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R

s
,

By
Dy

ARY E. RI H
;

DIRECTOR, CHARITY ORGANIZATION DBPARTMBNT


DIRRCTOR,
DEPARTMENT

AUTHOR OF

I'

RUSSEJ.I.
RUSSET.I. SAGE FOUNDATION

DIAGNOSIS,"
SOCIAL DIAGNOSIS.
"

THE
NRIGHBOR," IITC.
THB GOOD NRIGHBOR."
nc.

NEW YORK
VORK
RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION
1922

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

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THK RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION

Printed February, 1922, 2540 copies


March, 1922.
1922, 3000 copies
Reprinted March.

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Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

PAGE

I.
11.

INTRoDucnoN.
INTRODUCnON.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

:J

26

50
5
87

Ill.
111. SOCIAL CASE ORK IN BEING Continued
IV. SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

V. Hu
HUMAN
MAN INTERDEPENDENCE
VI. INnIVIDUAL
INJ)IVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
VII. THE BASIS OF PURPOSEFUL

IX.
X.

SCHOOL

WORKSHOP

I.

126

144

159

ACTION

HOSPITAL

f:OURT

ORK AND DEMOCRACY

CONCLUSION

175
195

AND TREIR
THEIR

TIONS......

CASE

INDEX.

OF SOCIAL

XI.

...

222

244

255

26r
261

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

ERE was rea teac ing in t e wor

ong

efore t ere was a science or art 0 teac ing;


t ere was social case work long

efore social

wor ers egan, not 80


so many years ago, to ormuas soon as human beings

t eir fellows a few

W 0

iscover

ha

a special gift or

smoothing out the tangles in suc


ai

that their

relations;

these" straig teners," as Samue But er

calls
eaUs them.

Some
SOffie teachers have had this skill,

an

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

no time has
bas it

wrlter
wrIter w ose storles
stories an

ta es are too itt e

For the Doctor, in th


that
at age of medical darkness, had
what
wh
at is more useful even to hls
his profession than a knowledge of medicine a great knowledge of character; and
was famous for his
bis dia osis of tbe
the maladies of tbe
the soul as
well
weU as of the body. He not only perceived, which was easy,
from
irom the look of Hodge's face and the trembling of hls
his
hands, the direction of Hodge's wages; but saw, though
indeed only in a glass darkly, what few people saw at all in
that day, tbe
the effect of mind on dy; so th
that
at the little
dressm er, a meek, frightened thing, who had
bad set up for
herself in Basset . . . required, not physic and plaisters, as she believed, but a start, and an order from Mrs.
Latimer at tbe
the Manor. Tbe
The very next aftemoon,
afternoon, Dr.
chard wheezed up the Manor drive to see Pollie; obtained her word, which was as good as a bond, to assist

case worker who is able to effect better adjust-

ments

etween the indivi ual


ua} and his environ-

* Tallentyre, S. G.: Basset, A Village Chronicle, p. 93.

New York,
Vork, Moffat, Yard and Co.,

1912.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INTRODUCTION

writing seemed to Dogberry

to come by nature.

To many, suc
sue

case
ease work is neighborliness and

nothing more.

There is a half truth in this

must

e ath
oth

orn an

ma e, but its element of

error is the failure to recognize how much is

The

ifference of met od an

point of view as

between neighbor and specialist is well


weIl illustrat

Laura, it win
will be remem ered, was the untrain

owe, W 0 ha
t e

ounded Perkins Institution for

ea - lin , one of t eir number un er his

read an

write and use her min

variety of occupations.

and hands in a

Fortunately, Dr. Howe

* Howe, Maud, and Hall, Florence Howe: Laura Bridg-

man, Dr. Howe's Famous Pupil and Wh


What
at He Taught
Her, p. 34. Boston, Little, Brown and Co., 1903.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS S

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

his methods and results.


as I s a
to

Upon this foundation,

presently SOW,
s ow, at
ot ers
",

ave

een a Ie
le

uild.
uilde

I have sai

hen Laura was a little girl he use

to take het

for country walks, and taught her the difference


between land and water by letting her feel,
feel' the
splas upon
si e an

er ce ee as she st

t rew stones into it.

y the rookAt t e time that

Dr.

cou
eou

teae
teac

w ic
ie

she

er anyt lng In t e same way


a

The worl

earn
coul

sa

But
8

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

IN1~RODUCTION

w en to a ection
an
kin
ness
we
are
able
to
add that knowledge of the \\rorkings of the human
min

an

that knowie
knowle ge of social resources

which Dr. Howe possessed, we have a new power


in t e worl

ed to the ol
01 er power of just

loving one another .

In the year 1886 t


"child living in Tuscumbia, Alabama, applied to
Perkins Institution for the Blind for a private
t e institution, Anne

ansfield Sullivan, * who

been a most totally blin


restore
resto
re
tion.
live

from early c ild-

before her graduation from the instituIn her student days

iss Sullivan had

in the same cottage with

Laura Bri gman.

lin

an

eaf

In addition to her observa-

ara
a. ra tion for her task, to the examination
examina ti on of Dr.
,

Howe's original records and diaries.

Thus Dr.

* Now Mrs. Macy.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


Howe's stone was cast

not like Laura's into a

CIrc es contInue to Wl en an
Clrc
times,

WI en.

ut not from the angle from which, as an

propose to VIew 1t.


elen Keller
KeIler was six years and nine months
old when

iss Sullivan
SulIivan came to Tuscumbia.

iss Sullivan wrote to a

o t em socia ,wit w ic
ie s e oun

On the

ucational side, some of

ersel con-

iss Sulli-

10

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

ODUCTION

vanee
vance

sc
se 00 0

present- ay teac ers.

n the

cedure, though under conditions that social


work can
ean seldom command.
commando

In 1903

y Life,* and

iss

iss Sulli-

anything less than all of these letters, together


There could be no better introduction to social
case work.

In fact, certain incidents in the

story are won erful illustrations of what has

een termed unconscious case work, and I shall


try to describe a few of these incidents before
professional case wor
workers.
kers.
Helen had been an "eager, self-asserting" infant.

At nineteen months an illness, descri

as "acute congestion of the stomac


stomae an
* KeIler,
Keller, Helen: The Story of My Life.

brain,"

New York,
Vork,

ubleday, Page and Co.


I
11
I

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

eter
e t er ea an

ta
egan
gan to tyrannize over eve

y, "her mot er,

her father, the servants, the little darkies who


er, an

no

van , "ha

ispu te

er wil , ex +
ames, unti

charge 0 t e litt e girl.


They have promised to let me have a free hand and
help me as much as possible. . . Of course, it is hard
for them. I realize that it hurts to see their afflicted
affiicted little
child punished and made to do things against her wili.
will.
Only aa few hours af
after
ter my talk with Captain and Mrs.
Keller and they had agreed to everything Helen took a
table. I thinkl
notion that she wouldn't use her napkin at tabie.
she wanted to see what would happen. I attempted sevtioles to put the napkin round her neck; but each time
eral tinles
she tore it of!
off and threw it on the floor and finally began
to kick the tabie.
table. I took her plate away and started to
take her out of the room. Her father objected and said
that no child of his should be deprived of his food on any
account. p. 313 *
.
* Page references throughout this summary are to pas..
sages in Miss Keller's The Story of My Life.
12

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

ION

T us

iss

ullivan
uIlivan ha

t e task of winning

over more than one insurgent.

This was in

arc .
able to write:

lt
It was evident that every one, especially Captain and Mrs. Keiler,
Keller, was deeply moved at the thought of
the difference between this bright Christmas and the last,
when
wh
en their little
Httle girl had no conscious part in the Christmas festivities. As we came downstairs, Mrs. KeIler
Keller said
to me with tears in her eyes, "Miss Annie, I thank
d
every day of my life for sending you to us; but I never
realized until this morning what a blessing you have been
to us." Captain KeIler
Keller took my hand, but could not
speak. But his silence was more eloquent than words.
joy_
My heart, too, was full
fuU of gratitude and solemn JOYe
pp. 343 44
PP343

How was this transformation effect


heart,

? Cut

iss Sullivan had very early had a frank

talk wit

rs.

eller an

suggested that
tha t Helen

e separate
ere we
were
re "two essential
essen tial things to teach her,
o

ience an love," and neither could be taught

were
we
re esta lis e

in a little garden house near


13

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


t e ormer
"was

at

e er

ome.

unresponsive

rst, an

kicke

t t at time'

even

an

e en
een

lmpatlen

of

and screamed herself into a

out on the ot er

een,
e en, to see

ow

red chain of Scotch wooI


wool or stringing

ea s on a

contente she seemed.

One day,

uring the two


,

og, Be e, came too.

T ec i

recognlz

15

t e
e-

gan to manipulate her claws.


think for a second," writes

"

e coul n't

iss Sullivan, "what

she was doing; but when we saw her make tbe


the
etters'

-0-" '

on

er own

ngers, we

new
ew t at
I
P3 3

Helen's teacher
into tee
t e c il's
il'5

a
an

r s

WIt out InstructIng


lnstructing

er

14

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

RODU

ION

in t e manua

van's letters which


mo i cations 0

escribe her extensions and

Dr.

variety of the whole countryside.


Laura Bridgman had not only been trained in
an institution as a c il ,

ut

oun

in it

er

eller,
wor.

s everyone
every one knows, she was gra uated

from Ra cliffe
is intereste

ollege, has written several books,

in the education of the deaf-blind,

en eavors
a

the

ave not stoppe

in, an

she

ere,

as also

owever, but
een an active

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

champion
eh am pion of woman's suffrage an

of other

social reforms. That

orn with

iss

eller was

great natural endowment is obvious, but she

social one,

iss

ullivan's genius for ignoring

routine and for using life itself as her best interpreter has meant the difference between a

nesse
ness.
It is from an embarrassing wealth of material

which the first illustrates


whieh

iss Sullivan's use of

the animals on the


ing the mind of her charge; the second illustrates

turning a community occasion to account; and

service.
She is much interested in some little
Httle chickens that
are peking
pecking their way into the world this morning. I
let her hold a shell in her hand, and feel the chicken

16

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INTRODU

ION

"chip, chip." Her astonishment, when she feIt


felt the tiny
creature inside, cannot be put in a letter. The hen was
very gentle, and made no objection to our investigations.
Besides the chickens, we have several other additions to
the family two calves, a colt, and a penful of funny little
pigs. You would be amnsed to see me hold a squealing
Relen feels it all over, and asks
pig in my anns, while Helen
countless questions questions not easy to answer either.
p. 3 2 5
e go home about dinner-time usually, and Helen is
tell her mother everything she has seen. T
This
his deeager to teIl
sire 10
to repeal
repeat whal
what has been 10U
told her sho'ws a marked advance
in the develo ment 0 her intellect, a
is an invaluable
stimulus to
10 the
lhe acquisition 0 language. I ask
her ri s
to encourage her to tell them

ker doings, a
leasure in her little
0

to mani est
ventures as

as much curiosity a
they ossibly can. This gratifies the child's love of approbation and keeps up her interest in things. This is the
basis of real intercourse. She makes many mistakes, of
course, twists words and phrases, puts the cart before
the horse, and gets herself into hopeless tangles of nouns
and verbs; but so does the hearing child. I am sure
these difficulties will take care of themselves. The imtell is the important thing. pp. 321 22
pulse to teIl

I t is in
interesting
teresting to get

iss

eHer'
eller'ss impres-

sions as weIl
well as her teacher's of that memorabie
memorable
year. She writes:

The first Christmas af


after
ter Miss Sullivan came to Tus2

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
cumbia was a great event. Every one in the family prepared surprises for me; but what pleased me most, Miss
Sullivan and I prepared surprises for everybody else. The
mystery that surrounded tbe
the gifts was my greatest delight and amusement. My friends did all they could to
half-spelled
-spelled sentences
excite my curiosity by hints and half
off in the nick of
which they pretended to break of!

tIme.
bme. "
On Christmas Eve the Tuscumbia school children had
their tree, to which they invited me. In the centre of the
schoolroom stood a beautiful tree ablaze and shimmering
in the soft light, its branches loaded
Ioaded with strange, wonderful fruit. It was a moment of supreme happiness. I
hen
danced and capered round the tree in an ecstasy.
daneed
I learned that there was a gift for each child, I was delighted, and the kind people who had prepared the tree
pernlitted me to hand the presents to the children. In the
pleasure of doing this, I did not stop to look at my own
gifts; but when I was ready for them, my impatience for
the real Christmas. to begin almost got beyond con
control.
trol.
p. 4 I
All my early lessons have in them the breath of the
woods the fine, resinous odour of pine needies,
needles, blended
with the perfume of wild grapes . . . Indeed, everythat
at could hum, or buzz, or sing, or bIoom,
bloom, had a part
thing th
in my education noisy-throated frogs, katydids and crickets held in my hand until, forgetting their embarrassment,
they trilled their reedy note, little downy chickens and
wildfiowers, the
wildflowers,
blossoms, meadow-violets and
budding fruit trees. 1I feIt
felt the bursting cotton-bolls
cotton-boIls and
18

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INTRODUCTION
fingered their soft fiber and fuzzy seeds; I feIt
felt thc
the low
soughing of tbe
the wind through the comstalks,
cornstalks, tbe
the silky
rustling of the long leaves, and the indignant snort of my
pony, as we caught him in the pasture and put the bit in
his
bis mouth pp. 34 35
Then came Helen's introduction to a larger

range 0

social con
contacts,
tacts,

rst through

er vi
visi
si t

to Perkins Institution, and later through instruction in N ew York


Y ork and
First visit to Boston. I was never still a moment;
my life was as full of motion
mot ion as those little insects that
crowd a whole existence into one brief day. I met many
people who talked with me by spelling into my hand, and
thought in joyous sympathy leaped up to meet thought,
and behold, a miracle had been wrought! The barren
places bet
between
ween my mind and the minds of others blossomed
like the rose. p. 50
At the Cambridge school, for the first time in my life, I
enjoyed the companionship of seeing and hearing girls
gids of
my own age. I lived with several others in one of the
pleasant houses connected with the school, the house
where ~Ir. Howells used to live, and we all had the advantage of home life. I joined them in many of their games,
even blind man's buff and frolies
frolics in the snow; I took long
walks with them.; we discussed our studies and read aloud
the things that interested us. Some of the gids
girls leamed
learned to
speak to me, so that Miss Sullivan did not have to repeat
their conversation. pp. 86 87
.
19

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


t Tuscum ia there had been no one to whom
been thrown upon her own resources and had
been force

to work out her own solution of each

le to travel, no teacher could have been


was a Ie

more eager to use expert a VIce an


w erever these coul
w
entreate

be foun.

Ithough

ai ure, s e i

assistance
asslstance

Helen heard,

her teacher to

for her.

not

such instruction

iss Sullivan drea e


esitate ong,

to a

specla 1St
specIa
lst In

coul

gain t e ru iments

ew

ut took Helen
ram w om s e
rom

or
0

for

articulation.

.......are-

IS

expert,

Y t

iss Sullivan was a Ie


le to supp ement t especial
e special

traInIng.

verance an
"

evotlon,
evotton, as

lSS
tSS

el er testifies,

eou
cou

t teal
t e al
20

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INTRODU

ION

As a child Miss KeIler


Keller sa
says
ys I loved to si
sitt on his knee
and clasp his great hand with one of mine, while Miss
Sullivan spelled into the other his beautiful words about
God and the spiritual world. I heard him with a child"s
wonder and delight. My spirit could not reaeh
reach up to his,
but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left
beautyand
beauty
and depth of meaning as I grew. Onee,
Once, when I
was puzzled to know why there were so many religions,
he said: "There is one universal religion, Helen the religion of love. Love your Heavenly Father with your
whole heart and soul, love every ehild
child of God as mueh
much as
ever you can, and remember that the possibilities of good
key to Heaven."

pp. 133 34

Finally, to bring these extracts to an end, there


is abun ant evidence that one of the elements in

iss Sullivan'
Sullivan 'ss success was the great
grea t frankn
frankness
ss
corrfidence

een won.

Her resemblances to

normal folk were always emphasized; the

if-

were
we
re minimized.
,

presse

upon others who calne in contact with

her pupil.

No attempt says the editor of Miss Keller's Life is


21

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

made by those around her either to preserve or to break


unwise and tactless things that were said for her benefit
were not repeated to her, thanks to the wise watchfulness
of Miss Sullivan. N
Now
ow that she has grown up, nobody
thi sof
s of being less fra with her than with any other intelligent young wom~n. p. 294
et me summarize t is i Iustration
lustration of uneon_~7"'-~ ' - -

___
__

.<.-~~-----_
-.<.-~~------

.. "

2
,
2 "

' . " .._

....

same time to suggest some of its resemblances

to t e conSClOUS
conSCIOUS case wor

cri e

la ter.

w IC

IS to

es-

This remar a Ie
le teacher had a
eneat

t e unfortunate
the unusual character of the chil
ehil .

Building

one en

Vlronmenta resource a

t~r

anot er,

rst to resocialized

persona Ity 0
name Helen

om we spea

to ay w en we

eller.

lesson in childish

edienee
edience was

22

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INTRODUCTION

Helen's a ection was soon won.

To accomplish

until she was able to care for herself..

Here

again the instructor was too wise to build upon


influence gained through one channel, whether
obedience
appea

r affection.

Soon she was able to

to t e min

through eve

thing in the child's world, even

us feel strong; th
there
ere is another which makes us
epen ent an

weak.

iss Sullivan's sympathy ,

.
space, ater In time .
~

ISO

ate

uman

most completely i entifie

with whatever is

best in the world.


I shall have occasion to

In

23

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?
t ese

p~ges

to c ange 0 environment as a means

o social treatment in
mont

er teac Ing,
lng,

to return Helen to
not er mar

nee s.

came It.
lt.

Traine

cu teases.
t cases.

n t e rst

u Ivan use

ISS
tSS

er own natura worl


0

erse

iss

t IS
IS

at the

u ivan's intuitive

in a sc
se 00 w ich did

n t e matter 0
t e urgency an

t e

to one of the greatest


grea test religious teachers of that
tha t

tIme.

y
"-0

than our own

t at trust.

a personality other

-there is a fiel

en eavor,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INTRODUCTION

most exacting.
"station an

e are "name

an

known""
known

degree."

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

11

AY

e-

well,
weIl,

illustrations of such wor

an

ater compare

illustrations wit

lScUSS
ISCUSS

IS

an

w Y
y lt
It IS.

group is perforce sa
so small as is the one here

search, all work not recorded with a


a fair degree
of fulness at the time that it was done, I have
treatment
pre eren
erence
ce
\

26

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

to work with elients*


clients* of different nationalities.
The seareh
search was ma e in eities
cities wi ely separated
an

in socia agencies 0

more t an one type,

the soeial
social treatment was subsidiary to some
tions I

ave a de the furt er one 0 an ar itrary

fective
A husband an

wife who eannot


cannot ag
agree
ree

recelvlng proper care


wi ow wit

c i

ren who is not an e cient

home ma er
An older woman with di

culties
cuI ties which her

relatives fail to understand


* Few soda!
social case workers adopt the practice, permitted
physician, of referring to those with whom they
to the physidan,
have professional dealings as "cases." The social worker's

"case" is the particular social situation or problem- -not


the person or persons concerned. For the person, as distinguished from his problem, the term now in genera!
general use is
"dient." As the nature of the relation between the sodal
social
practitioner and the one receiving social treatment changed;

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

I have mentione

Dr. Howe's diary records

of his treatment of Laura Bri gman.


more intel igent an

As social

e ective service to indi-

has become their practice also.

At first their

attempts were little more t an a rambling


chronicle 0 motions ma e in the course of their
work,
construct g

, c rono oglca accounts

ot

so ma e

for training other case workers, and for training


social work

such as work with neigh orhood


or the con ucting 0
un era

"client"
"client " replaced to a large extent the earlier term of
"applicant. "
~8

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

social con itions affect thc


the livcs
lives of individuals.
Thc
The va ue

social case recor sexten


s exten s farther.

an
tistical stu ies or, more of
often,
ten, of social

iscovery

There is one drawback to all these uses of the


fessiona contacts there is no more confi ential
relation than th
that
at which exists

SOCJa

wor er an

treatment.

IS con ne

t e person or aml y recelvlng

But unfortunately a social history

any ot er form of record

etween the

than the medical case

to narrow lmlts, t e one alm


aim

elng

to reveal w at social case work in its essentials

IS.

greatly to foreshorten the narratives of these

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
no

re atlon to t e pro

ems an

services

escrl

During telast
t e last

a rapl

eca e socla
socia case work has

extension 0

its

el

At one time, as avocation,


a vocation, its fiel

e lnquents, Just as t e
t e

10

estitute sick.

activity.

was confined

rst savlngs
savings

an s were

ut t

some orm or ot er

as

ecome a necessary

factories,

..
",
,.
.
eClSlons a ectlog t e we are 0
must

e ma e.

ever, the ha it 0
esta

IS

e ,an

In many 0

. ..
10 lVI
IVI ua ss

tese
t ese paces,
p aces,

ow-

full recor ing is not yet weIl


well

t e wor

same in ivi uals or

amilies, with its srer


surer

measure of successes and failures, is still the


confin
0
3
3

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

are socletles.
sOcIetIes.
.. .. 0

muc

y way

aVlng

it in etail e are
ore conferring with the case worker

my account to the case worker for revision an


een unnecessary,
save

ut at least they win


will have

me from becoming just one more narrator

of moving little stories.


t aug
oug

t ey are,

The six narrative

eserve a more carefu rea ing

t an the
tem.
tern.
MARIA BIELOWSKI*

* All names of real people have been changed throughout

these narratives, as weil


well as some other identifying but oonnonessential details.
1
3

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT is
WRAT
iS SOCIAL CASE WO
WORK??
,

years to a Polish girl, w


a sma

was un er t e care of

private society

wor ers an

a sc
se 00

aVlng a sta
or

cu t

case

ut not

e-

cer 0 t e court.

aria Bielowski went to work in a

er wages to

actory
ac tory

over to t e aml
ami y an

e turne

uses

she left ome


orne an
an
was

roug tinto
t Into court or stea Ing
lng a ew

from a fellow-boar er.

To those who saw her

Her features were

er c ot Ing
lng ragge,
her ead was crowne
air, later foun

0 ars

lrty, an
wit

ar

an
a

eavy,

y stal
stalne
ne ;

three stran s 0 false

to be infeste with vermin.


2
3
-

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

hat
to her

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


.
~

as

ackgroun?
aekgroun?

