200 0

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 7.6 percent. Using a financial calculator, we find

that the IRR is 7.57 percent.

71

Project 2:

Cost of Project 2 = $312,500

Length of project = n = 3 years

Required rate of return = k = 14.5%

FCFt

$153,250 $167,500 $112,000

$312,500

t

(1.145)1

(1.145) 2

(1.145) 3

t 0 (1 k )

$312,500 $ 133,843 $127,763 $74,611

$23,717

n

NPV

At the required rate of return of 14.5 percent, Project 1 has a NPV of $23,717. To find the

IRR, try higher rates.

Try IRR =19%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$153,250 $167,500 $112,000

0 $312,500

(1.19)1

(1.19) 2

(1.19) 3

$312,500 $128,782 $118,283 $66,463

$1,027

n

NPV 0

Try IRR=19.2%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$153,250 $167,500 $112,000

0 $312,500

(1.192)1

(1.192) 2

(1.192) 3

$312,500 $128,565 $117,886 $66,129

$80 0

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 19.2 percent. Using a financial calculator, we

find that the IRR is 19.22 percent.

Project 3:

72

Cost of Project 3 = $500,000

Length of project = n = 4 years

Required rate of return = k = 14.5%

n

FCFt

(1.145)

NPV

$500,000 $212,000

t

0.145

t 0 (1 k )

$500,000 $611,429

$111,429

At the required rate of return of 14.5 percent, Project 1 has a NPV of $111,429. To find

the IRR, try higher rates.

Try IRR =25%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1

(1.25) 4

0 $500,000 $212,000

0.25

$500,000 $500,659

$659

Try IRR=25.1%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1 (1.251) 4

0 $500,000 $212,000

0.251

$500,000 $500,659

$231 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 25.1 percent. Using a financial calculator, we

find that the IRR is 25.07 percent.

73

Only Projects 2 and 3 will be accepted as the IRRs exceed the required rate of return of

14.5 percent.

10.28 Jekyll & Hyde Corp. is evaluating two mutually exclusive projects. Their cost of capital

is 15 percent. Costs and cash flows are given in the following table. Which project should

be accepted?

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Project 1

$(1,250,000)

$250,000

$350,000

$450,000

$500,000

$750,000

Project 2

$(1,250,000)

$350,000

$350,000

$350,000

$350,000

$350,000

Solution:

Project 1:

Cost of project = $1,250,000

Length of project = n = 5 years

Required rate of return = k = 15%

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.15)1

(1.15) 2

(1.15) 3

(1.15) 4

(1.15)5

$1,250,000 $217,391 $264,650 $295,882 $285,877 $372,883

$186,683

$1,250,000

At the required rate of return of 15 percent, Project 1 has a NPV of $(186,683). To find

the IRR, try higher rates.

74

Try IRR = 20%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV 0

(1.20)1

(1.20) 2

(1.20)3

(1.20) 4

(1.20)5

$1,250,000 $208,333 $243,056 $260,417 $241,127 $301,408

$4,340

0 $1,250,000

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$250,000 $350,000 $450,000 $500,000 $750,000

0 $1,250,000

(1.201)1

(1.201) 2

(1.201)3

(1.201) 4

(1.201)5

$1,250,000 $208,160 $242,651 $259,767 $240,324 $300,155

$1,057 0

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 20.1 percent. Using a financial calculator, we

find that the IRR is 20.132 percent.

Project 2:

Cost of project = $1,250,000

Length of project = n = 5 years

Required rate of return = k = 15%

1

1

FCFt

(1.15)5

NPV

$

1

,

250

,

000

$

350

,

000

t

0.15

t 0 (1 k )

$1,250,000 $1,173,254

$76,746

At the required rate of return of 15 percent, Project 1 has an NPV of $(76,746). To find

the IRR, try lower rates.

75

Try IRR = 12%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.12)5

0 $1,250,000 $350,000

0.12

$1,250,000 $1,261,672

$11,672

Try IRR = 12.4%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1 (1.124)5

0 $1,250,000 $350,000

0.124

$1,250,000 $1,249,269

$732 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 12.4 percent. Using a financial calculator, we

find that the IRR is 12.376 percent.

Given a required rate of return of 15 percent, Project 1 will be accepted as the IRR of

20.1 percent exceeds the required rate of return. Project 2 will be rejected.

