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RESEARCH IN NURSING

By: ELVIE A. IMASON-RAMOS, MAN, RN

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Learning Outcomes:

Explore the definitions of nursing


research.
Differentiate research in nursing
and nursing research.
Identify goals or nursing
research.
Provide reasons for conducting
research.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Learning Outcomes:
Discuss the general and specific
purposes of nursing research.
Critically evaluate the scientific
approach to nursing research.
Determine the characteristics of
nursing research.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Learning Outcomes:
Classify researches in nursing.
Identify the research roles of
nurses.
Analyze the qualities of a good
nurse researcher.
Assess the alternative routes to
problem solving.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Research is the process of


going up alleys to see if
they are blind.
- Marston Bates

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Significance of Research for Nurses:


Increasingly engaged in disciplined
studies that benefit the profession and
its client to the improvement of the
entire health care system.
Obliged to provide updated ways of
addressing client concerns whether
found in hospital, community center or
any health care settings.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Significance of Research for Nurses:


Expected to base their professional
practices on emerging evidence
from research.
The 1st question that requires an
immediate answer before
conducting a research is What is

nursing research?

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Research:
Re-search simply means to search
again.
Research is a methodic
examination that uses regimented
techniques to resolve questions
or decipher dilemmas.
(Broswell & Cannon, 2007)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
Is associated with theory development in the
patient outcomes, attitudes of nurses,
effectiveness of administrative policy, and
teaching strategies in nursing education
which contributes to the development and
refinement of theory.
(Schmidt & Brown, 2009)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
Is a systematic inquiry designed to develop
trustworthy evidence about issues of
importance to the nursing profession,
including nursing practice, education,
administration, and informatics.
(Polit & Beck, 2008)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
As the systematic, objective process of
analyzing phenomena of importance to
nursing.
(Nieswiadomy, 2008)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
Is a scientific process that validates and
refines existing knowledge and generates
new knowledge that directly and indirectly
influences clinical nursing practice.
(Burns & Groove, 2007)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
As a formal, rigorous and intensive process
used for solutions to nursing problems or to
discover and interpret new facts and trends
in clinical practice, nursing education or
nursing administration.
(Waltz & Bausell, 2001)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
As rigorous guidelines to produce unbiased ,
trustworthy answers to questions about
nursing practice.
(Houser, 2008)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
Nursing Research is a systematic collection
and analysis of data to illuminate and
decribe or explain new facts and
relationships.
(Treece & Treece, 2008)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
Isa testing of knowledge that can be used to
guide nursing practice
(National Center for Nursing Research)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
Is an honest, scientific investigation undertaken for the
purpose of discovering new facts which will
contribute to the present body of knowledge and can
lead to effective to an effective solution of existing
problems. It involves careful or critical thinking to
revise or revalidate accepted conclusions and
previously held concepts or to establish
generalizations or principles.
(PNA, 1963)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
Paradigm

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Nursing Research:
RLE Skills Activity:
Go over the definition of nursing
research and list or highlight
the words that uniquely
describe nursing research for
you. Explain why?

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Rationale for Conducting Clinical Nursing Research:

Clinical Nursing Research is to


research designed to generate
knowledge to guide nursing
practice and to improve the health
and quality of life of nurses
clients.
(Polit & Beck, 2008)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Rationale for Conducting Clinical Nursing Research:

Clinical Nursing Research is a


research that is undertaken to
produce knowledge that will affect
the conduct of nursing practice.
(Nieswiadomy, 2008)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Rationale for Conducting Clinical Nursing Research:

Nursing problems and issues are


integral to the work situation.
Personal satisfaction is derived
from finding better ways of
providing nursing care.
No one has greater access to the
client than the nurse.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Rationale for Conducting Clinical Nursing Research:

It could be therapeutic and


enjoyable for the client to
participate in clinical research.
Is a practical way for a nurse to
help improve the health care of
the sick and well individuals.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Lack of Clinical Nursing Research:

Nurses tend to feel that they are


busy caring for patients.
Unless the nurse has had
academic training in theoretical
conceptualizations, research may
not seem important.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Lack of Clinical Nursing Research:

Unless the importance of


research is felt and recognized,
nurses may not be able to identify
researchable problems.
Many nurses do not have the
academic training needed to feel
confident in doing clinical
research.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Lack of Clinical Nursing Research:

The ethical requirements of


research are difficult to comply
with and tend to scare would-be
researchers.
Unless administrators are
research oriented, the nursing
staff feels the futility of support for
nursing research.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Lack of Clinical Nursing Research:

