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VVT Noise

Manual Tranny Rattle

June 2014


Import Insights

Saab Front And Rear Spring Replacement







Volume 36, No. 6


Diagnostic Solutions

Tech Feature

Saab Feature

Mazda6 Alignment Case Study

Brake Edge Codes Deciphered

Front & Rear Spring Replacement

Import Specialist Contributor

Gary Goms recounts a request he
received to help diagnose a steering problem on a 2010 Mazda6
iSport; compelling because it
posed some questions about why
several different alignment shops
couldnt diagnose the problem.

Notice anything different about

those edge codes on that set of
brake pads you just ordered?
Managing Editor Chris Crowell
takes a look at how recent brake
pad content regulations will
change how brake pads are

Bob Howlett, owner of The

Swedish Solution, while partial to
the 2004 and up 9-3 sports sedan,
says its prone to a few suspension
issues, especially in the harsher
northern climates. He details what
to look for when one of these
vehicles comes into your shop.

ImportCar Staff 330.670.1234

Jim Merle, ext. 280

Managing Editor
Chris Crowell, ext. 268

Graphic Designer
Kelly Gifford, ext. 249

Circulation Manager
Pat Robinson, ext. 276

Mary DellaValle, ext. 221

Technical Editor
Larry Carley

Ad Services (Materials)
Cindy Ott, ext. 209

Subscription Services
Maryellen Smith, ext. 288

4 Editors Notebook

Contributing Writers
Bob Dowie, Village Auto Works, Chester, NY

6 News Update

Gary Goms, formerly of Midland Engine

Electronics & Diagnostics, Buena Vista, CO

18 Gonzos Toolbox

Bob Howlett, The Swedish Solution,

Orange Village, OH
Scott Gonzo Weaver, Superior Auto Electric,
Tulsa, OK

38 Tech Update:
Fuel System FAQs




TPMS Update:

Editorial Advisory Board

Bob Dowie, Village Auto Works, Chester, NY
Chris Klinger, Precision Incorporated,
Tucson, AZ

Tips and Tricks

Steve Louden, Louden Motorcar Services,

Dallas, TX

58 Import Tech Tips


61 Essentials (New Products)

Frank Scandura, Franks European Service,

Las Vegas and Henderson, NV
Joe Stephens, Stephens Automotive,
Palatine, IL
John Volz, Volz Bros., Grass Valley, CA

64 Classifieds

Babcox Media, Inc.

68 Import Insights: VW

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In Memoriam
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Tom B. Babcox

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June 2014 |

[ EditorsNotebook

By Mary DellaValle|EDITOR

For All You Do...

This Recognition Is For You!

ou deserve to be recognized in a big way. Day in

and day out, you deliver
quality, professional repairs that
are done right the first time.
Your expertise builds customer
trust and confidence. Your commitment to training elevates
your skills and helps build your
shops and our industrys image.
And, you play a crucial role
in your shops overall customer
service experience. Think about
all those times when:
You listened to Mrs. Jones
try to (wrongly) diagnose her
vehicles problem.
You stayed late to finish a
repair so that your customer
could go on vacation on time.
You tried to explain to your
customer why you cant quote a
price over the phone because
you cant diagnose the vehicles

Mary DellaValle,

June 2014 |

problem without seeing it.

through hoops
to finish the job
so a customers June
vehicle could
be returned the
same day.
You explained and reexplained the necessity of a
repair so your customers would
understand the extent and
value of the service.
You had to educate your
customers about why shops
charge for diagnostic time.
And, the list goes on(Im
sure you can fill in the blank
several times).
You dont think twice about it
because its all within a days
work as you carry out the
responsibilities of your profession. But, for those looking
from the outside in, its a huge
and very impressive undertaking, and most people marvel at
how you juggle it all, keep up
with technology, hone your
skills and return customers
vehicles in the same day.
And, its because of this
commitment to professionalism that the
National Institute for

Automotive Service Excellence
(ASE) has declared June 9-15 as
National Automotive Service
Professionals Week.
ASE created National Automotive Service Professionals
Week to recognize the men and
women who service and maintain the highly complex vehicles
upon which we depend for our
daily transportation, said Tim
Zilke, ASE president and CEO.
The training and education
necessary to properly diagnose
and repair todays sophisticated
vehicle fleet requires a significant level of knowledge, skill
and dedication, and ASE is
proud to help recognize these
individuals for their commitment to their customers and
their profession.
Along with ASE, we applaud
your past, present and future
commitment to professional
automotive service. You are the
driving force in service excellence
that keeps America running. IC

[ NewsUpdate
Mitchell 1 to Expand Shop
Management Training with
Super Workshop
Mitchell 1 will hold an expanded Shop Management Super Workshop July 17-19 in San Diego
at the Hotel Salomar. The training workshop is
designed for those who have previously established competence using shop management software and now want to learn more advanced
capabilities, better methods and shortcuts.

The curriculum for the

two-day training session
guides users through all
levels of functionality in
the Mitchell 1 Manager and ManagerPlus systems.
The expanded agenda for the Super Workshop
includes bonus breakout sessions, a practice lab
and an expo featuring products and services
offered by industry partners.
In the workshop, instructors will cover program
setup values, inventory, reporting, best practices
and advanced transactions, as well as integration
with aftermarket cataloging. The training explores
both of Mitchell 1s shop management solutions
Manager 5.9 and Manager SE (version 6.5).
The breakout sessions will provide in-depth detail
into topics often requested by workshop attendees. Sessions include Reporting Insights, Maximizing Technician Efficiency with ProDemand and
Connecting with Customers through SocialCRM.
The registration fee is $200 per attendee. For
more information, or to register for Mitchell 1s
Shop Management Super Workshop, visit the
Management Workshop website.

June 2014 |

Federated Membership
Names Standard Motor
Products Outstanding
Vendor of the Year

It was a three-peat for Standard Motor

Products (SMP) as the company was selected
as Outstanding Vendor of the Year by the
Federated Auto Parts membership for the third
consecutive year.
The most prestigious Federated vendor
award was presented to SMP by Rusty Bishop,
CEO of Federated Auto Parts, during the
groups national meeting and annual awards
dinner in Phoenix, AZ. Accepting the award on
behalf of SMP were Bill Collins, Leon De Long,
Joe Donaggio, Phil Hutchens, Eric Sills and
Ken Wendling.
It is a great accomplishment to be chosen
as the Federated Outstanding Vendor of the
Year and its even more impressive to be honored with this top award three years in a row,
Bishop said. SMP received the most votes
from Federated members again this year and
we want to extend our sincere gratitude for
their continued commitment to excellence.
In addition to the Outstanding Vendor of the
Year award, Federated presented its Outstanding Supplier Support Awards to those suppliers
deemed exceptional in five key categories:
Order Fill Vendor of the Year Hastings
Education and Training Vendor of the
Year East Penn
Marketing Vendor of the Year Dorman
Sales Representation Vendor of the Year
Federal-Mogul Motorparts
Electronic Cataloging Vendor of the Year

[ NewsUpdate
Federal-Mogul Vehicle
Components Division Renamed
Federal-Mogul Motorparts

Federal-Mogul Holdings Corp. announced the next step in its ongoing strategy to drive the global growth of its premium products
and leading brands. Effective immediately, the companys Vehicle
Components division will be renamed Federal-Mogul Motorparts.
Federal-Mogul Motorparts is a leading provider of premium
brands, including MOOG, Fel-Pro, Champion, Wagner, ANCO and
Ferodo to the global aftermarket. Federal-Mogul Motorparts also
provides high-quality vehicle braking, chassis and wiper components to global original equipment manufacturers.
For more than a century, we have remained focused on providing
the highest-quality components across each of the product
categories and regions we serve. Vehicle manufacturers recognize
this, as our friction products are found on seven of the top 10 vehicle
models in Europe, and the best-selling vehicle in North America,
said Daniel Ninivaggi, CEO of Federal-Mogul Motorparts, and coCEO of Federal-Mogul Holdings Corp.
The new Federal-Mogul Motorparts name and logo will be rolled
out globally effective immediately, leading into new marketing
campaigns for its product brands.

Automotive Service Professionals

Week Declared For June
The National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) has
declared June 9-15, 2014, as National Automotive Service Professionals Week. Building on the success of Automotive Service
Professionals Day established in 2001, ASE launched National
Automotive Service Professionals Week in 2005 to honor the commitment and dedication of automotive, truck and collision technicians, along with parts specialists and other support professionals
who serve the motoring public. This will be the ninth consecutive
year that ASE continues this recognition, and has it listed in Chases
2014 Calendar of Events.

June 2014 |

[ NewsUpdate
Raybestos Rattlesnake
Sweepstakes Winner
Receives His Ride
Not even heavy rain and winds could dampen the
festive mood at Automotive Electric Distributors
(AED) in Vancouver, WA, on May 9, the day that
David Cramer received the keys to his custom
2014 Raybestos Rattlesnake Toyota Tundra.
Cramer, a property manager with Ross Pacific
Management in Vancouver, WA, took delivery of
his enviable ride in the presence of his mother,
father and a large group of AED staff members.

The signature-edition truck was built by Brake

Parts Inc., manufacturer of Raybestos brake products, and was the grand prize in the brands
Summer 2013 North American sales promotion.
The winning entry was pulled from more than
170,000 entries received.
Addictive Desert Designs customized the
Raybestos Rattlesnake, which includes custom
bumpers, side steps and chase rack. Worldrenowned tattoo artist Corey Miller gave the truck
its custom wrap. A rattler with the flair of a Corey
Miller tattoo is shown on both sides of the truck,
and a signature Raybestos Flying R is
emblazoned on the hood.
Thanks to Toyota Racing Development, a
Toyota 5.7 L aluminum i-FORCE DOHC 32-valve
V-8 with a tuned TRD Supercharger helps the
Raybestos Rattlesnake reach 600+ hp. It also
includes a high-lift off-road suspension and offroad shocks. Its stopping power comes from the
same Raybestos short track racing brake package
used by the Joe Gibbs Racing team.

