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You are on page 1of 20

Fifth Edition

MATERIALS AND

MECHANICS OF BENDING

A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1b

FALL 2002

By

Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of Maryland, College Park

Concrete in Tension

Q

Slide No. 1

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

result of shear, torsion, and other

actions, and in most cases member

behavior changes upon cracking.

It is therefore important to be able to

predict, with reasonable accuracy, the

tensile strength of concrete.

The tensile and compressive strengths

of concrete are not proportional, and an

increase in compressive strength is

accompanied by smaller percentage

increase in tensile strength.

Concrete in Tension

Q

concrete in flexure is about 10% to 15%

of the compressive strength.

There are considerable experimental

difficulties in determining the true tensile

strength of concrete.

The true tensile strength of concrete is

difficult to determine.

Concrete in Tension

Q

Slide No. 2

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Slide No. 3

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

modulus of rupture fr.

The modulus of rupture is the maximum

tensile bending stress in a plain

concrete test beam at failure.

Neutral Axis

Max. Tensile

Stress

Slide No. 4

Concrete in Tension

Q

For normal-weight concrete, the ACI Code

recommends that the modulus of rupture fr

be taken as

f r = 7.5 f c

(1)

where fr in psi.

Concrete in Tension

Q

Slide No. 5

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

The moment that produces a tensile stress

just equal to the modulus of rupture is

called cracking moment Mcr.

The split-cylinder test has also been used

to determine the tensile strength of

lightweight aggregate concrete.

It has been accepted as a good measure

of the true tensile strength.

Concrete in Tension

Q

Slide No. 6

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

This test uses a standard 6-in.-diameter,

12 in.-long cylinder placed on its in a

testing machine (see Fig. 1).

A compressive line load is applied

uniformly along the length of the cylinder.

The compressive load produces a

transverse tensile stress, and the cylinder

will split in half along the diameter when it

tensile strength is reached.

Concrete in Tension

Q

Slide No. 7

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Figure 1

Slide No. 8

Concrete in Tension

Q

The tensile splitting stress can be

calculated from the following formula:

f ct =

2P

LD

(2)

where

fcr = splitting tensile strength of concrete (psi)

P = applied load at splitting (lb)

L = length of cylinder (in.)

D = diameter of cylinder (in.)

Reinforcing Steel

Q

Slide No. 9

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

with concrete.

It follows that the two materials are best

used in combination if the concrete is

made to resist the compressive stresses

and the steel the tensile stresses.

Concrete cannot withstand very much

tensile stress without cracking.

Slide No. 10

Reinforcing Steel

Q

Figure 2

b

Compression.

d

Tension

d-x

1

x

2

N.A.

Fy

n As

(a)

(b)

Reinforcing Steel

Q

(c)

Slide No. 11

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

be embedded in the concrete to

overcome the deficiency.

Forms of Steel Reinforcement

Steel Reinforcing Bars

Welded wire fabric composed of steel wire.

Structural Steel Shapes

Steel Pipes.

Reinforcing Steel

Reinforcing Steel

Q

Slide No. 12

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Slide No. 13

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

The specifications for steel reinforcement

published by the American Society for

Testing and Materials (ASTM) are

generally accepted for steel used in

reinforced concrete construction in the

United States and are identified in the ACI

Code.

Slide No. 14

Reinforcing Steel

Q

These bars are readily available in straight

length of 60 ft.

The bars vary in designation from

With additional bars:

Slide No. 15

Reinforcing Steel

Bar Designation

#3 [#10]

#4 [#13]

#5 [#16]

#6 [#19]

#7 [#22]

#8 [#25]

#9 [#29]

#10 [#32]

#11 [#36]

#14 [#43]

#18 [#57]

Diameter

in

0.375

0.500

0.625

0.750

0.875

1.000

1.128

1.270

1.410

1.693

2.257

Area

in2

0.11

0.20

0.31

0.44

0.60

0.79

1.00

1.27

1.56

2.25

4.00

Weight

lb/ft

0.376

0.668

1.043

1.502

2.044

2.670

3.400

4.303

5.313

7.650

13.60

Slide No. 16

Reinforcing Steel

Bar Designation

Diameter

mm

Area

mm2

Mass

kg/m

#10 [#3]

9.5

71

0.560

#13 [#4]

12.7

129

0.994

#16 [#5]

15.9

199

1.552

#19 [#6]

19.1

284

2.235

#22 [#7]

22.2

387

3.042

#25 [#8]

25.4

510

3.973

#29 [#9]

28.7

645

5.060

#32 [#10]

32.3

819

6.404

#36 [#11]

35.8

1006

7.907

#43 [#14]

43.0

57.3

1452

2581

11.38

20.24

#57 [#18]

Reinforcing Steel

Q

Slide No. 17

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Probably the most useful property of

reinforced concrete design calculations is

the yield stress for steel, fy.

A typical stress-strain diagram for

reinforcing steel is shown in Fig. 3a.

An idealized stress-strain diagram for

reinforcing steel is shown in Fig. 3b.

Slide No. 18

Reinforcing Steel

Figure 3

Elastic

region

Stress

Stress

Elastic

region

Fy

Fy

Strain

Strain

(b) Idealized

Slide No. 19

Reinforcing Steel

Q

The modulus of elasticity for reinforcing

steel varies over small range, and has

been adopted by the ACI Code as

10

Slide No. 20

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Review

Q

Introduction

The most common type of structural

member is a beam.