Research takes time and time


costs money. Without sufficient
funding, research may not be
conducted due to lack of
resources.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Nursing Research vs. Research in Nursing:
It refer to research done in the
course of nursing practice.
It is distinguished by the subject
matter of the research.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Nursing Research vs. Research in Nursing:
Nursing Research refers to
research done on addressing the
health concerns of clients and
application of the research on
their care.
Research in Nursing refers to
studies on the particular concerns
of nurses themselves.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Nursing Research vs. Research in Nursing:
Is a useful general guide to a
researcher in the choice of topic to
study.
RN requires a broader study of the
nursing profession, its concept,
theories, principles and policies or
guidelines inherent in the practice of
nursing.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Nursing Research vs. Research in Nursing:
RN it also dwells on historical,
ethical, legal and moral standards as
well as the duties and responsibilities
of a nurse practitioner and the
implications of these to individual
clients and to society.
NR is still need to continuously delve
into the issues.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Nursing Research vs. Research in Nursing:
Many researcher believe that its is
easier to do RN.
They find out that what is more
important in the choice of the study is
interest in the choice of research
problem.
RN & NR are worthy of ones time
and effort.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Examples of Nursing Research:
An exploratory study of
mothering for teens with Attention
Deficit Disorder.
Development of a nursometric
(nursing measurement)
instruments for use in quantifying
diet change patterns among

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Examples of Nursing Research:
Disengagement behaviors of
adult children toward their elderly
parents.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Examples of Research in Nursing:
Job satisfaction and
acculturation of Filipino Nurses in
Australia.
Performance of nursing
graduates from Manila and other
Regions in the Licensure
Examination in 2009-2011.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Examples of Research in Nursing:
Leadership and management
styles of nurse leaders in
selected Metro Manila Hospitals.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Goals of Nursing Research:

Provide Efficient and Effective


Nursing Care.
Promote the Worth and Value of the
Nursing Profession to Society.
Identification, Implementation and
Evaluate Effective Health Care
Modalities.
Utilize CNR as EB data to provide
Quality Care to Clients.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Conducting Research in Nursing:
Gathers data or information on
nursing situations or conditions
about which little knowledge is
available.
Provides scientific knowledge
base from which nursing theories
emerge and develop.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Conducting Research in Nursing:
Helps correct, clarify, validate
and expand perceptions.
Provides theoretical and
scientific basis for nursing
practice.
Defines parameters of nursing
and identifies its boundaries.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Conducting Research in Nursing:
Documents the social relevance
and efficiency of nursing practice
to people and health care
providers.
Describes the characteristics of
the nursing situation about which
little is known.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Conducting Research in Nursing:
Predicts probable outcomes of
nursing decisions in relation to
client care.
Provides knowledge for
purposes of problem solving and
decision making.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Conducting Research in Nursing:
Develops and evaluates nursing
theories and concepts and
practices these for clarity and
validity of nursing actions.
Prevents undesirable client
reactions.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Reasons for Conducting Research in Nursing:
Develops considerable degree of
confidence. Professional
undertakings are intended to
achieve desired client behaviors.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Purposes of Nursing Research:
It answers questions to solve
problems.
It provides tools for observation
to generate knowledge as basis
for predicting and controlling
phenomenon.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Purposes of Nursing Research:
A nurse can apply this knowledge
in practice and prescribe
accurately and professionally
without untoward client response
or reactions to nursing
interventions. (Polit & Beck,
2008)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Purposes of Nursing Research:
Best practices are those that
produce the most desirable
patient outcomes through
scientific data. (Boswell &
Cannon, 2007)

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Tasks of Research:
Identification
Description
Exploration
Explanation
Prediction & Control

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Tasks of Research: Identification
It assesses situations that need
clarification or identification.
There is awareness that a
problem or issues exists.
This requires from the nurse a
quick identification of the cause of
the problem.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Tasks of Research: Description
It aims to describe phenomenon that
relates to nursing profession.
It also observes, defines ad
documents nursing situations inquiry.
It determine the relationship
between and among variable
investigated.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Tasks of Research: Exploration
It explores phenomenon by
observing and recording events and
situations occurring in that
phenomenon.
It answers what questions on the
phenomenon.
To understand the phenomenon
precisely and accurately.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Tasks of Research: Explanation
It seeks clarification of a prevailing
situation to answer questions that ask
why a phenomenon occurred.
It calls upon existing theories for
clarifying, explaining and integrating
ideas.
To determine the reasons for existence
of a particular phenomenon.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Tasks of Research: Prediction & Control
It anticipates possible psychological
and physiological reactions to
nursing interventions.
It provides a basis for decisions by
eliminating barriers and sourcing
ways and strategies that would bring
about effective client care outcomes.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Tasks of Research: Prediction & Control
Prediction ( Research Projects
situations or events that could arise
from research investigation)
Control (Research puts up a
barrier to hinder or minimize the
effects of anticipated outcomes or
reactions.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Scientific Approach to Nursing Research
To seeks to harness the
intellectual capabilities of the
individual to discover, interpret, and
develop methods to advance
knowledge in various fields.
It uses scientific methods to seek
the truth of a matter.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Scientific Approach to Nursing Research
It provides scientific information
and theories to explain the problem.
Its ultimate goal is the practical
application of the research findings.
It make use of empirical data
gathered through five senses.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Scientific Approach to Nursing Research
It uses the scientific methods to
obtain knowledge that can be
generalized across similar clients
suffering the same disease albeit in
different situation.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Characteristics of Research
1. Orderly and Systematic
2. Control
3. Empirical
4. Generalization
5. Intensive

