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Future Propulsion of Automobiles

Professor Cornel Stan


West Saxon University of Zwickau, Germany

The car and the world

Future propulsion: internal combustion engine OR electric motor?

Sources: Bugatti; Daimler

Future propulsion: internal combustion engine AND electric motor?

LaFerrari
Spark Ignition Engine

6262 cm / 94,0 mm 75,2 mm


Compression:13,5:1 /Cylinders: V12, 65
Power :

588 kW (800 PS) at 9000 rpm

Torque: 700 Nm

at 6750 rpm

2 Electric Motors 120 kW (163hp)

Source: Ferrari

Automobile production per year and country

2001

2011

2016

Sunset in Peking on the screen!

05.12.2015

Traffic infarct

The automobile of the future

Traffic density
fast acceleration / decceleration

Green house effect


CO2 emission minimized /recycled

Pollutants
near zero

The electric car ?

Hub motor for car propusion: Mitsubishi Michelin, Honda

Sources: Mitsubishi; Michelin; Honda

BMW i3

125 kW / 250 Nm / 1200 kg


LiIon 22 kWh / 360 V
Range 190 km (NEDC)
Source: BMW

Renault Zoe

66 kW / 220 Nm / 1503 kg
LiIon 22 kWh / 400V
14,6 kWh/100 km
Source: Renault

Tesla

310 kW 600 Nm 2108 kg


LiIon 85 kWh ca. 1000kg energy content of 10 liter gasoline
Range 500 km (NEDC)
Source: Tesla

[kW]
200

100

Car weight

Torque
300
[Nm]

150

Stored electric energy

450

0
300

0
0
Renault Twizy Urban
Beijing Automotive C30 EV
Smart ED
Th!nk City
Aptera 2e
GM EV1
Great Wall Haval M3 EV
Beijing Automotive BAIC
Geely EK-2
Citroen c-Zero, Mitsubishi
JAC Tojoy EV
BMW Mini E
Renault Fluence Z.E.
Renault Kangoo Z.E.
Toyota RAV4 EV
Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric
Luxgen Neora EV
Ford Focus Electric
Mercedes Benz Vito E-Cell
Nissan Leaf
Bomobil
Detroit Electric e63
Tesla Motors Roadster
BYD e6

Renault Twizy Urban


Beijing Automotive C30 EV
Smart ED
Th!nk City
Aptera 2e
GM EV1
Great Wall Haval M3 EV
BAIC C71 EV
Geely EK-2
Citroen c-Zero
JAC Tojoy EV
BMW Mini E
Renault Fluence Z.E.
Renault Kangoo Z.E.
Toyota RAV4 EV
Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric
Luxgen Neora EV
Ford Focus Electric
Mercedes Benz Vito E-Cell
Nissan Leaf
Bomobil
Detroit Electric e63
Tesla Motors Roadster
BYD e6

Power

Relationship between torque, power, stored e-energy and car weight - examples

75

50
[kWh]

25

0
3000

[kg]
2000

1000

Influence of the stored electric energy on the car


Battery

Pb-PbO2

Ni-Cd

Ni-MH

Zn-Br2

Na-NiCl2

Na-S

Li-Ion

Energy density
for 2 hours use
[Wh/kg]

20...30

40...55

50...60

50...70

80...100

90...120

90...140

9 kWh = 100 kg LiIon Battery(= 1 Liter Gasoline)


Energy = Power x Time
9 kW (ca. 12 PS) x 1 hour

Energy (Work) = Force x Distance


Force = Weight x Acceleration

conclusion: weight reduction!!

The safety is determined by weight and volume

What about heating?