[ NewsUpdate
WORLDPAC Hosts Third Supplier & Training EXPO
Fulfills Mission of Leading Through Education
By Mary DellaValle
With a sharp focus on supporting its
customers through specialized training, WORLDPAC held its third
Supplier & Training EXPO, May 15-18
at the Marriott World Center in
Orlando, FL. Fulfilling the theme,
Leading Through Education, more
than 500 hours of training was conducted over the three-day event.
Business owners and technicians
numbering 1,400 traveled from near
and far from 45 states, Canada and
even Puerto Rico to partake in the
world-class training for which
WORLDPAC is known. That number is
up from 1,000 attendees at its second
event in 2012. A customized lineup of
120 instructor-led technical training
sessions and business-management
classes were offered, also significantly
up from 75 classes in 2012.
With technology accelerating at
every turn, so too has the need for
advanced technical training so business owners can meet the service and
repair challenges on an increasingly
sophisticated vehicle fleet. Thats why
many WORLDPAC customers closed
their business on Friday to attend the
event, realizing the value of being a
part of something bigger that will pay
dividends in shop productivity and
profitability. Two-thirds of the owners
and techs were first-time attendees,
and the overall sentiment was how
could they afford not


June 2014 |

to be there.
Many business owners said how
fantastic it is that WORLDPAC would
do this for us, said Mario Recchia,
WORLDPACs senior vice president
marketing, who added, We believe
in education, but if they dont come,
the event wont happen. Theyre
making an investment in their time.
Focusing on the customer is an
overused phrase, but its really evident here from the top downall of
our senior management is here,
continued Recchia.
WORLDPAC customizes topics that
are most suited to its customers
needs, aimed at helping them better
diagnose and service late-model vehicles, more of which they are adding
to their broadening service portfolio.
Serious about the high-level of training offered, the classes are conducted
by some of the industrys most
respected instructors, and includes
many from the WORLDPAC Training
Institute (WTI) and its supplier community, as well as OEM suppliers like
ZF, Denso, Bosch and Delphi.
The vehicle-specific training is
complemented by business-management courses, which are often the
first to sell out. Training and hiring
are our customers two most pressing challenges, explained Recchia,
so our business-related classes are
very popular. WORLDPAC is also

first-to-market with training on newer

models, like Fiat.
Beyond the wealth of knowledge
acquired from the wide array of training classes, owners and techs benefit
from time spent networking and sharing best practices with their peers
from all across North America. The
business owners world is five to10
miles from their place of business,
explained Recchia. Here, you can
build relationships with owners from
45 states, Puerto Rico and Canada.
And that they did, especially during the heavily trafficked Supplier
EXPO, held Friday and Saturday
evening, featuring 100+ international
suppliers (up from 80 in 2012).
Realizing that training is pivotal to
their success, owners and technicians
welcome educational venues of this
caliber with open arms. All the while
listening to its customers concerns,
WORLDPAC is committed to overdelivering on the training and
education front.
All of this fits within the realm of
WORLDPACs value-proposition that
focuses on delivering the Right Part
at the Right Time, an ease of doing
business spirit, listening to its customers, having a vested interest in
their success, paying attention to the
details and never resting on its laurels. Bottom line for WORLDPAC: Its
all about the customer.

[ NewsUpdate
MAHLE Awarded Polk Inventory
Efficiency Award, Presented by
IHS Automotive
MAHLE Aftermarket Inc. was presented with the Polk Inventory Efficiency Award from IHS Automotive during an awards ceremony at the
Global Automotive Aftermarket Symposium (GAAS), held recently in
Chicago. Ted Hughes, marketing manager, and Chris Booth, supply
chain coordinator North America, were on hand to accept the
The award, now in its 10th
year, recognizes members of
the automotive aftermarket
for their efforts toward inventory efficiency and process
improvement within their
Honored with the award in
the manufacturer category,
MAHLE Aftermarket Inc. was
recognized for the implementation of a systematic approach to managing its product portfolio, using vehicles in operation (VIO) data to
prioritize trends and new coverage areas, while customizing inventory
based on parts demand and consumption.

Wagner Brake Engineers

Explain Transition To Low- and
Zero-Copper Brake Pads
Automotive service providers and other aftermarket professionals can
learn more about the industrys transition to low- and zero-copper
brake pads through a brief technical video now available on the
Wagner Brake brands website,
The new video, featuring Federal-Mogul Product Development
Manager Sarah Olson, explains the global implications of recent
legislation mandating the dramatic reduction of copper and other
potentially hazardous materials in original equipment and replacement brake pads. Olson is part of the engineering team that developed a broad portfolio of low- and zero-copper formulations. IC


June 2014 |

[ GonzosToolbox

By Scott Gonzo Weaver, owner Superior Auto Electric, Tulsa, OK


Days Gone By...

When A Craftsmans Touch Took Center Stage

On Vehicle Repairs

lectrical issues on todays cars have certainly

taken center stage. Mechanical issues are still
there too, but now its common for a
mechanical problem to be diagnosed, monitored or
calibrated by some electronic means. You just cant
get away from the electrical if youre in the automotive repair business these days, as its taken
over just about every facet of the automobile.
And because of the advancements in automotive technology, the skill set required of todays
technicians differs from those of the stereotypical
mechanic from just a few
decades ago. Not that long
ago, the electrical section of a
repair manual was just a
chapter or two. Today, its
volumes and volumes of
schematics and diagnostic
procedures. Im old
enough to remember
when points and condensers were the norm,
and Ive watched the
industry go from electronic ignition to
todays electronic
jungle of wires and
Even though I
work on all of these
newfangled electri-


June 2014 |

cal systems on the modern car, deep down Im

still the kid who enjoyed tearing down an old
junker and putting it back together. Now, Im surrounded by modules, proximity keys and sensors. Occasionally its kind of nice to step away
from the computer and just turn a wrench or two.
I look forward to those simpler jobs, the ones
that need a craftsmans touch and not a box of
transistors and capacitors to start your diagnosis.
Heating vents with levers and cables, or a hand
choke that needed just the right touch to get it
started. No electronics, no service light, just the
essentials the days when you actually had to
unlock a door with a key.
I still marvel at the
ingenuity and engineering of those times.
I guess its one of the
reasons I like going to
old car and steam engine
shows so much. Electronics are great, but the early
mechanical devices that
were commonplace a
century ago still amaze me.
Theres a certain satisfaction in taking a broken mechanical device and making
it functional again. For example, when a restoration project
shows up at the shop, and I get

[ GonzosToolbox
a chance to turn off the laptop
and open the toolbox. These jobs
restore both the customers
vehicle and some of my old,
almost forgotten, mechanical
Those jobs where youve wres-

tled the components into place,

and youre covered in grease,
but, for some reason, youve got
a big smile on your face the
look of accomplishment and a
job well done. And while youre
cleaning up the tools, you look

over the finished project still

smiling, knowing youre done
and can move on to the next
That feeling, for me, just
doesnt compare to finishing up a
job on a modern car when the
last thing to do is watch a blue
line steadily move across a
computer screen, waiting for it to
say Task completed.
Im not trying to put down the
modern car far from it. They
certainly are engineered to be on
the road much longer than cars
used to be. Solving an electrical
issue is pretty awesome in its
own right too, but its a different
experience. Its nice to take a
break once in a while from the
technical diagnostic process and
just be a mechanic again.
The future of electronics in
todays cars is constantly changing, and sometimes all it takes is
a little R&R on an old jalopy just
to make me remember how far
weve come. In the meantime,
the latest restoration job is done,
and its time to go for a test drive
(with a big smile on my face). IC


June 2014 |

[ DiagnosticSolutions

By Gary Goms, Import Specialist Contributor



Data Gathering Is Critical To Your Alignment Diagnosis

bout a year ago, I got a request from a private

vehicle owner to help diagnose a steering problem on a 2010 Mazda6 iSport. Given the power
of the Internet, it seems that this person had somehow
discovered one of my older Diagnostic Solutions
columns on alignment problems.
While Im not fond of dealing with technical
requests from private individuals, this request was
compelling because it was well researched and posed
a few serious questions about why several different
alignment shops couldnt or didnt diagnose the
alignment problem on this vehicle. Because this repair
might require the services of a shop equipped with a
frame alignment bench, I recommended that my
reader report the accident to his insurance company
at the outset.


June 2014 |

According to the owners narrative,

the Mazda had skidded on an icy street,
struck a curb with the left front wheel,
and now the steering was pulling to the
left, with the steering wheel position
changing from center to about 20-30
degrees counterclockwise.
According to the owner, the original
alignment shop replaced the damaged
front wheel and tire and adjusted the
front toe angle. The alignment printout indicated that the Mazda had +1
degree camber on the left (drivers
side) and -0.4 degrees on the right
(passengers side), producing a 1.4-

[ DiagnosticSolutions


Keep in mind that alignment readings change due

to differences in a vehicles daily weight distribution, slight differences in machine calibration and
how the machine rounds the numbers. Not happy
that the steering pull hadnt been repaired, the
Mazda owner solicited an opinion from a second
alignment shop.
The second shop recorded essentially the same
readings with the addition of an SAI, which was
+6.2 degrees left (drivers side) and +6.6 degrees
right. The Included Angle was 7.1 degrees left and
6.3 degrees right, indicating approximately 0.8 degrees more camber on the left side. The rear alignment angles remained essentially the same. Ill stop
here because, for whatever reason, neither shop
repaired the problem.


Initial Alignment Report: Camber angle pulls the steering

toward the side with the most positive reading. The above
camber angles indicate and confirm that the Mazda did
indeed pull toward the left.

degree camber split. The caster angles were +3.0

and +3.8 degrees, respectively. Total front toe angle
was +1.17 degrees.
According to the report above, the steering axis
inclination (SAI) apparently wasnt measured, but
the front toe angle, as well as the rear suspension
camber, toe and thrust angle, were adjusted to
specification. The left front camber adjustment
remained the same.


June 2014 |

Since Im quoting solely from the customers point of

view, I can only speculate what was said at the service
desk of either shop. Did the owner request a routine
alignment, or did he communicate a specific complaint? And did he describe the accident in specific
terms? If the alignment technician assumed he was
doing a routine alignment inspection and all of the
readings fell into the green zone, he might not have
concerned himself with the apparent split between left
and right front camber angles. And, because the original camber reading is well within Mazdas service
specifications, he might have given it a pass.
On the other hand, if the owner complained of a
steering pull to the left after striking a curb, then the
technician should have fully understood the significance of the left/right camber split. Of course, all of
us have experienced the owner declining recommended repairs due to budget issues or doubting
the shops recommendations. So, in any case, my
objective isnt to be critical of any shop, but rather
to emphasize the importance of gathering critical
information from the customer before starting an
Looking at the numbers, the Mazda6 front suspension consists of an upper and lower control arm with
a short-long-arm (SLA) configuration thats sus-

[ DiagnosticSolutions


pended by a coil-over shock bearing on the lower control arm. The

car struck the left-front wheel
against the curb hard enough to
bend the wheel rim and damage
the tire. Obviously, the force from
that curb impact was transmitted
through the front spindle,
through the lower control arm
and through the rear control arm
The result was an increase in left
camber angle (+1.0 degrees) and a
decrease in left side caster angle
(+3.0 degrees left compared to
+3.6 degrees right), which would
suggest that the wheel had been
pushed in at the bottom and toward the rear, which is consistent
with a wheel skidding into a curb.
The second alignment done in
March shows an SAI from +6.2
degrees left and +6.6 degrees
right, suggesting that the spindle
wasnt bent. Moreover, driving
straight ahead with the steering
wheel tilting counterclockwise
about 20-30 degrees from center
would suggest that the steering
was correcting for a badly toedin left-front wheel.
Since the left tie rod apparently
remained straight, it would tend
to toe the wheel in, producing
the +1.17 degree total toe angle
now being displayed on the
machine. Of course, the original
printout indicates that the left
and right toe angles were split
from side-to-side, but Im speculating those were measured with
the steering wheel not centered.