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Characteristics of Research: Orderly & Systematic
identify the problem
determine the purpose of the study
review of related literature
theoretical/conceptual framework
study assumptions
acknowledge the limitation of the
study

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Characteristics of Research: Orderly & Systematic
formulate the null hypothesis
define study variables
choice of research design
identify the target population
choose the study samples
conduct the field test

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Characteristics of Research: Control
To ensure precision and validity of
results.
To justify and validate conclusions
drawn from the investigation.
In experimental research, controlled
subjects or controlled procedures
permit comparison with results.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Characteristics of Research: Empirical
It uses results of experiences and
observations rooted in objective
reality as a sources of knowledge.
It must be objective, precise,
verifiable and replicable.
To replicate and to assess the
validity and reliability.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Characteristics of Research: Generalization
The findings of the study are
deemed to have an applicability to
the entire population.
It is based on the results obtained
on the sample cases and instances
having common traits and
characteristics as the universe.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Characteristics of Research: Intensive
Is used to ensure that all the
possible loopholes in the study are
covered.
It is usually done by carefully
selecting the population and sample,
formulating the method by which data
would be gathered and analyzed,
including appropriate statistical tool.

If men liked shopping, theyd call it research.


- Cynthia Nelms

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

Classification of Nursing Research


According to APPROACH
According to MEASUREMENT AND
DATA ANALYSIS
According to TIME FRAME
According to MOTIVE OR
OBJECTIVE
According to RESEARCH
ENVIRONMENT

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Classification of Nursing Research: Approach
Experimental cause & effect
relationship
Non-experimental describe &
analyze
Quasi-experimental partial
experiment
Combined mixed methods,
triangulation

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Classification of Nursing Research: MDA
Quantitative frequency,
magnitude of events
Qualitative perceptions, insights
Combined mixed methods

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Classification of Nursing Research: Time Frame
Longitudinal/prospective future
data
Cross-sectional present data
Retrospective past data

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Classification of Nursing Research: Motive
Basic research knowledge
generation
Applied research improve
professional practice
Historical meaning of past events

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Classification of Nursing Research: RE
Field research community
research
Laboratory research
demonstration research
Clinical research related learning
experiences

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Role of Nurses in Research
As Principal Investigators
As a Member of a Research Team
As Evaluator of Research Findings
As Consumers of Research
Findings
As Client Advocates in a Research
Study
As Subjects of Research

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Qualities of Good Nurse Researchers
Honest and credible
Accurate in data collection
Organized and systematic
Logical
Exhibits self-aware
Imaginative and curious

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Qualities of Good Nurse Researchers
Persistent with barriers
Establishes good relationships with
Respondents and other
researchers
Updated and informed of present
issues and events

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Alternative Routes to Problem Solving
Ignore or redefine the problem
Faith, habit or traditional practice
Authority
Human experience
Trial and error
Logical reasoning

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


Alternative Routes to Problem Solving
Common sense
Problem and the nursing process
Research and problem solving

PROBLEM SOLVING

NURSING PROCESS

a. Identify the problem

a. Client assessment

b. Gather information

b. Nursing diagnosis

c. Generate alternative
solutions

c. Plan of action

d. Consider the outcomes

d. Goal and objective


setting

e. Choices of solution

e. Alternative nursing
actions

f. Implement solution

f. Implementation

g. Evaluate results

g. Evaluation

RESEARCH

PROBLEM SOLVING

Identify the problem

Identify the problem

Review of Related Literature

Gather pertinent information

Theoretical framework

Suggest solutions

Questions to be answered or
hypothesis to be tested

Consider outcome

Research design and


methodology

Choice of solution

Data gathering

Implements solution

Analysis and interpretation of Evaluate results of


data
implementation
Summary, conclusions and
recommendation

Modify, revise, change

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING


There are many similarities
between the two. Both follow the
same process except that research
has a broader application than that
of simple problem solving that is
limited to the specific issue in
question.

Chap. 1: RESEARCH IN NURSING

If we knew what we
were doing, it wouldnt
be research.
- Albert Einstein

Thank you!