In actual structures beams can be found in

an infinite variety of

Sizes

Shapes, and

Orientations

Slide No. 21

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Review

Q

Introduction

Definition

A beam may be defined as a member whose

length is relatively large in comparison with

its thickness and depth, and which is loaded

with transverse loads that produce significant

bending effects as oppose to twisting or axial

effects

11

Slide No. 22

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Review

subjected to equal and opposite couples

acting in the same longitudinal plane

Slide No. 23

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Review

Q

elastic action, the neutral axis passes

through the centroid of the cross section

of the beam

12

Slide No. 24

Review

Q

stress is given by

fb =

Mc

I

(3)

where

fb = calculated bending stress at outer fiber of the cross section

M = the applied moment

c = distance from the neutral axis to the outside tension or

compression fiber of the beam

I = moment of inertia of the cross section about neutral axis

Slide No. 25

Review

Q

maximum moment that may be applied

to the beam cross section, called the

resisting moment, MR, is given by

MR =

Fb I

c

(4)

13

Slide No. 26

Review

Q

Example 1

Determine the maximum flexural stress

produced by a resisting moment M of

+5000 ft-lb if the beam has the cross

section shown in the figure.

2

6

2

6

Slide No. 27

Review

Q

Example 1 (contd)

First, we need to locate the neutral axis

from the bottom edge:

yC =

(1)(2 6) + (2 + 3)(2 6) = 72 = 3

2 6 + 2 6

24

ycom = 6 + 2 3 = 5 = ymax = c

y ten = 3

Max. Stress = f b =

Mc

I

14

Slide No. 28

Review

Q

Example 1 (contd)

Find the moment of inertia I with respect to

the x axis using parallel axis-theorem:

I=

6(2)

2(6)

2

2

+ (6 2)(2 ) +

+ (2 6)(3 1)

12

12

= 4 + 48 + 36 + 48 = 136 in 4

3

2

5

(5 12)(5)

= 2.21 ksi

136

Slide No. 29

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Review

Q

The procedure of the flexure formula is

easy and straightforward for a beam of

known cross section for which the moment

of inertia I can be found.

However, for a reinforced concrete beam,

the use of the flexure formula can be

somewhat complicated.

The beam in this case is not homogeneous

and concrete does not behave elastically.

15

Slide No. 30

Review

Q

In this method, the couple represents an

internal resisting moment and is composed

of a compressive force C and a parallel

internal tensile force T as shown in Fig. 4.

These two parallel forces C and T are

separated by a distance Z, called the the

moment arm. (Fig. 4)

Because that all forces are in equilibrium,

therefore, C must equal T.

Slide No. 31

Review

Q

P

w

Centroidal axis

Neutral axis

yC c

x

dA

c

y

dy

Figure 4

16

Slide No. 32

Review

Q

The internal couple method of determining

beam stresses is more general than the

flexure formula because it can be applied

to homogeneous or non-homogeneous

beams having linear or nonlinear stress

distributions.

For reinforced concrete beam, it has the

advantage of using the basic resistance

pattern that is found in a beam.

Slide No. 33

Review

Q

Example 2

Repeat Example 1 using the internal

couple method.

2

x

C

C

N.A

Z

T

17

Slide No. 34

Review

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Because of the irregular area for the

tension zone, the tensile force T will be

broken up into components T1, T2, and T3.

Likewise, the moment arm distance Z will

be broken up into components Z1, Z2, and

Z3, and calculated for each component

tensile force to the compressive force C as

shown in Fig. 5.

Slide No. 35

Review

Q

Example 2 (contd)

2

ftop

C

T1

2

6

fbott

Figure 5

Z1 Z2

Z3

T3

T2

fmid

18

Slide No. 36

Example 2

(contd)

ftop

T1

Z1 Z2

Z3

fbott

1

f top [(5)(2)] = 5 f top

2

1

1

T1 = f avg area = f mid [(1)(2)] = f mid = f bott

2

3

T2 = f avg area = f mid [(2 )(6 )] = 12 f mid = 4 f bott

C = f avg area =

T3

fmid

f mid 1

=

f bott 3

f f mid

T3 = f avg area = bott

[(2)(6 )] = 6 f bott 6 f mid

2

f mid =

1

f bott

3

Slide No. 37

Example 2

(contd)

T2

ftop

T1

Z1 Z2

Z3

fbott

T3

T2

fmid

C = T = T1 + T2 + T3

1

f bott + 4 f bott + 6 f bott 6 f mid

3

1

25

f bott

= f bott + 4 f bott + 6 f bott 2 f bott =

3

3

5 f top =

5 f top

f top =

5

f bott

3

19

Slide No. 38

Example 2

(contd)

ftop

Z1 Z2

Z3

T1

2

6

T3

fbott

2

2

Z1 = (5) + (1) = 4 in.

3

3

2

16

Z 2 = (5) + 2 = in.

3

3

2

2

17

Z 3 = (5) + 1 + (2) = in.

3

3

3

fmid

M ext = M R

60,000 = Z1T1 + Z 2T2 + Z 3T3

Slide No. 39

ftop

Example 2

(contd)

T2

2

6

Z1 Z2

Z3

T1

3

fbott

T3

fmid

T

2

17

136

1

16

f bott

60,000 = 4 f bott + (4 f bott ) + (4 f bott ) =

3

3

3

3

Therefore,

f bott = 1,323.53 psi (Tension)

The maximum Stress is compressive stress :

f max = f top =

5

5

f bott = (1,323.53) = 2,205.88 psi = 2.21 ksi (Com)

3

3

20

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