From two p aces of em-

er recor

but a psyc
psye opat ic
ie personality.
family, the Bie owskis ha

s regar s er

come from Poland


wife,

an

our chil
ehil ren. But the ather a

tree

aria, W
w 0

een foun

e commltte

to a similar insti tu tion ?

e socia

a ta 0 tain e

Y t e pro atlon
n the other

an,

er recor

be ore she ha

gone to work

At school she ha

een a fair

scholar;
3

ge of English
33

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

gra e
in

our years.

oreover, it was learne

that

she ha
troop an
which woul assure a maximum 0 in ivi ualize
care might bring goo
g

,.
,

af
after
ter

aria a

results.

een in its school a few months,

one of their case workers


court,

er lega guar ian.

er

S lp
Ip

stea

e aVlor an

ecame, with t e
n er t is guar ian~

c aracter

aye Improve
ave
lmprove

y.

From a careful rea. ing in t e original recor


o t e treatment w ic
ie

olowe

an

ference with this guar ian, I have


change in the girl'
girl'ss ha its
i ts an
to t e wor

rom coneen able to

in her relations
rela tions

s e ives in as een e ecte


eete . Tere
T ere

34

' -,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

attention
-'

"

ad to

e given to

aria's

h sical
and her

teeth ca
cared
red fort
for.

There was no evidence of

irregular sex con uct, but she was foun

to have

some symptoms of syphilis of origin unknown,


an
nose and t roat conwas controlled at the school by suggestion.
Twice
Twiee
special discouragement, th
this
is symptom recurred,
gram w ic
ie

improved her mental attitude. Her

less than twenty pupils, that


contact wit

aria ha

American stan ar s of home life.


2

'_,
".

Here she was given careful t

- -

in in

in habits of
-

mending an

her first

washing her clothing, in cooking,

an
others.
ha

No borrowing was allowed;


allowed ; each girl

her own

ureau and closet an

her own

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

enle

arIa
confesse
learne

to t e ea
to

teacher, for w om s e had

ave a rea a ection, t at s e was t e

one at fault, and this was her last dishonest act.


a year or two later,

to

er emp oyer reporte

e so onest t at" she woul

an ink

not even

rrow

ottle."
00

wor

er

In exc ange or

high school.

er

aar
oar

an

an

er com-

WIt

t e

She has continue

course with cre it ever since, ma ing one change


of school, however, when transferre

she has

manya
many a vantages in a

to another

ition to

er

6
3

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

has wor

ifferen t families.

in five

her own restlessness,


trou

aria has at times

esome charge, eager an

inor inately fon


-~---'
7

ican life an

een a

emanding an

personal a ornment.

"--'._'.
"--''--'---_...

~"'7
-~---'
-

: ; " " " .

Though

--~
- " ' - - ,--~
--" -_..

ways,

ut the most important

influence in her improvement has continued to

to name some 0

t e prlnClp es an

case work that

aria's history reveals.

_____

processes 0

'-

en

37

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

IS

aVOI
care ul
uI to aVOl
ten e
,

~-;;,.;;

...

.,

is the too common reaction to irritating

e-

havior .

tlon:
henever I can possibly let a girl do what she wants to,
lagree
instances are so innumerable
I agree to her doing it. The instanees
where we have to say"
say "no'
no' , that I feel we must be on our
guard against increasing them unnecessarily. This is not
the same thing as giving in to a girl because she teases or
insists on having her own way.

aria was troublesome, her guardian

hen

discriminated between the trouble that she

she
-

eal

ition, though not 80


so much in set terms as in
- -_ _ _ _ _

4>

..... ,

.-

.,

aria's earlier tria s in mind when


8
3

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK IN BEING


'-'

it a owe

her a itt e more pocket-money than

was granted to some of its other charges.

matter how much it please

to eave sc
se
woul

00

an

fit her or 0

Her

er at first. At one

ta e a sort
s ort course whic
ce work.

But when the girl

that the break with school


asked permission to remain.
One

ay

aria receive

a circular from a

to her guardian for the loan of the money, and


was tol
to1

that the next time they were both in

the city they could consult some one whose


knowle ge of music
knowie
musie would make him a good
ju ge 0
goo

the value 0

the offer.

teacher at a

music school was asked to test her voice


hen

aria

heard the small, wavering sounds that she ma e

39

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

In trylng
trYIng to sing to temaster,
t e master, even s e was
not wort

consl erlng.
conSl

not er way
avoi e

In

W IC

ar Itrarlness
ltrarlness

was

y this case worker was to assume no

ters any more t an s e

In muslca
mUSlca ones.

T us s e writes:
I can remember speaking to Maria a utt mending her
clothes, particularly her stockings, and becoluing conscious at the moment of a long rent in my own stocking,
which I had tom that morning in putting it on and had
not had time to change. I laughed and showed the rent to
the girl, and s ke of my own d culty in living up to my
tbe
ideals when pressed by work. From what she afterward
said about this to some one else 1I know that I carried my
intt witb
with more effect by this admission.

e ement 0
0 give an
tions, an

take even into

bringing to mind

onest an

ran

er a moni-

iss Sullivan 's


'5

to give the rea reason or a

ecisri "werever
ecisloii
'werever this was
..... -'-" - _.. _- -0
4
4
_ _ "' .,._,

..

...,-..

~
JSPe....

,'" _ _ '''''_,,'","u-'u_ Jcv....


-

. . . . . ', _

___

,"

ble.
ible.
'._

"'" I'

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK IN BEING

Maria questioned me one day in my earlier contacts


with her about her trips to tbe
the hospital for treatment. I
told her about s hilis, about the fact that the hospital
had never been willing to state whether her case was congenital or acquired in very early infancy. I stated that
the usual causes of s hilis
tbe
hills were prollliscuity
proluiscuity and exposure to an infected person, and also spoke of the possibility of accidental infection.

a s e
ase

ew as soon as s e knew it .

. . . ntecon-

aria'ss respect increased


aria'

any chance her ward could make right use of,


ut to give this free om un er such conditions

on t e scene w om

aria t reatene

to marry
marrv
..

a tten tions from th


this
is
41

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
young man, an
season an

not

ue
efore, the sma I crisis was suc-

owever, a co
comes
mes ac to t e gl
gI to
t 0 ImagInatIve
lmaglnatlve
sympat y, such as was shown w en she sent one

cepte

y the e itor with a small payment in

return, an

its acceptance meant a great

eal

be like t
ithout
taking

into account

the

social

ackground

ha
ierent
i erent girl woul
now be crossing the threshol into woman

00

she faces the future with the advantages of a


high school education, with go
goD

tractlve
tractIve persona Ity,
lty, an

health, an at-

a num er 0
0 rea

rlen
flen s

2
42
4

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


course; seis
s e is stil somewhat restless at times,
still magnifies the importance of trifles, and is

are no onger con use

an

unreasona Ie.
le.

GEORGE FOSTER

A young American, little George Foster, had


chil ren and then ha

been returned to his

parents no less than four times in five years.


Even un er favorable circumstances these repeate

changes of environment are

ad for chil-

dren, but the home to which George and his


sister went back was not really a home at all.
The father was a drunken bully who worked
sex-

children and household were neglected~


Finally, acting upon a request from the local
overseer 0
many miles away

43

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

a free
home or

ot

c i

ren.*

acteristics and health of each member, and the

re atlon 0 eac
nances

ave to

to a
a tt e
e ot ers.

e aml
ami yY

nown, t e P
p ySlca
YSlca c ar-

acterlstlcs an
an
to receive a child caUs
calls for no small

egree of

A "free home" is one in a private family, where the


placed-out child becomes a member of the household
whether or not its legal adoption is contemplated; the term
distinguishes this type of home from a cc boarding home,"
where
wh
ere the family receives compensation for the child's
working homes," such as the households in
care, and from"
from "working
which Maria Bielowski lived while she attended school.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


wellinte ligent pacement
p acement gives him no chance at all.

fol . T e armer's wife was not in goo


and the care of two children might have

health,
een a

the chief difficulty was in the relation of the two

C
C 1
1 ren to one anot er.

0
0 oWIng
OWIng t e practlce
practice

George was nine at this time, an affectionate

acteristics of a self-assertive, mi dle-age


dIe-age gossip.

school t at tee
t e c il
it ren atten e , it was

eci e

ately. This latter decision was not made lightly;


it was contrary to the society's usual policy
poliey .

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

distresse

at t e thought of leaving the farm,

ing, the chickens, the gar en

and ma e him

ures for goo


gOD .

At this time
in whic

eorge was

rought to the city

the chil ren's society

its

ea-

quarters, an
a

given a thorough physical an

mental testing

and was foun

he onee
once un erstan s that he can
ean gain nothing

by his

sweet,

attractlve
attractIve

most of the time, an

gets over his' a

eorge was rea y

that
th
at

IS tIme an app lcatlon

or anot er ree

appy
times'

ome.

come rom a c 1 -

6
4

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK'. IN BEING

less

small
a

wishe

to take anot er somewhat older.

S e also

vi
visite
si te

ellow ... townsmen

was the one selected, and further

On

given

as

etails about

him were sent by mail. Soon he was established


.
.
,
..
In t IS new ome _ n t e case wor er S VISltS
VISitS
to

im there she gave each of his foster parents

ments an

cu
ell ties, an a terwar s saw

eorge

these visits there were adjustments to be made


between

eorge an

an

etween
This was in the influenza year.
a

attac

t e isease, w ic
ie

The

oy

Ie
le t him wit

47

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

tiel
fiel

IS

octo:
octo,' urlng

ition in
up.

this secon
seeon
to

or t elr a opte

the many changes, he had

50n,
son, an

one fairly weIl


well in
made

the fifth gra e.

pier p ace or

as

eorge

yet known in his

rief

ut somewhat stormy

there are several young people but no other chilren.


him; he was not always respectful to his elders

an

was not

oing weIl
well in school.

ol
01

enough to be reasone

But he was

with and, in an ad-

mira Ie
le interview with him, t e case wor er
succee e

In ta 109
lOg

lm tnto partners Ip
lp In t e

48

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

'j
'f
.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN DEING


BEING

task of straigh tening ou


Oll this
t his rela
relations
tions both with
wi th
the mem ers 0
teachers.

t e

ouse 0

an

with

is

eanwhile, the family were persuaded

to a opt ess exacting stan ar s of what a

oyof

George's behavior and enhanced appreciation

IS

goo
,

49

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

,....:,
;

,
,,

III
I1I
,

tinue

In

to one
,..
.
..

aria

...,
,

it was necessary

,.

uring treatment to utilize the

".

,
..

.'
~

separate

.t. .

..

from his own people , ut, when he

,,
,..

separate home. The case workers whose services


aye
ave

een

escrl e

many ot er tas

"

,,

,,

an

In tese
t ese two Instanees
Instances
other c ien ts to

ea} with,

ut eac

,.. .
., ,
:;

..

un er review.

~:

,,

,~
1t:
,,..,

'tt
;,

ustrate, In eac

e narratlves
narratives

t at

ow

Instanee,
Instance, t e treatment 0 two

..

-~

,,

..

-"("
(

.-,.
"
.,

..

"

>,.

e'",

... -

,
.

,..

~,

'. ,

"

,
J,

"

~,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


or more clients instea

of one, an

their treat-

ment in re ation to one another.


MR. AND MRS. RUPERT YOUNG
couple of twenty-five and twenty with a chil
ehil
less than two years, ive

in a crowde
erowde

city containing many social agencies.

of

western

They were

sole c arge, the sta

of t is

more than four hundre


Though the

istrict 0

ce was

families. *

istrict was in the heart of a city

growing rapidly, its own population was decreasing. At the time of whieh
which I write the neighborhoo containe
ua

a
a or
rc
C Ie
le y.

One day a Protestant church


ehurch worker tele* These are figures of a panic year. The secretary had at
that time four assistant case workers and a dietitian, but

much better case work was possible af


after
ter the industrial depression receded and the yearly tot
totals
als of the office had
fallen, as they did before the war was over, to a little over
two h
hundred
undred families.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS S
th
that
at
er

rs.

us an .

A visitor was sent- -a man

ecause a t ir

of it
i t ha

er

oung an

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

1I ti
tt

not

een pai

who

for,

rs.

e glr sta
ylng Wl t 1 er mot er
staYing
oung,

f.

a ly unnerve
rs.

Young to

ave a private talk with the

istrict

hus and to do the same at a later hour.


In t is

ce interview t e wife, who was three

friends ha

a
a vised her to have nothing more to

o WIt

er

us an

an

to ta e court action

aso.
a so.
en
moo;
i

a,

oung arrlve
arrive
e a mitte
is wife,

the

rink, a mitte

ut claime

stri
st ri ing

in extenuation t at

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK IN BEING

was against him an


Hilda nagged him. He agre

that

, in answer to ques-

home, that he loved and was proud of his child,


but, though acknowle ging that the fun amental
that

is

He was
breakfast, also a letter to a doctor asking for a

morning, where

rs. Young and the district

secretary would meet him.

Young,
Y
oung, who was a
This was his own

ference was as follows:

T at the husban and


rs.

Young and her little girl should have a month's


t e octor to

stop

e suffering rom nothing ut over-

iscussing their domestic di

culties
cuI ties wit
with
h

53

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


the"
the "in-Iaws"
in-laws" on both sides of the house or with
rs .

his fear that


th at his wife would not write to him
e was given work
at washing the 0

ce win ows that ay; care was

taken to see that he ha

ample food, an

further medical examination was arranged for,


t is time at a mental clinic.

Here hot an

diet, and tobacco in moderation.

cold

Delirium

tremens was feared at first but it did not develop,


an

in ess than two weeks the

istrict

ce ha

secure
inebriates in another state.

rs. Young had

ters to im that woul lea to urther arguments.


of the Home and writing that he "could lick
54

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

rr"
,.,~

;,
-

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


orld."
etters to im rom t eistriet
e istrict 0

o tea co 0 wore 0 ,it


,It

Frequent

ce seeme to e

ecame
e evi ent that

a year later felt


feIt that he shoul have been labelled

.-

.-

" fee

e-min e ,"

ut the

ental Clinic di

not

- .-

sent several boxes of flowers to the istrict 0


woul

e much

istressed.

ce.

"Howe did your

mother like them," he wrote to the istrict secre

tary;

"i

et she was tic e

to

eat

wit

them."

I
:

Two months af
after
ter the trou les of the

een ree
rec aime

oungs

from t e dealer without furt

payment, a small home had een establis

, an

.--.

.- ..

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

...

_------

_-~------

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


ater

e returne

to

IS regu ar emp oyment 0

riving a team. T e social case reeor


recor of earlier
haps, the following description of t e home a ded:

Mrs. Young and her little daughter at home. Front


room had been ed up with some old prints, one or two
runner rugs, and a few other things that made it appear
homelike. The kitchen also had a strong home atmosphere. The wash tubs had been painted by Mr. Young.
The dish cupboard . . . . was full
fuU of shining dishes
Mr. Young came in, it being lunch hour,
carrying a load of wood on his shoulder. He showed a
good deal of pride in what his wife had accomplished in
the way of making the house look like home, and also in
his own handiwork as apainter.
a painter.
As a matter of fact, however, social treatment
num er of

cu
eu ties we
were
re

yet to e overcome, some minor an

some funda-

mental.

The difference in

ackground an

in

religion

etween the two sets of relatives-relatives.--

Young's were Irish-American and Catholic, while


Hil a's were German-American and Protestant;
the ha it some of his relatives in uIge

in of

tempting him to drink; her tendency to argue


and scol -were
were factors to
6
5

t in minde
-

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


wee

a ter t e

ome

een re-esta

is e

get on in marrie life was to overlook little things


and to co-operate.
chil
ehil

At the

irth of the second

Hil a would not go to a hospital nor would

she have a doctor at home, preferring to make


er own arrangements wit
trace

a mi wife.

T is

the ill health that followed.

definite in his statements an

lax in meeting

sometimes with an untruth.

hen the second

Mr. Young has still not been to work. Makes all sorts
of excuses . . . . though we were w' ng
eng to see that
the necessary help was provided to care for his wife. In
his boyish, inconsequential way he tries to play up what a
wonderful family man he is. He has used this illness of
bas a
his wife's to take a little rest himself, and shows he has
long way to go yet before he has any real, keen sense of
bility.
57

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT
WRAT IS

AL CASE WORK?

t e metho s use

to overcome these c ar-

acter defects, the first was fri.endly talks with


-

en at t eir worst gave


over him.

er a strong in uence

He was still more or Iess


less unsta
---,-z.
---'-2'

e as

7_
7_

metho

make the

IS

ome.

He was not allowed to forget the health program


chie reliance of t e social wor
to keep t e

ome in t e

in tereste was

oregroun .

en
wife

about their first-

rn, they at once egan to look

to the future and to agree that their little girl


girI
00

ut t at s e must ave
aye t e prettlest
prettIest c ot es

enlarge an

rame

for her to give to er ather.

eanwhile, Hilda

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

'f'
.

-.,":<

"

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


sel -control an

ecoming the real hea

of the

household. Rupert's proudest boast was that he

in their home life


dent, an
health.

the baby was killed in an acci-

for a while Hil a was in very poor


During the first of these crises the dis-

trict secretary was with them a great deal; be-

fore the second she had gone to another city to


knows their affairs now only through occasional

an

the home is now one of four rooms instead of

two.
CLARA VANSCA AND HER CHILDREN

. . . lara

ansca

ept a

t y, vermln-ln
vermIn-In este

earnings of a drinking husband.

hen the fam

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


,

s e was sen lng t e

er

girl of eight, to the city

een ever Slnee.


since.

wit

her.

ter

er two c

ren, a

ump to collect iron and

ansca's
ansea's commitment

is

S e told a pitifu story, most of it


ut never took

her to care for her home and the two little girls
were wit out avail.
o

t em

c i

She seemed genuinely fond

ut t ey were same u y neg ecte .

ren were pace

y t e court in a

at olic

institution, and their mother was induced by the

tart y to a convent.
mento
ment 0

rs.

ansca may

n erta en

sal

to ave egun.

istrict assistan t in the

60

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


y

. B. a

lscovere on y one asset In t e SI tua . .


-

to earn a

er

t at the

isters at the convent tried

to teac

rs. Vansca as a goal to strive

er c arge as t ey were revea e

possi

e ore; an

In t e convent

in t e course of

oing this

parents had come to America from Lower Austria.


c i

T e fat er
, an

ie

wie
w i e s e was sti

a little
littJe

er in an institu-

er mot
mat

61

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS S

tlon,

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

marrle

again
agaln

ut

e ore

Clara was grown. Clara had several

rothers, all

of whom had prospered;


prospered ; two who had married

were oun to e malntalnlng


maIntaInIng com
corn orta e wor , .
.
.
men S
s omes.
IS gave . . more alt In er

stoc
tra itions.

an

But t eir attitu e towar

waywar ness

this sister

efore her marriage and her con-

duct since, they felt


feIt that she had isgrace them.
sac
s a c il

had all

sea
s e a

isowne

ne resu t of

not

ad the influence

her.
. B. 's visits to

rs.

ansca's

In fact, one of the married brothers offered to


give her and her children a home as soon as she
. B. rea

Ize
lze t e ong strugg e a ea an

not act upon

this proposal. She felt


feIt that, with the
ten tions, t e

est of in-

rot ers an
62

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

lem,

ment t elr sympat yan Interest cou


eou

pro a

suitable work for

rs. Vansca outsi e the con-

vent,

er first care was to see that her client

looke

that she was in good

oug

attention an

the scarf that she ha

worn

them towar the furnishing of the new home. At


the en of six more mont s, ami
age an

the

ome was re-establishe .

The succee ing year was a


the

mlg t
mig

istrict
e,

great rejoicing,

cu t one for the

ce that, no matter where she

a te ep one message came rom

rs.

Vansca's landlady that her tenant was drinking


at onee.
once.

Nig t or

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

to er tempte C lent.
lento
so that

rs.

ne nlg t In zero weat er

ansca mig t

work t e next

e so er enough to

ay.
e found for this clien t

wi thin t e year.

I-Ier wor

een weIl
well

thanks to the convent training,

one,

ut some days

at all.

A. B. ma e it clear that failure in this

again.

S e must no onger

orrow money from


she must let

or er
benefit. This arrangement was m

p oyer prove

orgiving an

of
often
ten in communication wit

ified on

rs.

helpful.

He was

. B., an

together

She is still working at this

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

courage t e ome InstInct, strong In


but over ai

,,

rs.

ansca,

for a long w iIe y her ear y institu-

tional experiences an

she ha

earne

to o' so weU
well in the convent. An

cutting out garments.

Later, a

ietitian gave

ren.
fait

elr

lishe , they

were aske

to see much of the chit


chil ren,

eSl es

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS S

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

elng urge

to exc ange VISltS


VISIts Wit

on equa terms.

t e mot er

t was on equa terlllS


terulS t at t e

were regu ar atten ants.

ere atlves ave een

one of the

to

W
woe
0e

rot ers

e set asi e.

He

ansca

ose wa tc

,J,

as ha

as a to
t oug

school recor s.

stu ent,

ept 0 tee

are at

nei t er

east a

IS

ren s

goo

a ve

e to

e p t elr
er

account of
househol

ta

me so

to

rs.

a rlen

ansca ree y a out

t at s e cou
eou

er occaslona

e a

ve

up. Rosa, the el er of the two, is a goo - 00 ng


girl, an

rs. Vansca as ecome more than ever


66

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK IN BEING

utes the complete cessation of the mot er s

Ig t wor

at service out 0 sc
se 00

ours an

was

how to
bank, s e "was
-'was encourage

to ma

it

00, thoug

to look a ea

an try

s e was a so encourage

to ta e some of the ur en 0 of er mother's


.
.
,
s ou ers
y paylng
paying or er younger sister s

c ot es.

ot er an

aug ter now earn a

a month, over and a


to begin

ve Rosa's

ut

oar ,an

uying a home for the three of them.

rs.

er to spen

er earnlngs
earnings wlse
wise y, t e prospect

ess ot er gains,
galns, some 0 t em even more Imporlmpor-

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

tanto
tante

occasIon a plcnlcs.
p1cnlCS.

en

osa was gra ua te


er own

an s to t e ouse

er a mlrlng
ffilrlng re atlves,

er

ual gains of the greatest significanee


significance th
that
at are not
so easy to i lustrate.

The c urc
ure

now hol s an
rs.

ol
01

ays,

as

ecome franker, more c eerful,

I trust you

WINIFRED JONES AND HER CHILDREN

next illustration,

inifre

ones, a wi ow in her

forties with five chil


ehB ren, came of stock that ha

68

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

die
dIe

est who had removed later to the nearest

of her mother her home ,vas


\vas not a happy one.
The father was a narrow, exacting man, who

inifre

in charge of the household.

Then the

father married again and, resenting this change,

though her new home proved even more unhappy


Thomas
He

ones, her husban

was a mechanic.

rank, went ,vith


\vith other women, was mean at

home in money matters, and lacked interest in

children less obedient, and their mother more

shiftless in her ways.

eanwhile,

rs.

ones's

to have anything whatever to do with her.


enever an a
took the

e stroke 0 mis ortune over-

oneses, an

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

In.
confusion
con fusion amid which the

azed mother sat i Ie.


le.