10.29 Larsen Automotive, a manufacturer of auto parts, is planning to invest in two projects.

The company typically compares project returns to a cost of funds of 17 percent.

Compute the IRRs based on the given cash flows, and state which projects will be

accepted.

Year

0

1

Project 1

$(475,000)

$300,000

Project 2

$(500,000)

$117,500

76

2

3

4

$110,000

$125,000

$140,000

$181,300

$244,112

$278,955

Solution:

Project 1:

Cost of project = $475,000

Length of project = n = 4 years

Required rate of return = k = 17%

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.17)1

(1.17) 2

(1.17)3

(1.17) 4

$475,000 $256,410 $80,356 $78,046 $74,711

$14,524

$475,000

At the required rate of return of 17 percent, Project 1 has an NPV of $14,524. To find the

IRR, try higher rates.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.19)1

(1.19) 2

(1.19)3

(1.19) 4

$475,000 $252,101 $77,678 $74,177 $69,814

$1,230

$475,000

77

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.188)1

(1.188) 2

(1.188)3

(1.188) 4

$475,000 $252,525 $77,940 $74,552 $70,285

$302 0

$475,000

The IRR of the project is approximately 18.8 percent. Using a financial calculator, we

find that the IRR is 18.839 percent.

Project 2:

Cost of project = $500,000

Length of project = n = 4 years

Required rate of return = k = 17%

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.17)1

(1.17) 2

(1.17)3

(1.17) 4

$475,000 $100,427 $132,442 $152,416 $148,864

$34,150

$500,000

At the required rate of return of 17 percent, Project 1 has an NPV of $34,150. To find the

IRR, try higher rates.

Try IRR = 20%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$117,500 $181,300 $244,312 $278,955

0 $500,000

(1.20)1

(1.20) 2

(1.20)3

(1.20) 4

$475,000 $97,917 $125,903 $141,269 $134,527

$385 0

n

NPV 0

78

The IRR of the project is approximately 20 percent. Using a financial calculator, we find

that the IRR is 19.965 percent.

Both projects can be accepted since their IRRs exceed the cost of capital of 17 percent.

10.30 Compute the IRR for each of the following cash flow streams:

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

Project 1

$(10,000)

$4,750

$3,300

$3,600

$2,100

Project 2

$(10,000)

$1,650

$3,890

$5,100

$2,750

$800

Project 3

$(10,000)

$800

$1,200

$2,875

$3,400

$6,600

Solution:

Project 1:

Cost of project = $10,000

Length of project = n = 4 years

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$4,750 $3,300 $3,600 $2,100

0 $10,000

$10,000 $4,095 $2,452 $2,306 $1,160

$13 0

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 16 percent. Using a financial calculator, we find

that the IRR is 16.076 percent.

Project 2:

Cost of project = $10,000

79

Length of project = n = 5 years

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$1,650

$3,890

$5,100

$2,750

$800

0 $10,000

1

2

3

4

(1.137) (1.137)

(1.137)

(1.137)

(1.137)5

$10,000 $1,451 $3,009 $3,470 $1,545 $421

$4 0

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 13.7 percent. Using a financial calculator, we

find that the IRR is 13.685 percent.

Project 3:

Cost of project = $10,000

Length of project = n = 5 years

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$800

$1,200

$2,875

$3,400

$6,600

0 $10,000

1

2

3

4

(1.109) (1.109)

(1.109)

(1.109)

(1.109)5

$10,000 $721 $976 $2,108 $2,248 $3,934

$13 0

n

NPV 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 10.9 percent. Using a financial calculator, we

find that the IRR is 10.862 percent.

10.31 Primus Corp. is planning to convert an existing warehouse into a new plant that will

increase its production capacity by 45 percent. The cost of this project will be

$7,125,000. It will result in additional cash flows of $1,875,000 for the next eight years.

The company uses a discount rate of 12 percent.

a.

80

b.

c.

Solution:

a.

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Project 1

Cumulative CF

$(7,125,000)

$(7,125,000)

1,875,000

(5,250,000)

1,875,000

(3,375,000)

1,875,000

(1,500,000)

1,875,000

375,000

1,875,000

2,250,000

1,875,000

4,125,000

1,875,000

6,000,000

1,875,000

7,875,000

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the

year)

= 3 + ($1,500,000 / $1,875,000) = 3.80 years

b.

