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Chapter 5 Summary

5.1 Introduction and Definitions

Definition of Magnetic Flux Density B


To find the magnetic flux density B at x, place a
small magnetic dipole at x and measure the torque
on it:
(5.1)
N = B(x)

The torque tries to turn the dipole in the direction of


B.

Conservation of charge condition:

+ J = 0
t

(5.2)

=charge density (coul/m3)

J=current density (amps/m2)

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5.2 Biot-Savart Law

Force on a volume V:

F = J B d3x

(5.12)

Torque on volume V:

N = x (J B) d 3 x

(5.13)

Magnetic force on a point charge q moving at v:


F = qv B

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5.3 Differential Equations of


Magnetostatics and Amperes Law

Integral form of Biot-Savart Law:


B(x) =

o
4

J(x' )

x x' 3
o
d
x'
=

3
4
x x'

where o=410-7

J(x' ) 3
d x' (5.14)
x x'
(5.16)

Differential equations:
Equation (5.16) obviously implies
B = 0

(5.17)

For static conditions (J=0), (5.16) implies


B = o J

(5.22)

Integrating (5.22) over a closed area gives Amperes


law:
B dl = o I
(5.25)

where I is the current threading the closed loop C.

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5.4 Vector Potential

Since B=0, any magnetic flux density can be


represented in terms of a vector potential:
B= A

(5.27)

Integral expression for A:


A(x) =

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o
4

J(x') 3
d x' + (x)
x - x'

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(5.28)

5.6 Magnetic Fields of a Localized


Current Distribution

In (5.28), use an expansion like the one we used to


get the multipole expansion in electrostatics:
1
1 x x'
= + 3 + ...
x x' x
x

(5.28)

First term gives zero (no magnetic monopole).


Second term gives
A(x) =

o m x
4 x 3

(5.55)

where m is the magnetic dipole moment:


m=

1
2

x' J ( x ' )d 3 x'

(5.54)

If the current is a plane loop, the magnetic moment


has magnitude equal to the current in the loop times
the area of the loop.
B(x) =

o 3x(x m) m 8

(3)
+
m
(x)

4
3
x3

Looks like E of electric dipole


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(5.64)

Extra term to
make integrals
right including
origin
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5.7 Force and Torque on and Energy of


a Localized Current Distribution in an
External Magnetic Induction

Force on a dipole in an external magnetic induction


B:
F = (m B)

(5.69)

Dipole aligned with B is drawn toward the region of


strong field.
N = mB

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(5.71)

5.8 Macroscopic Equations, Boundary


Conditions on B and H

For materials, define M = magnetic moment per


unit volume
The magnetic effect of that continuum of dipoles is
equivalent to a current distribution (called
magnetization current)
JM = M

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(5.79)

Magnetic Maxwell equations in a medium:


The flux-conservation Maxwell equation, which is
homogeneous, remains the same as in a vacuum:
B = 0
(5.75)
For the Amperes Law Maxwell equation, split the
current into two parts: magnetization current and
current carried by free particles:
B = o (J + M )

(5.80)

Current carried by free charges

Define the magnetic field H:


H=

1
BM
o

(5.81)

The magnetic field Maxwell equations in a medium


then become
B = 0

(5.82)

H= J

For a linear, isotropic medium, it is convenient to


write
B = H

(5.84)

where is called the magnetic permeability.

For ferromagnetic materials, B is a nonlinear


function of H.
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Note that
H = M

If M is specified (as is typically the case for


problems involving ferromagnetic materials), then
H= 0

and the equations of magnetostatics are equivalent


to the equations of electrostatics.
Among working scientists (as opposed to textbook
authors), there is often confusion about H and B.
Plasma physicists usually use the symbol B and
avoid H, but they refer to B as the magnetic field,
which is politically incorrect.
Boundary conditions:
The normal component of B is conserved at the
boundary between magnetic materials.
The tangential component of H is conserved at such
a boundary if the only current flowing on the
boundary is magnetization current.

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5.15 Faradays Law of Induction

Integral form:
E = k

where

dF
dt

(5.135)

the EMF in the circuit is defined by

E = E' dl

(5.134)

and E is the electric field in the rest frame of the


curve C, which may be moving.
The magnetic flux threading the circuit C is defined
by
F = B n da
(5.133)

where S = surface bounded by C.


In SI units, the constant k is 1. For gaussian units, it
is 1/c.

Differential equation form of Faradays Law (SI


units):
E+

B
=0
t

(5.134)

Faradays Law was an experimental discovery.


However, it could almost have been derived from
consideration of the properties of E and B under
Galilean transformation.
E' = E + v B

(5.142)

B' = B
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Lenzs Law:
Intuitive way to see the sign of the induced electric
field:
The induced current (and accompanying magnetic
flux) is in such a direction as to oppose the change of
flux through the circuit:

Suppose B is out of page and increasing


with time. Induced E is clockwise. In a
conducting wire, it would drive a
clockwise current, which, by Biot-Savart
law, would cause a magnetic field into
the page.

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5.16 Energy in the Magnetic Field

Magnetic fields by themselves dont change particle


energies, because the magnetic force is
perpendicular to the particle velocity.
Therefore, it is not possible to discuss magnetic
energy in the context of magnetostatics.
However, because time-dependent magnetic fields
imply electric fields, creation of a magnetic field
configuration requires energy.

Expressions for change in energy associated with


change in magnetic field:

W = A J d 3 x = B H d 3 x

(5.144, 5.147)

In a linear medium, with B proportional to H,


W=

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1
1
B H d 3 x =
J A d3x
2
2

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(5.148, 5.149)

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