June 2014 |

I responded to the help request
only by properly qualifying my
comments. Clearly, Im not the
person operating the alignment
machine and Im certainly not
looking at the actual vehicle. So
Im speculating on the possible
damages based on several alignment reports and upon the customers account of what
happened. But I think its safe to
say that the initial inspection
should center on the rear mounting point of the lower control arm.
It could be that only the control
arm is bent or its possible that the
frame mount is bent as well.
The other issue was collateral
damage. The customer complained of an intermittently hard
brake pedal and brake pull. Here
again, Im not in a position to analyze why the brakes would react
in such a fashion. A steel brake
line could, for example, have been
pinched, or the rubber brake line,
caliper guides and other related
hardware could have been damaged. All of this requires a visual
inspection by a qualified brake
technician. Other collateral damage came up after the customer
had the lower left-front control
arm replaced, but well leave that
to the last paragraph.
After the left-front lower control
arm was replaced, the driversside alignment angles were restored to -0.07 degrees camber and
+3.3 degrees caster. The camber
and caster angles arent perfect, so
they suggest that some damage

[ DiagnosticSolutions

still remained at the left-rear lower control arm

mounting point at the frame. On the other hand, a
slight camber/caster split generally wont produce a
steering pull on a front-wheel drive vehicle.
After the final repair and alignment, the reader
reported that the steering wheel felt stiff and
wouldnt fully return after cornering. Given the
direction of impact, its entirely possible that the
steering rack gear was slightly bent. Here is another
reason to keep an open estimate when diagnosing
and repairing collision damage. In many cases, this
type of concealed damage wont be apparent until
the vehicle is driven on a daily basis.
Afterthoughts: When I began aligning vehicles in
1968, I used mechanical gauges that came with a card
overlay to indicate desired settings. I soon discovered
that all of the cards in my file didnt produce the deFinal Alignment Report: The final alignment report indicates
that the lower control arm replacement essentially brought
the drivers-side camber and caster angles into specification
and remedied the left-front steering wheel pull.

sired results. So, I began recording alignment-in readings and alignment-out readings, along with mileage.
It didnt take long to compile a paper database that I
could use to fine-tune the alignment settings to my
customers driving habits.
Two years ago at a trade show, a representative
from a major alignment manufacturer demonstrated his latest machine and explained all of the
latest additions, including automatic run-out compensation and a full video for each vehicle application explaining adjustment points and tools
required. So, Ill be the first to say that this type of
machine is needed to not only enhance productivity
and create a nearly perfect wheel alignment, but
also to re-learn steering wheel centering and other
safety-related sensor inputs as well.
But, the principles I used in 1968 still apply to
modern wheel alignments:
1. Accurately determine the reason the customer
wants his/her wheels aligned.
2. Accurately analyze the significance of the
alignment data.
3. When dealing with collision damage, understand the angles of impact and the related
damages that might result.
4. Remind the customer that he might want to
notify his insurance company when collision
damage is evident.
5. Learn to fine-tune alignments to correct for
unusual vehicle loading patterns, highly cambered road surfaces and other variations in the
vehicles driving environment.
Based on my experience, following these suggestions will help provide a wheel alignment that will
meet or exceed your customers expectations. IC

Gary Goms is a former

educator and shop owner
who remains active in the
aftermarket service industry.
Gary is an ASE-certified
Master Automobile Technician (CMAT) and has earned
the L1 advanced engine performance certification. He
also belongs to the Automotive Service Association
(ASA) and the Society of
Automotive Engineers (SAE).

[ TechFeature


By Chris Crowell, Managing Editor


otice anything different

about those edge codes on
that set of brake pads you
just ordered? If you havent yet,
you will.
Heres the deal: Brake friction
formulations are now covered by
new regulations in California and
Washington, which require the
phase out of copper and other metals that are potentially harmful to
the environment. As a result, these
regulations, while currently limited
to two states, are affecting all vehicle service providers across North
America as the friction industry
shifts to low- and zero-copper formulations in all regions. Additionally, millions of new vehicles
equipped with low- or zero-copper
brake pads are already being sold
throughout the U.S. and Canada.


June 2014 |

Friction Material Company Code TQ=Wagner ThermoQuiet

Brake Lining Material Type
Hot Friction Level
Cold Friction Level
B14 = Environmental compliance marking
B refers to the designation
14 refers to the year the pad was manufactured

[ TechFeature


As part of these changes, all
brake pads and shoes manufactured after Jan. 1, 2014, for sale in
California are required to have
new markings that indicate their
compliance with these state regulations regarding friction formulations. On the pads in particular,
these markings will be a combination of letters and numbers
tacked onto the end of an edge
You will continue to see the
standard edge code info thats
been in place since the 70s,
which (usually) notes the manufacturer, followed by the
normal and hot temperature
friction coefficients.
Now, enter A, B and N
three new compliance designations from the Automotive Aftermarket Suppliers Association
(AASA) that correlate with the
various phases of the implementation timeline.


June 2014 |


A. Asbestiform
fibers, less than
0.1% by weight
and its compounds, less than
0.01% by weight.
Chromium (VI)-salts, less
than 0.1% by weight.
Lead and its compounds, less
than 0.1% by weight.
Mercury and its compounds,
less than 0.1% by weight.
By 2014 in California and 2015
in Washington, all brake friction
materials are restricted to no
more than 0.1% by weight of asbestiform fibers, chromium, lead
and mercury, and no more than
0.01% by weight of cadmium.

B. Contains between 0.5% and

5% of copper by weight
fibers, less than
0.1% by weight.
and its compounds, less
Article continues on page 36

[ TechFeature


Edge Code Refresher

Still not sure what the old edge codes meant?
Heres a quick tutorial.
Edge code: SCB 115 FF
SCB = the code for the manufacturer
115 = brake lining material
FF = Hot and cold coefficients of friction
The coefficient of friction: The Greek letter (pronounced mew) is
a number that is the ratio of the resistive force of friction (Fr) divided
by the normal or perpendicular force (Fn) pushing the objects
together. Its represented by the equation: m = Fr / Fn.
In the edge code, the first letter notes the normal coefficient of friction (temperatures ranging from 200 F 400 F) and the second letter
notes the hot coefficient of friction (ranging from 300 F 650 F).
The edge code letters are directly tied to that formula, where Fn is
150 lbs. and Fr is the pressure recorded by the load cell during a normal or hot test sequence. E equals 0.25 to 0.35; F equals 0.35 to 0.45.
For example, an average load cell recording of 42 lbs. per square inch
during a test would produce an m of 0.28 that would relate to an E
rating on the edge code. If thats recorded at both temperatures, an
EE would show up on the pad.

than 0.01% by weight.

Chromium (VI)-salts, less
than 0.1% by weight.
Lead and its compounds, less
than 0.1% by weight.
Mercury and its compounds,
less than 0.1% by weight.
By 2021 in both states, copper
in all brake friction materials
must be less than 5% by weight.

N. Contains
less than 0.5% of
copper by weight
fibers, less than
0.1% by weight.
and its compounds, less than
0.01% by weight.
Chromium (VI)-salts, less


June 2014 |

than 0.1% by weight.

Lead and its compounds, less
than 0.1% by weight.
Mercury and its compounds,
less than 0.1% by weight.
By 2025, California law requires
that copper must be less than 0.5%
by weight. Washington will adopt
a date for 0.5% by weight copper
following a feasibility assessment.
Also note that there is an X or
WX compliance marking as
well that indicates an exemption from the regulation.
In the recommended edge
code structure, the numbers
that follow the A, B or N are for
dating purposes. So, N14 would
mean an N formulation, manufactured in 2014.

You might also see an optional

set of four numbers, placed
either before or after the new
compliance markings. This series
of numbers is the manufacturers
batch or specific date code if
there is a 1660, it would mean
those pads were produced on the
60th day of 2016.
In addition to the edge codes,
the Washington State regulation
requires all brake pads and shoes
manufactured after Jan. 1, 2015,
to have a leafmark icon printed
on the packaging to show the
level of compliance with the
friction material regulation.


Not much beyond knowing the
parts youre using and understanding the language of a brake
pad. Maintaining compliance
with these regulations is up to the
The A level inventory will be
phased out over the designated 10year implementation timeframe.
Bill Hanvey, vice president of programs and member services for the
AASA, noted that many suppliers
are already well ahead of the timeline, so you have probably already
seen B and N leafmarks and edge
codes. As mentioned, although
these changes were prompted by
legislation in California and Washington, these compliant pads will
be used across the country. In addition, the Brake Manufacturers
Council is working with the EPA to
try and make the regulations standard across all 50 states. IC

[ TechUpdate

By Andrew Markel, Editor, Brake & Front End Magazine

Fuel System FAQs

How do I test the wiring for the fuel pump on a
An accurate way to validate if the vehicle wiring can adequately deliver the power necessary to operate the pump is
to use an appropriate known good load in place of the
fuel pump. An appropriate substitute load is one that requires the same amperage as the fuel pump when its operating. When a known good load is installed in place of a
fuel pump, an expected current should flow through the circuit. If the expected current flows through the circuit with
the known good load installed, the circuit is functioning
normally. If current flow is correct, voltage and resistance
are what they should be.

What are the symptoms of a

clogged fuel filter?
The most common symptoms noted are
a loss in horsepower, leading to slow
acceleration and, in some cases, difficulty starting.