Required rate of return = 12%

Length of project = n = 8 years

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

1

1 (1.12)8

$7,1250,000 $1,875,000

0.12

$7,125,000 $9,314,325

$2,189,325

81

c.

Try IRR = 20%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.20)8

0 $7,1250,000 $1,875,000

0.20

$7,125,000 $7,194,675

$69,675

Try IRR = 20.3%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV 0

1 (1.203)8

0 $7,1250,000 $1,875,000

0.203

$7,125,000 $7,130,832

$5,832

The IRR of the project is approximately 20.3 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 20.328 percent.

10.32 Quasar Tech Co. is investing $6 million in new machinery that will produce the nextgeneration routers. Sales to its customers will amount to $1,750,000 for the next three

years and then increase to $2.4 million for three more years. The project is expected to

last six years and cost the firm annually $898,620 (excluding depreciation). The

machinery will be depreciated to zero by year 6 using the straight-line method. The

companys tax rate is 30 percent, and its cost of capital is 16 percent.

a.

82

b.

c.

d.

Solution:

a.

Project 1

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Net Income

Depreciation

$(104,034)

$(104,034)

$(104,034)

350,966

350,966

350,966

$1,000,000

$1,000,000

$1,000,000

$1,000,000

$1,000,000

$1,000,000

Cash Flows

$(6,000,000)

895,966

895,966

895,966

1,350,966

1,350,966

1,350,966

Cumulative

CF

$(6,000,000)

(5,104,034)

(4,208,068)

(3,312,102)

(1,961,136)

(610,170)

740,796

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the

year)

= 5 + ($610,170 / $1,350,966) = 5.45 years

b.

Sales

Expenses

Depreciation

EBIT

Taxes (30%)

Net income

Beginning BV

Less: Depreciation

Ending BV

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

$ 1,750,000

898,620

1,000,000

$(1,48,620)

44,586

$ (104,034)

6,000,000

1,000,000

$ 5,000,000

$ 1,750,000

898,620

1,000,000

$(1,48,620)

44,586

$ (104,034)

5,000,000

1,000,000

$ 4,000,000

$ 1,750,000

898,620

1,000,000

$(1,48,620)

44,586

$ (104,034)

4,000,000

1,000,000

$ 3,000,000

$ 2,400,000

898,620

1,000,000

$ 501,380

(150,414)

$ 350,966

3,000,000

1,000,000

$ 2,000,000

$ 2,400,000

898,620

1,000,000

$ 501,380

(150,414)

$ 350,966

2,000,000

1,000,000

$ 1,000,000

$ 2,400,000

898,620

1,000,000

$ 501,380

(150,414)

$ 350,966

1,000,000

1,000,000

$

0

83

Average book value of equipment = $2,500,000

Average book value

$123,466

4.9%

$2,500,000

c.

Required rate of return = 16%

Length of project = n = 6 years

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

1

1

1

(1.16)

(1.16) 3

$6.000,000 $895,966

$1,350,966

0.16

0.16 (1.16)3

$2,043,927

d.

Try IRR = 3%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1

1 (1.03)3

1 (1.03) 3

1

0 $6.000,000 $895,966

$1,350,966

0.03

0.03 (1.03)3

$31,424

Try IRR = 3.1%.

84

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1

3

3

1

(1.031)

(1.031)

0 $6.000,000 $895,966

$1,350,966

0.031

0.031 (1.031)3

$9,700

The IRR of the project is approximately 3.1 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 3.145 percent.

10.33 Skywards, Inc., an airline caterer, is purchasing refrigerated trucks at a total cost of $3.25

million. After-tax net income from this investment is expected to be $750,000 for the next

five years. Annual depreciation expense was $650,000. The companys cost of capital is

17 percent.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Solution:

a.

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

Project 1

$(3,250,000)

1,400,000

1,400,000

1,400,000

1,400,000

CF

$(3,250,000)

(1,850,000)

(450,000)

950,000

2,350,000

Cumulative

PVCF

$(3,250,000)

1,196,581

1,022,719

874,119

747,110

PVCF

$(3,250,000)

(2,053,419)

(1,030,700)

(156,581)

590,529

85

5

1,400,000

3,750,000

638,556

1,229,085

Discount payback period = Years before recovery + (Remaining cost / Next years CF)

= 3 + ($156,581 / $747,110) = 3.21 years

b.