Energy mix in various countries comparison of CO2 emission - electric-thermal engine


(same car)
250
VW Golf Blue - e - motion
200

188

98,5

CO2 - Emission

171
150

115
100

99
89

78

50

100

40

Kernkraft

Kohle

Erdgas

Wind

Wasser

Kern

13,5

14,8
11,9
23,3

15

17,6
16

20
45,4
13,8

20

15,2

32,5

40

Steinkohle

54,1

60

43

Anteil an Elektroenergie

80
%

Braunkohle

76,5

Golf Diesel Blue


Motion (1,6 l)

Welt
China
Norwegen
Italien
Frankreich
Grobritanien
Deutschland

Strommix-EU
(2007)

Strommix-D
(2010)

Reservoir mass / volume for an energy equivalent of 37 liter diesel fuel

Future cars - remarks

Development conditions: no space for more cars, no pollutant emission, not only electric

The future cars and their functions

Automobile functions between requirements and limitations

CLIMATE
AUTONOMOUS
DRIVING
SAFETY

POWER
TORQUE

Variety of car markets: regions, types, classes

objective and subjective acceptance


SUV
SEDAN

COUP

CONVERTIBLE

geographic, economic and ecologic conditions


PICK UP

size, power, comfort, price


LUXURY CLASS

CITY CAR

MEDIUM CLASS

STATION WAGON

ECONOMICAL CAR

Connect ability specific conditions for automobile application


Hardware: Temperature, Humidity, Vibrations
Software: Commande by voice and gesture no disturbance of driver

Car -- Internet:

Phone, Emails, Informations, Weather, Webradio, Facebook, Street View

Car Traffic Light:

Traffic Stream

Car Workshop:

Telediagnosis, Service

Car Offers:

Entertainement, Reservations, Insurances, Toll

Car Car:

Warning Glaze Ice, Jam in Curve

Car Command:

Smartphones and Tablets on Board

Car Traffic:

Autonomous Driving Steering, Acceleration, Brake, Stop and Go, Overtaking,

Blinking, Parking, Cruiser Control

Electronic networks of a car

Source: Daimler

PSA 2014: 50% of all Peugeot und Citroen series on a common platform

Source: PSA

VW MQB Plattform

Source: VW

Modern car structure: Space Frame and material mix

Source: Audi

Future cars - remarks

Development conditions: no space for more cars, no pollutant emission, not only electric
Functions and structures: Variety of forms, structures and materials,
strong proportion of electronics

Future propulsion systems and alternative


energy sources

Overview of processes, propulsion systems and energy sources for automotive propulsion

Sun
Water
Wind
Energy
Sources

Air
Energy Conversion
on Board
Li-Ionen
NiCd
Pb

Energy-ConversionStation

Energy Storage
+ electric -

Hot Fluid
Hydrogen
Alcohol
Vegetable Oil
Gas, Gasoline, Diesel
Energy Storage
(thermal)

Energy Conversion
Electric Motor
Direct Current
Three-Phase-Current
Asynchronous-Current
Synchronous-Current

Propulsion

Thermal Engine
SI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
SI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
Wankel
Stirling
Gas Turbine, radial
Gas Turbine, axial

Future Internal Combustion Engines for Automobiles

Mixture formation and combustion within a piston engine- Simulation

Energiemanagement: Kombinationen von Antriebssystemen,


Energietrgern, -wandlern und -speichern

Future internal combustion engines: function improvement

Variable
Valve Timing
Gas Wave
Tuning

Homogeneous
Charge
Compression
Ignition

Supercharging

Turbocharging

Management of
Heat Transfer

Internal Mixture
Formation by
Direct Injection

Exhaust Gas
Recirculation
Advanced
Catalyst
Technology

Modern piston engine with actuation of functions by electric motors

electronic control unit


with start/stop function
and generator management
two stage
charging
with
water/air
intercooling

continuously variable
control of
intake and exhaust
valves opening

fuel direct
injection
with
piezoelectric
injectors
water pumps for 2-3 cooling
circuits