The corner grocer assured eac


t at

rs.

ones wou

a ways

successive visitor
e t e same

a
o

up the home and to give separate care to its members.

Its
lts condition was unchanged when

ones

Too short a peri


period
ad has elapse since the father's
eath to speak with certainty of the results

agencies to a puzzling situation, but because it


illustrates a social worker's skill in reknitting
family ties that ha

long been

roken.
or t e

il ness

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK IN BEING

e had. Asi e from this, however, should the home be


tive measure or shoul
shout

roken up as a protec-

the mother e eneouraged


encouraged

clear picture of

cent a out

er re atlves, an

was known a out them


who had visite

Itt
ltt e or not lng

ut the soeial
social workers

the home knew that

rs.

ones

and her chil


ehil ren of
often
ten slept very late, that there
were no regular meal hours, that soiled clothelothing accumulate
aeeumulate , that the dishes remained unwashed, and that the children were not only running wild but were always fighting among themselves an
rs.

a ways

isrespectful to their mot


mother.
her .

ones said that she ha

s e wou

sit wit

some one ta

er

not

an S 0

with her woul

een on the

e , an

when

seem to lose the

ri t o t e conversation at times an

then with

1
7

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

ack later to the su -

ject in hand.
The first attempt to get
toms was not very sueeess
success u .
rs.

n examInIng
eXamtnlng

ones
on es was a moron

elg t

wit

months, an a vise t at t e chit


ehi! ren eremove

As
the

eath

lVIr.
lVir. ones mig t influence
influenee

wife's attitu e towar

li
ti e or t eetter,
e etter, an

is
as

eel
eet e

bers.

The social case worker representing the

not all of

qUiet searc
qUlet

or t e cause or causes 0
,

er Ina
lna e

quacy;
quaey; secon ,an active
aetlve program 0
0 stlmu atlon
atton
and encouragement to discover how far each

72

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


mem er of the amily woul

in t eir affairs, the int

respond to better

uction into t e ome of

those social contacts an recrea tional g


from whic

mother an
cut

c il ren ha

an , a

times
been so

to these other

items, irect ut patient suggestion which should


lea , if possi Ie,
le, to re-education of daily habit
rs.
woul

ones coul

count

not so ve her or the c il ren' s trou les-"-

ut suc
sue

an allowance would

was 0 taine

e a necessary ad-

from special fun s.

eal about boys was enlisted at this stage.


age

twe ve an

amusements an

In

ten, we
were
re "running oose,"

ut

Interests an ,at t e same tIme,

73

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


ea
o

regu
reg u ar mea tImes was one' t at t e SOCla

upon t eir mot er.

them to selecte

hile the socia worker was

movies, to the museum of nat-

ural history, to the park, an

saw that the

younger

oy, W
w 0 was natura y stu lOUS,
IOUS,

00 s he coul

enjoy.

ountry vacations we
were
re

arrange

tor who ha

ma e the mental examination, the

socia wor er saw t at

rs.

ones's teet

an

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

,
,

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING


needed attention.

Her school record ha

poor; a ter necessary a enOI

tlons It
lt contInue

an

een

tonsI opera-

so.
-neces-

at
evening and early morning

shows no tendency
Pressure was

childhoo

an

house ol
01

management ha

,other
other was

the strictness of her father, she

rought

been mastere

orwar , exp aine

an

anre-

y the social worker, while at the same

explaine

the case worker's

ealings with the family

ut in

75

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

~
,,

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

,,

the relatives on

oth sides of the house, thoug

een
en a rother of

The

rs. ones.

rother was interviewed soon af


after
ter the
ee

an

1
,

t at t ey wou
intereste
an

quarrel. But e at onee


once eeame
ecame

in t e new program explained to him

offere

to

ear a g

ferenees
ferences wi
with
th this

rother
rother..

Gra ually he told

gave the social


soeial wor er a better
bet ter understanding of

instance, t at sea
instanee,
s e a
een t at s e woul
ater, a sister 0
home in a mill
min town.
soon af
after
ter

een stu ious as a e


c ild
ecome a teac er.
eeome
r.

ones was seen at her

This sistr's
sister's plan, ma e

ones die , had . een to move

rs.

ol
01 er chil
ehil ren at work there, including
ineluding the two
school

oys

uring vacation.

This suggestion

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

er's visit friendly relations were re-esta lished


between the families, and this sister has also een
a valua Ie
le source
souree of information.
other relatives
far

rs.

ones's

most useful one.

ave

een

iscovere,

rother has continue


s he

ut t us
to be the

not seem to wish to

see his sister this was not urged, but he was of


often
ten
of the progress ma e, not omi tting the in
interesting
teresting

motion, he aske the soeial


social worker to ta e im to
of course, that he was helping
hel ping her regularly, but
she valued this visit even more than his assistance, for it meant the renewal of personal relaanee,
to measure an influence sa
so su tIe,

ut she seems

what her brother knew that she onee


once was.

His

first visit was followed by many others. Soon the


rot er

egan to make suggestions of his own

77
,

",

. ..J .
Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

.r

22

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
teen an

ha

young man W 0

een Vlsltlng
VIsItIng t e

oys
ys was

forced ye
y c ange of occupation to cease any regu..."hristmas
. . . hristmas
"was a rea Santa

laus."

After
Af
ter t at he took

the two
The interest of all these frien s was concentrate

ones's living

room a
a POSSI
pOSSI
have a

an

ee P
p ace In W
w IC

t ee amly
amlY mig
mlg t

time in the evening an

t eir mot er'


er'ss coul

or rea s:"

to w ie t e

e ma e one.

rs. ones a mitte

reee rec-

t at er ol
01 est

rlen s to t e

ouse In
in t e evenlng,
evening,

e a

never felt
feIt like

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

ot ering with them.

e ha
e

real fami y idea,

a talk about the


as never

a
a tt e
e

ut seems willing to begin."

So much for thc


the program of stimulation and
encouragement.

But what of the causes of this

mental con ition

for t e social worker, in all

her contacts with her client and with t ose who

Query In mIn
mln .
of a sent-min eness,
e ness, her mental processes are
agement, in contro
nesse
era c eer u ness.
aye remar e
ave
for the home an
of contact wit
sti

remains to

girl or

the chil
ehil ren, an
e neig

ors W 0 use

t ese c anges.
upon tese

to

T e mem-

for one another. Their renewal


t e worl outside the home circle
e one. The nee

etter outsi e interests has not

cialize

in gen-

t e

est

een
n sat-

rs.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

.
,

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

.. ones can now e escrl e as a goo


g
mot er ut
not as a t oroug y competent one

per aps s e

social worker has come to ee t at the acks of

key.

The only remedy for the results of dis-

couragement

IS

encouragement

given

encouragement
an

how discern-

lng an eye.
LUCIA ALLEGRI AND HER RELATIVES

nli e the ot er clients


whose circumstances are

social agencies

escri e

in this an

rs. Lucia AUegri,


AIIegri, a
Sicilian, has been known for Iess
less than a year, to
the social worker now
flOW interested in her. It is not

traste

with the in ivi ual, character of some

forms of social case treatment. I sha 1have occa80

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

sion to return to the su


rs.

reat Lakes. The ease and comfort in which his


family to

ave

en demonstrate

when she exrs. AlleAIle-

an
itt ere; s
s e
ea
a

to communicate with her


rs.

As this client's story, with the help of visits to


occasional reference elsewhere, was developed by
the social case worker it became two conflicting

storIes.
storles.
The first version was as follows: All of

rs.

* See pages 138 to 143.


143-

81

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

""
,' '
-

. ,

WHAT
WRAT IS

IAL CASE WORK?


iJiI-

ren to c~re for; a aug ter,


e ore a su

ntonina, W
W 0

en yet
y eter
er exce ent position
positIon as

eleven.

to show little

Interest now In

er mot er an

young sIster

In

act, none 0 tere


t e re atlves newer
new er aress.
a ress.
ater
rs.

that Pao 0, no matter W


w at his earnings or his re. .
. .. .,
sponsliltles,
sponsl 1 Itles, a never at any tIme spent IS

.,
.,

o t e

,
,
,1
;1

ome rom

er t Irteent

Irt

ay untl

very recent y, wen, to orce two marrle

rot ..

e ha

stoppe

e pIng reg
regu
u ar y at t e time 0
0

mont . The ol
01 er marrie

er mar-

aughter was sai

to

evera VISits
VISlts up tea e to a

resses glven
given y

82
,

, .

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

CASE WOR

of her.

IN BEING

eanwhile, there could

e no doubt that

rs.

er

ignorance of

merican ways an of life as liv

a arge city was a stan Ing temptatlon


temptatIon to

a ert, p easure- oVlng, st


street-ga
reet-ga

aug ter Teresa. T e chil


ehil

who soul

or shoul

In
er

lng youogest
log
youngest

was oun

to

e ab-

not shoulder the financial

ur en, t e present ome surroun Ings


lngs were a
or the mot er's rheumatism an

worse for the

two w en an 0

er marrie

an

were actually oun

er

us an

aughter,

armela,

in a neig -

gestlon ma e

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

,.

-----------,

"f
'f. ...- ----;!
. ,

--- ----

------~--,

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

foun

to

e there save the ol


01 est son, w

un nown to t e socia wor er an

w 0

was
een

eSCfl e

tonlna was tere


t ere an
ot er "in-laws,"
"in-Iaws,"

er us an an one or two

ut the socia wor er was t e


een scru

rs.

!,

I .
I

legri was t e first to arrive.


arrivee

s are In t e procee Ings


lngs was to SIt
51t
er

aml
amI y, an

as

er own
ac

in t e

to roe

Antonina, it was generally agree , ha

one her

., .,

an

everyone
everyane

IS u

say, lt
It seeme

ev!
eVl ent

8
,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK IN BEING

that she and her husband, and Carmela, their


hostess, an

her hus and were the responsibl

mother grew more infirm, she would nee

the

affectionate care of an adult mem err of her

by the one, that is, who coul

take the most in-

telligen t interest in her schooling, her church


ch urch relations, an
tions ha

her recreation.
to

e consi ere

and met, of course,

though usually the obstacles that seemed to he


insurmounta Ie
le were tri es.

At last it was ar-

ranged that she was to live with Carmela, the one


of all her children in closest sympathy with her,
an

t at Teresa was to go to Antonina's Amer-

an

smarter ways.

sans off in a way that it should not, but the olde


one, who ad not appeared at the conference, ha
utterly, and
85
8S

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

slIngs
s 1 lngs

ac

came out.
rs.

t e ui
ul

the fact of the existence of the two other married


c il ren,
an

ha

ntonina's w erea outs,

a concea e
in uce

rs.

legri to con rm t eir

varlOUs misstatements.
varlOUS
mIsstatements.
The rale
role of the social wor
o server.
trie

to

owar

teen,

at the con eren


erence
ce
owever, sea
s e a

yY pOlnt-

ring t e discussion to a hea

al were

lng out
agree .

e story

oes not en

ere; tere
t ere

affairi, they took a long step fory/ard.


fOf,}/ard.

86

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

IV

HE tentative

efinition 0

socia case work


ave no

whic

histories.
to

It
I t woul

e uce a

ave

een
netter,
tter, of course,

efinition from a arge number of

cited instances, though such an ela orate


groun could still have

aca -

n challenged; proof of

Its
rts representatlve
representative c aracter wou

ave

een

necessary.

escrl ptlon 0
case wor ,owever,
, owever,

ave a opte t e po ley


ICY 0

perienced practi
practitioners
tioners which are called social
case work ut have no relation
rel at ion to its theo or its
practice. And {or
practice.*
for the present, at least, all short To the social case worker who chafes under the task of
protecting his profcssion
protccting
profession from the indignities it now suffers
at the hands of thc
the inexpert and thc
the self-seeking, there may
87

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS S

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

term services to indivi uals are exclude , such as

an so on. Al of tese
t ese services have social value,
more

war which are now eing uti ize as a juncts to


wor

pensaries, to mental examinations and treatteaching in the elementary schools. Some medibe some consolation in the thought that practitioners of
other professions have shared the experience. Not so
50 man
many
y
years ago a medical degree could still be bought in these
United States; and weIl
well into the nineteenth century many
of our states relied upon judges without legal training, while
the chief justice of Rhode Island was a farmer.

* See Chapter
eha pter IX.
88

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED


as

intensive as coul
caul

be wishe,

ut to the extent

about it as social case work only, just as there

an

cer

a court, and therefore

ealt wit

selected group under court supervision and statutory contral.


control.

In a dition to avoiding, for pur-

ei ther "the
nor the whims of living

ead hand"

onors nor the restric-

tions put upon some pu lic


lie expen itures should

IS

long-term, intensive care of

cult cases in the

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WRAT
WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

t Ir

place.

group

s ou

ring to 19
tg t conSI
consl eratlons 0

va ue to

social treatment in general, for it is treatment of

t e IntensIve an

ong-contlnuIng type
ong-contlnulng

provI
prOVI es us WIt

criticism 0 a
crlticism

IC
le

our processes-"
processes-'

with the most sE!arc ing criticism, in fact, t at we

see t em rom
rorn one ang e an no more.

et me, Wit

suc

ut when

a test In mln
mIn ,ma

broa est generalization a

t e

ut social case work

t at I can. lts
Its t eories, its aims, its est intensive

practice a
practlce

seem to

ave een converging


convergIng 0
at

ate

oes t IS

term Imp y w en t e SOCla wor er uses It

IS

90

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

IAL CASE WORK DEFINED

socia wor ers woul

agree wit

the ita icize

portion of th
this
is sen tence. Loss of social status and

resources WIt In an

.
.
. ..
pOSSI 1y
WIt out, mIg
mlg t POSSI
iy
ut coul
couI

har Iy

su stltute

~n ~m

ua -~ty,

ew wou

er rom

lm.
lffi.
the

wor s

there is a servicea Ie
le distinction

etween them

unIqueness 0 a lVlng
unlqueness
lYIng elng,
Ing, or Its
lts 1 erenee
erence rom
ot ers 0 its kin

an

rom terest
t e rest of nature,"*

* Century Dictionary. In the sentences immediately


following I may seem to overemphasize the width of the
separation in meaning between
between""individuality"
individuality" and"
and "perpersonality " by holding the use of the former to very narrow
non-technicalI a
limits. It did not seem wise, however, in so non-technica
discussion to introduce the third word "temperament,"
,

1
9

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

t en persona Ity
lty IS tear
t e ar more Inc
lnc USlve term,

ua to a man

lVI
IVl

ut a

t at comes to

lm
lffi

way of education, experience, and human intercourse.


ties transmitted and unalterable are individual,
environment w ic

we

ave

een a Ie
le in

ay by

In other words, it is our personality which rethe socius our brother, but to all the communities
an

institutions

conflict

as

eve ope .

T ere is no

etween the idea of individual differ-

t e tone colors in an orchestra,

ut the

iffer-

ences

ale, a so resem

e t ose 0

orc estra Instrulnstru-

now of
often
ten used by psychologists for innate make-up, but
having a different connotation for the general reader.

92

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

lAL
IAL CASE WORK DEFINED

re ate

ments In t
ferences.

if-

hile a man's indivi uality does not:

change,

lng.
Ing.

If it oes not expan

an grow from day to

even atrop les.


define social case work, I speak of the development 0

persona Ity,
lty,

am uSlng
uSIng a

escrlptlve
escrIptIve

* My own approach to the subject has been by the way


of soda!
social science rather than pedagogy or psychology or
theology. Though I shall have to return again to this central theme of my discussion, it may be well
weU to reproduce at
th
this
is point a few brief passages written in quite different
connections and each shedding some light on the use of the
word personality from their various points of view.
Criticism. ." If the revelation of personality unites men,
the stress upon mere individuality separates them, and
there are countless poets of the day who glory in their
eccentric individualism without remembering that it is only
through a richly developed personality that poetry gains
any universal values."
values."- Bliss Perry, A Study of Poetry, p.
342

ligion. ,"What is our statement of human

93

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

II

t'l1l,
,i,
,

\\''II

..

, '
, ,

IAL CASE WORK?

WHAT
WRAT IS
t

t
sidere
toryan
w ic
ie

,,

all are orms 0


a met 0

teaching,
teaching.

0
0 Its
lts own, an

ocia
cia case
an approac

i ers rom t at 0
0 tese
t ese ot er orms.

In

personality? It is no several or separate thing.


th ing. lts
Its essentia
eannot
distinctness. It does not,
cannot be found in terms of distinetness.
ideally or practically, signify a new, independent, eencentrality of being. On the contrary, it is altogether dependent
distinetness,
and relative. It is not first self-realized in distinctness,
that it may afterward, for additional perfection of enjoyment, be brought into relations. In relation and dependenee lies its very essentia."= ,R.
dence
'R. C. Moberly, D.D.,
Atonement and Personality, p. 253.
Psychology., ,u
,H Our personality is thus the result of what
Psychology.'
we start with and what we have lived through. It is the
'reaction mass' as a whoie."
whole." '. B. Watson, Psychology
from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist, p. 420.
"Man's self or personality is the sum total of his specific
experiences in so far as they represent the results of organization. Each new experience modifies our personality.
I t is not merely an accretion to the sum of our mental data,
but it alters our attitude toward the external world and
makes a permanent impression, small or great, upon our
character.", Howard C. Warren, Human Psygeneral character."
chology, p. 384.
Pedagogy. ." The unfolding of personality is due both
to inner tendency and to outer influence and agency. In
part the work of nature, it is in part also the work of education and of experience. . . So far, then, the two
vital considerations both for the philosopher and for the
,

I,

,
,

.,

,,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED


t
too

er pUpl
pUpI out 0 t e C
cassroom
assroom Into
lnto t e comcornuse 0

SOCla
SOCIa contacts as a means 0

eve oplng
opIng t e per-

educator are thc


the inner potency and tendency of the individ
individ-..
ual and the nature and effect of environing reality."-
Thistleton Mark, The U
Unfolding
nfolding of Personality as the
Chief Aim in Education, pp. I land
I and 22.
Biology.' ." Of the actual foreignness or imperfection in
the environment hiology
biology as such can give no account.

We seem unable, from the purely biological stand-

point, to give any account of progressive evolution except


as the outcome of a blind struggle for existence. B
But
ut for
conscious personality the struggle is no longer blind: the
future is foreseen and fore-ordained if only to a limited
extent; and the past is remembered and acted on. This is
not only so for individual persons but the traditions and
ideals of a race represent its memory and foresight. From
the stand
standpoint
point of personality evolution takes on a new
aspect, and is no longer a blind process."
. S. Haldane,
13I.
Mechanism, Life and Personality, pp. 103 and 131.
Soc' Science. ." Sociality and indivduality
individuality are the
two aspects of the one reality, which is personality. Personality is the final value, the only thing in the world worth
ha ving in itself. We do not of course mean that every kind
nothing
hing but
of ~personality is good in itself, rather that not
personality can he
be good in itself. A society is best ordered
when it best promotes the personality of its members."R. M. Maclver, The Elements of Social Science, p. 153 .

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


e Ier
ler 0
all

istinction

iterates, I con ess,

et
etween
ween the social wor er an

t e

teac er.

crI e

In my secon

an

c apters from

t Ir

that of t einstructor
e instructor in the class room?

ere

those w 0 effecte
Bielows i an

arIa

eorge Foster * ca e

to

arIa an

eorge an

from a center whic

socia

e teac lng

a lustIng
Justlng t em to

was ca e

asocia
a socia agency

social

act, t e so-ca e

epen ent,

e ectlve, an

e-

reason that there is within these separate groups


S

the social case worker will

e ound
ouod to be,
e to terest
t e rest of

* See Chapter II.

96

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED


the worl

as to those who coul

be thus labelIe
labelle .

ithout minimizing for a moment t e impor-

the treatment of dependency; without ignoring


suc

re atlng to w at mig
mlg t
o

e ca e

t e mac Inery

i erent types of social work, are central to

lerns of social relationship


lems
ent y

o.

tha t social case wor


I t is true that

has

eal t an
ea th an

social case work will


win
7

e found to be coterminous
9

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS
wit none of them,

IAL CASE WORK?


ut to ave, in a

sonality through the conscious an

In t at

Wit

t e wor er

15

ition to its

comprehen

no more occuple
,

wit

a norma ities in t e in ivi ua t an in the

lVI
IVI ua

there some form of social case wor


continue to . e nee ed.

wor

,1 t 18
IS

ell
CU

is an

will

50
So long as human

t to lmaglne
Imagine a state
sta te 0 a aIrs

in whic
ments

etaile

ocial case wor

sort.

consists 0

which evelo

t ose

rocesses
ents con-

S
8

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED


sciously e ected, individual by i

ividual, belween
between

men and their social environment.

__

__
_
_ a
Z,
,
2
2

The dictionary

efines environment as "the ag-

grega te of surrounding things and con i tions," *


-

things ave
aye

een exclu e an

many su stitutes

included; the environment ceases to

It
lt

as tese
t ese It
lt

ecomes a part

e environ-

t e SOCla en-

VIronment.
Vlronment.

urnlng ac to t e SIX examp es ere glven


given 0

ac leve

t roug

strengt ene

an

etter

* een
Century
tury Dictionary.

99

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

Henry ames has remarked, in one of his discussions 0 literary craftsmanship, that relations
stop nowhere, and that the pro lem
lern of the artist
is to

raw,"
raw, " y a geometry of

is own t e circle
ear to

,,*
sO .

c oices, have had to deci e what to strive to


un erstan

an

ill
iJl it not e found, however, t at a mar e a -

been made, an

clte
Cl te

-a

that in another

the last one


een

etter

effecte ?

tending that, while the service

its va ue, it

* Preface to Roderiek
Roderick H
Hudson,
udson, New Vork
York edition.
100

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED


involve

t e exercise of no new technical knowl-

edge mastered with di

culty and pursued there-

tact and goodwill, could have done the same


things.
tually involved in these social treatments.

treatment described. This gave me six long lists


By

general heads of "insights" and "acts."

Each of

these two divided onee


once again" . insights to include
inelude

derstan ing of environment"; aets


acts ta
to include

four divisions we
were:
re :
personal
characteristics
101

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
B.
influence of the social environment

Jo

Irect
lrect action

mln

upon mln

D.
ronment
to me t at eac
out

y a non-speCla
non-specla 18t.
1St.

shown in t e com ination


WOll
wou

ut tralne

acts,

have achieved. The wrter


writer who strives to
simi ar am itions

in common

t at eac

W IC

was

these itemize

worker wit

appens to

ave at least this

is ealing wit

a material

e part 0 tewarp
t e warp an

woo

the other in socia relations. T e one must con

trlve to glve
give a new stamp to counters worn

smoot

ea
e a e to Iscover
lscover new meanlngs
meanIngs an POSSt
POSSI I Itles
ttles
in those familiar situations in which all are
sarers,
s arers, must

new stimuli in an

or mln s
t takes

102

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED


to
bring to light in either literature or case work the

realize the study and drill, the self-expression and


self -e acemen t w ich lie

ehin

the aehieve
achieve

result.