Net income

Beginning BV

Less: Depreciation

Ending BV

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

$ 750,000

3,250,000

650,000

$2,600,000

$ 750,000

2,600,000

650,000

$1,950,000

$ 750,000

1,950,000

650,000

$1,300,000

$ 750,000

1,300,000

650,000

$ 650,000

$ 750,000

650,000

650,000

$

0

Average book value of equipment = $1,300,000

Average book value

$750,000

5 7 .7 %

$1,300,000

c.

Required rate of return = 17%

Length of project = n = 5 years

1

1

FCFt

(1.17) 5

NPV

$

3

,

250

,

000

$

1

,

400

,

000

t

0.17

t 0 (1 k )

$3,250,000 $4,479,085

$1,229,085

n

d.

86

Try IRR = 30%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.30) 5

0 $3,250,000 $1,400,000

0.30

$3,250,000 $3,409,798

$159,798

Try IRR = 32.5%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1 (1.325) 5

0 $3,250,000 $1,400,000

0.325

$3,250,000 $3,252,904

$2,904 0

The IRR of the project is approximately 32.5 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 32.548 percent.

10.34 Trident Corp. is evaluating two independent projects. The costs and expected cash flows

are given in the following table. The companys cost of capital is 10 percent.

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

a.

A

$(312,500)

$121,450

$121,450

$121,450

$121,450

$121,450

B

$(395,000)

$153,552

$158,711

$166,220

$132,000

$122,000

87

b.

c.

What is the decision based on NPV? What is the decision based on IRR? Is there

a conflict?

d.

If you are the decision maker for the firm, which project or projects will be

accepted? Explain your reasoning.

Solution:

a.

Project A:

Cost of this project = $312,500

Annual cash flows = $121,450

Required rate of return = 10%

Length of project = n = 5 years

1

1

FCFt

(1.10)5

NPV

312

,

500

$

121

,

450

t

0.10

t 0 (1 k )

$312,5000 460,391

$147,891

n

Project B:

Cost of this project = $395,000

Required rate of return = 10%

Length of project = n = 5 years

88

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 k )

n

NPV

(1.10)1

(1.10) 2

(1.10)3

(1.10) 4

(1.10)5

395,000 $139,553 $131,166 $124,884 90,158 75,752

$166,553

$395,000

b.

Project A:

Since NPV > 0, to compute the IRR, try rates higher than 10 percent.

Try IRR = 27%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

1

1 (1.27)5

0 312,500 $121,450

0.27

$312,5000 313,666

$1,166

Try IRR = 27.2%,

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

n

NPV 0

(1.272)

0 312,500 $121,450

0.272

$312,5000 313,666

$82 0

The IRR of Project A is approximately 27.2 percent. Using a financial calculator,

we find that the IRR is 27.187 percent.

Project B:

Since NPV > 0, to compute the IRR, try rates higher than 10 percent.

89

Try IRR = 26%.

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$153,552 $158,711 $166,220 $132,000 $122,000

0 $395,000

(1.26)1

(1.26) 2

(1.26)3

(1.26) 4

(1.26)5

395,000 $121,867 $99,969 $83,094 52,371 38,416

$717

n

NPV 0

FCFt

t

t 0 (1 IRR )

$153,552 $158,711 $166,220 $132,000 $122,000

0 $395,000

(1.261)1

(1.261) 2

(1.261)3

(1.261) 4

(1.261)5

395,000 $121,770 $99,811 $82,897 52,205 38,263

$54 0

n

NPV 0

we find that the IRR is 26.093 percent.

c.

Since both projects have positive NPVs and they are independent projects, both

should be accepted under the NPV decision criteria. Under the IRR decision

criteria since both projects have IRRs greater than the cost of capital, both will be

accepted. Thus, there is no conflict between the NPV and IRR decisions.

d.

10.35 Tyler, Inc., is looking to move to a new technology for its production. The cost of

equipment will be $4 million. The company normally uses a discount rate of 12 percent.

Cash flows that the firm expects to generate are as follows.

Years

0

CF

$(4,000,000)

90

1-2

35

69

0

$845,000

$1,450,000

a.

Compute the payback and discounted payback period for the project.

b.

What is the NPV for the project? Should the firm go ahead with the project?

c.

What is the IRR, and what would be the decision under the IRR?

Solution:

a.