Down Sizing small engine with additional cylinder activation or with super-/turbocharging
20 kW
30 kW
40 kW
50 kW
large
engine
Motor mit
groem
Hubraum
200 15 kW
Motor mit geringem Hubraum

small engine

[Nm]
180

160
140

full load
210
10 kW

215
225

load

120
100

250

80
60

210

5 kW

215

275

225

250

40
275

20

load/speed in city traffic

0
500

1000

1500

2000

2500
speed

3000

3500

-1]
[min
4000

4500

Diesel engine achieved limitation of pollutant gases in Europe

http://www.vdik.de/fileadmin/images/Arbeit
sgebiete/Umwelt/Abgasgrenzwerte_Pkw_D
iesel_.jpg

Energy sources and resources

light

Properties of conventional and alternative fuels for automobiles

FUEL

STRUCTURE

DENSITY

VISCOSITY
(KIN.)

kg / dm

cSt

0,72-0,78

1,2

44

14,6-14,7

3,9

91-99

350

0,78-0,84

3,7

43,2

14,5

3,8

50*-54*

270

0,141 (0C/20MPa)
0,409 (150C/0,1MPa)
0,00079
(0C/0,1MPa)
0,00235 GAS
(0C/0,1MPa)
ca. 0,5 LIQUID
(0C/0,51,0MPa)
STORAGE
0,792
ON BOARD

...

45

14,5

4,0

ca. 120

0,51 (GAS)

...

46

15,5

3,8

98

386

FUEL
ENTHALPY

STOECH.
AIR-FUEL
RATIO

MIXTURE
ENTHALPY

MJ / kg kgL/ kg Fuel MJ / kg

OCTAN NO
/ CETAN NO

Mix

VAPORIZATION
ENTHALPIE

KJ

/ kg

HYDROCARBONS
GASOLINE
DIESEL
NATURAL GAS
(85-95% METHAN)

CmHn
(C8H18)
CmHn
(C8H18)
CH4

LPG
50% PROPAN;
50% BUTAN)

C3H8/C4H10

ALCOHOLS
METHANOL

EXHAUST
CH
3-OH
GAS
COMPONENTS
C2H5-OH

ETHANOL
HYDROGEN

H2

VEGETABLE ILS
RAPSED OIL

LUBRICATION
...

OPER.
20
RANGE

FUEL
6,47
DOSAGE

BMEP
3,5

KNOCK
106

0,785
0,009 (GAS)
(-200C/0,1MPa)
0,071 (LIQUID)
(-253C/0,1MPa)

...

26

9,00

3,5

107

COLD START
1103
MIXTURE
COOLING
CHARGE MASS
840

120

34,3

3,0

436

0,92

68-75

37,6

12,4

...

40*-44*

...

0,89

6-8

37,2

12,5

...

54*-58*

...

0,00197
(15C/0,1MPa)

...

55*

...

CmHnOpRi
RAPSED OIL
METHYLESTHER
DIMETHYLETHER

CH3OCH3

APS-2002 /39

Comparison fuel enthalpy mixture enthalpy

Hu

HYDROGEN
120.0

DIESEL GASOLINE
3.8
4 METHANOL 3.9

MJ/m mixture

MJ/kg Fuel

120

Hgem

80
60

3.5

HYDROGEN
3.0

DIESEL GASOLINE
43.2
44.0

40
METHANOL
20

20.0

0
6.47

14.5
14.6
(AIR/FUEL)ST
FUEL ENTHALPY

34.3

6.47

14.5
14.6
(AIR/FUEL)ST
MIXTURE ENTHALPY

34.3

Bifuel cars LPG / Gasoline

Source: Renault

Bifuel cars CNG / Gasoline

Source: VW

Layout of hydrogen powered automobiles

Quelle: BMW

Hydrogen / air mixture formation: manifold injection and direct injection

- Low mass but high volume

- Uncontrollable ignition
- High combustion temperature
NOX

Car with internal combustion engine adapted for variable ratio


of gasoline / ethanol (flex fuel)

Quelle: VW

Torque
[Nm]

Power
[kW]

0-100 km/h
[s]

vmax
[km/h]