T is

must

in min

an

ept

allowe

o ows, 0
oun

in t

Items are arrange

un er

A. B.S
s

own-Into

ou

these are com


corn ine

is, must

that the personality is re-

iscovere.

T e tee
tec nical si e of

these diagnostic processes, in so far as they are


o
\

103

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

qUlte
qUIte

k. Th s si e of the su -

Ject

oes not concern us

ere.

ut it soul

un erst
whe

tIme IS save .
history behind

vacant-mln e

on ce acquire

al
at ure to earn ear ier t e social
inifred

ones's fol e

hands,

ways, an
ith the mistake
the

ecision 0

the menta examiner was shape

of the case a out this time a

In

the gOD sense to


more facts. *

* See Chapter Ill,


111, pp. 72 and 80.
Addressing the family welfare wor
workers
kers at the Milwaukee National Conference of Social Work Proceedings for
1921 , Dr. Wm. Healy told them that, "Valuable
"ValuabIe though
tests properly administered and interpreted unquestionably are, still one of the best ways to evaluate an adult's
capacities is to get knowledge of him as he has been observed in his home, at his work, in his human relationships.
One should always consider character tendencies or personality trends. It is very important to think of people
10
14
4

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

aria Bielowski's re

t at were Innate
lnnate an individua or to unfavorable

than this one.

The answer was arrive at, as it

win
will always have to

e in similar cases, wit

the

from the stand


standpoint
point of truthfulness, affect
affection,
ion , sympathy,
cleanliness, promptness, responsibility, stability, etc.
Familiarize yourselves with all of these and remember
that personality trends and also frequently habits established by focial
Eocial training have more to do with the success
and failure of adults than anything else. They often
have much more to do with one's ahility
ability to support and
bring up children and to meet the exigencies of the world
in general than what is learned from the bare results of
mental tests."
* See Chapter 11, p. 32 sq.
Dr. Bronner, speaking of mental equipment at the New
Orleans National Conference of Soeial
Social Work (Proeeedings
(Proceedings
for 1920, p. 357 , said: "Praetically
"Practically it is of
often
ten difficult to
determine what is innate personality make-up and what is
the result of environment and experience. The interplay
be
of the two is great and the innate make-up can scarcely he
extricated from the product of circumstances. Perhaps
from one point of view sueh
such separation is not needed or
desirable, and yet for the offering of prognoses it is somedesirabie,
times essential to know just what the individual is innately, and what he might be like under different circumstances."
10
15
5

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
ai

of medical an

aria's

mental exprts;
experts;

ut part of

ome situation, of her work an

school

recor s, t e lscove
as a socia

resource

these were things t at

nee e to e one not In elsure y as Ion as time

om en
pro ation 0

ore treatment is at an en.

cer was a socia case worker w ose

turne t etas
e tas 0

ong-contlnue treatment over

to another case worker who later ecame


guar ian.

The

his guardian, it should

aria's
noted,
./

insig ts into

aria's attitu e towar

i e, an

environments In

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

AL CASE WORK DEFINED

covering the attitude of the various mem ers of

arriving at a so ution of some 0 their

cu ties

rs.

present social environment without having the


insight which this worker showed in grasping,

worthwhile.
under direct action
of
often
ten

t e

egin with those services,

urn lest sort, which ten

to
hen

iss Su livan
107
17

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

e en

el er an

care

for

er herself, when

aria Bielowski's guar ian confesse


in

to the rent

er own stocking, when A. B. walked the

streets late at night with ha it-ridden Clara


Vansca, when the

etween mln

an

oung a y was ki Ie
le and the

mln

intercourse, asenee
a sence 0

t at ma e or perma-

ciaIism, an

that habit

In

several

the accounts .

tlence orn 0 sympat y,o


tIenee

Examine once more t e accounts 0

1nl
lnl

een
Note,

of min

08t
ost

too,

. . . . ara

re

y Impatlenee
ImpatIence at crltlca
crItIca

how re-education

of

moments.
a it was

on min ,an
108

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

an

. . , ara

flexibility combined with no small

her guard'

egree

to the music teacher'


teacher'ss studio illus-

voice culture by mail.

Probably I should have

a enoug presence 0 mln


mIn

to avol
aVOI exc almlng
aImIng

"Nonsense" .on the spot, perhaps have thought


of

ering to take the circular of t e correspon-

merits. But wh
what
at the guardian did was so much
10
19
9

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
etter.

e see

expert a VIce to

opinlon,
opInIon, ut

arIa par-

tlclpate In every step 0 t e process an In ma

rs.

lng teeClSIon.
t e eClSIon.

ast ree

ome;

rs. Rupert

necessa

In

oung

50mesome-

IS

-,to contro
-'to
t at

15

as a part

pans
p ans or t e re-e ucatlon 0

er us an .
worker who is 50
so eager to serve t at she is
tempted to do all the serving and all the eciding
herself.

lerent
I erent

many

-throug

Instl tu tlons
t roug

an

ot er

agencies,
agencles,

material

clusively
elusively within his field than are some of the
iss Eliza eth

utc
ute er, "who relies on her own ability to influ110

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

ence er su norma c lent

WI

sooner or ater ose

out;

or t e in ivi ua socia wor er's efforts will

e0

not
e con ne

proac

to contacts wit

..
or t e In Irect.

t e su normal.

It
It

.
.
uti
ut 1 SOCla wor ers are

justifie

reaction
social environment an

etween the tot 1

the indivi uat,


uaI, then

les can

e trace

to t e at-

case work has in view, and it is not exceptional

to fin

the case worker turning for gui ance or

Paper on Possibilities of Home Supervision of Moron


Women, p. 275, in Proceedings of National Conference of
Social Work for 1921, at Milwaukee.
I
111
II

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT
WH
AT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

agencIes as SOCla sett ements, vocatlona courses,


agencles
omes, an

so on.

social treatment egan, suc services we


were
re nee e

InIInl-

fre

ones, an

___ eorge Foster.


F oster.

ne of the duties of t e social

workers interested was to see that t eir clients


had the

ealt

an

c il ren
yt e C

a
an

to

e consu te

conferences hel

a out t elr sc 00 recor s,


with t eir teac ers, that

social and educational services might be

ove-

taile .
to
churc

atten

ere
112

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCI

CASE WORK DEFINED

oes not appear, that is, to -e i:he same wor ing


___ ara

ansca we
were
re urge to atten their own
..
,
.
cure
c ure , an
'-" ara s re atlons WIt
It
lt were
strengt ene

oth y her stay in t e convent an

is worth noting, in passing, that the Austrian


an

her relatives were onee


once more a Ie
le to meet on
inifre

eth

ones is to tee ect that a

ist minister ha

een aske

InvIte t e
children to join the Sunday school. The request
a
of

een ma e wit

the knowie
knowle ge and consent

rs. ones, who was a

ut who ha

etho ist at one time,

cut herself off from this contact as


/

T ere is 0 ten nee


tereste

team p ay as

etween

in various members of the same family .

113

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK?

WHAT IS S

these
anscas in care ul
uI

pans.
p ans.

spen lng was promote

t em to save.
to atten

letltlan, t e

eresa

ouse, t e ones

Y t e

egrl was encourage

at a neigh

cC 1

ren an

glven
gIven outlngs
outIngs an

t e

anscas
were

entertainments In p enty,

an
year.

. . . ase wor ers are a ways actlng


actIng as go- etweens

use 0 t ose organlze


organize
or

socla resources 0 neig


nelg -

an

It as even

communIty
eommunlty

een assume

toget er WIt

IC ,

t at teease
t e case wor er IS
I

t e practlpraet!

tloner W 0 alms to 0 t oroug wor must 0 ten

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

lAL
IAL CASE WORK DEFINED

- act as a mi

leman,

lng

ut when it comes to

we must

IS

e on our guar

efin

agalnst
agaInst
e means

or teen

resources an
whic
ou

expert servIces 0

have so enric e

many

case work

In s

ecomes a

e c al enge to t at community's case work

ers 'a c a enge to t elr IngenuIty


tngenulty In

eve oplng

POSSl
pOSSl

e su stltutes or nee e

pus

ar to secure the community agencies still

ac 109,
Ing, an

resources an

s ou

e ectlve arguments an I ustratlons as t elr case


ne relation
a vance as een suggeste

etween

in t is last sentence.

sue re ations, in act, some


T ere is a networ of suc

o W
w le
tC

ope to

or

escrl eater;
e ater;

owever
ea

envlronmenta a Justments assume no c ange to


11

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


anot er an

entirely

iflerent
ifferent environment.

roun ings; change 0

It
It

surroun ings is a 50 an

e c ange

temporary, sometlmes
sometImes permanent.
vironment which
illustrate

ecte
t e

ave

ould

at t e en-

een a

in

eorge Foster's case.

outst
outS! e

IS

own

18

ome; t e

uil er of
Here the

y was re-

ome t at

maintaine

coul
couI

not

escri e

as anti-social

efore the case wor er knew them, a permanent c ange

or

aria seeme

necessary.

bring them together in a better mood; Clara


Vansca needed a longer period, followe
folIowe

tlnuous an

y con-

palnsta lng rea Justment to t e


116
,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED


..
telnporary change.

into the social matrix 0 tee ient's origina surroundings, provided a return to these surround-

essary, and without removal to a new environment, as in

ini re

returned to 01 er an

ones's case. In the

llegri

more familiar con i tions,

\vhile her daughter Teresa was sent to a new


home which was smartly American, though to

ognlze .
Another aspect of changed environment is
presen te

y the nee s

those clients
clien ts of dif-

ferent national and racial backgrounds in which


the c ange ha

cen
een made before they became

known to the case worker and through immigra-

tion to the United States.


assume

Usually it has been

t at a justments in the process of


117

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

IAL
lAL CASE WO
WOR ?

WHAT IS
WRAT
Americanization soul

all

e ma e on t e si e

o the immigrant, who is to learn our language,

stu your
y our InstItutIons,
lnstltutlons, accept our ways, WIt out /
.
.
.
any mo 1 cations
catIons In our own p ans
aDS an pur/

a justments on both si es. Even so, t e socia


.
.
.
a luster
Juster cannot succee WIt out sympat etlc unerstan ing of t
t e
e l1

or

ackgroun s from

w en
ansca's an
over.

ent to note t at

upert
ut t eir ittle gir t an

a outanyot eronet 109;


lOg; Itwast
ltwast et oug to
,

...,. ara
ansca's w

ome centere
n

,,

lIS

., ,.

,,.
Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

social
soeial

ackgroun
aekgroun

ha

a further bearing upon


elonging onee
once

that

ear some relation to one anot er, is

estt

ones's his-

rs.
ha

ones was stirre

as she

not

re-entrance
re-entranee into her 1i e, an it as meant a great
eal
to
-

er c it
i1 ren in a new sense 0 social con

ng.

it is evident that the solution must


foun

e found, i

at all, through the relatives.

or ing homes were foun


or

aria Bie owski, one of

lara

ansca's em-

ployers was co-operative and helpful, and the


inifre

119

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

In
t e varie

things t at case workers can

in ade

seems best fitted,


fi tted, in assuring

etter training for

in the illustrative material that I have employed

IS

accounte
,

these illustrations were gathered just af


after
ter a

cases In
ment.

IC

more ra lea c anges In

But here again there has

ouslng

een a house

Rupert
120

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

Young has move into four rooms lnstead of two,


an

t e soeial
social worker has

een able to get

rs.

Vansca's street coul be better, though her rooms

eavor to Improve
lmprove

con ltlons.
ere we have sueh
such
esses as

w ic
ie

have

een a Ie
le to reeognize
recognize an

has for its


i ts aim the effecting
effeeting of

justments

etter ad-

etween the individual human being

and the world in whieh


which he must live.
as yet

to

een

eVlse

scale

yY SOCla wor ers or meas-

* See footnote to p. 14.


121

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

L CASE WORK?

WHAT IS

measure
game of life w ic
ie

is no mere game 0 se -seek-

goo wil,
com
corn ination 0
for the task.

these services WOll


wou

ut t at the
ave

een

onsi er, for a moment, what that

com
corn ination involve
cases.

most

e y to revea
122

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

own seeme

to

e the wrong one, an

to in uce
ur-

eClSlon.
mitting all mention of the training given to
aria at t e schoo

conSl
eonSl er a so w at
about the use of m
a out the care ul
uI selection of working homes or a
an

the

tunltles.

one

t IS

specla lZ
specIa

experIence was
experlence

In
12 3

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


with the girl herself.
what

It was necessary to know

aria was doing without discouraging


her
.

whims which woul

best results.

only have lost her respect.

And the combination of all these

services, lea ing at last to mar e

growt

In

were

acci
aCCl ent
en t asi
aSl e, assure

etter relation to

cause 0

t e SOCla case treatment t ey

ceive ? Given the acts as here set

ave re-

own, and

external conditions of these cli


clients
en ts when case wor ers first
found them, has there or has there not been a
egree of growt

or all 0

t em an

mar e

_
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
_

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_
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__
_

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'

_
__
__
__
__
__
__
_

'T'~

'

'

__
__

~~_~~'

'

'

___
_
__

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=
=

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'
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7 _ _ ' _ " $ 3 ..

"

._._,._,,'
'_'-,._,,'

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12 4
124

~'

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----

_ ________ _

---------

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

-. -'
......

SOCIAL CASE WORK DEFINED

the sixteen? I do not attempt to give a categor

ans

lea
tea

12 5

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

.,.---;.~--------,- - - - - -_ _ _ _ _ _
2 _ _ _ _ __
,

HE

era in
a hero whose min

orl
orI

occuple

Wit

ha

systems, t eorles, an

een pre-

gospe

S,-'

na y earne

single human eing! He is ma e of the same ma

terla as man In

In genera.

IS mlrrore
ffilrrore In t e sma.

e In nlte
ntte wor

ou, W 0
0 want to ta e

everyone
every one WIt you on t e way to t e great awn,
.,

Harol

tere
t e re atlon 0
0 t e In IVI
lVI ua to society

In any at
attempt
tempt to

, sig
slg to.
t 0

orget t at

an un er ylng piOSOp
p I osop Y

ase w<;>r ers must not

out a spirit 0
0

ecause,

evotlon to t e uman e ement


ernent In

rl tlng, In a persona

etter, 0 teeast
t e east ope-

126

., 2

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE

ul an
ui
tional work, a social
soeial case worker in a certain
eertain almshouse sai

sees somet lng In an 0


nice, resh, ce ot -

eat er-

un

un

copy 0 a

st se Ier,
ler, an

it is a

on everyone
every one who

SOCla wor ers a vocatlng one type 0 SOCla case


wor
or t ose a ove it, the 0
0

t e poor an

sai

a wor

ha it of making un-

anot
w ic
ie

soul

ut extlr-

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCI

CASE WORK?

indee

A reviewer of an earlier

00

were "nothing if not concrete."

of mine on social
t the risk of

seeming to go to the other extreme in this hook,


book,

must lie a philosophy.

If we would understand

zation
zat
ion to its main stream of avance.
a vance.

If social

* H uxley,
ux1ey, Thos.: Evolution and Ethics, p. 39.
uoted
H uman Evoluby Edwin G. Conklin in The Direction of Human
tion.
128

.; t

,. -.
'

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE

which its significanee


significance was gradually brought

grew up in a wor

whic

hel

very romantic,

"solitary horseman" views of the individual. He

encroachments as

an

est he could.

I still remem-

it was many years af


after
ter that

iscovery be-

together laboriously out of his observations of the


actions and reactions of others.

ames

ark

He says in his Social an

The development of the child's personality could not go


on at all without the constant modification of his sense of
* In Prince Kropotkin's 1\11 utual Aid, a Factor of Evolu

tion.

12 9

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


himself by suggestions from others. So he himself, at
every stage, is really in part someone else, even in his
bis own
thought of himself.

An in a section on social heredity, Baldwin adds:


He is born into a system of social relationships just as
he is bom
born into a certain quality of air. As he grows in
dy by breathing the one, so he grows in mind by absorbing the other. The influence is just as rea1
real and as
tangible. *

view In a

Royce
num err 0 passages,o W

t e

IC

oWing one
oWlng

IS

In brief, then, I should assert here, as a matter of


psychoIo ,what
, what I have elsewhere worked out more at
length, that a child is taught to be self
self-conscious
-conscious just as he
is taught everything else, by the social order th
that
at brings
him up. Could he grow up alone with lifeless nature,
there is nothing to indicate that he would become as selfconscious as is now a fairly educated cat.

Pro essor
o

eorge

lcago,

IS

post tlon a step

* Baldwin, ames Mark: Social and Ethical Interpretations in Mental Development, p. 30 and p. 70. New Vork,
York,
The Macmillan Co., 1902.
.

Royce, osiah: Studies of Good and Evil, p. 208. N


New
ew
, York,
Vork, D. Appleton and Co., 1910.
130

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

RUMAN
HUMAN INTERDEPEND

only the m

ium in which personality is devel-

ope
has pu lished little, and that little is not very

accessi Ie
le to t e general rea er.

I t is one of the foun a


a tion stones
t e wi er self. It
w atever vestige of an i ea still remains with us
watever

that a man's min

is somewhere in his hea ,or


At

for the social case worker, the human mind is not


a xe

an

una tera Ie
le t ing, un ess it

e e ec

n t e contrary, It IS
a iving, growing, changing,

well
weIl as the bad.

fessor

ighly suggestible

"Of all animals,"


animaIs," says Pro-

ocking," it is man in whom here ity


131

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

counts for least and conscious

uilding forces for

,-,onsider that
~onsider
abit e angin
keenest,

. and it

prOVl e
e
prOVI

im
lffi

most

ecomes cIear
eeomes
clear that nature has
or her own

Other creatures nature coul

finis : t e uman creature must nis

imse ."*

ter w en they

aye succeeded in getting a fairly


ave
-when
ome

c ure
cure

aSSOcIates towar
assoelates

lm an

IS

towar
or com-

munity institutions, and to his country.


aria Bielowski in a classroom, one
* Hocking, WilIiam
William Ernest: Human Nature and lts
Its ReVale University Press, 1918.
making, pp. 9 10. New Haven, Yale

See Chapter II.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE

while another asked whether she was not a


teac er.

ave asked

ealth nurse, or as a matter

act social case

work an each of these other pro essions occupies


groun in common. That each has its own task,
however, is illustrated by the psychiatrist and
the social worker. Beginning near the center of
trist bores in an
sp ere 0

in, w ile the social worker's

action radiates outwar

along all the

Hnes
lines of a client's social relations.

here a mal-

ual an mental, one form 0 skill is neede ; where


it is predominantly environmental and social the
other; while both are probably indispensable
where
wh
ere there is a disturbed personality in an un-

or that

133

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

hereisnosuc
hereisnosue t ingasa "se -ma eman,"and

t may appen to anyone


any one 0 us at any time an
our

Itles,
ltles, some temporary Ss oe
oc

rom Wit out, or

organize the individual, the more elicate, under


any 0

tese
t ese clrcumstances,
circumstances,

a Justment

oes t e

re-

e.

ac Ing
lng
ro en connection
eonneetion or to supp y a motlve
motIve ae
before. To illustrate:

A former student of mine, working in a part of


the count where organized medical-social work was UD134

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE

known, found herself often


often called upon, as secretary of the
family welfare society of the town, to help the local physicians in pellagra cases. As soon as these doctors discovered wh
what
at her social case work skill could accomplish, they
began to seek her aid in cases which were uncomplicated
by economic need or family maladjustment. At one stage
of tbis
this disease the patient suffers from a horrible depression of spirits. Aggressive cheerfulness in the nurse or
caretaker only increases the depression, whereas one who
knows how to in the social bacygrounds and foregrounds
of the patient's past can often
often find in them some interest
to he
be revived, some taste to be cultivated, and can thus
supply the one thing which makes life seem worth living.
Two college mates of my acquaintance became, after
af ter
their graduation years ago, volunteer assistants in the
fanli1y
faJl1i1y social work societies of their separate cities. One
of them made the acquaintance, in the course of her work,
of a deserted wife and her three small children. The home
conditions were pitiable, and she set to work at once to
improve the health and material welfare of the family,
while seeking to discover at the same time the whereabouts of the missing husband
hushand and father. He was found
in the city in which her classmate lived. Accor gly,
this college friend was asked to make hls
his acquaintance.
He had travelled there in search of work, had found it,
and had gradually drifted into i oring his absent family
hls own
altogether, spending his money instead upon his
pleasures.
These two earnest women began to devise various plans
to bring him back to a sense of his
bis responsibilities,
135

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

with such happy results at last that not only was the fampernlanentIy reunited but more prosperous than it had
ily pernlanently
ever been before.
hen, long after,
af ter, 1I asked the second
volunteer what, in her opinion, had been the secret of
success in this particular social venture, she replied, "I attribute its beginnings, at least, to the fact that I discovered the man's one serious interest in life and was able
to build on that. He was ardently devoted to his tradeunion and, when he found that I too was a unionist and
knew a good deal about the details of the movement, we
had a common meeting ground. It was in this way that
he became increasingly willing to attend to what I had to
say about his children and their future."

atent power 0 ra latlon,


latIon, 0 ma lng conneetIon,
connectIon,
that is, with other interests of equal or greater

an

jOln.
JOIn.

hen

the bal
ha1

ave to sit in con erenee


erence were
w ere such

statement of the imme late

culty

I 6

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE

when one is found, is more likely to come from


consideration of the nearest approach to normal

experiences have mol ed him for better or for


worse. Unfortunately, many decisions, involving
the whole future of a client in some cases

eci-

tional training, change of occupation, and so onare still made without any such sense of the value
an

significance 0
significanee

ac graun ,of natural


na tural in ter-

ests an na tural ties. Here is the client


clien tand
and here
plans. The assumption is that the situation predesert island, whereas each of us is surrounded by
a network of relationships

some na
no langer
longer ac-

others certain to remain active no matter what


ecisian is made.
In making any decision affecting the welfare of
another and such decisions will have to be made

13

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK?