What are the signs of

stale gas?
Stale gasoline is the loss of
volatility, which means the
gasoline has lost its lightend components and will
not vaporize well enough to
support ignition. The symptoms can vary according to
ambient temperature. The
diagnostic red flag is a fuel
gauge needle pegged on


June 2014 |

[ TechUpdate


What are the signs of diesel

fuel contamination?
The symptoms of diesel contamination greatly depend on the percentage of fuel present in the
tank. A lower percentage might result in a minor power loss; a higher
percentage, thanks to a lack of
volatility, might result in a cranking, no-start condition after an
overnight cold soak.
One basic test for diesel fuel is
to place a few sample drops of
gasoline on your fingertips and rub
them together. If an oily residue is
left, suspect diesel fuel contamination. If the cranking, no-start vehicle has fuel pressure, but acts as
if it has a fuel delivery problem, try
adding a substitute fuel like
propane to the air intake. If the
cylinders begin to fire, suspect
diesel fuel contamination.

What are the signs of

E85 contamination?
Drivers begin experiencing
lean-fuel driveability symptoms, such as hard starting
and loss of power, accompanied by a P0171 or P0174
DTC, depending upon the
As an aside, note that
ethanol and methanol
are distinctly different alcohol compounds. Methanol is
used in racing applications
because its high latent heat
of vaporization keeps the
engine cool, and because it
produces slightly more horsepower than gasoline.

Toyota: Fuel Injector Cleaning Procedure

Due to fuel quality concerns, some Toyota and Scion vehicles with Port
Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) may experience clogged or blocked fuel
injectors. The following procedure has been developed to clean the fuel
Applicable Vehicles:
All 1990-2006 Toyota and Scion models equipped with EFI.

Repair Procedure
1. If the fuel injector nozzles are visibly blocked, or if the injectors do not
pass the fuel injector volume test, complete the fuel injector power flush
using the following instructions:
a. Before an injector cleaning is performed, its recommended that the
following items be cleaned with Toyota Throttle Plate Cleaner or
Idle air control device
Throttle plate (both sides if possible)
Throttle body
(Continues on page 42)


June 2014 |

[ TechUpdate


b. Bring the engine to operating

c. Disconnect the fuel pump electrical
d. Start the engine. After the engine has
stalled, turn the ignition switch OFF.
e. Disable the fuel return line by blocking the line or installing the appropriate plug in the return outlet, if
Note: Do not clamp plastic lines.
f. Install the device adapter to the fuel
line and then secure the swivel fitting
on the end of the hose.
g. Make sure the ball valve on the
device is turned OFF (valve handle is
crosswise to device). Screw the can of
EFI cleaner onto the device can
h. Open the valve on the device, start
the vehicle, and allow it to run until
the engine stalls.
i. Turn the ball valve OFF and remove
the empty can.
j. Place a shop towel over the can
adapter and slowly open the ball
valve to depressurize the system.
k. Remove the supply and return line
adapters, reconnect vehicle fuel
supply and return lines (replacing any
fuel line gaskets and seals), and
connect the fuel pump electrical
l. Before starting the vehicle, pressurize
the fuel system and check for leaks.
Run the engine for 4-5 minutes, and then
snap the throttle several times to
dislodge any carbon that may remain in
the system.
2. Add 1 can of Toyota Non-Pressurized
Fuel Injector Cleaner Fuel Tank Additive
or equivalent to the fuel tank.
3. Road-test the vehicle to verify normal
Courtesy of ALLDATA.


June 2014 |

A customer is unsure if they filled up with E85

what should I ask them?
Ask them what color the handle was on the pump. E85
gas pumps use a bright yellow handle to alert consumers
that theyre using something other than standard E10
grade fuel.

Im not getting 12 volts at the fuel pump.

Whats wrong?
The reason youre not getting 12 volts or more at the fuel
pump on a late-model vehicle is because the fuel pump
does not need a constant 12 volts. The PCM varies the
speed of the fuel pump to increase or decrease fuel flow
using pulse width modulation (PWM) of the pumps supply voltage. The PCM determines how much fuel is required based on engine load and inputs from its other
sensors. This type of system typically appears on an engine that has an airflow sensor to monitor engine load.

owner, H&C Brakes & More

/// Just one more extra mile we go for guys like Dan.
Hear more from Dan and get 5% off all online orders for 90 days*
*Excludes sales tax. See web site for complete details.

[ TechUpdate


MINI Tech Tip:

Fuel Pump Failure After Refueling With Ethanol Fuel Blend
Models: R50, R52, R53 with W10 and W11
Situation: Engine dies shortly after refueling and
cannot be restarted again.

example, clogged fuel filters and oxidation as the

cause for fuel pump seizure.

Cause: Fuel contamination related to a recent

introduction of ethanol fuel blends. Ethanol is used
as an octane booster and replaces MTBE (methyl
tertiary-butyl ether) in many fuel formulations.
High levels of water and other residue contaminants may cause damage to a fuel delivery system.
The introduction of ethanol to existing storage
tank and distribution systems works to absorb the
build-up of water and free residual contaminants
accumulating over a period of time at these locations, and permits them to be pumped into
vehicles at the time of refueling.
Aside from the engine not running, early tests on
vehicles with severe contamination reveal, for

Correction: In the case of a fuel delivery system

failure after refueling, follow the procedure below:
1. Drain all contaminated fuel from the fuel tank
and fuel lines.
2. Clean all deposits/residue from the bottom of
the fuel tank.
3. Replace the fuel filter/regulator assembly.
4. Replace the fuel pump if its seized.

Note: For more information related to ethanol

fuel blends, refer to SI M13 01 06 (Alcohol Fuel
Blends in MINI Vehicles).
Courtesy of ALLDATA.



What is the first thing to check if I suspect a problem with a fuel pump?
(extra $100 for multiple photos
The first thing you should do if your customers vehicle stalls or will not start is to advise them to add two
gallons of gas, if you think it might be fuel related. Sometimes, a fuel pump is diagnosed as defective for not
pumping gas when the gauge is actually inaccurate.

What should I do when I install the

new pump and it doesnt work?
Its not uncommon for new fuel pumps to
be installed because of inconclusive testing procedures. Inherent misdiagnosis can
occur when performing open circuit voltage tests and continuity checks of ground
circuits. The test equipment used to perform these checks (test lights and digital
multimeters set to read voltage) does not
load the circuit to the same degree that
the fuel pump does when the pump operates. IC

[ SaabFeature

By Bob Howlett, Owner, The Swedish Solution

I bought my first Saab 28 years ago,

the year after I started working at
The Swedish Solution in 1985, and
have been driving one ever since.
When everything is working right, I
believe its one of the nicest cars on
the road. Im partial to the 2004 and
up 9-3 sports sedan; its fast, fun and
Saabs can, however, be prone to a
few suspension issues, especially
in the harsher northern climates.
The front strut bearings can start
creaking, and then bind up, and
weve seen more than a few front
and rear coil springs break due to
corrosion. So, lets discuss what
you can look for when one of these
vehicles comes into your shop.


June 2014 |


Most of the time the customer complaint will be

I hear a rattle in the front over bumps. Weve all
heard those complaints and usually well find
loose sway bar links or worn ball joints or tie
rod ends.
On these Saabs, also take a close look at the
springs, both front and back. Sometimes its not
easy to see the broken spring because its just the
bottom coil that has broken off. Other times, especially in the case of the 2004 9-3 were working on,
its easy to see the broken spring. Its on the lift
with its wheels off, so lets get started.
We can see the broken spring (see Fig. 1), as well
as the three colored dots that help us identify
which spring well need for the job.
1. Remove the upper retaining bolt for the sway


Fig. 1


[ SaabFeature


Fig. 2

Fig. 3

Fig. 5

Fig. 6

Fig. 9

Fig. 4

Fig. 7

Fig. 10

Fig. 8

bar link (see Fig. 2). There is no

need to remove the complete
link, unless its worn and youre
replacing the link.
2. Remove the one bolt that
holds the strut bracket to the
strut, and then remove the brake
hose from the strut (see Figs. 3
and 4). There are only two bolts
that hold the strut to the steering
knuckle (see Fig. 5).


June 2014 |

Note: There is no camber

adjustment in the front of this car,
so we wont necessarily need to
recheck the alignment. However,
any time suspension work is
done on any car, its a good
opportunity to recommend one.
3. Lower the car and remove
the three bolts that hold the
upper strut mount (see Figs. 6
and 7). Any decent spring

compressor will work, so compress the spring and remove the

upper bolt (see Figs. 8 and 9).
The strut is ready to come out, so
you can now swap the springs.
4. Pay attention to how the
strut comes apart so you can put
it back together correctly (see
Fig. 10). The order is spring,
boot, insulator, bearing and top
mount. We wont be replacing


the strut or mount because they

were done 40,000 miles ago, but
if they werent, now is a good
time to recommend replacement.
5. Put the boot in the new
spring, put on the insulator and
then insert the new bearing


(see Fig. 11).

6. Youre now ready to put the
strut back together and put it
back in the car (see Fig. 12).
7. Broken rear springs are usually easier to spot (see Fig. 13),
and much easier to replace.

Fig. 12

Support the rear control arm and

remove the one retaining bolt
that holds it to the rear knuckle
(see Fig. 14 on page 50).
8. A small pry bar is all thats
needed to pull the control arm
down far enough to remove the

Fig. 13

Fig. 11


[ SaabFeature
Fig. 14

Fig. 15

Fig. 16

Fig. 17


June 2014 |


When doing this job, take a look

at the sticker on the inside of the
drivers door jam. Youll need the
suspension code to be sure you
get the correct springs.
spring (see Fig. 15).
9. Remove the rubber insulators from the old spring and
push them into the new spring
(see Fig. 16). Set the new spring
into position and, using a screw
jack, push the control arm back
into position so you can reinstall the retaining bolt (see Fig.
17). Remember that any time
you tighten a suspension bolt
that goes through a bushing it
should be done with the vehicle
at ride height.
10. When doing this job, take
a look at the sticker on the
inside of the drivers door jam.
Youll need the suspension code
to be sure you get the correct
springs. The first two digits on
the bottom row are the front
spring code and the next two
are the rear spring code.
You can see that spring
replacement on these vehicles is
relatively simple and its easy to
see when the rear springs are
broken. Since its sometimes not
as easy to see the broken front
springs, be sure to take a closer
look during your inspection.
The perception may be that
these cars are hard to work on
or parts are hard to get, but that
is not the case. There is a good

supply of dealer parts when

needed and there are also many
good aftermarket parts
Even though Saab is no
longer making cars, the ones on
the road now should be with us
for at least another 6 to 10 years.
So, if a Saab comes into your
shop, dont send it down the
road and miss a good opportunity. There is a good chance
with a thorough inspection that
a Saab will turn into a betterthan-average invoice. IC

Bob Howlett joined the Swedish Solution

( crew in 1985 and
bought the business 10 years ago. Bob is
an ASE-certified Master Technician and is
an L1 Advanced Level Specialist. The
Swedish Solution specializes in Saab,
Volvo, VW and Audi, but it employs four
ASE Master Technicians who can service
all makes and models.