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Cash Flows

$(4,000,000)

--845,000

845,000

845,000

1,450,000

1,450,000

1,450,000

1,450,000

PVCF

$(4,000,000)

--601,454

537,013

479,476

734,615

655,906

585,631

522,885

Cumulative

Cumulative

CF

$(4,000,000)

$(4,000,000)

$(4,000,000)

(3,155,000)

(2,310,000)

(1,465,000)

(15,000)

1,435,000

2,885,000

4,335,000

PVCF

$(4,000,000)

$(4,000,000)

$(4,000,000)

(3,398,546)

(2,861,533)

(2,382,057)

(1,647,442)

(991,536)

(405,905)

116,979.48

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the

year)

= 6 + ($15,000 / $1,450,000) = 6.01 years

Discount PB

= 8 + ($405,905 / $522,885) = 8.8 years

b.

Required rate of return = 12%

91

Length of project = n = 9 years

1

1

FCFt

1

(1.12) 3

NPV

$

4

.

000

,

000

$

845

,

000

t

0.12 (1.12) 2

t 0 (1 k )

1 (1.12) 4

1

$1,450,000

0.12 (1.12)5

$116,980

n

c.

Given a positive NPV, to compute the IRR, one should try rates higher than 12

percent.

n

FCFt

1

(1.125)

NPV

$4.000,000 0 0 $845,000

t

0.125 (1.125) 2

t 0 (1 k )

1 (1.125) 4

1

$1,450,000

0.125 (1.125)5

$8,394

The IRR is approximately 12.5 percent. Using the financial calculator, we find

that the IRR is 12.539 percent. Based on the IRR exceeding the cost of capital of

12 percent, the project should be accepted.

92

CFA Problems

10.36. Given the following cash flows for a capital project, calculate the NPV and IRR. The

required rate of return is 8 percent.

YEAR

0

1

2

3

4

5

CASH FLOW

50,000 15,000 15,000 20,000

10,000

5,000

NPV

IRR

A.

$1,905

10.9%

B.

$1,905

26.0%

C.

$3,379

10.9%

D.

$3,379

26.0%

SOLUTION:

C is correct.

NPV 50, 000

1.08

1.082

1.083

1.084

1.085

3,402.92

NPV = 50,000 + 53,378.83 = 3,378.83

The IRR, found with a financial calculator, is 10.88 percent.

10.37. Given the following cash flows for a capital project, calculate its payback period and

discounted payback period. The required rate of return is 8 percent. The discounted

payback period is

YEAR

0

1

2

3

4

5

CASH FLOW

50,000 15,000 15,000 20,000

10,000

5,000

A. 0.16 years longer than the payback period.

B. 0.80 years longer than the payback period.

C. 1.01 years longer than the payback period.

D. 1.85 years longer than the payback period.

SOLUTION:

C is correct.

93

0

50,000

1

15,000

2

15,000

3

20,000

4

10,000

5

5,000

50,000

35,000

20,000

10,000

FLOW

50,000

CUMULATIVE DCF

50,000

13,888.89

36,111.11

12,860.08

23,251.03

0

15,876.6

4

7,374.38

15,000

3,402.9

2

3,378.8

3

YEAR

CASH FLOW

CUMULATIVE CASH

FLOW

DISCOUNTED CASH

7,350.30

24.09

As the table shows, the cumulative cash flow offsets the initial investment in

exactly three years. The payback period is 3.00 years. The discounted payback

period is between four and five years. The discounted payback period is 4 years

plus 24.09/3,402.92 = 0.007 of the fifth year cash flow, or 4.007 = 4.01 years. The

discounted payback period is 4.01 3.00 = 1.01 years longer than the payback

period.

10.38. An investment of $100 generates after-tax cash flows of $40 in Year 1, $80 in Year 2, and

$120 in Year 3. The required rate of return is 20 percent. The net present value is closest

to

A. $42.22

B. $58.33

C. $68.52

D. $98.95

SOLUTION:

B is correct.

3

NPV

t 0

CFt

40

80

120

100

t

2

(1 r )

1.20 1.20 1.203 = $58.33

one year and another $120,000 in two years. The cost of capital is 10 percent. What is the

internal rate of return?

A. 28.19 percent

B. 28.39 percent

C. 28.59 percent

D. 28.79 percent

SOLUTION:

D is correct. The IRR can be found using a financial calculator or with trial and error.

Using trial and error, the total PV is equal to zero if the discount rate is 28.79 percent.