Gasoline
(100 %)

97

53

13,5

165

Ethanol
(100 %)

106

56

13

165,4

Ethanol: production, properties, utilization

Production

Brasilia

USA

Sugar Cane

Corn / Cellulose*

61 % /EPA 2011,USA/

13 % / 2030%

EEthanol / EProduktion

8,310,2

1,31,6

Price

22 Cent/l

30 Cent/l

12 Millions

9,3 Millions

Source
CO2-Recycling (well-to-wheel)

Flex-Fuel Cars

89 % worldproduction in USA and Brasil


*vegetable waste, in the future cellulose based ethanol from industrial waste (paper, wood, house

waste)/Cyanobakteria

Combustion

Ethanol

Gasoline

Consumption

1,568 l

1l

CO2

2,356 kg

2,285 kg

H2O

1,44 kg

1,013 kg ( 1 l)

N2

8,452 kg

8,45 kg

Emission

Overview of processes, propulsion systems and energy sources for automotive propulsion

Sun
Water
Wind
Energy
Sources

Air
Energy Conversion
on Board
Li-Ionen
NiCd
Pb

Energy-ConversionStation

Energy Storage
+ electric -

Hot Fluid
Hydrogen
Alcohol
Vegetable Oil
Gas, Gasoline, Diesel
Energy Storage
(thermal)

Energy Conversion
Electric Motor
Direct Current
Three-Phase-Current
Asynchronous-Current
Synchronous-Current

Propulsion

Thermal Engine
SI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
SI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
Wankel
Stirling
Gas Turbine, radial
Gas Turbine, axial

Overview of processes, propulsion systems and energy sources for automotive propulsion

Sun
Water
Wind
Energy
Sources
Energy Conversion
on Board
Li-Ionen
NiCd
Pb
Energy-ConversionStation

Energy Storage
+ electric -

Hot Fluid
Hydrogen
Alcohol
Vegetable Oil
Gas, Gasoline, Diesel
Energy Storage
(thermal)

Energy Conversion
Electric Motor
Direct Current
Three-Phase-Current
Asynchronous-Current
Synchronous-Current

Propulsion

Thermal Engine
SI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
SI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
Wankel
Stirling
Gas Turbine, radial
Gas Turbine, axial

Car with electric propulsion

Source: Cadillac

Overview of processes, propulsion systems and energy sources for automotive propulsion

Sun
Water
Wind
Energy
Sources

Air
Energy Conversion
on Board
Li-Ionen
NiCd
Pb

Energy-ConversionStation

Energy Storage
+ electric -

Hot Fluid
Hydrogen
Alcohol
Vegetable Oil
Gas, Gasoline, Diesel
Energy Storage
(thermal)

Energy Conversion
Electric Motor
Direct Current
Three-Phase-Current
Asynchronous-Current
Synchronous-Current

Propulsion

Thermal Engine
SI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
SI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
Wankel
Stirling
Gas Turbine, radial
Gas Turbine, axial

Configuration of modules in a fuel cell car

Source: Chevrolet

Energy from chemical reaction

YPixels

800
700

0.8
600
500

battery:
-

0.6

400

cold (<300C)

0.4

300

macroscopic static
microscopic movement

fuel cell:

200

cold (<300C)

100

macroscopic flows

0
0

0.2

200

400

combustion:
-

hot (1800 2000C)

turbulent flows

600
XPixels

Overview of processes, propulsion systems and energy sources for automotive propulsion

Sun
Water
Wind
Energy
Sources

Time
Air
Energy Conversion
on Board
Li-Ionen
NiCd
Pb

Energy-ConversionStation

Energy Storage
+ electric -

Hot Fluid
Hydrogen
Alcohol
Vegetable Oil
Gas, Gasoline, Diesel
Energy Storage
(thermal)

Energy Conversion
Electric Motor
Direct Current
Three-Phase-Current
Asynchronous-Current
Synchronous-Current