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[ TechUpdate

By Sean Phillips, Contributing Writer

RealTPMS Service Tips
Advice From The Field To
Reduce Comebacks And
Put Customers At Ease

f youre a shop owner or technician, you already know that TPMS has been mandatory
equipment on all cars since 2007. Youre
probably also aware that many of your customers do not know this, nor do they generally
know much about the fragile nature of the
sensors inside their tires. This disconnect can
cause customer/service adviser conflict,
especially when it comes to corrosion issues,
to which TPMS valve stems have proven
particularly and fatally vulnerable.
Corrosion weakens the TPMS sensor stem, which
makes removing stuck parts without breaking the
stem a dangerous exercise.
Corrosion problems plague nearly every part of the
valve stem:
Metal parts rust-weld to the stem and freeze.
A brass valve core mistakenly installed into
the stem, within a short period of time, will be
impossible to remove without destroying the
internal threads.
Each type of corrosion weakens the sensor
stem itself.


Andrew Pearl, a manager at Direct Tire & Auto
Service in Boston, gave me his magic trick for


June 2014 |

loosening corroded parts:

Spray a little PB Blaster, let the part sit and just
work it out, as opposed to one good pull. Work it
back and forth and sometimes you get lucky.
Mike Ryan, a manager for a nearby Firestone
Complete Auto Care, agreed, noting he even
tested PB Blaster against a different kind of
penetrating oil. We got the PB-sprayed part off,
but then we had to clean the other penetrating oil
off of the other part and use PB on it instead to
get it loose.
But, sometimes, even the power of PB wont
help. Weakened valve stems will often break
under the least amount of torque, and, quite
often, even if you get the nut loose, the damage
has already been done. Many of the threads [of
the corroded TPMS sensor stems] that the nut

[ TechUpdate


Weakened valve stems will often break under the

least amount of torque, and, quite often, even if you
get the nut loose, the damage has already been done.

goes onto tend to basically turn

into dust, Ryan added.
To make this process even more complex, there
are also the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) regulations on TPMS,
which basically say that if a sensor breaks before it
gets into your shop, you can put in a temporary
rubber valve stem (if you must), but if it breaks in
your shop, you cant release the car until the TPMS
sensor is replaced. Many of my interviewees
expressed frustration at the effects of irreparable
long-term corrosion being defined by NHTSA as
breaking in your shop.


This, of course, means that dealers and techs must
have quick access to replacement sensors in an
environment where covering the market involves a
very large number of sensor SKUs.
I dont recall a time when we needed to keep a
customers car due to a lack of replacement sensors, said Keith Cudgma, a district manager for
Firestone Complete Auto Care.
Since few shops will actually carry the wide
variety of replacement sensors to cover necessary
applications, they rely on the quick availability of
OE and aftermarket sensors from dealers and auto


June 2014 |

[ TechUpdate
parts wholesalers. Pearl agreed
that the availability of OE sensors
is much better than it was in the
early years of TPMS. Typically
dealers have [OE sensors] on the
shelf because its a known problem, Ryan said. I would say
that I can probably get 80%-90%
of the sensors that are out there.

The real key to preventing corrosion is proper maintenance of the


Its really just like the old

days, Ryan said. Whenever we
were going to do a tire, wed
replace the valve stem. Its the
same principle, basically. You have
rubber in there it dries out, and
the seal may leak from that. You
dont want that to happen.
As for customer opposition,
Ryan said he has not seen any
problems with the cost of service
packs because they cost pretty
much the same as a valve stem
used to cost.

the customer beforehand if you

anticipate that a valve stem
might break. If you inform the
customer that something might
break before it happens, and then
if it does, they will at least know
it was not out of carelessness.
Ryan stressed the value of
being prepared. If you know of
some vehicles that usually have
more [corrosion] problems than
others, you know which customers youll need to inform.
If were going to service the
tire and it
looks like the
TPMS sensor is
going to break
or require
then we
inform the customer prior to
starting the
job, Cudgma
added. If we
end up breaking it, and we
havent informed the customer,
we replace the sensor at no
Good communication also
means honestly letting the
customer know what the cost
might be.
Some people will get frustrated, Ryan said. I dont think
they realize the expense that can
be involved with TPMS, but
theyre starting to get used to it.
Its like with early run-flat tires.
People didnt realize they were
going to last only 30,000 miles,
that there was no spare and they
were going to have to spend
$1,200 for a replacement set. IC

The best approach is to tell the customer

beforehand if you anticipate that a valve
stem might break. If you inform the
customer that something might break before
it happens, and then if it does, they will at
least know it was not out of carelessness.
parts. Thats why the service
packs, which contain replacements for every small part that
attaches to the valve stem the
nut, valve core, valve cap and any
rubber gaskets necessary to seal
the valve stem hole are so
Some customers might think
the service pack is really just a
boondoggle so that shops can
charge more, but nothing could
be further from the truth. Its critical that these parts are changed
often to ensure proper TPMS
function, to keep corrosion from
taking hold inside the threads,
and to keep the rubber gaskets
from drying out and cracking.


June 2014 |

As difficult as it may be to deal
with corroded valve stems, dealing with the customer can sometimes be more difficult if not
handled correctly. The importance
of communication every step of
the way was stressed by everyone
with whom we spoke.
Cudgma noted, It comes
down to the communication. If
the communication is handled
properly and the customer is
informed, there are no surprises.
But, if you break the valve stem,
and then inform the customer, it
normally doesnt go real well.
So, the best approach is to tell

[ ImportTechTips

In an effort to increase fuel efficiency, todays engines produce

more torque so they can be
driven at extremely low rpm.
Reduced viscosity engine and
gearbox oils, less vehicle weight
and improved aerodynamics also
contribute to better fuel economy. But theres a downside to
this trend: resonant vibration.
The dual-mass flywheel (DMF)
is designed to significantly
reduce the resonant vibrations
that an engine would normally
transmit into the gearbox. A
DMF is basically two flywheels,
one attached directly to the
engine, the other to the input
shaft of the gearbox. These two
halves are connected to each other
by a damper mechanism and hub.
If a 2001-12 Volvo XC70, V70,
S60, or a 2003-12 Volvo XC90,
comes into the shop with a rattle
noise from the transmission during engine shutdown, idling or
engaging the clutch, its a high
probability that the DMF is bad.
Once youve determined that
the noise is coming from the bell
housing area of the transmission,
remove the transmission to
inspect the DMF.
Measuring Radial Free-Play
The DMF should be mounted on
the crankshaft during this measurement. You will need a torque
1. Torque one of the bolts that


June 2014 |

Photo 1

Photo 2

holds the clutch and DMF

together to 6 Nm (4.4 ft.-lbs.).
The secondary side of the DMF
will turn in the same direction as
the applied torque.
2. Draw a line over both the
primary and secondary sides of
the DMF (see Photo 1).
3. Now, torque the bolt in the
opposite direction than before to
6 Nm (4.4 ft.-lbs.). The secondary
side of the DMF will now turn in
the same direction as the applied
4. Draw a line over both the
primary and secondary sides of
the DMF (see Photo 1).
5. Measure the distance (S)
between the two lines on the
primary side of the DMF.
6. If the distance (S) is below
35 mm (1-3/8 in.), the radial play

of the DMF is within specs.
Measuring Axial Free-Play
The DMF should be removed
from the crankshaft and placed
on an even surface during the
measurement. You will need a
dial indicator.
1. Use a dial indicator and
place it as shown (see Photo 2).
The DMF should be in equal balance when the dial indicator is
put in place.
2. Apply a force of approximately 100 Nm (22.5 ft.-lbs.) on
pin (A) at the opposite side of
the dial indicator.
3. Read the distance of the axial
free-play on the dial indicator.
4. Turn the DMF 1/3 of a revolution and perform the same procedure from the beginning, applying the force on pin B.
5. Repeat the procedure for pin
6. If the largest distance from
the three cases is below 2 mm
(0.078) the axial play of the
DMF is within specifications.
Replace the DMF if radial or
axial free-play measurements are
outside specifications, or if there
is physical damage to the DMF
or clutch plate surface.
Courtesy of the ALLDATA
Community Automotive Diagnostic
Team, a select group of automotive
experts dedicated to helping technicians fix hard-to-repair vehicles more
efficiently. Meet the team by visiting 2014 ALLDATA LLC.


Applicable Models:
2003-08 Mazda6 (2.3L)
2004-08 Mazda3 with VINs
lower than JM1BK******864673
2006-08 Mazda5 with VINs
lower than JM1CR******306808
2006-08 MX-5 with VINs lower
than JM1NC******146287
When the engine is first started,
some vehicles may exhibit a loud
ticking noise from the variable
valve timing (VVT) actuator. This is
caused by the lock pin of the VVT
actuator not fully engaging or from
a worn lock pin hole. Heat treatment has now been added around
the hole of the VVT rotor lock pin
to prevent this from happening.
Repair Procedure:
1. Verify customer concern.
2. Write down the customers
radio station presets.
3. After the engine cools down,
disconnect the negative battery
cable (to prevent DTCs from being
4. Remove the cylinder head
5. Turn the crankshaft clockwise
so that the notches on the VVT
actuator can be checked.
a. If the notches are not aligned,
go to the next step.
b. If the notches are aligned,
there is no problem with the VVT
actuator and this information is
not applicable. Refer to MS3 for
troubleshooting. (Fig. 1)


[ ImportTechTips

Fig. 2

Fig. 1

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

6. Turn the camshaft counterclockwise to align the notches on

the VVT actuator. (Fig. 2)
7. With the notches aligned,
turn the camshaft clockwise 90
degrees. (Fig. 3)
8. Check the notches again.
a. If the notches are not
aligned, go to the next step.
b. If the notches are aligned,
there is no problem with the
VVT actuator and this information is not applicable. Refer to
MS3 for troubleshooting. (Fig. 4)
9. Replace the VVT actuator.
10. Set the customers radio
station presets.
11. Start the engine to verify
there is no fuel leakage around
the high-pressure fuel pump.
12. After the engine cools
down, change the engine oil.
13. Verify the repair.
Courtesy of MotoLOGIC
Repair & Diagnostics: IC


June 2014 |


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[ ImportInsights

Spotlight on Seventh-Generation Golf GTI

The Golf GTI features
an EA888 2.0-liter turbocharged and directinjection TSI engine
that creates 210 hp and
258 lb.-ft. of torque,
increases of 10 hp and 51 lb.-ft over the previous-generation GTI model. The new engine is designed to be
both lighter than the old unit and reduce friction.
Augmenting the EA888s 16-valve, DOHC layout is the
latest variable cam phasing system, which controls both
intake and exhaust valves, as well as a variable lift system
for the valves themselves. The single-scroll turbocharger
feeds intercooled air through the aluminum-alloy
crossflow cylinder head. Fuel is delivered by the latest
high-pressure direct-fuel-injection system at 2,900
pounds per square inch, compared to 2,176 psi on the
previous EA888 engine.
The engine is also extremely compact, illustrated by
the way in which the exhaust headers have been integrated directly into the cylinder head. This improves the
systems coolant operation.