WHAT IS
un

t eory 0

IS an

responSl 1 1ty to our e OWS

IS

the extreme instance


instanee even 0 the foun ling on the
bears witness to human relations whic

the re-

e sal to ave
aye a on yone
y one ImenSlon,
lmenslon, t ere was

sourceless. Then the social wor

100
loo

somewat
somew at an trle to master a routine 0 seelng,
seeIng,

one

y one, his client's relatives, teachers, em

e
imension to case work.

a second

longer was it Iinear


linear

stage of development is to bring the client and

t ose to w om

e IS SOCla y re ate

toget er, or

138

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE

to ring him in contact with some of these associ-

,,

,
,

of it at secon

hand. These observations should

actions are already giving case work this third di-

one by one wit


all had

ifIerent relatives an

friends

een

Years ago an English colony of button makers settled


the colony,
in a New England city. One of the men in tbe
bis
himself the son of a button maker, had several sons of his
the
own who entered the same trade. One of these sons, tbe
subject of the present illustration, married the daugbter
daughter of
a button maker, and her brothers had establisbed
established a
button factory. This married couple had six children, all
of them delicate and some with serious physical handicaps.
The particular branch of the industry witb
with which
the whole family connection was so closely identified had
long periods of
work; the conditions of the work
the past, moreover, had of
often
ten been unwholesome.
in tbe
139

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

, ,

;~

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

\
.~

Without attempting to unravel in this short summary


that interplay of cause and effect which is so character" istic of social as distinguished from natural phenomena,
it must suffice to record here that the man took to drink,
and that, in milder fashion, his wife did the same. Their
relatives became estranged from them and their home
miserable. It was at this stage that a social case
miserabIe.
worker found them. She was still able to recognize, beneath the dirt and squalor, marks of refinement. Soon
it was discovered, by physical examination, that the man
had tuherculosis,
tuberculosis, but go to a sanatorium he would not.
He and his wife were induced to take a journey of inspection to the sanatorium with the social worker, but still he
resisted. Then inquiry was made quietly as to which one
of his shopmates had the most influence over him. This
fellow-workman was induced to intervene and actually
accomplished the desired result.
Arrangements we
were
re then made to keep the home together and improve its living conditions during tbe
the man's
absence. Tbe
The varied details of this part of the social
worker's program do not concern us here. But it should
he
be noted that relatives living in several states were all seen,
the intercourse broken off years before was renewed, and
each relative, as weIl
well as the family's church, became an
active participator in the new plans.
the button business appear and reappear
Details of tbe
throughout this record. Af
After
ter the head of tbe
the family had
been away a few months, the brother-in-Iaw
brother-in-law manufacturer, who formerly had
bad had no interest in his sister's
husband, offered the man a chance to do less exacting work

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMANINTERDEPENDENCE
HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE
at fairly good pay. In great excitement the wife had
\vritten to her husband, forwarding this offer and urging
ler writing she sought
him to come home at once. But a ter
out the case \vorker and told her what she had done.
Then followed telegrams to the head of the sanatorium,
for the patient was not yet cured, and it was most important that he should remain where he was. An understanding was next arrived at with the prospective emthat
at the same work would
ployer" -the brother-in-Iaw"
brother-in-law" th
he
be offered a few months later, and the case worker was authorized to dispatch a second message to the sanatorium
stating that, for the present, the place had been filled.
Meanwhile the question of the health of the children
had heen
been taken vigorously in hand. Several were found
to be pre-tubercular and one to have first-stage tuberculosis. For the latter, long-term treatment in a country
place was provided; for the former, a period of observa..
tion in a state institution. Another child had home care
for a serious eye condition. It was no small task to repair the neglect of years, and the youngest child, a baby,
did not survive its second summer. The other children
are all in excellent condition no\v. \Vhen the fat
father
her refull day's work, he found a
turned cured and able to do a fuIl
real home awaiting him.
In addition to the social agencies, four groups had participated in this improvement. As all knew just how the
change was accomplished and all were likely to be in continuous relation with the family, it is improbable that the
services of a social worker will he
be needed again. To use
the expression of the social worker who is responsible for

141

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


tb
this
is result, tbe
the relatives, tbe
the family's
iamily's churcb,
church, tbe
the man's
fellow-employes, and his employer have an
aH "learned the
game." The family have leamed
learned it too .
. . . ase work of this intensive sort ta es time an
as a permanence

with mass reactions, an

refuge in the

of these accurate

iscussion of abstractions.

very

One

bases his thesis upon a single instinct, anot er

process an

Walter
Waiter Lippmann in The New Republic for December
15, 1920, says, " . . . one can safely assert that no col
lective psychology will go far or go deep which starts from
the group as a whole rather than from the disposition of
individuals to form groups." See also references to Pro
fessor Dewey's criticisms of present day social psychology
in American ournalof ciology, Vol. XXVI, p. 454.
2
142
14

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

HUMANINTERDEPENDENCE
HUMAN INTERDEPENDENCE
with the smallest social groupings into which men
have formed themselves? The laboratory metho coul
an

not

e use ,

ut the method of trained

accurate observation remains; an

too rea y to

IS

e are al

an .

ami iar wit

resi ents 0 a gOD

an exten-

t e in of sixth sense

social sett ement.

Between

ith feet still

IS

ave

reeen

tlons 0 groups 0 two or tree


t ree or more, un er con

ItlonS
ltlonS w

le
tC

expert 0 servation
servatlon posst
POSSI

143

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

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VI

,
\

sai

tha t t e centra aim 0

social

ment of personality, an
pose with a number of other orms of service.
religion, and social case work are not identical;
earn
from the others does not esta !ish
lish identity either
of metho

or of ac ievement.

.-.Jivilization
. . . ivilization will

advance farther with less breakage by the way if

social worker, each to

what eac

knows

est

how to do.
e have seen that t
case worker to his task is y way of t e study
.
, . .
an
etter a Justment
]ustment 0 man s SOCla re atlons.
has
I

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE'S

min

of t e case worker's client an

his environment

the other in

in the min s, t at is, of other

with efiniteness upon one side of it a man's inherited traits, an

upon the other those of his

c aracteristics
aracteristies w ic
ie

are the resu t 0

environ-

ment. Life is not so simple as all that. But the


social worker, deeply concerned
eoncerned as he is with the

he i ers from ot er human eings

these t ings

In uence, In turn, t e SOCla


sOCla enVIronment yan
through which

imsel

is to

e in uence .
iss Follett,

ing recognition of the indivi ual."* An the dual


nature 0

t e case wor er's task is suggeste

* Follett, M. P.: The Ne\v State, p. 162.


Longmans, Green and Co., 1918.

in

New Vork,
York,

10
,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK?

WHAT IS
WRAT

environment.
an

must eave t epi


e p 1 osop ers ere

see the gui ance

on t e one an an
gists on the other.

10 oglsts

psyc

an

eugenlsts

OglstS an SOCIO

0-

ne 0
0 teest
t e est aut orities in

t e ormer group states t e situation as 0 ows:


It is plain that environment and education play a greater
part in the development of man than in that of other
animals, whereas heredity plays the same part; but it is
animais,
difficult if not impossible to detennine the relative importance of these three factors. In the field of intellect
and morals most persons are inclined to place greater
weight upon the extrinsic than upon thc
the intrinsic factors,
but this opinion is not based upon demonstrabIe
demonstrable evidence.
So far as organisms below man are concerned there is
general agreement that heredity is the most important
factor, and this opinion is held also for man by those who
have made a thorough study of heredity."

ut our practIca
praetlca

1
I cu
eu ty 18 t at t

aye ma eat
ave
e a t oroug

stu y 0
0

ere Ity

aye
ave

stu y 0 t e
See footnote, p. 95.
Conklin, Edwin Grant: Heredity and Environment,
pp. 366-67. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1916.
It
ot

146

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

menta an

socia

one rea s on

i e 0 man. In act, t e more

SI es 0 t IS Su
su Ject t e more

Ityan
ltyan

18

Stl

envIronment as actors
ac tors In

an unsett e

question.
questlon.

uman we are

r.

yerson, In
ass .

. . . tate
laws of

en e

o not app y to luman In erlt-

ance or t e reasn
reason t at suc

con itions of inserve

among

0 not preval

en elan experlments
experIments
uman

en e ,"

e ex-

s own to app y or any

p ySlca
YSlca In erltance IS 0 ten con use ,IS a qUlte
qUite

terent
t erent t Ing.
lng.
...... ra am

a as glves
gives us some 1 umlnatlng

pages upon teatter


t e atter In IS new 00,

ur octa

* Myerson, A.: "Psychiatrie


"Psychiatric Family Studies," The
American Journal 0 Insanity, Vol. LXXIII, p. 360. Baltimore, The ohns Hopkins Press, 1917.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS S
WRAT

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

er-tance e ongs not to man


eritage. Socia in eritance
alone

the

ut

no social heri tage, whereas ir s, which are longer-

hat this social

habit formation, have not the unalterable character of traits transmitte throug the germ plasm.
I t is an in eritance, however, in the sense that
man is

otn
orn into it, and, in a

ition to th
this
is in-

eritance, a I the environmental effects of e ucation, religion, government, an

social intercourse

ing individual, are still to be reckoned with. The

of social work activities and the turning over of


* Wallas, Graham: Our Social I-Ieritage, pp. 14' 23. New

Haven, Vale
Yale University Press,

1921.

148

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

moneys t

urt er

eugenic research.
At the same time, the fundamental message of
workers have the great fact of ineradicable inDemocracy must face it, education must never
lose sight of it. The assertion that folks are difwe their inherited and unchangeable differences
to reckon with, but to these are adde all the dis-

ence.

evertheless, there are few obvious truths

workers themselves.

The correlative truth of

man's common nature is the one stili emphasized


treatment can achieve t e desired result.
Our first vigorous reactions against the autoamong men

ut upon their resem lances and

149

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

A Ier
ler has no
note
te ,comes to

mistakenly taken to mean likeness in the sense of sameness, not in tbe


the sense of tbat
that fundamentallikeness
fundamental likeness on tbe
the
background of which tbe
the desirabIe
desirable unlikenesses stand
forth~ The erences are to be stressed; they
are the coruscating ints in the spirituallife
spiritual life of mankind.
That every man is the equal of his
bis fellows means th
that
at he
has the same right as each of tbe
the others to become unlike
the others, to acquire a distinct personality, to contribute
his one peculiar ray to tbe
the white light of the spiritual
life. *
,-

s a matter 0 fact there is more t an a tra


trace
ce of
ca e atten

tlon to Its
lts autocratIc tren
the

ational

In an a

ress

efore

on erence of ocia

or In 1915.
thei ea

...,ontrl utlon 0

aCla

ase

or

to

emoc-

Adler, Felix: An Ethical Philosophy of Life, p. 142 sq.


New Vork,
York, D. Appleton and Co., 1918.
Then the National Conference of Charities. See Proceedings for 1915, "The Social Case Worker in a Changing
World," p. 43.
Proceedings for 1918, p. 263.

15

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
oppor-

were
we
re

create

of its members, we must also agree that there is

name y,

one an

reat uneQua t

t e same tIme

~ngs

unequa y.

y t e way In w IC
le

Chinamen, for example.

ur temptatlon
temptation

our

15

to

blances to ourse ves; to treat them as a c ass

Miss Vaile used, and so do I, Dr. Henry Van Dyke's


striking paraphrase of Plato's words. The passage will be
found in Book VI of the Laws, pp. 273 74 of owett's
187 I .
translation, edition of 1871.

15 1

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS

CASE WORK?

rien tals look

each examination into the

etails
etaiIs 0

social stratifications would be washe

rage, a

etermine

t eir lives,
away and

effort was ma e to

reak

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

formula was never more applicable.

r~ever had

race an
unequally .
. . . ra am

alIas urging t e full recognition of in-

dividual differences upon delTIOCracy.

In the

field of education he imagines the teacher asking


himself whether he shall treat all his pupils alike
or base his treatment of them on their ifferences,

No perfectly simple answer to this question will be


possible until our
rs of psychologie
psychological
al testing are increased, and until social equality has
bas suffieiently
sufficiently ad
advanced
vaneed
to make the differenees
differences at any moment between ehildren
children
depend much more tban
than they do at present upon
upon""nature,"
nature,"
and mucb
much less upon the"
tbe "nurture"
nurture" of rieh
rich and poor, or of
educated and uneducated homes. But, broadly speaking,
I am convineed
convinced that social progress already lies on the
line of
. cl difference. *

y lnte 1gent ma
mass
ss actIon;
action ; It
lt recognlzes
recognizes
* Our
,

Iverlver-

cia! Heritage, p. 98.

153

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WRAT
WHAT IS
lAL
IAL CASE WO
?
. .
". .
le a mlnlstraY esta IS lng orms 0 pu IC

.
SIty
,

o owe

very

ose y t e stages t at

aye Just
ave

unIversa tralts
traits In a
once tea sence 0 unlversa
onee

uman

group an

unI
unl ormlty.

as treate

unequa

t lngs

equa y.

eserters, recent ImmIgrants,


lffiffilgrants, an

SO
so

rea lze tat


t at t IS

a It
I t Stl

ognlze Its
lts angers.

name 0

ecessary as a startlng
startIng pOInt,

tee assl catIon must not

to recree-

persIsts an

on-to

e trans orme Into


tnto a

merlcanlzatlon are lrect y tracea

e to

ImmIgrants
lffiffilgrants as

essentla y a

an

to

e treate

ale.
om in

nomic an

ealing

social con i tions, will


wiII

tlon t at no unl
unI orm program 0 proee
proce ure or a
15

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

can succee ,
tially even in the one characteristic of their rela

accustome to continuous occupatlon;


occupation; some un-

are ale

IS

so we

th
this
is series
series t at

tem,
t em, at

In

re ut
nee

anot er vo ume
urne

not mention it

east, 0

t e won erfu

ere.

Iverslty
lverslty
Iverslty
lverslty

against
agalnst t at

ac groun
un

w ich more an

our camman
common nature

more COInman s t eir reverence

an IS t e unl
unI ylng e ement In a program 0 many
etails,
mastery.

eman ing no small egree of skill for iits


ernan
ts

y any omnl us term or

.....on ronte

Colcord, oanna c.:


C.: Broken Homes.
Russell ge Foundation, 1919.

New Vork,
York,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

begin to seek at once for dissimilarities within the


tions in the suggeste socia treatment. The old
dead-and-alive entries of former

ays in social

case records, such as "woman tells the same old

all, for clear an

aithful pictures of well-dif-

dent of mine writes, "I find that social case work


an
revolution.
I

In act, there can

e no true democ-

occasion some time since to look over a

ment was beginning to take root in

merlca.

wrote, "

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

soon b e 0 b VIOUS an

"
easy.

The social case worker of to ay deals with a

of charita Ie
le relief, but even within that re-

fact is that people in like circumstances


eircumstances are
never so much alike as they appear to be.
beo Nevertheless, that mistaken generalization of years ago

eman s an
traine

min s and hands nee ed to make such


,

treatment a reality. There is danger that in pubHe


lic departments and in many other pI
places
aces the
ly

t an t e essentia

skill w ic
ie

It requlres;
requires;

In

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WOR ?


WRAT

W IC

case tere
t ere Wl
WI

e more motIons -many


o

en eavor

in ivi ual

varle pattern 0

umanltyan to strlve,
strIve, WIt an
e

ept

an

rIerlC-

ness of its color tones.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

VII

In

the

elimiting fact that we cannot treat

tem.
tern.

overnments an

an lcapplng t em crue y.
clients,

IS

ople,
ple,

egls atures to t e con-

t e statesman to

IS app les

not

is constituents, it

welt upon t e formative power of suc relations,


In so far as social insurance applies to everyone
every one instead
of to a particular group to a group of people qualifying on
the basis of destitution, for example my argument does

holde The gradual establishment of reasonable minimini


not hold.
. mum standards for all the people is one way of equalizing
opportunity without ignoring differences.

159

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

ut t at power can e exerte In Opposlte


OPPosite ways

lt may
It

eve 0P
op persona Ity
lty or It
lt may crlpp
lt.
crlpP e It.
pa-

tient, or frien

and frien .

The first an

most

Cl.

omlnatlng an

pOInts at W
w

IC

t e growlng
growing mln

S
s

ou

e en-

as not seen parents ma e


e 0oe
e ore t elr time,
ffussy
ussy affection of their sons an

augh ters?

In

wit watever
w atever is est in mo ern e llcation.
uation. The

genuine .teac er seeks to train not disciples


o servers.

So with the doctor; at his

ut

est he,

selves. As etween frien s the same trut ho ds.


11 of which is

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE BASIS OF PURPOSEFUL ACTION


TUE

we
a ways
whic

ave to remtn

ourse yes t at It
lt

IS

so.

our human kind are of


often
ten found to be suf-

fering, and the realization of this intolerableness


whic some

the con tacts of case work bring,

may betray the case worker into adding one

an lcap
leap 0 an unnervlng
unnerving plty.
pIty.

have to conten
with.

Two who have

rt ur

orne such witness,

lin

earson :

hen I lost my sight, I was between four and five years


of age. My father said to the other members of the family, "You must do everything for him." My mother took
me by the hand, led me into another room, and said,
" oseph, you can leam
learn to work as weIl
well as the other children, and I will teach you." . . . I love and revere the memory of that mother, who encouraged her
blind boy to do his full share of the work and have his
I
11
I

161

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT
WRAT IS SOCIAL CASE WO

full share of the fun. To the courage and independence


gained during those twelve years on a mountain farll}
faral} in
Tennessee I owe chiefly whatever I have accomplished
after life.
in after
It seemed to me th
that
at blind people had in tbe
the past
been generally treated entirely in the wrong manner.
Sweet kindly folk had talked to them about their affiiction and the terrible difficulties that beset them. If
you teIl
tell a man of
often
ten enough that he is a cted, he will
become a cted and will adopt the mental and physical
attitude befitting that soul-destroying word.
hen I found my sight was doomed I arrived

at various decisions of greater or lesser im rtance, and
one of tbe
the lesser ones was that I had better dispense with
the services of the personal attendant wbo
who had looked
after
af
ter me for many years, as otherwise he would probably
become a stumbling-block in tbe
the path of blind proficiency.
The great secret of success in learning to be blind is to insist u
doing everything ssible for oneself.

t e ana yses 0
tout,

anlma
anIma

an

uman

e aVlor.

cc whic

prevents progresslve
progressive

eve op

ment, IS t e eXlstence
eXistence 0 Instincts, W
w IC
tC

0 01'
OP

Campbell, Dr. F. .: Outlook or the Blind, Vol.


Val. I, p. 99.
Pearson, Sir Arthur: Victoryover
Victory over Blindness, pp. 15and
71. New Vork,
York, Doran, 1919.
162

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE BASIS OF PURPOSEF


TUE
PURPOSE

t em w at t e

uman

ION

elng must

or

lmIm-

sel .".
."

re raln rom

, ut there is every
reason w y we cannot treat a human
this fashion.

eing in

In fact, social workers, like those

more or less skilled, should be pretty humblethat what a man oes for himself counts ar more
towar
that are

one for him.

e reason or t is win
will e oun in an examinahe

puppy or any ot er young anlma


anIma , an

is menta

* uoted by Mrs. Bernard Bosanquet in The Standard


of Life, p. I 18 Macmillan and Company f to which book

I am also indebted for some of the deductions that follow.


,

163

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS
WRAT

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

own

circle which 50
so circumscribes him that he is

Incapa

wants.

ith man there is no suc

acqulrlng
acquirIng progresslve
progressive an
circle; it is

y a splra.
splra .

rep ace

IS career,

IS

to compare one

concept WIt

e uce a t Ir

In

The reasoning an

the

anot er an

other wor
war s, to reason.

to

orlzon an

communlon
communIon WIt

IS t
t e
e lI eren
erence
ce

ot

t e seen an

etween routine an

t e unseen.
purpose u

action, between the domestic animal an

the

pioneer discoverer. *
* As regards instincts versus habits, note, for example,
this passage from Watson's Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist, p. 254 Lippincott Company, 1919):
Cl No fair-minded scientific observer of instincts in man

164

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE BASIS OF PURPOSEF


TUE

ION

It is true that a man can


ean become so weighed
,-that it is
-that

these circunlstances an estimate


estima te of his na ti ve
should claim that the genus homo possesses anything like
the picturesque instinctive repertoire of the animal,
. Instinct and the capacity to form habits, while
related functions, are present in any animal in inverse ratio. Man excels in his habit-forming capacities. So quickly
are habits formed upon the basis of whatever instinctive
activity is present, that man is usually accredited with as
animals.""
long a list of instincts as the animais.
Or take the following passage from Arthur George
Heath's The Moral and Social Significanee
Significance of the Conception of Personality, p. I I Oxford, Clarendon Press,
19 21 :
"Not merely to he
be a self, hut
but to have a developed consciousness of self: to realize definitely the existence of our
outer world against which the self acts and reacts
reacts:: to form
deliberate plans in which memory serves to guide, and
rational criticism to control the will; powers su
such
eh as these
would seem inseparahle
inseparable from personality, and yet it appears
very doubtful whether sueh
such autonomy of interest and purpose against the surrounding world is realized in the life
animal but man himself."
of any anima}
Nothing said here, however, should be interpreted to
mean that a great leap was made as bet
between
ween man's mind
and that of the other anima
animals.
Is. The differences have come
not by leaps but by a very long series of short steps.

165
,I

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

oes not ta e
the circumstances into account can

e as un air

as a ju gment on the thrift of a p ant th


that
at has
bas

lation of wants ' of wants that his own exertions


must ema
erna eto
eta
,.;

ree

sornet Ing
somet

tter t an se -PIty
-PI ty In) IS

them to do!"

This is not the soeial


social wor er's

I ea 0

ence in su
such
eh situations as
t e eve 0

IS

very

cial

I
1

pOSSl
POSSI

erent,

ini re

ones's, were
w ere

er part

e partlclpatlon
particIpatIon on

owever, rom

ecomlng
ecornlng a spe-

rovi ence to one's c ient.

The true case

work attitude takes full


fuH account of man's greatest 'asset
sset

t e asset W IC
teasset

lstlnguls es

lm
Im
...

166

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE BASIS OF PURPOSEFUL A


TUE

ION

from all other animals,


animaIs, in that he can acquire pro-.

can acquire these, the case worker realizes, only


through action whic
pose ui.
ul.

is not automatic

step etween a man an

ut pur-

t e spur to

worse to him than what we meant when we us


That term ha

always a materialistic slant.

hat we really were in danger of doing was not

material relief; 'many

have never lacke

for

material things as weIl


well as the estitute have been
of service

to all forms, that is, which are with-

wise service can

e ill distinguished in the fol-

lowing illustration, for example:


stranger to me, a ormer teac
167

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

been

as it true t at relie was an evil always


erect attitu e t at sea
s e a

0 serve

e was

work with which she was i entifie , or to dis,

the case of afather


a father and mother with one child, a
valided that the mother ha

to

e at home to

Im.
lm.
he p ul
uI person at first,

ut as time ad gone on-

relief that was so much needed


more an

grasping
graspIng an

she had become


more an

more

ISlngenuous.
lSlngenuous.
168

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE BASIS OF PURPOSEF


TUE

visitor, t oug

ACTION

a woman of more than ordinary

thoughtfulness, had never attempte

to work
7hat,
That, I

ask

,were the relations between mother and


were affectionate

hat

t e

en InquIre
lnquire

It ha

not

hat were the mother's

Into.
lnto.

he visitor
visi tor did
not know.
tion.