YEA

R

CASH FLOW

PRESENT VALUE

28.19%

28.39%

28.59%

28.79%

94

0

1

2

Total

150,000

100,000

120,000

150,000

78,009

73,025

1,034

150,000

77,888

72,798

686

150,000

77,767

72,572

338

150,000

77,646

72,346

8

10.40. An investment has an outlay of 100 and after-tax cash flows of 40 annually for four years.

A project enhancement increases the outlay by 15 and the annual after-tax cash flows by

5. As a result, the vertical intercept of the NPV profile of the enhanced project shifts

A. up and the horizontal intercept shifts left.

B. up and the horizontal intercept shifts right.

C. down and the horizontal intercept shifts left.

D. down and the horizontal intercept shifts right.

SOLUTION:

A is correct. The vertical intercept changes from 60 to 65, and the horizontal intercept changes

from 21.86 percent to 20.68 percent.

10.1

Net present value: Techno Corp. is considering developing new computer software. The

cost of development will be $675,000, and the company expects the revenue from the sale of

the software to be $195,000 for each of the next six years. If the company uses a discount rate

of 14 percent, what is the net present value of this project?

Solution:

Cost of this project = $675,000

Annual cash flows = $195,000

Required rate of return = 14%

Length of project = n = 6 years

95

1

1

FCFt

(1.14) 6

NPV

$

675

,

000

$

195

,

000

t

0.14

t 0 (1 k )

$675,000 $758,290

$83,290

10.2

Payback method: Parker Office Supplies is looking to replace its outdated inventorymanagement software. The cost of the new software will be $168,000. Cost savings is

expected to be $43,500 for each of the first three years and then to drop off to $36,875 for the

next two years. What is the payback period for this project?

Solution:

Cumulative

Year

0

1

2

3

4

5

CF

$(168,000)

43,500

43,500

43,500

36,875

36,875

CF

$(168,000)

(124,500)

(81,000)

(37,500)

(625)

36,250

PB = Years before cost recovery + (Remaining cost to recover/ Cash flow during the year)

= 4 + ($625 / $36,875) = 4.02 years

10.3

$156,435 over each of the next three years. The average book value of its equipment over

that period will be $322,500. If the firms acceptance decision on any project is based on

an ARR of 40 percent, should this project be accepted?

96

Solution:

Annual after-tax income = $156,435

Average after-tax income = $156,435

Average book value of equipment = $322,500

Average book value

$156,435

4 8 .5 %

322,500

Since the projects ARR is above the acceptance rate of 40 percent, the project should be

accepted.

10.4

Internal rate of return: Refer to Problem 10.1. What is the IRR on this project?

Solution:

Cost of this project = $675,000

Annual cash flows = $195,000

Required rate of return = 14%

Length of project = n = 6 years

1

1

FCFt

(1.14) 6

NPV

$675,000 $195,000

t

0.14

t 0 (1 k )

$675,000 $758,290

$83,290

97

1

1

FCFt

(1.18)6

NPV 0

0

$

675

,

000

$

195

,

000

t

0.18

t 0 (1 IRR )

$675,000 $682,033

$7,033

n

1

6

FCFt

(1.184)

NPV 0

$675,000 $195,000

t

0.184

t 0 (1 IRR )

$675,000 $675,096

n

$96 0

The IRR is approximately 18.4 percent. Using the financial calculator, we find that the

IRR is 18.406 percent.

10.5

Net present value: Raycom, Inc., needs a new overhead crane and two alternatives are

available. Crane T costs $1.35 million and will produce cost savings of $765,000 for the

next three years. Crane R will cost the firm $1.675 million and will lead to cost savings

of $815,000 for the next three years. The firms required rate of return is 15 percent.

Which of the two options should Raycom choose based on NPV calculations and why?

Solution:

Crane T:

Cost of this project = $1,350,000

98

Annual cash flows = $765,000

Required rate of return = 15%

Length of project = n = 3 years

1

1

n

FCFt

(1.15)3

NPV

$

1

,

350

,

000

$

765

,

000

t

0.15

t 0 (1 k )

$1,350,000 $1,746,667

$396,667

Crane R:

Cost of this project = $1,675,000

Annual cash flows = $815,000

Required rate of return = 15%

Length of project = n = 3 years

1

1

FCFt

(1.15)3

NPV

$

1

,

675

,

000

$

815

,

000

t

0.15

t 0 (1 k )

$1,675,000 $1,860,829

$185,829

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