June 2014 |

The Seventh-generation
Golf GTI is bigger,
lighter, faster and more
fuel-efficient than the
previous generation,
with increases in horsepower and torque as
well as an improvement
in fuel economy.

& Chassis
As the first vehicle built
on Volkswagens
MQB modular platform, the new Golf GTI
features an all-new body-in-white. The unitary
construction chassis has two solid-mounted
subframes with bolt-on front fenders.
The new Golf GTI features a strut-type front
suspension with lower control arms and a
multilink rear suspension, both of which are
controlled by coil springs with telescopic
dampers. The Golf GTI has a lowered sport
suspension, which is 0.6 inches lower than the
Golf TSI and TDI Clean Diesel models. The
front suspension includes a 24-mm anti-roll
bar, while the rear has a 20-mm version.
The all-new Golf GTI comes equipped with
large 12.4-inch vented front discs and 10.7inch solid rear discs with standard three-channel ABS with electronic brake pressure
distribution. Opting for the Performance
Package increases brake disc size even further,
to 13.4-inch front and 12.2-inch rear vented
discs, with single-piston calipers all around.

From the Editors of

Brake Job


Your Guide to Performing

Application Specific Brake Jobs

GMC Acadia
Honda Accord
Ford Mustang
Toyota Tundra
Toyota Prius
Ford Explorer

Brake Job
Your Guide to Performing
Application Specific Brake Jobs


Overlooked items like torque-toyield bolts and the rotor runout

make this brake job tougher than
it may appear on the surface.

2007- GMC Acadia

With five different brake configurations, a little due diligence can save
time and prevent comebacks.

2003-2007 Honda Accord

There is nothing retro about the fifthgeneration Mustangs brake system.

From the dual-piston front calipers to
the ABS/traction control system, this
system requires special attention.

2005-2011 Ford Mustang

The second-generation Tundra

does not stray that far from the
usual Toyota pickup truck brake
formula other than the rear disc
brakes but this model is
pulsation prone if precautions
are not taken.

2007- Toyota Tundra

Inspection is the key to

performing the complete brake
job on the Explorer. The worn
pads can tell you what needs to
be replaced.

2006-2010 Ford Explorer

The perfect Prius brake job is

similar to many other brake
jobs, but before you start or
push back the pistons, there
are several procedures you
must perform.

2003-2009 Toyota Prius

GMC Acadia 2007The Lambda Platform is shared

with the Chevrolet Traverse,
Saturn Outlook, GMC Acadia
and Buick Enclave. It is largely
derived from the GM Epsilon
platform, the same platform
that makes the Chevrolet
Malibu and Pontiac G6.
These vehicles can be frontor all-wheel drive. All models
have the same rear disc brake
setup with the parking brake in
the hat of the rotor. All Lambda
platform vehicles incorporate
Tire Pressure Monitoring (TPM)
ABS and Stabilitrak electronic
stability control.

Front Pad Removal

Before replacing the pads,
inspect the master cylinder to
ensure that it has not been
topped off before retracting the
pistons into the caliper bores.
The front brakes are a floating
dual-piston caliper type, the
pistons are phenolic. The
caliper bridge bolts have a
guide pin and bolt that attach
the caliper to the bracket.
Removing the bottom bolt
allows the caliper to be pivoted
out of the bracket. Using a special piston retractor designed to
push evenly on the dual pistons
is highly recommended.
The pads are retained in the
bracket with anti-rattle clips. To
release the pad from the clip,
there are tabs at the ends of
pad that are depressed to
release the pad.
The pads have noise dampening material attached to the
back of the pads.

Front Pad Install

Inspect the dust boots for
damage and replace if necessary.
Inspect the guide pins and replace and lubricate if necessary.
The boot is to be seated in the
grooves of the caliper bracket

and guide pin.

Install new anti-rattle clips and
pads, rotate the caliper and
align the flats on the guide pin
to the mounting ear of the
caliper. Torque the guide pin
bolts to 64 Nm (30 ft.-lbs).
The caliper bracket bolts on
this vehicle use high strength
thread locker to hold it in place
(it is the red stuff). Make sure
to clean the old thread locker
material off the threads with
denatured alcohol before putting new thread locker on. The
bolts should be tightened to a
whopping 129 ft.-lbs.

Rear Pads
Inspect the dust boots for
damage and replace the caliper
if necessary. Inspect the guide
pins and replace and lubricate if

necessary. The boot is to be

seated in the grooves of the
caliper bracket and guide pin.
Install new anti-rattle clips and
pads, rotate the caliper and
align the flats on the guide pin
to the mounting ear of the
caliper. Torque the guide pin
bolts to 64 Nm (30 ft.-lbs).
Like in the front, the rear
caliper brackets use thread
locker. Make sure to clean
threads. Then torque the bolts
to 148 ft.-lbs.

Parking Brake
The parking brake is located
in the hat section of the rear
rotor. It is applied mechanically
by a cable actuated cam and
lever located in the bottom of
the backing plate. The shoes
are attached to the backing

ple and requires pressing the
brake and gas in the right

Brake Rotor Specs

Minimum thickness: 27.5 mm
(1.08 in)
Maximum lateral runout:
0.06 mm (0.002 in)
Max allowable scoring: 1.50
mm (0.059 in)
Max thickness variation:
0.025 mm (0.001 in)
Minimum thickness: 18.4 mm
(0.72 in)
Maximum lateral runout:
0.06 mm (0.002 in)
Maximum thickness
variation: 0.025 mm (0.001 in)

plate with a pin and leaf

spring. The shoes are held
against the cam and lever with
a spring.
A spring is also used to hold
the shoes against the adjusting
screw. The shoes are adjusted
by rotating the star wheel on an
adjusting screw located at the
top of the backing plate. There
is an adjusting slot located in
the hat section of the rotor. It
will require an old fashioned
adjusting spoon to reach the
star wheel.
The method of adjustment is
to turn the rotor and adjust the
star wheel until the shoes drag
on the drum. Then back off the
adjusting star until the rotor
turns free. The rotor should be
secured with the retaining
screw and three lug nuts when
the parking brake shoes are

Like most modern brake systems with ABS, the system has

an automated bleed procedure

that requires a scan tool. An
automated bleed is required if a
hydraulic component like the
modulator unit is replaced.
Even if you are performing a
gravity, pressure or manual
bleed, it is a good idea to run
an automated bleed procedure
as a way to ensure there is no
air trapped in the brake modulator or proportioning valve
The bleeding sequence is left
front, left rear, right front and
right rear. If pressure bleeding,
GM recommends between 2530 psi.

What if the booster does

not feel right?
If the brake booster activates
excessively or if excessive effort
of the brake pedal is consistently required, Hydraulic Brake
Booster HBB calibration may
be needed. To do this, it will require a scan tool with the right
software. The procedure is sim-



Perfect Stop
Perfect Stop

Perfect Stop
Premium Black Hat
PS126467 (Front)
PS126503 (Rear)

Included with Perfect
Stop pads.

Honda Accord 2003-2007

The seventh-generation
Accord brake system comes in
two flavors with two different
rear brake systems. When
ordering pads, make sure you
have a VIN and production
date. Also, find out if the vehicle is equipped with ABS
and/or TCS. Some brake part
electronic catalogs might ask
for the trim level. The smaller
brake system comes with 15inch wheels and the larger system comes with 16-in. or
larger wheels, but some special editions and later models
violate these rules.
Dont skimp on the brake
pads. All the Accords of this
generation are designed to
work with ceramic friction formulations and it is critical that
a similar friction materials goes
back on the vehicle. If an aggressive semi-metallic friction

material is used, more heat

could be transferred to the
caliper piston, making it possible to boil the brake fluid. The
problem becomes even worse
if you use a cheap brake pads
set that does not include a set
of shims.

Front Brakes
1. Remove the brake hose
mounting bolt.
2. Remove the lower flange
bolt while holding the flats behind the flange with a wrench.
Do not spin the caliper pin in
the bore. Damage can occur to
the bore and pin boot.
3. You can rotate the caliper
upward and secure it if you are
just replacing the pads. If not,
remove the upper flange bolts.

Corrosion can be a problem with rotors and

calipers. Perfect Stop calipers feature
Armor-Plate Anti-Corrosion Coating for
longer life and rust protection.

4. Remove the brake pads

and pad shims. New pads
should have a thickness of 10.511.5 mm, and the pads should
be replaced once friction material is worn below 1.6 mm.
5. Check the hose and guide
pin boots for damage and deterioration. Remove the pins and
coat with a silicone-based
caliper grease.

6. Remove the pad

retainers/abutment clips and
check the caliper pins for free
7. Clean the caliper and slides
thoroughly. Remove any rust
and check for grooves and
8. Clean and install the brake
pad retainers.
9. Apply a light coat of
molybdenum-based lubricant to
the pad retainers, the pad sides
of shims and the back of the
brake pads. Wipe excess paste
off the pad shim and brake

10. Install the brake pads and
pad shims on the new pads.
Install the brake pads with the
wear indicator on the inside,
top of the pad.
11. Gently push in the piston
so the caliper will fit over the
new rotor and/or pads.
12. Install the flange bolt and
tighten it to 26 ft.-lbs. for the
smaller system and 37 ft.-lbs.
for the larger system.
13. Install hose mounting

Rear Disc Brakes

1. Remove the lower flange
bolt while holding the flats behind the flange with a wrench.
Do not spin the caliper pin in
the bore. Damage can occur to
the bore and pin boot.
2. Remove pads and hardware. New pads should have a
thickness of 8.9 - 9.1 mm and
the pads should be replaced
when friction material is worn
below 1.6 mm.
3. Clean the caliper thoroughly; remove any rust and check
for grooves and cracks.
4. Check the brake disc for
damage and cracks.
5. Install the pad retainers.
6. Install the brake pads and
pad shims. Install the brake pad
with the wear indicator on the
inside bottom.
7. Rotate the caliper piston
clockwise into the cylinder, then
align the cutout in the piston
with the tab on the inner pad
by turning the piston back.
Lubricate the boot with rubber
grease to avoid twisting the
piston boot. If the piston boot
is twisted, back it out so it is
positioned properly.
8. Install the caliper and the
flange bolts, and tighten it to
the specified torque 17 ft.-lbs..
9. Press the brake pedal several times to make sure the
brakes work.