This teacher must have known far

etter

come the head of the household later on and a


good citizen
ci tizen

exclusively upon making the relief


reHef adequate to
mate of her client's character was the correct one,

a Justment y

er mIS ortunes, was y no means


169

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK?

WHAT IS
WRAT

mot er 0

a growlng
growIng

him; she was a Ie


le to give affection an
man

it.

to com
corn ...

at she nee e ,a ter t e sh

an

woul

t e VIS1 tor toget er cou


eou

s are terespons!
t e responSl 1 1ty
e taken, al

towar

assurIng teuture
assurlog
t e uture success 0

er

In other wor s, what the client nee e


open window, an outlook. It seeme

00

ing

ome.

was an

to me that

ave

een

lSIS-

I have hesitated to use the word Cl motivation" in this


and the earlier examples of case work given in this hook
book
because the psychologists are not agreed as to its exact
meaning, but here at least we have an illustration of the
way in which thc
the discov
and acceptance of a motive
must precede any genuine participation by the client in the
social treatment. " Motive" is defined by Baldwin and
Stout as Cl anything whatsoever which, by influencing the
will
win of a sensitive being, is supposed to serve as a means of
determining him to act, or voluntarily to forbear to act,
I 0

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE BASIS OF PURPOSE


TUE

ION

mora e:

uman
ne

have

een a e, to the limit of t eir abilit , to

seeming unselfishness in which they are forcing


others to

all the receiving. To contrive some-

how to give that mother a new vision


supp y

her im-

er Wit an a equate motlve


motive a equate to

rig t pace
rlg
p ace

rig t not on y In our sc


rlg
se eme
erne 0
0

upon any occasion." See Dictionary of Philosophy and


Psychology, edited by ames Mark Baldwin.
* Dr. Felix Adler, in An Ethical Philosophy of Life,
describes the characteristics of egocentric philanthropy, of
I

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

at t IS pOInt a

Relief

as argess IS so

ope ess y un emocratlc t at Its


lts

curses

wi er
WI
eve

istri ution 0

relief

as a sort 0

-t e same thing or

su stl tu te

puts any faith in the eneficence of relief only, it


altruism, and finally of his own ethical philosophy which, in
a word, is Uuso
so to act as to elicit the unique personality in
others" and thereby in oneself. "Incontestably, in the
attempt to change others we are compelled to try to change
ourselves. The transformation undergone by a parent in
the attempt to educate his ehild
child is an obvious instance."
As an illustration of the typical error of altruism, he names
the wife or mother H who slaves for her husband or ehildren,
children,
obliterating herself, never requiring the services due her in
return and the respect for her which such services imply,
degrading herself, and thereby injuring the moral character
of those whom she pampers." Egocentric self-sacrifice is
described in a brilliant passage p. 212 sq. too long to be
reprod u
uced
eed here but weil
well worth more than one reading by
social workers.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE BASIS OF PURPOSEFUL ACTION


TUE

maladjustment is soun

an

moreover, t e Interest an

fits the true situa

co-operatlon

t e

person or persons most concerned have somehow


een won

stan lng a C ient


ent an 0
with him, a program of participation is in essence

that there is no such


ear-

work.

an-

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS
WRAT

ne s W IC
le

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

eve Op
op persona 1lty
ty In t elr

Wl

ginning to acquire
clients, i t ese c ients are
.
.
.."
Ig
le IS In19 er wants y a purpose u action W
W IC

~ng
ng

coming more C
comlng
c ose y re ate

munlty groups to W
w IC
t en we nee

eac

to t e varlous
various comnatura y

e ongs,

not worry a out tere


t e re ie si e of

our program or a out any ot er mere y secon ary

cons!
eonSl era tlon.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

VIII

rom t e more a stract consl era-

RNIN

Iverslty,
lverslty, It
lt

IS

time to
man

wor

elngs an

t elr socia
socla environment rom
rorn a
cou

of case

in its re ation to future social

eve op-

ments, ut strengt en

now

tlons In our own

an a Just

ay an

social re a-

time are even more

ur own wor

as we

consi er eac one in rel


reI a tion to certain Oll
ou tstan ,

17

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

lng an
an

ese are

t e court

-a ist whic

cou

e somew at

exten e .

escrlptlon 0 case wor ,not even 80


so rle
fIe a one,

t
t e
e lI erent orms 0

socla wor

WIt

one an-

For purposes 0
case
an
intensive care of

cult cases.

Let me now

.
roa en Its
lts use to Inc
lnc u e once more a
,

t ose 50soit

an

or In IVl
lVI ua s, w et er or not t ey ea

Irect
lrect y to t e eve opment 0 persona Ity.
lty.

intensive case work about which I have een


...
.
. .
wrltlng
writIng t e type W le
IC
lrect y concerns Itse
ltse

to

ear a separate name In tIme a name 0 not

more t an one wor , et us

ope,

ut at t IS

SOCla serVIces
servIces or In IVl
lVI ua s ea t WIt

one

one.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME
First, t e ome .

hat re ation oes case work

ear to t
t e
e lI e 0 t e present- ay family?
w ic
ie

come to t e case wor er owing to t e fact

that the relationships wit


deal are the warp an

whic

s task has to

woof of daily life. This is

eop e
born into real homes an

-to assume t at t e su Ject

privileged to have

ami y
aml

IS

too

sacre a one to e iscussed. On the other hand,

muc
mue 0
0 t e Iterature
lterature 0
0 revo t agalnst
against t e aml
ami yY
as now constitute
critics.
sett e

ears internal evi en


ence
ce of the

Surely the questions involve


y persona

are too

las.

lSpOSl tlons too, no


ISPOSl
12

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WOR?
WOR ?

WHAT IS
WRAT

arge y upon t e
ey grew up, ut t ose

In

W 0

ome In

care most or

earn to set pre IS

posltl0ns
posItIons aSI e, or at east to

a owance or
I

aye se om
ave

nown a t oroug case wor er w ose vIews a

ut

t e aml
ami y, w et er conservatlve
conservatIve or ra lea,
tea,

a woman engage

In

ew

or

In case wor

on tewest
t e west SI e

soon a ter ta lng post-gra uate


en
to

t e group 0

extreme

emlnlsts W
W 0 accepte
no use for

WIt

W le
IC

am con ron te

t at, w en t e Wor
wor
tat,

am comlng
comIng to see

IS rema e, somet 109


lOg more
,

t an t e experlences
experIences 0 a sma
ectuals wil
wiI

coterle 0 Intecoterie

aye to e ta en into account."


ave

orms 0 SOCla
socla conSClousness
conSCIousness rom conSl
conSI eratlon.
I 8

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME

I
I

,
,

aye
ave on y to remem er

has overri
stan

Isto
lsto

0
certain peri
perlo Sso
certaln

ow comp ete y, at

, t e power 0 t e aml
ami y

en t

t at the interest

social wor ers in t e

institution of the home shoul


'stitution

or its own sa e

strengt

an

IS

t IS

con Itlons
ltl0ns W IC
action

ut

pro a Ie
le sources

w at extent

not be in the in-

or t e sa

of

wea ness.
nesse

To

ome a pro
p
uct 0

nee

to

r to w at extent

ererne
reme I

IS

socla
y mass

It
lt mar
re its mem-

bers

un

In su Jectlon to testrongest 0

Initiative
lnltlatlve

IS

easier
easler to as tese
t ese questlons
questions t an

to answer t em; t e answer was not easy In


tn t e
0
case 0

.--'. . ara

ansca's

ini r
t e clients

emoraIize
emoralize

ouse ol
01 , or in

ones's. =10
0

social workers live in families they

are so accessi Ie
le to visitors.

any people
peopie come

* See Chapters 11 and 111.


Ill.
I

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New
York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

an go on one SOCla wor erran or anot er, eac

one In uenclng to some extent

asa

t
t e
e l1

eo t e am-

conscious y.
conscIous

ImagInary
lmaglnary

T i

la ogue wrltten
wrItten

y a case wor er, In

w ic
ie
to

" ane," a
.
."
,'
I1 ant roplst.
ropist.

er rien ," t e

"I understand. You mean that in a few years the


specialized agencies will have entirely decentralized the
family the truant officer wilt
will deal with the boy, the
friendly society with
witb the girl, tbe
the child hygienist
bygienist with tbe
the
child, and tbe
the baby welfare witb
with the baby; the different
nurses will have visiting days, while the industrial clinic
wiU be psychiatric
psychiatrie specialwill follow up the man. There will
win
ists for middle and old age and a budget specialist for relief. Everyone will have a different plan for the family "
"Dear me, what a lot of specialized persons there seem
to be," said tbe
the Philanthropist. There was a pause~
" hat are you thi ing a
t now?" he asked.
the family," said anc.
"Oh, I was just thi ng about thc
have

ane wou

een the

a 0 IS e , utt e

ea Ing
lng elt er WIt

1
lIes,
les, S ou

aml y

amlles
aml les or mem ers 0
0

now
owa
a go
gOD

1 e an

ea a

am-

ut teacts
t e acts 0

S ou

now e ge In
180

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME

min

in all their work.

these acts are.

ithout attempting to

I am aware, of course, that many regard t e

there are in the world today


backgroun

homeless in the

of the heart stone."

ut none of

woul

crue

seem that c ildren have a right to two

oss.

pea lng

roa

y,

1 ren

mot ers w
t em an

love one another.

0 not
0

love

If this is true, then

we ave a certain efinite goal to work toward, no


matter how far the institution of marriage may
now lag
I

e in .
ISI

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WOR


WRAT
WORK??

o t e Istur
lstur anee

In

a y IS

t e aml
ami y

ue to t

or greater

e quotes

eartl y agree,

struggle within

ut we must a -

tlnue to perpetuate elt er anarc y or autocracy

Wit In t e aml
amI y untl a way 0
0 preventlng
preventing sue
-

marriage IS oun .
marrlage

ow ere In t e e

marriage
rnarriage laws

0
0 pu

IC a minIstratIon IS

iverse it is true,

competent to oun

rea

ut not ra-

omes, tere
t ere s ou

proper sa eguar s agalnst


against t e marrlage
marrIage 0
0 t ose

ng
too young to marry, 0
0
t ose w 0
0 are
elng
. .
, .
coerce Into
coeree
tnto marriage, an 0 t ose W 0 Wt
WI Inln-

182

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

TBE
THE HOME

mlt
filt
on y
ac

now our present marriage laws an


,

their

ut S
s ou
OU

ance 0
anee

Istere.
lstere.
the

ractlca

a aptatlon

telntent
t e Intent

aw to t e in ivi ual circumstances will


evelop certain
certan case work

features in time.
....,. . . as es 0
0 tastes an
sponses to su

am 1
tlons, varylng
Itlons,
varYing re-

en externa c ange, re usa

t elr part In marlta un applness.

to

e mere
eorge

l\1er

For necessary modifications of this too briefly expressed


principle, see "The Right to Marry" by Dr. Adolf Meyer in
The Survey for une 3, 1916.
As an illustration of the close relation bet
between
ween social
case work and social reform, it may be mentioned in passing
that the studies made by the Russell Sage Foundation, first
of American Marriage Laws and now of marriage law administration this latter still in process), have grown
directly out of my relations with family case work.
1 83

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT
WRAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?
Lovers neath
th the singing sky of May
They wandered once; clear as the dew on flowers:
But they 'ed not on the advancing hours:
Their hearts held cravings for the buried day .

o resist
reslst c ange an

eyeryt Ing In a
to ose everyt

uman re atlon t at
There can

IS

e no per-

his aw 0 growt

app le , 0

course, In

r. Fe ix

ISCUSSlons 0

t e ami y.

er ma es a ye

It to t e

wit

the u.

aye our own way


etermination to ave

ucatlon or marrlage
marriage IS pro a

y t e most neg-

ma
an
* Adler, Felix: Marriage and Divorce, p. 35 sq.
York,
Vork, McClure, 1905.

New

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME
TUE

soun

i eals of marriage and the family"


family "everyevery-

In

In
autocracy

IS

a tra Itlon.
ltlon.

or

merlca,

ere IS
IS an opportunlty
opportunIty

change in a new environment an


a apt t e training 0

are una

their c il ren to

ew

Instl
lnstl tu tlons.
tlon8.

an Italian fatber's
father's social conventions with American ways .
of restoring a dangerously ill girl to health. An operation
was needed and tbe
the hospita!
hospital in which it could be performed
had been found. But no entreaties moved tbe
the father,
* Ross, E. A.: Principles of Sociology, p. 590.
Y
ork, Century Co., 1920.
York,

New

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS S

lAL
IAL CASE WORK?

deteuuined that his child should not leave her home. At


last the case worker discovered that he regarded a young
unmarried woman as permanently disgraced who spent a
The
night away from the protection of the parental roof. Tbe
adaptation made was an arrangement by which father
could accompany daughter to the hospital and stay there
long enough to assure her restoration to health without
blasting her reputation.

n t IS Incomp ete enumeratlon


enumeration 0 Inequa Itles

origin Wit In t e
aVlog t elr orlgln

aye to
ome we _ ave

ree

personal relations with the outsi e world

re

ometlmes
ometImes

the home nest


the nest ings

IS

as

een so over-protecte

t at

y.

T is

ave never loorn


learn

a sltuatlon
sItuation now muc

to

we t upon

y t e meno pur-

pose ul
uI act
action
ion an
t an t e

are no

omestlcat
omesticat

etter, on some si es,

anlma
anIma s to W
W IC

re er-

words, their homes have fail


tese
t ese younger mem

, to reconCl et e two prln

ence an 0 purpose U
u ,In e186

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME
TUE

one in W ose early life they


they,have
,have fail . of reconciliation.
not be ignore .

arpingmaycomein
arping may come in quiteother
quite other

ways, such as in lack of sensitiveresponse


sensitive response to social

at er

Imaginative
lmaglnatlve lterature t an t e Wl ow

. . . hil ren .
.

us
an

In, W IC
lC

e oes not

eSltate to relterate,
reiterate,

azarov's mother must give him er blessing

y stea t , so emanClpate
emanCIpate

IS

e.

course we have to reckon with the fact that

the case worker must learn to ma e t e distinction

etween sham an

seem, i

he is to

rea, invi ious t oug

it

ace his task with courage.

egalizes a relation must constitute t

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


,

on , an

this

something more is not only a sent

ut ac ing

past all human power to resto


restore
re or create.
there are c i1 ren, the test is this:
e

ecent

ea s of amilies
amities later?

here

an the chilIf this is not

parenta rights are a solute are those who have

our

court than the child has.


,

constitutes an In lctmen
constltutes

t e

makes it
i t clear that
tha t man could
18S:
188: .

ami y, an
aml

etter get his first


J

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME
TUE

crow e

classroom upon t e personality of chilehB-

re
relation of natural ties, of affection and undivi ed
man

eing, even when the attention is relatively

uns ille .
the originals of the case recor s from w ich I
ave

rawn t e stories given ear ier, they would

oster
free

1tter

y regrette

omes in which he

going to

is present one.

a
He had the normal

The external con itions in t e

inifr

regard it as a good home for small chil


chit ren,

ones
ut a

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
home together as long as possi Ie,
le, and gave her

an a

e reason or olng everyt Ing y W IC It

cou
an

me a

tter one.

T ere are some

at cannot

e turne

out at wholesale,

a man or woman w

can

coun te

an

sc
se 00, t ecu
e c u ,t e wor sop, tetra e or pro

activities
ac tt VI ties come In successIon to exerClse
exercIse t ose

SI
51

es 0

C
c aracter, t ose nee S 0

t e aml
amI y cannot supp y;

--

contact, 0

ut t e protectlve
protectIve an

nevo en tlnstlncts
t InstIncts

ave t elr genesIs In t e

t e ex

rlence
ce

mean, t e rst 0 W IC IS ta en rom t e

etters

supp ement an

e p to enrlc
enrlC

tlon8.


I lam

ames.

t t rows a suggestlve
suggestive 19
tg t
I

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME
TUE

nt
n t

IS more c aracterlstlc 0

tlons W IC

t e

ome

eetter
e etter
illiam ames,

IS

at er, angerous y

In that mysterious
of the past into which the present soon will fall and go back and back, yours is still tbe
the
central
All my intellectuallife
intellectual life I derive from you;
and though we have of
often
ten seemed at odds in the expression thereof, I'm sure there's a harnlony somewhere, and
that our strivings will combine.
hat my debt to you
is goes beyond all my
wer of estimating,
early,
so penetrating and so constant has
bas been tbe
the influence.
. As for myself, I know what trouble I've given you at
various tJnes
tirnes through my peculiarities; and as my
boys grow u , I shall karn
learn more
more 0 the ki
er 'JOU
you h to
la overcome in su erint ing the
o a creature di erent rom yoursel, or whom you 'ilt
'ell responsible. I say this merely to show how my sympathy
with you is
to grow much livelier, rather than to
fade and not for tbe
the sake of regrets. *

y secon

examp erom
e rom

lograp y IS ta en

* The Letters of William ames. Edited by his son.


Vol. I, p. 219 sq. Boston, The Atlantic Monthly Press,
1920. The italics are mine.
,

19 1

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

..

WHAT
WRAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?
rom t e

i e 0 Pasteur.

trate not on y, as my

range 0

rst

t seems to me to i us

1 ,

t e on

cu
eu tura attalnments
attaInments can

get er In re atlons 0
ura, not ar rom
rorn t e

mutua
wiss

to-

epu
e p u neSS
ss In one
or er, consiste
eonsiste

e at er was 0 peasant stoc,


stoe,
one 0
0

etween

ut

apo eon

Iers.

sen

of
. n

t was a

oy away to

scoo,an

ne ss the

rst such
sueh venture faile .

hen at last

contrive
eontrlve
an

ater e was care u to see t at eac

al lng vIston
VISIon

t e crysta

mem

ormatlons W IC
le

were

"Tell
"TeIl me

a out
ua

the e er

asteur,

et's.
192

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 1922.

THE HOME
TUE
atten

one science hampers another?


the other."

I should think

The principle of co-ordination ap-

2 iI
dl

'.

_.

ears af
after
ter these parelits ha
an

edica te

house in whic

ronze ta let a

xe

Pasteur was orn.

to t e small
e was there,
revolu-

relation between the"


the "first
first practical syllogism"
o

at er, mother, an

feeling, than

child, and the life of the

y quoting Pasteur's own wor s to

his old neigh


part,

Oh! my father, my mother, de


dear
ar departed ones, who
lived so humbly in this little house, it is to you that I
owe everything. Thy enthusiasm, my brave-hearted
13

193

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

mother, thou hast instilled it into me. If 1I have always


associated the greatness of Science with the greatness of
France, it is because I was impregnated with the feelings
bast inspired. And thou, dearest father
father,,
which tbou
thou hast
bast sbown
shown
whose life was as hard as thy hard trade, thou hast
to me what patience and protracted effort can accomplish.
It is to thee that I owe perseverance in daily work. Not only
hadst
badst thou the qualities wbich
which go to make a usefullife,
useful life, but
also admiration for great men and great things. To look
upwards,leam
upwards, learn to the utmost, to seek to rise ever higher,
thee now, af
after
ter a hard
such was thy teaching. I can see tbee
sucb
day's work, reading in the evening some story of tbe
the battles in the orious epoch of which thou wast a witness.
ties
thy care was that I should
hilst
bilst teaching me to read, tby
leam
learn the greatness of France.
Be ye blessed, my dear parents, for what ye have been,
and may tbe
the homage done today to your little house be
yours! *
.
* Vallery-Radot, Ren:
Rene: The Life of Pasteur, Vol. 11,
p. 155. London, Constabie
Constable and Co., 191 I.

194

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

-f

(
-

IX

to Ive In a Cl
el ty In w Ie
IC one 0 t e
lea

nanclng,

ouslng, an

or newspapers evotlng most attention to e uur

yau-

e ucatlona
ueatlona

tort
t ort ties
ally.

stu le
te

atthew

As

t e SU
su Ject too aca emlCrno

text to t e same page an


facts. "*

sai

0
0

terene
t e renc

memorizing
memorlzIng t e same

ne can imagine the jealous guar ians

New Vork
York Evening Post for October

13, 1921.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

for everybo y in the same way without fear and


without favor.
come some variations of met 0
han s, an

50
so

on, with teresuIt


t e result that a muc
mue

rom teelemen
t e elemen tary to tesecon
t e secon ary schools.
It is stil

cult, however, as

iss

ott re-

- -.
: iI 2

Behind stan ar

measurements, standar
stand ar cur-

first tentative intro uction of socia case wor


These ideas and

VISl
VISt tors, or Vist
VIS1 tlng teac ers,

private agencles
agencIes an

Stl
stl

nance

ostere

at

rst

y tem,
t em,

y
ut

* Abbott, Edith, and Breckenridge, S. P.: Truancy and


Non-Attendance in the Chicago Schools, p. 227. University
of Chicago Press, 1917.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

HOSPITAL- COURT
SCHOOL WORKSHOP HOSPITAL

tions. The new venture, as one educator phrases


it, was an effort "to rescue the child from the
children an

the teachers from the sc 001."

ever a huge prohlem


problem neede

If

to he
be separated into

, lt
It

century.

ven now t e visiting teacher movement


ma e no more than an encouraging start.
an

as

It
I t is

mental testing in t e schools, to vocationa

guidance, an to the various ot er in ivi ua izing


'I.

etween
ome an
use

sc

pat.

00

over w ic

T ere are

t ere is stil no weIl


well

ve sc
se 00

ours in a

hours.

IS

u
U

le
IC

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


ucation Association 0 New

the results of correspon ence WIt

vlsltlng
vIsIting

teac ers in 28 ci
cities.
ties.
,, !

,
I
!I

porte

to

a vice an

use

y a

y t e sc 00

er

assistance 0 m

or poor sc
se 0 ars lp,

lca an

.
socla case wor ers.

menta ex-

" ....

ange 0

changes wit

198

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL ' WORKSHOP HOSPITAL COURT

as a promotion, a

t at 0 his

ome.

emotion, and a transfer to a

The analysis 0

Even inschools where the children have been reclassified on the basis of mentality, visiting teachers re rt
having found children whose scholastic attainnlents
attainlnents did
not tally with their intelligence quotients, and whose
out-of-school i uences," "fa y
"physical condition,""
condition," "out-of-school
history," "character disab ies," etc., had to be taken
into account in interpreting their fallures.
failures. Adjustment
of the adverse home conditions, whatever they were, rethe
sulted in bringing these c dren up in lessons to tbe
level wbere
where their intelligence showed they should beo
be.
The follo g history illustrates this t e of cbild:
child: A boy
of nine with an intelligence quotient of 120 was doing very
the 4th grade. Tbe
The visiting teacher found
work, in tbe
that he read tillIl
till 11 at night "any
Hany hooks
books he found in the
library." He rarely went out "not in this neighborhood!"
bood!" The visiting teacher correlated his reading with
his lessons; interested him in outdoor athletics; and '\\ith
the mother worked out a vigorous daily program which
left hint at night pbysically
physically tired and ment y Stisfied,
satisfied,
and ready to retire early. Interest and oversight brought
this c d up to tbe
the standard which his ability warranted,

199

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


and in addition changed him from a dreamer and laggard
into an energetic boy and pupil. *

teac er W 0 has to deal with more t an 200 chilren a year is not

oing social case work or very

much else
eIse of a socially productive character.