Propulsion

Thermal Engine
SI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
SI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
Wankel
Stirling
Gas Turbine, radial
Gas Turbine, axial

Range extender with gas turbine

4x145 kW / 4x400 Nm
( 4 motors in wheels)
System power:

580 kW

System torque: 1600 Nm


2 Gasturbines : 2x 70 kW
Battery:

19,6 kWh

CO2-emission:

99 g/km

Hchstgeschwindigkeit: 330 km/h


3,4 s von 0 auf 100 km/h

Jaguar C-X75
Source: Jaguar

Automobile with electric propulsion and range extender


- ultralight GDI two-stroke engine
COOPERATION PARTNERS:

FTZ Zwickau - PSA Peugeot-Citroen

RESULTS
- VEHICLE PROTOTYPE
Citroen Saxo Dynavolt (Hybrid)
- TESTED DURING THE
CHALLENGE MICHELIN
FOR MORE THAN 1000 km
- EXPOSED ON THE
AUTOMOBILE EXPOSITION OF
PARIS
- CONSUMPTION

2,4 l/100km
- REDUCTION OF POLLUTANTS

CO2

up to 67%

- VEHICLE AUTONOMY
Engine: 10 kW 8 kg / 35x25x25 cm

up to 420 km

Overview of processes, propulsion systems and energy sources for automotive propulsion

Sun
Water
Wind
Energy
Sources

Time
Air
Energy Conversion
on Board
Li-Ionen
NiCd
Pb

Energy-ConversionStation

Energy Storage
+ electric -

Hot Fluid
Hydrogen
Alcohol
Vegetable Oil
Gas, Gasoline, Diesel
Energy Storage
(thermal)

Energy Conversion
Electric Motor
Direct Current
Three-Phase-Current
Asynchronous-Current
Synchronous-Current

Propulsion

Thermal Engine
SI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
SI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 4 Stroke
CI, Piston, DI, 2 Stroke
Wankel
Stirling
Gas Turbine, radial
Gas Turbine, axial

Hybrid car: propulsion by connected IC engine + motor

Source: Porsche

Hybrid propulsion: Porsche 918 Spyder

Source: Porsche

Hybrid car: propulsion by connected IC engine + motors in gear (two mode hybrid)

Source: BMW

Hybrid car: propulsion by non-connected IC engine + motor

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Source: PSA

Electric motor
High Voltage Battery
ECU Hybrid
Start-Stop Boost
Gear
Internal Combustion Engine
Rear Axle Drive
Front Axle Drive

Plug In hybrid: propulsion IC engine + motor / fuel tank + battery with external charging

Future cars - remarks

Development conditions: no space for more cars, no pollutant emission, not only electric

Functions and structures: Variety of forms, structures and materials,


strong proportion of electronics
Propulsion / Energy:

combinations of thermal and electric


propulsion modules, renewable energy sources

Future propulsion scenarios for


automobiles

Luxury class: full hybrid propulsion by connected IC engine + electric motor

Source: Porsche

Medium class: propulsion by compact IC engine / current generation on board by fuell cell

propulsion by IC engine

(combined spark-self ignition)

Current generation on board by fuel cell


same fuel as for IC engine

City car: electric propulsion battery

Electric Motor
Charger
Electronic Control Unit

Motor Cooling Unit


Li-Ion Battery
Gear

Source: Daimler

Country car: range extender

Economic car: propulsion by small spark ignition engine with alcohol

Source: Dacia

conclusions

Conclusion 1: MOTOR

Conclusion 2: MOTOR and ENGINE

Quelle: Audi

Conclusion 3: MOTORS for ENGINE

electronic control unit


with start/stop function
and generator management
two stage
charging
with
water/air
intercooling

continuously variable
control of
intake and exhaust
valves opening

fuel direct
injection
with
piezoelectric
injectors
water pumps for 2-3 cooling
circuits

EXPECTATION: whatever but not 3D traffic