Parking Brake
1. Pull the parking brake lever
with 44 lbs of force to fully
apply the parking brake (use a
fish scale). The parking brake
lever should be locked within
three to five clicks.
2. Adjust the parking brake.
For drum brake vehicles,
loosen the parking brake adjusting nut, start the engine
and press the brake pedal several times to set the self-adjusting brake before adjusting
the parking brake.
3. Remove the center console.
4. Pull the parking brake lever
up one click.
5. Tighten the adjusting nut
until the parking brakes drag
slightly when the rear wheels
are turned.
6. Release the parking brake
lever fully and check that the
parking brakes do not drag
when the rear wheels are
turned. Readjust if necessary.
7. Pull the parking brake all
the way up and make sure the
parking brakes are fully applied.
8. Reinstall the center

Brake System Bleeding

Make sure the brake fluid level
in the reservoir is at the MAX
(upper) level line.
1. Attach a length of clear
drain tube to the bleed screw.
2. Have someone slowly pump
the brake pedal several times,
then apply steady pressure.
3. Starting at the left-front,
loosen the brake bleed screw to
allow air to escape from the
system. Then tighten the bleed
screw securely. Move the rightfront next, followed by the
right-rear and left-rear.
4. Repeat the procedure for
each wheel in the sequence
until air bubbles no longer appear in the fluid.
5. Test drive the vehicle.

If the brake pedal is now

spongy, there may be air
trapped in the modulator and
then induced into the normal
brake system during modulation. Exercise the ABS and
bleed the brake system again,
starting with the front wheels.

Brake Rotors Specs

Front Brake Disc
15-in. brake type: 22.9-23.1 mm
Max. refinishing limit: 21.0 mm
16-in. brake type: 27.9-28.1 mm
Max. refinishing limit: 26.0 mm
Rear Brake Disc
8.9 - 9.1 mm (0.35 - 0.36 in.)
Max. refinishing limit: 8.0 mm



Perfect Stop
PS914C (2.4L, OE Ceramic)
PS787C (3.0L, Japan Built)
PS959C (3.0L, U.S. Built)
Perfect Stop
PS537C (Disc Pads)
PSS627 (Shoes)

Perfect Stop
Premium Black Hat
PS125669 (Front, 282 mm)
PS125674 (Front; 300 mm)
PS126082 (Rear)

Included with Perfect
Stop pad set.

Ford Mustang 2005-2011

The only major difference in the
brake systems between the
base V6 models and the V8powered GT models is the size
of the rotors. The V6-powered
Mustangs have 11.5-in. front rotors, while the GT models have
larger 12.4-in. front rotors. The
rear rotors on both models are
11.8 ins. in diameter, but narrower than the front rotors. On
the high performance Shelby GT
500 models, the front rotors are
larger 14-in. discs supplied by
Brembo, with four piston

Brake Inspection
Ford says the minimum
thickness specification
for the pads is 3.0
mm (0.118 in.). So if
theres less than
1/8th of an inch of
friction material left
on the pads, its
time to replace
The minimum rotor
thickness specification for the front rotors
on both the V6 and V8
Mustangs is 28.4 mm (1.11
in.), and 17.4 mm (0.68 in.) for
the rear rotors. The minimum
thickness specifications for the
larger Shelby GT 500 front rotors is 30.0 mm (1.181 in.).
The minimum machine to
spec is about 0.6 mm more than
the minimum thickness specification: 29 mm for the V6 and V8
front rotors, and 18 mm for the
rear rotors (30.6 mm for the
Shelby front rotors). This will
allow for wear until the next time
the brake pads are replaced.
The front rotors on a V6 Mustang can be upgraded to the
larger stock V8 rotors, but they
require 17-in. or larger wheels
for clearance. If a set of 13- or
14-in. aftermarket performance
rotors are being mounted in

place of the stock GT rotors,

the wheels have to be 18 inches
or larger depending on the
calipers used.

Front Pad Replacement

1. Check the brake fluid level
in the brake fluid reservoir.
2. With the vehicle in neutral,
position it on a hoist, raise the
wheels off the ground and remove the wheels.
3. Remove and discard the two
brake caliper guide pin bolts and
position the brake caliper aside.
CAUTION: Do not use the
caliper sight hole to retract the
pistons as this can damage the
pistons and boots.

4. Remove the brake pads and

discard the four spring clips.
5. Inspect the brake caliper
for leaks or boot damage.
High mileage calipers
should be rebuilt or replaced.
6. Inspect the brake
caliper anchor plate assembly. Check the guide
pins and boots for binding
or damage. Lubricate the
guide pins with high temperature brake grease. Install a
new brake caliper anchor plate if
it is worn or damaged.
7. Measure rotor thickness
and resurface or replace as
8. Use a C-clamp or similar
tool to compress the caliper
pistons into the caliper bore.
Protect the pistons and the
boots when doing this so they
are not damaged.
9. Install four new spring clips,
and then install the two new
brake pads.
10. Position the brake caliper
on the anchor plate and install
two new guide pin bolts. Tighten
to 34 Nm (25 ft.-lbs.).

Rear Pad Replacement

1. Remove the two guide pin
bolts from the rear brake
caliper, and position the brake

caliper aside. Support the
caliper with a wire.
2. Remove the old pads from
the rear caliper and discard the
old spring clips.
3. Important: Use special tool
206-026 (T87P-2558-A) or equivalent to screw in the rear caliper
pistons for pad clearance. Do
not attempt to force the rear
pistons in with a C-clamp as
this can damage the piston
4. Inspect the caliper. If leaks
or damaged boots are found,
rebuild or replace the caliper.
5. Inspect the brake caliper anchor plate assembly. Check the
guide pins and boots for binding
and damage. Replace worn or
damaged pins. Lubricate the
pins with brake grease. Install a
new brake caliper anchor plate if
it is worn or damaged.
6. Measure rotor thickness.

Resurface or replace as needed.

7. Position the notch in the
caliper piston up and down to
align with the alignment pin on
the brake pad.
8. Install the two new spring
clips and the brake pads. Be sure
to use any shims that come with
the pads, or apply a small
amount of brake grease to the
backs of the pads.
9. Position the brake caliper on
the anchor plate and install the
two brake caliper guide pin bolts
until snug. Tighten the RH
caliper guide pin bolts in the following sequence: First tighten
the top bolt to 33 Nm (24 ft.lbs.), then tighten the bottom
bolt to 33 Nm (24 ft.-lbs.).
Tighten the LH caliper guide
pin bolts in the following sequence: First tighten the bottom
bolt to 33 Nm (24 ft.-lbs.), then
tighten the top bolt to 33 Nm



(24 ft.-lbs.).
10. Check the adjustment of
the parking brake and adjust
as needed. Adjustments are
made by removing a small access cover inside the center
console bin. Position the
brake handle at the fourth
notch, loosen the adjuster
nut/lock nut and then tighten
the main nut as needed to
tighten the brake cables.
11. Flush and bleed the brakes
using any method you choose.
The standard bleeding sequence
is right-rear, left-rear, right-front
and left-rear. Use DOT 3 brake



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PS1081C (Base & GT)
PS1050AM (GT500)
Perfect Stop
PS1082C (Base & GT)
PS1082M (GT500)

Perfect Stop
Premium Black Hat
PS126198 (Front Base 11.54)
PS126211 (Front GT 12.43)
PS900918 (Front GT500 13.98)
PS126273 (Rear)

Included with select
Perfect Stop pad sets.

Toyota Tundra 2007For 2007, the Toyota Tundra

was redesigned. The body
changed, and the foundation
brake system was also updated
with larger front brake calipers
and rear disc brakes. The control system and hydraulics
changed with a new vehicle
stability system that included
yaw, steering angle and brake
pedal load sensors.
Overall, this is one of the
easier brake jobs. Changing
the front brake pads does not
require the application of
lubricants. The rear brakes are
a lot easier to service when
compared to the previous


Front Brakes

The front brakes use the typical Toyota truck four-piston

caliper. The pads are held in
with pins that have an anti-rattle clip on the lower pin and a
pin holder clip. These items
should not be reused when replacing the pads. A quality
pad set will include these in
the box.
Toyota has designated the
bolts that hold the caliper to the
knuckle as non-reusable parts.
Replacement bolts are readily
available. Some remanufactured

calipers include new bolts.

When removing the pads or
pushing back the pistons, use

the correct tool. A brake pad

spreader can not only save
time, but also prevent damage

to the piston boots.
The OE friction formulation on
the Tundra is ceramic. A
replacement brake pad should
be of a similar formulation.
Do not lubricate the back of
the pad with any lubricant. The
lubricant will only transfer onto
the piston boots and cause
them to attract debris. This can
lead to an early failure.
Pulsation is an issue with
some 2007-2009 Tundra models. Most of the issues are related to excessive runout or
uneven deposits of friction material on the rotor. The runout
specification on the Tundra is
.05 mm (.002-in.) The hub
flange should have almost zero

Brake Rotor Specs

Front brake rotor minimum
thickness: 24.5 mm (0.9646 in.)
Rear brake rotor minimum
thickness: 11.0 mm (0.4331 in.)
Front minimum thickness to
machine (discard): 25.1 mm
(0.98 in.)
Rear minimum thickness to
machine (discard): 11.6 mm
(0.45 in.)
The OE backing plate uses a
clip-style shim.
According to Toyota, the
abutment clips and guide pin
boots are non-reusable parts
that should be replaced if the
pads are serviced. The guide
pins should be lubricated with a
brake-specific lubricant that is
not petroleum based.

Parking Brake


Rear Brakes
The 2007 Tundra is equipped
with disc rear brakes with the
parking brake in the hub. The
caliper is a floating design
with a single piston. The OE
friction formulation is ceramic.

To adjust the parking brake,

insert an adjustment tool into
the adjustment hole on the
1. Rotate the adjustment
wheel in the "X" direction until
the shoes are locked.
2. Rotate the adjustment
wheel in the "Y" direction 8
3. Check that the disc can be
rotated smoothly. If not, rotate
the adjustment wheel in the "Y"
direction and check again.
4. Install the hole plug.