In

for each
case- oa

1,000.

Even t e

gure 0 200 chi -

yle
Yle

nee e

lnslg ts an
Inslg

to ma e Its
lts u

con-

mig t weU
well e cut in al. As it is, the figures sub-

mitted in
E ucation Association show that in some of the
* The Visiting Teacher in the United States, p. 33 sq.

A Survey by the National Association of Visiting Teachers


and Home and School Visitors. New York,
Vork, Public Educa
tion Association, 1921.
200

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOP HOSPITAL COURT

"visiting teaching" without the service.

ee stu ie

save against aa

ackground of all the

ot ers.

rela tions existing

etween the home and the

works op.
Ope
meeting of social workers,

ventur

to take the

national relations, government itsel , could be


s

of the home or else be scrappe

or reorganized.*

be ttewinners
e winners in what seeme

to them an un-

son to c ange my mind on this point.

If, for
,

example, the railroad trainman cannot see his


* Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities
and Correct
Correction
ion now the National Conference of Sodal
Social
Work for 1908 , p. 77.
201

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
chil
ehil
or t em to

now

im; i

it

e true t at long

wor lng ours, or ow wages, or su

reaction against such social

organlzatlon
organIzatIon 0

lin ness, an

a re-

ecomes inevitable if

In ustry

en trans ers

CIVI Izatlon
lzatlon IS to survive.
surVlve.
a out an

aml
amI y

emonstrate t at some 0 teases


t e ases 0

e Itse
ltse

con Itlons.
ltlons.

t elr roots In economlc


economIc an
us

Inogra 0 ,In

reVIew
0
0 tri
trl
aaw,
a
aw,
S
sows
ows
ow
0
0 ten

IS

rle

trl
trI a

organization an marital customs were shaped by


in ustria condi ..
tions. *

e two views are not irreconcila


irreeoncila e;
uture

eve opments.
rela

tlons etween In ustry an

socla case wor may

Vinogradoff, Sir Pa
Paul:
uI: Outlines of Historical urisprudenee, Vol. I, pp. 163 212. Oxford University Press,
prudence,
1920
202

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOP HOSPITAL

OURT

suggest what certain tren s in industry now are.


One 0 the rst contacts 0 case work ,vit
,,,it in ustry came a out t roug

SI eo In

Istratlve

tee i

r cam-

ustry IS very
veryrecent.
recent.

anges

new eparture were In lcate


lin
ior,
we

. Lane w en

e wrote, at teen

his

aye
ave

ealt

W 0

esa e wit

men an

t ings,

o the in ivi ual


ua} unit, wether t at unit
acre 0

an

esert, a arre

t e ow 0 a rlver,
river, or t e capaclty 0 t e urn est
omen."
ere u

t e etai s

203

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

In actorles an

wor sops,
s ops,

to t e socia case worker.


,

Another interesting application 0 case work to

~ommlsslon
~ommlSSlon

as emp .oy

two tralne

case

workers to collect the social facts which will


wiII be
ommission in making indivi ual
.
tasks as
~

tion.

eir services a so inc u


ti e suc

"'-

selecting proper guar ians

were
w ere t e

ene-

teawar
t e awar

50
so

on ,an making connection with the social re-

are

rought to light with which the Commission

cannot possi 1y

eal.

iss

rances Per ins, to

20
24
4

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOP ,HOSPITAL COURT


T

w om testate
t e state owes the inauguration of this
among
others,

its
i ts va ue:

Thc father of tbe


The
the Hogan family was burned to death
in 1916. The mother was already
al ready dead. The Commission at th
that
at time had the children's uncle, Mr. Craig,
the
'p of the children and receive the
assume tbe
money for their support. Some time in 1920 iitt was
noted that Mr. Craig no longer signed receipts for the
money and a letter brougbt
brought tbe
the response from Mrs.
Craig that her husband was not home and that she was
receiving the money instead. The Af
After-Care
ter-Care Service
the case, chiefly because
was later asked to look into thc
the Commissioner remembered the unusual beauty and
charm of the Hogan children and wondered how they
were
we
re getting along.
The family was found living in wretched surround,ings.
jngs. Mr. Craig was serving a five years' sentence for
burglary. Mrs. Craig was doing work by the day and
Mary Hogan was kept out of school to care for the small
children. Tom Hogan, the eighteen-year-old boy, was
found to be badly crippled as a result of a street accimuch in need of medical care. It proved to
dent, and mucb
be easy to secure a grant from the widow's pension fund
for Mrs. Craig which, with the Hogan children's compensation and help from some of the Hogan relatives
who were visited, enabled Mrs. Craig to remain at home
and care for the children. Mary Hogan was sent to
school, Tom was placed under the care of a good ortho,

205

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
predie clinic and is just recovering from an operation
predic
which straighten the twisted leg to nearly nOIJna!.
nOIlual.
In this case our advice to the Commission was to conthe children in the Craig home, but
tinue pa ents for thc
it was only aft
after
er considerable work that conditions were
such as to warrant this recommendation. *

ever weIl
well

rawn, or t e

vo vIng
vlng tere
t e re atlon 0 1I t e economlca y stronger
.
\
.
.
to t e economlca y wea er In w IC aaw,
a aw, ow-

routine 0 a minis-

Ing
lng essentla Justlce
JustIce un ess a mlnlstratlon
mInIstratIon can

pass on to t e one ot er questlon


questIon un er t IS gen

era

can attempt

n . In
--..
'

ong wie,
w 1 e,

ut t e actua

wor

IS

wor lng out 0

st
we are 0 eac

ve

in ivi ual

ealt wit

as arrive
trace

some

Perkins, Frances: "An Experiment in the Application


of Case Work Methods to a New Problem," in The Family
for April, 192 I.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOP HOSPITAL COURT


of the serious

reakdowns of our after-t e-war

vocatlona program.
ureaus 0

perl
perlO , necessary as t ey were,

t e war

some

the

same
task:
an

t e man in nee

of a wor er.

But the as-

sumptlon t at tese
t ese two partles
parties to a
te
t e acts.

argaln

Here, too, in time, must come the

In some 0 t e Juvenl
juvenl e epartments 0 state emp oyment ureaus were,
w ere, as one 0

cia expresses

1t,
It, t eyare trylng,
trying, In pacing
p aClng a young

rson, to

. . la
a aptltu es,
an
care u
ment.

o emp oyment

ureau can ma e

Slons
slons or elt er wor er or emp oyer,

eCI-

ut It
lt can
ean
y

putting at t e

Isposa 0
0 eac

a c earer picture

o t e concrete situation.

This is not t

le
IC

I,
f

\
I

to attempt a ee

20
'.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

P2

2
E

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

tal e

ustrla
an

een
n a case wor

ur en at tese
t ese times, an

perlo 0

t e

epresslon was

over. Violent fluctuations between times of great


o wor

ue to causes over W
w

are

IC

t e

SOCla
SOCla

ave

agencies 0
agencles
0

ey rea lze t IS, an

t e very agencles
agencIes t at

slstent
sIstent y urge

preventive measures upon govpreventlve

W
w en t ey are

a , we can try to re orm t em;

ut w en t ey are out 0 wor

e ectlve reme y

t ere IS on y one

or t elr trou es an

tat
t at

18
18

owever, wit

continue
contInue to nee

t e tec
tee nlque 0
0

t e case

208

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL- ,WORKSHOP -HOSPITAL COURT

tion in t eir treatment.*

Thc
The more varie

an

eanwhile, the
,,,
,
,
,
,
,,

to one, sen another to the woo yar

to work for

,
I

I,
i

for a third, fin

a chance 0

wor

outsi e or a

I
I

ii

VI

e cas

i,

I,
I

*See Chapter VI, p. 154.


154I

14

20 9
29

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

nlnt
or

over to tee
t e c arlty
arIty t at IS a rea y carlng
carIng
im."

ut, lust as a ter a pu

ties are In

IC

Isaster
lsaster a

anger 0

elng cre I te

Isa
lsa 1 I1-

to teeart
t e eart -

o t e preoccuple mlg
mIg t
ment 0

upert

aye wrec e t e treatave

oung an

IS

us ..

trla organlzatlon
organization W
w
socia case wor

Wit

It 15 1

tte

perl
perI

IC

t e an

w IC

ing 0
0 a mass problem
to cope.

n 5 arp con

organization ac leve In t IS generation y me


organlzatlon

Clne
ctne an
pu

IC

t eospita.
e osplta.

ot on y

1I-

aye t e wonave

sanitation
sanltatlon

and those en
engage
gage

in children's social work with


* See p. 239 sq.
210

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOl, WORKSHOP HOSPITAL" COURT


SCHOOI,

a so

eve ope

Wl t

In t e

war s.
.
Its
lts

.. - .
egln-,
...,

-~".

".

,,
,

foun

t at soeial insights strengthene

I,

thei

t,

diagnosis, an

lClne, nte
note agaln
again t e Ine
ere, In me IClne,
lne 0
0
ment to w ic
ie

eve

':-._--

ave ca e attention more than

once In ot er connections:
onee
eonneetIons :

rst, In t e ong, s aw
ow

progress t ere was promiscuous


promiSCUOUS

ogmatlc same-t lng- or-every

aSlng,
oSlng, t en a
0

y, t en t e

more or less scientific


seientific classification of diseases and
a stan ar ize

treatment for eac .

ut the patient in

Now, how-

"

is in ivi ual en

an

socia wor.

vlta Ity an
vita

Preventive me icine owes its

Its
lts contlnulng
continUIng a vance not on y to
new

Iscoverles,
lseoverles,

iscoveries to ife,
,

211

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

to tea aptatlons an

Y t e me lca

new pro

lnlclan,
lnlClan, an

ems presente
y tereports
t e reports

end results.
A out three hun re
Unite
rnents.

an

States now have social service


This

OSpl ta s,

epart-

evelopment has sometimes out-

y t eten
e ten ency to over oa

case wor ers wit

a ministrative

t e SOCla

uties w ic

couI
types 0

SOCla

case wor

modifications in meth

owe a great
grea t

e t to

worked out in

ispen-

have een oing their work un er new con itions

matter of hospital
hospita} admissions an

ischarges, the

ments that are time-saving and life-saving.

At

212

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOP
-WORKSHOP " HOSPITAL COURT

t e same time, however,

iss Ida Cannon's

warning should be heeded when she says:

At present, the administrative function of the social


worker in the clinic is crowding out her social case work.
She is too busy to get into the homes, to keep fresh and
clear before her the social situation in the background.
Thus she becomes an institutionalized person and loses
the biggest contribution she has to give to the hospital,
that of never thinking in routine, of keeping fresh always
the community's and patient's point of view.*
A

ranc
rane

of me ica -social case


ease wor

which

t is only

is known as psychiatric
psychiatrie socia work.
when such social work is undertaken in

ose col-

laboration with a thoroughly competent psychiatrist that it concerns us here.

The value of

collaboration must be apparent, since, in the

eVl

ence, an

the treatment whic

olows
0 lows is so

* Cannon, Ida M.: Address before the American Hospital Association, October, 1920. See also Miss Cannon's
book, Sodal
Social vVork
\Vork in Hospitals,
Hospitais, of which a revised edition,
to be published by the Russell Sage ~'oundation, is now in
press.
21 3

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT
WRAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?
arge y a matter 0

etter a Justmen t to teen-

. vironmen t. *
agree t at tradition
an

prece ent are more heavi y weighing down

and class-conscious the social worker in the court


is important, tere
t ere ore, or the socia case worker

eet at t e wal S 0
-.. eorge E iot, "t

hoarse and feeble."


feebIe. "
e

e court IS t east
e ast 0 t e socla Instl tu tlons
t at

can

e un erst
erstoo

ere conSl
consl er, an

y court

must

to mean tew
t e woe
0 e mac Inery
lnery 0

Justice,
]Ustlce, Inc u Ing
lng Its
lts unctlons
unctions 0 Interpretatlon
InterpretatIon

See footnote, p.

104.

21

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOP HOSPIT

URT

the punishment fit the crime.


just beginning to realize that we should make the

punts ment t e treatment rat er


nal.

Dean- - 'oscoe Poun

t t e crlml-

tells us that

The nineteenth century was hostile to individu


individuaa ation
and to a inistrative discretion, which is the chief agency
of individualization, seeking to reduce the whole a inistration of justice to abstractIy
abstractly just, formal, rigid rules,
mechanically administered. This was true the world over.
lt
It was specially true, and true to an exaggerated degree,
in America. . . Rence,
Hence, we got rigid detailed procedure and hard-and-fast schemes of penal treatment, lest
prosecutor or court or prison authorities do somet g
spontaneous in view of the exigencies of a particular
case.*

specla Ists
speCIa
lsts no onger as expert wItnesses, summa
mane
ne

y t e prosecutlon
prosecutIon an

t e e ense to

white after
af ter all, but as
.-

isinterested advisers

Pound and Frankfurter: Criminal ustice in Cleveland.


Cleveland Foundation, 1922.
215

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

involve may be said to meet.

ith the gradual

that shoul
onean

con trol of the sta


state.
te.
e p an 0

e ective.

Juvenl e an

n t is

aut
a u t pro atlon

xe

tra Itlon8
ltlon8 an

orma JU gments c anges come s ow y.


1

Cll
CU t

IS

us,

eClS1on; lt
It IS

still used, moreover, in cases in which pro ation


216

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOp HOSPITAL


,HOSPITAL COURT

is boun

to be ineffectual. * I t follows from these


method that con-

scien tious pro a tion 0


seien

cers are

ur ene

with
wi
th

more cases than they can possi Iy


ly treat effec-

isa vantage of unwieldy

case work has been done, but it is truer than it


shoul
cor e
it will

be.
bet

In

t e gOD

wor

0 a pro atlon 0

eremem
e remem ere , ga there

cer
eer W 0,

t ee social evi-

ence
nounee
nounce .
hen
on

on t e law 0 evidence to rea


o my c apters.

an

crltlclze
crItIcIze some

e was goo
gOD

an
* See, for example, Bulletin 2 of the Seybert Institution
of Philadelphia on the Handling of Cases by the uvenile
Court and Court of Domestic Relations in that city.
21 7

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
severe.

But he a

e ore w at a rich

ed that he had not realized


e

use u ness tere


t ere cou

e for evi ence ou tsi e the court room.

workers, these materials an

"The

methods will
win

e the

tter

tween men an

a Justments

Interest an

their socia en-

Instruction.
lnstructlon.

It must not be inferred t at the home, the

a
a rea y prove 0 serVIce, or In W
w IC
le It
lt Wl
WI

aye
ave

to bear an important part in shaping future


ew 0

t e case work
218

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL- WORKSHOP HOSPIT


SCHOOL

omes tic science an

of

URT

case work in im rove

omes which must follow public disasters.

lect is one

ranch of child welfare service, while

a ministration
ministra tion of trust estates,
esta tes, where tinancial
financial

an

to ma a Juste

a u ts cou
eou

serve the social as ,veIl as the material welfare of

their clients
clien tso.

SOCla
socla one.
,

e Issuers
0
lssuers 0
21 9

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


school children an
I.

:, tlona gUl
gUt ance
anee s OU

voca-

ave some

nowle ge 0

,,

,
!,

I,

volves many of these same proeesses.


processes.

Commis-

sions for the blind, societies for the care of

country t IS way 0

an

a ter-care agents s ou

Legal ai

e case wor ers.

societies were organize,


organize '

closer re ations with familv wel are societies in


of
ol

order to com
corn ine, in suc service, the social with
has
the

skilful individualize

220
I

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

SCHOOL WORKSHOP HOSPITAL

of ten or has not

tion has

een discharge

:OURT

a ta,
t a , sa
so tat
t at

een called to this serious lack, an tere


t ere

Every mont

or so, some new and beneficent

-of
-often
ten from an entirely unexpecte
comes to my attention.

quarter--

Sometimes the new

vice in which case work originated. One of these,


or example, comes in t e private practice

what case work can do in their free clinics, are


seeking teservices
t e services

case \vorkers for their

cannot be predicted, but it should be evident


from the examples given in this

t . warte

an retar
re tar e ,

eve ope

00

an

that the

enrie
enrIe

221

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INTE- EU E te Is 0 a surgeon in t e time


of Louis

IV who onee
once sai

to Chancellor

etween surgery an

eve oplng
opIng an Insu
lnsu ar
occasionally even within the

oun aries 0 socia

work.
worker into our homes, courts, sc

00

s, me ical

tese
t ese institutions is t e case wor er's sense 0 t e
222

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK


TUE

woe
w 0 e 0 socia work an

T e other orms 0

of the re ation of each

socia wor , al of which

interplay with case work, are three"


three "'group work,

social reform, and social research.

Case work"
work""
,

nlate group of t e family.

But social work also

achieves the same general ends in these oth


ties
neig

sett ement wor , recreational wor , cu,


cu ,
or

an

local community wor

in

which the in ividual, though still met face to

eetter
e etter

ousing,

erent socia

etter

ealth,

etter working

re orms sti 1 is to avance


a vance t e

eve opment 0 our

uman

In

y lmprovlng

223

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


social
--.
. -'_. ---.

,~,.;...:...:.~
,

-'-"~~---.

t e e s covere
cove re

I have sai

y SOCla ",or,

as a so t e

earlier that social case wor

e on y a ragment
I t is not enoug
epen ence 0

must

separate

to say t is,

would

rom t e mue

owever; t e inter-

e illustrate .

'

As regar s tere
t e re ation

etween social work

with in ivi
S
s ou

e eVl ent to anyone


any one W 0

as rea

t e

iss Su livan's wor wit

lSS
tSS

e er an

e isolate

t e SlX
S1X case 1 ustratlons 0 ow-

in ivi ual or
224

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK


TUE

norma In IVl
lVI ua or _aml
_ami y.

to the assistance of
ren
field

e ore t at

ote, or examp e,

inifred ones an

ome

her chil-

egan to assume a more

al way
__ hapter V,

o better advice coul


case wor ers, I

ieve,

eve op t elr wor

wit
with social reform or mass betterment.

oes not mean t at t ey s ou

ma

ng SOCla

This

rop t elr wor


war

lscaverles as a
lscoverles

rs .

earlng

faithful witness to t e nee


IS

socia

re orms

225

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

e tal s necessary

5s ou
OU

urlng
urIng

tl0n, an
measures worka
case work.
a
num er 0

outlines 0

occasIon to examlne
examIne a

SOCIO
SOCI0 ogy In ten e

ents.

text

Eac

as

evoted at

the SU
su ject with a polite caution and an absence
o

rst- an

servation w

t e su ject matter

SOCIO ogy IS

ue not so

muc

ar
case stu ies w ich ear
..
ere, In t IS 0 est 0
uman

most total a sence 0


".

upon aml
amI y I1 e.

lems of

p ySlca
P
YSlca an

ere 1ty an

SOCla

social environment.
tese
t ese pro ems,

ai

0 P
p ySlca
YSlca an

...,ase
-,ase work cannot solve

course,

ut It
lt can

eve op a

in their solution.

octa
CIa

Iscovery
lscovery

IS

a rea y In e te

to aml
ami y

226

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK


TUE

case wor

or certaln
certain ouslng re orms an

or t e

first tu
share, to

indica te

later,
la ter, in chil

la or re-

zation of the family itself, its best work is still to

esertlon

shoul

SOCla
wor

SClence
sCience an
whic

Par , "of the attractions, tensions, and accomm


oun

o
,

no

22

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


concrete

escrlptlon or a equate ana ySls


YSIS In

ti
tion
on at present, an

will
win continue to ac

it until

t e case met 0
o servation
serva tion an

etail w ich will

eve op lts
Its

meaning.
meanlng.
But what relation can t

ivi ualize

tection
teetion

minors, sueh
such as tese
t e se

00

atten anee
ance

an

c il

a or aws.

T eir service to socia re-

orm, 1 e t e service 0
0 t e aml
amI yY case wor er, IS

ore-

have not een content to en

their work with the

* Park and Burgess: Introduction to the Science of


Sociology, p.
1921

216.

Chicago, University of Chicago Press,

228

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK


TUE

ut have

Again, the child is a social animal, and there is


tions an

deal with them than to see them first

in their effect for good or ill upon same


some ane
one small
of his bent.

David H. Holbrook tells in The

new life into those neighborhoad


neighborhood activities of a
certain district which centered within the school
itself.
i tself.
war er who knew them and could make
social wor
them feel at home in the school.

r. Holbrook

school should

s.
calle

"
'better' schools discover what advantages

e a
* opus cit., p. 6 I.
229

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORKl

schoo curriculum."*

an

socia

research.

T e two c inicians

social and the me ical

the

have their part to play

ealth.

legislation, or exampIe,
example,

esigned to control the

regulation of communica Ie
le and industrial

eases.

e practlclng p ySlclan
YSlClan an

is

t e SOCla

laws by trying to utilize them to the utmost.

stan
* The Family for February, 1921.

23 0
23

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK

presiding 0

cer of a court an

the socially inter-

court service make it especiaIly


especially important th
that
at
the court worker should know the

istory of

social work and should have a clear grasp, not


tion to a
a tt e
e ot er orms 0

socia wor.

No

narrow specialization, no coaching for civil service examinations, can possibly fit him for his
iscover the case work fiel in which the fuIl-time
full-time
goo
gOD

all-roun

social work training .

industrial reform shoul


chil
chit ren.

have begun with the at-

The earlier child labor reform cam-

first insight
insigh t in to the share that
tha t every kin

labor fiel
,

of

has been striking, despite the fact that


23 1

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

la or

chil ren on farms remains unregulated.

T e original national program 0 ce il

labor re-

orm, a opte
in the min of a woman

a socia wor er elong-

ing to the social and legislative reform group. It


It
won hospitab e support at on
once
ce from neighborhood and settlement
settIement workers, and from the social
these two groups, sometimes the other helped to
gather the detailed facts necessary to arouse the
y

social research they happened to have at command, neighborhood and case workers supplied

vi e at t is stage the know e ge 0

ow to edu-

to conduct legislative campaigns. At t e propa232

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK


TUE
ganda stage all the

iflerent
ifferent social work groups

watch uI
ul oversig t which has since been necessary.
ers again just af
after
ter the new child labor measures
in a certain state where there was, at the time ,
greater in ustrial emand for the la r of children

For

trators 0

t em to

t e aw were in ifferent.

e su jecte

to

The case

ee ore or since.

ar s lp
Ip
stance, tat
t at

IS,

In w IC
tC

But

every lUIn

parents c alme

tat
t at

233

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


t ey must
ourteen

ave t e earnlngs
earnings 0

a ce

1
I

un er

-t ey were a e In co-opera tlon Wl


WI t

t e

oeal
association
tion to ren er non -en orceocal e uca tion associa

therewere
there were workers in children's societies and fam-

ments, there the assimilation of a new standard


went forward unchecked."*

here there is no

day to day, it of
often
ten happens that a law upon the

* See a paper of mine, "The Social Case Worker in a


Changing World," in the Proceedings of the National ConSocial
ference of Charities now National Conference of Sodal
Work for 1915, p. 48.

