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# Chapter 5 Summary

## Definition of Magnetic Flux Density B

To find the magnetic flux density B at x, place a
small magnetic dipole at x and measure the torque
on it:
(5.1)
N = B(x)

B.

+ J = 0
t

(5.2)

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## 5.2 Biot-Savart Law

Force on a volume V:

F = J B d3x

(5.12)

Torque on volume V:

N = x (J B) d 3 x

(5.13)

F = qv B

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## 5.3 Differential Equations of

Magnetostatics and Amperes Law

## Integral form of Biot-Savart Law:

B(x) =

o
4

J(x' )

x x' 3
o
d
x'
=

3
4
x x'

where o=410-7

J(x' ) 3
d x' (5.14)
x x'
(5.16)

Differential equations:
Equation (5.16) obviously implies
B = 0

(5.17)

B = o J

(5.22)

law:
B dl = o I
(5.25)

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## Since B=0, any magnetic flux density can be

represented in terms of a vector potential:
B= A

(5.27)

A(x) =

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o
4

J(x') 3
d x' + (x)
x - x'

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(5.28)

## 5.6 Magnetic Fields of a Localized

Current Distribution

## In (5.28), use an expansion like the one we used to

get the multipole expansion in electrostatics:
1
1 x x'
= + 3 + ...
x x' x
x

(5.28)

## First term gives zero (no magnetic monopole).

Second term gives
A(x) =

o m x
4 x 3

(5.55)

m=

1
2

(5.54)

## If the current is a plane loop, the magnetic moment

has magnitude equal to the current in the loop times
the area of the loop.
B(x) =

o 3x(x m) m 8

(3)
+
m
(x)

4
3
x3

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(5.64)

Extra term to
make integrals
right including
origin
5

## 5.7 Force and Torque on and Energy of

a Localized Current Distribution in an
External Magnetic Induction

B:
F = (m B)

(5.69)

strong field.
N = mB

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(5.71)

## 5.8 Macroscopic Equations, Boundary

Conditions on B and H

## For materials, define M = magnetic moment per

unit volume
The magnetic effect of that continuum of dipoles is
equivalent to a current distribution (called
magnetization current)
JM = M

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(5.79)

## Magnetic Maxwell equations in a medium:

The flux-conservation Maxwell equation, which is
homogeneous, remains the same as in a vacuum:
B = 0
(5.75)
For the Amperes Law Maxwell equation, split the
current into two parts: magnetization current and
current carried by free particles:
B = o (J + M )

(5.80)

H=

1
BM
o

(5.81)

then become
B = 0

(5.82)

H= J

write
B = H

(5.84)

function of H.
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Note that
H = M

## If M is specified (as is typically the case for

problems involving ferromagnetic materials), then
H= 0

## and the equations of magnetostatics are equivalent

to the equations of electrostatics.
Among working scientists (as opposed to textbook
authors), there is often confusion about H and B.
Plasma physicists usually use the symbol B and
avoid H, but they refer to B as the magnetic field,
which is politically incorrect.
Boundary conditions:
The normal component of B is conserved at the
boundary between magnetic materials.
The tangential component of H is conserved at such
a boundary if the only current flowing on the
boundary is magnetization current.

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Integral form:
E = k

where

dF
dt

(5.135)

E = E' dl

(5.134)

## and E is the electric field in the rest frame of the

curve C, which may be moving.
The magnetic flux threading the circuit C is defined
by
F = B n da
(5.133)

## where S = surface bounded by C.

In SI units, the constant k is 1. For gaussian units, it
is 1/c.

units):
E+

B
=0
t

(5.134)

## Faradays Law was an experimental discovery.

However, it could almost have been derived from
consideration of the properties of E and B under
Galilean transformation.
E' = E + v B

(5.142)

B' = B
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10

Lenzs Law:
Intuitive way to see the sign of the induced electric
field:
The induced current (and accompanying magnetic
flux) is in such a direction as to oppose the change of
flux through the circuit:

## Suppose B is out of page and increasing

with time. Induced E is clockwise. In a
conducting wire, it would drive a
clockwise current, which, by Biot-Savart
law, would cause a magnetic field into
the page.

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## Magnetic fields by themselves dont change particle

energies, because the magnetic force is
perpendicular to the particle velocity.
Therefore, it is not possible to discuss magnetic
energy in the context of magnetostatics.
However, because time-dependent magnetic fields
imply electric fields, creation of a magnetic field
configuration requires energy.

## Expressions for change in energy associated with

change in magnetic field:

W = A J d 3 x = B H d 3 x

(5.144, 5.147)

W=

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1
1
B H d 3 x =
J A d3x
2
2

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(5.148, 5.149)

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