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Premium Black Hat
PS126490 (Front)
PS126554 (Rear)

Ford Explorer 2006-2010

On the initial test drive, look at
how the customer uses the vehicle. Look at the tow hitch to
see if the customer uses it for
towing. Listen for any driveline
noises. Many older Explorers
are known for having problems
with the differential, shafts and
axles. The most common symptom is a binding or chattering
front differential while the
vehicle is turning or braking.
Ford specifies that the pads
cannot vary in thickness from
inner-to-outer pad by more
than 2 mm. Also, Ford specifies
that there can only be 3 mm of
tapered wear.
If the vehicle has too much
thickness variation or tapered
wear, it is a sign of potential
problems with the brake
hardware or the caliper pistons.
Explorers have dual-piston
floating calipers. Inspect the
boots for any damage or
cracks. When pushing the pistons back in,
use a tool that will push the
pistons back with equal force.
Damage can result to the
pistons and seals if the proper
tool is not used.
While performing a moderate
stop, observe if there is any
ABS activation. This could be a
sign of erratic or weak wheel
speed sensor signals. It might
be a good idea to check it with
a scan tool.

Brake Pads
Look at the brake pads for
any sign of abuse. Look for
signs of rust jacking between
the backing plate and friction
material. This causes edge lift
and material separation. The
customer may also notice noise
and vibration.
The minimum thickness for
the pads is 3 mm, which is a lot
of material to the naked eye.

Technicians are often confused by Fords rotor specs. In
the past, Ford printed or
stamped the minimum and discard thickness of the rotors.
Now they call it thickness to
machine. Confused? The minimum thickness is the thickness

that the rotors should not drop

below before or after machining the rotor. The discard or
thickness to machine specification is a number (usually 0.70.9 mm added to the minimum
thickness) that should be used
to determine if a rotor can be
The rotors should have no
more than 0.001 in. of runout
and 0.0004 in. of thickness
While the rotor is off, measure
the runout in the wheel bearing
hub units flange. The hub unit
is usually one of the first items
to fail. In most cases, the first

Front/rear hose banjo/flow
bolt: 26 ft.-lbs.
Hard brake line fittings: 13 ft.-lbs.
Front caliper bolt: 24 ft.-lbs.
Rear caliper bolt: 24 ft.-lbs.
Front caliper bracket anchor
bolts: 100 ft.-lbs.
Lug nuts: 100 ft.-lbs.

Brake Rotor Specs

signs of failure will be an open,

erratic or weak wheel speed
sensor trouble code.

tact with the wheel studs, brake

pads or brake disc.

Repair Procedure
Some Explorers have adjustable gas and brakes pedals.
The adjustment switch is located
on the dash. On vehicles with
memory seats, the position of
the pedals is dependent on
which key us used to unlock and
start the vehicle. It has been reported that if the pedal assembly
is inoperative or stuck between
positions, it may cause the driver
to notice a change in brake
pedal feel and performance. During the inspection process, verify
that the adjustable pedals are
still operational. If the pedals are
stuck, contact the customer to
get more information.
For the caliper anchor pins,
use a silicone-based brake
grease. Make sure it is compatible with all rubber compounds
including nitrile, Teflon, nylon
and other synthetic rubbers.
For the shims, abutment clips
and slides, use a syntheticbased, boundary-type lubricant
that has a high solids content
and typically contains a variety
of friction-reducing ingredients,
such as molybdenum disulfide
(moly or MOS2) and graphite.
Ford recommends applying a
thin coat of anti-seize lubricant
to the hub flange only. Do not
allow the lubricant to make con-

Start at the right-rear and

move to the left-rear, finishing
with the left-front. If an ABS hydraulic component is replaced,
it will require a scan tool with
bi-directional control to get all
of the air out.

Emergency Brake
1. Remove the rear rotor.
2. Inspect the parking/emergency brake mechanism. Lubricate the parking brake shoes at
the point where they contact
the brake disc shield using silicone grease.
3. Use a brake adjusting
gauge/calipers to measure the
inside diameter of the drum position of the rear brake disc. Adjust the parking brake shoe
clearance of 107 mm (0.142 in.)
to less than the inside diameter
of the drum portion of the rear
brake disc.
4. Make sure that the parking
brake shoes are correctly centered and measure across the
center point.
5. Rotate the parking brake
shoe adjuster wheel to achieve
the correct parking brake shoeto-brake disc.

Torque Specs
Bleeder screws: 16 ft.-lbs.

Front brake rotor minimum

thickness: 24.5 mm (0.9646 in.)
Rear brake rotor minimum
thickness: 11.0 mm (0.4331 in.)
Front minimum thickness to
machine (discard): 25.1 mm
(0.98 in.)
Rear minimum thickness to
machine (discard): 11.6 mm
(0.45 in.)



Perfect Stop
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PSS791 (Parking Brake Shoe)

Perfect Stop
Premium Black Hat
PS126346 (Front)
PS125759 (Rear)

Included with select
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Toyota Prius 2003-2009

Does performing a pad replacement on a Toyota Prius
scare you? Do not worry about
high voltage. Worry about
angry customers due to comebacks because the brake/ABS
light is on.
Servicing a Prius does not require many special tools to perform a front brake pad
replacement. Just normal hand
tools are required and maybe a
scan tool and software that can
read chassis codes.
There are three basic concepts to know before pushing
back the pistons on the front
calipers of a Toyota Prius.
1. The Prius braking system
has pressure sensors at the
master cylinder and the wheel
outputs. These sensors check
the pressure, and any anomalies
between the two pressures will
cause a trouble code to be set.
2. When the driver is pushing
on the brake pedal during normal braking, it might not produce hydraulic braking force at
the wheels if the vehicle is traveling above 7-10 mph.
3. Even if the engine is off
and the car is not moving, the
keys need to be out and away
from the vehicle during service.

Always use a high-quality pad
for the Prius and other hybrid
applications to avoid problems.
It is not a question of better
performance, it is a question of
quality and engineering. It is
impossible to perform a conventional break-in/bedding procedure on the test drive.
Perfect Stop Ceramic Pads are
OE scorched for excellent performance right out of the box.

system with a scan tool. Most

scan tools will walk you through
the process, which involves
removing the two ABS pump
relays and pumping the pedal
in a sequence to depressurize
the system.
The system can also be deactivated by waiting two minutes
after turning the power switch
off, stopping the brake pedal
operation and closing the driver
door before removing the two
relays (see photo below).

There is nothing special about
servicing the rotors on this vehicle, but if you are planning to
use an on-the-car brake lathe,
make sure the system is off for
two minutes. Most on-the-car
brake lathes operate below the
speed threshold of the generators ability to generate voltage.
Rotors that have excessive
runout or thickness variation
can cause hydraulic pulsations
in the brake circuit. These irregularities can cause the pressure
sensor to trigger trouble codes
C1341 thru C1344 that indicate
a hydraulic circuit malfunction.

Brake Pad Replacement

1. Brake control (ECB) prohibition/deactivation is not necessary if the power switch has
been off for at least two minutes (as long as the work does
not involve brake fluid bleeding).
If you are replacing calipers or
other hydraulic components,
you will have to deactivate the

2. Remove the two bolts and

lift the front disc brake caliper

from the pin slides.
3. Remove the pads and inspect the friction material for
glazing, corrosion, edge lift or
other mechanical damage.
Using a ruler, measure the pad
lining thickness from the base
of the backing plate to the friction surface. Also, make sure
the inside and outside pads are
evenly worn.
Standard thickness: 11.0 mm
(0.433 in.).
Minimum thickness: 1.0 mm
(0.039 in.).
4. Remove the two anti-squeal
shims from the pads.

5. Remove the caliper brackets. Inspect the surfaces for corrosion and mechanical damage.
6. Remove the slide pins, dust
boots and pad abutment clips
from the caliper bracket. Clean
the bracket with brake cleaner.
7. Check the looseness of the
front wheel bearing and runout
in the axle hub before removing
the rotor. Hold the front disc
with the lug nuts.
8. Using a micrometer, measure the rotors thickness in at
least six areas.
9. Before removing the rotor,
mark the high and low points of
runout. Also, mark the rotors
position on the hub.
10. Machine the rotor with either a bench or on-the-car
brake lathe.
11. Install the caliper support

brackets with the two bolts.

Torque: 109 Nm, 81 ft.-lbs.).
12. Lubricate and install the
front disc brake cylinder slide
pin. Make sure the dust boots
seals are in the grooves on
the pins.
13. Install the abutment clips
on the lands of the caliper
bracket. A high temperature,
brake-specific grease can be
used on the surfaces that make
contact with the tabs or ears of
the pads. Apply only a very
light coating.
14. Install the pads in the
caliper brackets. Toyota advises
that the supports (abutment clip)
have sufficient rebound when installing the pad. Also, check that
the pad does not have too much
play after installation. This can
lead to brake drag and increased
fuel mileage.
15. Gently push in the caliper
piston only enough to fit over
the new pads and shims.
16. Install the brake calipers.
Torque: 34 Nm or 25 ft.-lbs.)
17. Install front wheels.
Torque: 103 Nm or 76 ft.-lbs.)
18. With the car still powered
down and the key out of the ignition, stroke the pedal several
times to bring the pads in contact with the rotor.
19. Check fluid level in the
20. Test drive the vehicle.
Make sure that you perform
several stops to zero mph and
at least one hard stop. If the
ABS warning light does not
come on, you are finished. If an
ABS light does come on, you
will need to perform some
additional steps.

tects low pressure when extra

fluid is required to bring the
piston into contact with the
rotor, or residual pressure from
when the piston was pushed
back. Below are the possible
codes you might have to clear:
C1341 Front Hydraulic System
RH Malfunction
C1342 Front Hydraulic System
LH Malfunction
C1343 Rear Hydraulic System
RH Malfunction
C1344 Rear Hydraulic System
LH Malfunction

Brake Rotor & Drum

Standard thickness: 22.0 mm
(0.866 in.).
Minimum thickness: 20.0 mm
(0.787 in.).
Maximum disc runout: 0.05
mm (0.0020 in.).
Maximum drum diameter:
201.0mm (7.913 in.)



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Rear (Shoes)
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PS126226 (Front)

ABS Light On?

During the test drive, the
pressure sensors at the wheel
detected an abnormal reading
when the hydraulic system was
first engaged. The system de-

Parts Master
920148 (Rear)