234

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK

ater It
lt
an

as 0 owe

has a

aa ter t e
e mass movement,

lied t e new standar

in individual

a
a orr aw enforcement, when social research must

conlds of
prejudice and inertia have been overcome. Such

work is still continued in the national and state


Child Labor Committees today, and it must not
come a
a su stitute or such social reform
I t is sometimes claime

ies.

that
tha t social case work-

ers are not as much intereste

in

ettering
ttering the

t
ee towar

"re ie

235
\

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

Harrison on

ocial
oeial Case

orkers an

etter In-

dustrial Conditions:
I was recently told of tbe
the case of a bricklayer who had
come
come to one of the charitable societies in N ew Y
York
ork for
aid. He was a foreigner, and at the time was not working
at his trade, but was employed as a porter in one of the
large downtown buildings. He had a large family, and,
since his pay was only 12 a week, the children were not
getting enough to eat. The question before tbe
the commitwhat
at to do. Four alternatives emerged from the
tee was wh
discussion:: First, the society could supplement the man's
discussion
w~ges by a regular weekly allowance to the family
fanlily and let
him continue at work where he was; second, the society
might try to get his employer to pay him more wages and
let him still stay where he was; third, it might try to get
him back into his trade of bricklaying where he could earn
a larger wage, the society underwriting the family's needs
until he should hecome
become re-established; fourth, it might
find him better paying work outside his trade.
It win
will be seen that anyone
any one of the other courses would
he
be better than the first. . . . Instead of taking the simple and easy course involved in supplementing the man's
wages, the only course that some of the committee would
have thought of, it was far more serviceable to the family,
and impressed an important principle upon that part of
the committee, when the ruie
rule was followed which deelared
clared in effect that "industrial conditions and personal
. 23 6
,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK


TUE

capacities are far from being as inelastic" as most of us


suppose.
"
The careful consideration of this case brought out other
lessons alsof
also. It showed that social case workers must be
interested in the general mobility of labor; in getting
workers into jobs where they can do their best, into
places where wages for them are highest relatively or
the cost of living lowest. The case worker must think of
cases in terms of the whole state or the whole country and
consequently must be interested in the many agencies established for the efficient exchange of labor. There may
have been still other lessons, but this case will illustrate
some of the reasons for urging that the treatment must be
50 treating them
on a broad scale and for believing that in so
wil! be taught.
fundamental industrial principles will
r.

arrlson suggests some

e ucatlon on In ustrla questlons.


questIons.

ey can

t e
0

cases under trea tmen t, by using single cases to


classroom, an

y proper emp aSlS


aSIS glven
gIven to t e

....,ociaI
. . . ociaI case recor s in numbers can
also furnish in ustrial research with cues to

* Harrison, Shelby M., in Proceedings of the National

Conference of Social Work for 19 18, p. 305.

237

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT
followe
stu ies ma e

y case wor

agencies themse ves.

ment of a law in the successful operation of which

IS In tereste ,Wl
,

oIone.
01 one.

0 ten

iss E ith A

IS

estt ac lng In a

ott wrltes:
wrItes:

On two successive committee days in the old est Side


the diffioffice of the Chicago United Charities we had tbe
cult problem of providing for the family of a tubereular
cuIt
tubercular
man who was doing" light work." One, I remember, was
, a fIagman
flagman on the elevated railroad. I t occurred to some
one to ask for the industrial histories of these men in the
hope that some former employer might be found who
Both men had had a history of intermittent
would assist. Botb
light jobs since their physical breakdown, but it appeared
when a report was made at a later meeting of the commi ttee that both men had contracted tuberculosis during
their employment in the same West Side foundry, where
both had worked for a series of years. This interesting
fact was promptly reported to a new chief in the Department of Factory Inspection, who promptly investigated
the
this place and found a large number of violations of tbc
so-called "Health, Safety and Comfort law." *
* Abbott, Edith: Paper on "The Social Case Worker
and the Enforcement of Industrial Legislation." Proceed-

ings of National Conference of Social Work for


Cor 19 18 , p. 315.

238
,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK


TUE

etter serVIce cou

e ren ere

y a case

lSS
ISS

Abbott also gives illustrations in her valuable

evasive.
evaSlve.

t IS not so state

In

my story,

applied for material relief.

ut Rupert

After
Af
ter consultation

with former employers, some assistance was

case was close."

The true situation in the

operating at th
that
at time which \vere sure to lead to
further trou Ie
le later, were not discovere . The
failure is fully accounted for.

The size of the

ut

to t e

eha pt
pter
er I I I.
* See Cha

239

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

rea case wor er most unsatls actory sort. ter

IS

usua a ter a panIc.

1915, and real social treatment then begane


began.
eanwhile, usiness ha revive an t e num er

two years.

u ge

it continued to do might have seem


cent ess necessary,

ut anyone
any one who knows case

wor also knows that its est an most construc

tlve servIces were ren


C

ange to

POSSI
pOSSI

etter times.

y t

IS

s a rea y state ,none

than most that teest


t e est reme ial service to an

most va ua Ie
le services 0

case wor , such as

t ose actua y ac

In t e

oung

ami y,
aml

2 0

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOC

aye,
ave,

or ac

pert
perI

S
SO
0

iss

time, to

WORK

e set asi e

urlng

Irregu
trregu ar emp oyment.

. C.

National Conference of Social

ork for 1919:

For four years we have been without immigration and


for two without unemployment, other than seasonal. I
hope you are planning a survey which will tell us:
I. How much charity organization work social case
work with families has been reduced thereby.
2. How much furtber
further reduction we may expect from
the coming abolition of the liquor traffic.
effected by
3. How much additional reduction could be etIected
other social and industrial reforms now under considera
hon.
hone
4.
hat the irreducible minimum for the near future
of charity organization work is. *

ave
summary 0

cases in

Rupert Young's case and of all the

hapter 111.
Ill.

It mig t

ee argue

amendment was al t at was nee e


,

trou les.

that,

to solve his

But, given the con itions of aw en* See Proceedings, p. 317.

16

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


orcement as we fin

them

City, It IS certaln
certain t at t e amen ment alone

oreover, 1Itt

IS

a ffilSmlS-

ta e to app y t e quantitative test, to as

"

ow

much" in connection with case work, until we

sibili ties.

i th regard to the "other social and

in ustrial reforms now under consideration" to


iss

olcor,"
oIcor," t e more the

etter."

ase

social work eserves fuller treatment than I have


een a Ie
le to give it, but t at all forms are inexing social avance
a vance shoul

e evi ent. A colleague

S
s

ogans an un er-

etails of t etas
e tas

to

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

THE FORMS OF SOCIAL WORK

one.

soli

s a matter of act, tere


t ere can

e no

advance without patient attention to detail

hind a glib use of catch-words and high-sounding

p rases.

n t e ot er

nize them and"


and "put
put them together without abstraction," is also likely to be thc
the one who can be
trusted to see their larger relations.

The great

tee nicians, like Osler


OsIer in medicine and Pasteur in

relations of the part to the w ole.


oleo
work soul

strive to

01

an even

alance be-

tween the specializing and the generalizing ten

enCles .

SOCla wor

toget er an

we -Cll
-cu tivate

el

w ic
ie

y all in

common.

243

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

XI

ID

this view of his work: "I should never have


een
forth the highest in tellectual strain, an

yet keep

Socia case workers have this same fee ing a out


their task.

Their pro ession is an ar uous one,

but it puts upon each practitioner the highest in

te ectua straln
straIn 0 W le
IC

contacts WIt
continuous, an

t e

e
e IS capa

uman SI
51 e

e, W
wie
Ie

IS

e are warm,

richly rewar ing.

Isa vantage

amlles an

WIt

-a

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK AND DEMOCRACY


no

courage an
ot er en

in view, however, t an ta
to

t eir est
,

some a
same
0

The earlier case wark,


work, in the light

our accu-

ern case workers should realize that their own


aYLmake a like impression upon their successors.

cial work to which I have referr


can now

e an ever-present reality.

n Important part

..
.
a mInIstratIon.
ffilnlstratlon.

CUSSlon

more than once

t at W
woe
0 e IS t e servIce

.
.
t must e eVl ent rom my IS-'
lS-'
\

245

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

an

tratlon seems to me one 0 t e great en s W IC


le
eve

form 0

soeia en eavor must have in view.


socia

the label minus the contents is all that remains.


draws to its close, 1
I should like to add a few
n sai
relation 0

socia work, an

about the

of case work more

of what constitutes democracy, some one makes


work shoul

eSlra

Others

orms 0 aSsociatIon
aSSOCla tlon In a ree SocIety

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK AND DEMOCRACY

safeguar against autocracy, are not enthusiastic


wide and varied a group of functions, though

aye to c ange from time to time.


ave

hether or

not these changes mean, as they probably will


an

should, that
shouId,
tha t certain case work tasks ini tia ted

privately and still under private management are


to become public functions later, all will agree

tions have a opted case work policies in name


only, because it was not possible at the time
or pass
possii Ie
le to control the size of the task. Lacking that control, pressure of numbers meant low

W 0

e leve most SIneere


SIncere yY In t e extenslon
extenSIon 0
247

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


an
eac

vo untary contro are most anXIOUS to see


avance
a vance e eete
ecte

un er con Itlons
ltlons t at as-

essen tial.

emocra tic

un er t ose w 0

aye t e autocratIc SpIrit.


ave

ut

some social case wor


war

IC agency must
control,

a e to assure some

egree

efore case workers will


win enter its service

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK AND DEMOCRACY


ance 0
anee
ing staff mem ers a larger measure of represen

tatlon upon Its


lts a mlnlstratlve commlttees.
commIttees.

emoc

convIction
conVIctIon 0
social wor

t e In nite
nIte wort

our common

Life itself achieves sig-

whatsoever.
,

nificance
nifieance an
share

value not from the esoteric


esoterie things
ut from the great common
-

an

rom the issues 0

irth

eath,o affection satisfie an affection frus

to us, or until they 0, we are not ready to adopt


social case
soeial
ease work as our major in terest.

of members selected from among the professional


249

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


een

aSls, c anges In InstItute


lnstltute personne

urlng t e

appenlng to case wor


1921 was no

stt in t e institute

etter t an the

of 1910; but no longer is there a wide gap etween


tween

th most an the least a


a le.
Ie.
at there is

no ac

emocracy among tem.


tern.

field of professional social work is the increasing

emand for well


weIl trained case workers, whether in
In some

t ere

rane es 0 socia wor

uctua tlons In teeman


t e eman,,

was one of war or peace.


wor ers who can

aye
ave

epen ent upon

But

0 their wor

or social case

well the

eman
em an

ay IS not

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK AND DEMOCRACY

the extension of case work activi


activities
ties to
a goal,

an

not w et er suc
sue wor soul

e pu Hely
HeIy or

-free om to

can e assure

at holds

. life ean only follow, they cannot precede, the find-

arvest.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT
WRAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

In our own

expen e

y teste

ay an

time In re easing
easlng

case

an

wor ers rom pressure 0


0 overwor , an

t us en-

small an 0 stu ents not more t an our at any

one tIme mIg t serve un er tese


t ese se eete
ecte
su ts

one met

anot er, an

an

itions un er whic

eae
eac

ea-

t e con-

n trie .

ha

e SIX women WOl


W 0 1 t e
e wor

eserl
escrl e

In
ost

o t em

not

of one another.

now an

ave never even

eard

They have no a equate time at

presen t In W IC to t In , to stu y, or to Iseover


Iscover

time

IS

suc

as tese
t ese rom some 0

glven
gIven to

eeplng areast
a reast

ume
urne 0

t elr present wor

t em to

a SO
so 1

Ul
UI

enrich the socia

the

tear
t e ar uous
etails of their

a , wou

In

oun atlon 0 S
s

resources

t e wor

ena e
an

eat a

stra teglc pOln t.

25 2

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

CASE WORK AND DEMOCRACY


,

tee

S 0

scien ti ce researe
seien
researc

an

e uca tion

serve
ut a

umanlty.

e are to
persons.

t at t e aw

IS

no respecter

Be t at as it may, we are s owly

realizing that a ministrators


minstrators of the law

not in

courts alone

herever these admin-

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

equa ylnstea
y Instea , telntent
t e Intent 0
actual ac ievement

t e aw an

ecome so itt erelate


e relate

Its
lts
t at

they of
often
ten appear to gli ~ by one another like
ships t at pass in the nig t.

Socia

avance
a vance

coul not be better


bet ter serve than by suc a series of
this count

a new generation of administrators

'

lie intent

to the individual circumstances.

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

XII

ET

E now attempt to sum up in a few para-

direct an

indirect insigh ts, and direct an

relations can be improved an

indi ..

their personalities

develope .
and of the effects of environment upon the indi-

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

pathy, to such radical meas

as complete

e organlzatlon
organization 0

sources were
w ere none eXlste
eXIste
ting 0

re-

e ore, an t.e re nlt-

ties ong broken.

cialism is to

social case worker is not, however, a sort of be ..

nevo ent mi
ml

eman.

t IS true t at

is c ient's own

IS

an s
S 0o tt e consequences 0

e acts

ut, in

t e contacts

w ic
ie s al ac ieve teesire
t e esire socia
soeia resu t.

t is

the com
corn ination of all these enumerate services,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

CONCLUSIUN

which constitutes social case work of professional


gra e.

he must have.

The foundation stones of such a

philosophy are suggeste


given, however, wit
e reveale.
I

in this

ook; they are

t e fullest realization that

These suggeste

foun ations, to

Human beings are interdependent. There

is a spiritual unity about th


this
is conception which

fessor
its mem ers." The converse is also true.

case work is the art of discovering an assuring to

17

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?

ICY
same tIme or an a mlnlstratlve po ICy

ifferent
ifIeren t things for an

oes
3

Human

eings are not

omestic anima s.

with

ifferent

ependent and

is act 0 man's

ifference

from ot er anima s esta lis es t e nee


for

is welfare.

In ivi

poses 0

t elr own an

are not
; t ey

they

this tas , an

to p ay a

eterlora te w en

ome is the social institution


it
i t is in t e

ome tat
t at t e

case wor
wor

tte

o.

attention, the

wor

of his

a Justments
justments were at
tempte
attempte

is

estine

c anges, tough
t ough its int

t e case

to e ect
eet

enefieent
eneficent

op IS anot er p ace In w IC
metho

rst

uction t ere is recent

2 8

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

CONCLUSION

an not yet u y

erever case wor

becomes a serviceable adjunct of some other an


the school, the hospital, and t e court, it is even

the work of ot er specialists .

o Its
lts parts.
ifferent ways.
better a justments etween in ivi uals an their

forms
known facts for the use of these
other

social work.

somet lng 0 a

T e case wor er shoul

know

orms

ge

-t e more

etter' an
-an
as 0 a
a tt e
eetter'
t e types

now

s ou

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

WHAT IS SOCIAL CASE WORK?


WRAT

its clients change, an 'change in the right


in the

irection
ireetion of higher an

ireciree-

etter wants an

sona Ity
lty or t e case wor er Imse
lmse .

e service

is ree
recii procaI.
procal .

260
,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

Abbott, Edith, 196, 238


Action, direct, of mind on mind,
102, 107-110; indirect, through
the social environment, 102,
110-121

Adjustment: bet
between
ween the individual and his social environment will always be necessary,
98; out of. 134
Adler, Felix,
ISO, 171-172,
FeHx, ISO.
171-172. 184
Administrators of the law. 253254

Aimless dosings of sodal


social ills, 87
Allegri, Lucia: story of, 80-86;
case of, cited, 107, 109, 114,
117,118,119,120,121, 139
Allowance, regular weekly, 73
Almshouse worker Quoted, 127

Americanization, 118, 154


American Marriage Laws, 183
(footnote)
Analysis of acts and policieR
poIicieR in
six case illustrations,
illustrations. 101-121
Applicant. term not used in case
Applicant,
work,
work. 28 (footnote)
Arbitrariness avoided, 40
Arnold, Matthew, 195
Associated Charities. See Family
Wel/are Societies
Atonement and Personality. R. C.
Moberly, D.D., 94 (footnote)
Attendance officers, 219
Autocracy: in the policy of the
same thing for everybody, ISO;
case work cannot progress
under an, 248
Background of husband and wife,
differences in, 56

Back history, 33-34, 70, 76, 80,


83. 106, 137

Baldwin, James Mark, 129-130,


171

Basset a Village Chronicle. S. G.


Tallentyre, 6
Begging, 60
Belonging, the sense of, 119. 189
Bielowski, Maria: story of. 3143; case of, cited, 96, 105-106,
105-106.
108, 109. 112, 114, 116,
116. 118,
119,
lIg, 122-124,217

Biography and the study of family life, 190-194


Ig0-194

Blind: the greatest single handi.


handicap of the, 161-162
Boarding homes, 44
Bojer
Bojer., Johan,
J ohan, 126
BosanQuet, Mrs. Bernard, 163
Breaking up the home, 72
Breckenridge. Sophonisba P
Breckenridge,
P.,. 196
Bridgman, Laura,
Laura. 7, 9, 15
Laura Bridgman. Dr. Rowe's
Howe's Famous Pupil. Maud Howe and
Florence Howe Hall, 7
Broken Homes. Joanna C. Col.
cord, 155
Bronner. Dr. Augusta, 105 (footBronner,
note)
Brooks, Phillips, 20
Campbell, Dr. F. J., 161-162
Cannon, Ida M., 213
Case: a term applied to the
situation, not the person, 27
Case conferences, 136-137

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDEX
Case records: Dr. Howe's, 8, 10,
28; Mis8 Sullivan's letters, 10;
choice of, 26-31; uses of, 2830; confidential nature of. 29
Case Work and Democracy, 244254. See also Social Case Work
Causal factors, search for, 79
Change of environment, 13.
13, 24.
II6-118, 198
66, II6-II8,
43, 53, 66.
Charity organization societies.
See Family Welfare Societies
Child labor: 76; campaigns,
campagns, 203,

231-235; commlttees,
commIttees, 235
Child-placing societies: work of.
with George Foster, 43-49;
in, 244-245
early case work in.
Child welfare work: fuller records
of, 30-3 I; illustrations of, 26~
49; and daily life.
life, 177; for neglected and difficult children,
219; in child labor campaigns,
234
Children: building upon affection
for, 58, 61, 66-67; the rights
of, 181, 186, 188
Choosing illustrations, process of,
26-31
Church attendance.
attendance, 113
Client, use of the term, in case
Client.
work,27
Club work, 223
Colcord, Joanna C., 155, 241.
241, 242
Combination of many itemized
insights and acts involved in
case work of professional grade,
102, 124
Community resources: 15, 16, 18,
19; case workers' duty in the
absence of. 115; utilization of.
of,
by case workers, 225
Community work, 223
Condusion,
Conclusion, 255-260
Confidential nature: of case histories, 29; of relation of social
worker to dient,
client, 29
Conklin, Edwin Grant, 146
Continuity of policy, 248

Court: decision based on social


and, 123; c ildren's rights in
the, 188; probation in the, 216the.188;
217; procedure in the, 215.
215, 217;
social evidence in tbe,
the, of tbe
the
future, 218
Criminal JJustice
ustice in Cleveland.
Pound and Frankfurter, 215
Criticism of case work processes
on basis of long-term, intensive
treatment, 90
Definition, a tentative, of sodal
social
case work, 98; basis of, 87-90
Democracy: and individual difference, 149-154; in the fam.
fame
ily.
ily, 182, 228; case work and.
244-254, 248-249; a daily
habit of life, 249
Dewey, John, 142 (footnote)
Difficult girl, a, 31-43; Teresa
Allegri, 83
Allegri.
Disasters and rehabilitation, 219
Discipline, 12-13, 22, 64, 109
Drinking man, SI-59
51-59
Drinking woman, 59-68
Dutcher. Elizabeth, 110

Elements of Social Science, The.


Maclver, 95 (footnote)
R. M. Maclver.
Eliot,
Eliot. George, 214, 244
Employers, 119-120
Endowment of special ability in
the social case work field, 251254
Enuresis, 35
Enuresis.
Environment: 22, 23i
23; social and
physical, distingUIshed,
distingUlShed, 99;
heredity versus, 146-149. See
also Change of and Social
Equality: not likeness, 150; the
essence of, 151
Ethical Philosophy of Life, A
An.
n.
Felix Adler, ISO
Eugenics, 148-149

262

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDEX
Evolution and Ethics.
128
Huxley, 128
Expert advice, 20, 24

Thomas

Face of the World, The. Johan


Bojer, 126
coundl of, 84-86;
Family, the: a council
eQuation in discussions
personal equation
of, 177-178; specialists should
know facts of the life of, 180;
children the test of, 181; that
fails, 187-188; as a test of industrial organization, 20 1-202;
in current outlines of sociology,
226. See also The Home
1 55
Family deserters, 135, 154154-155
Family Social Work, Institute of,
249-250

Family welfare societies: fuller


records of. 30-31; case work of.
illustrated, 51-86, 134-136,
139-142, 185; and housing,
227;
and tuberculosis campaigns, 227; and studies of desertion and non-support. 227;
and social
sodal research, 227-228;
in child labor campaigns. 232234; early case work in. 244245; an index of what is hap

pemng In, 250


Fathers and Children. Ivan Turgenev, 187
Feeble-minded, the, SS. II I, 182
Finding work, 206-210
FolIett,
Follett, M. P., 145
Forms of Sodal
Social Work, the, 222243

Foster, George, story of, 43-49;


case of. cited, 96. IlO,
IIO, 112. 116.
179, 189

Foster homes. selection of, 44


Frankness, 21, 40
Free homes, selection of, 44
Freedom of growth the important thing in case work, 251
Fundamental principles restated,
,

257-258

Group character of some case


treatment, 80, 111, 139-142
Group thinking, ~4-86
Group
Groupwork,
work, 223, 224, 229
Habit, re-education of. 73. 108
Haldane, J. S., 95 (footnote)
Hall. Florence Howe. 7
Hamilton, eice!y.
eicely. 178
Handicapped. work with. 220
Harrison. Shelby M . 236
Health. see Physical Condition
Healy, Dr. Wm., 104 (footnote)
121

Heath. Arthur George. 165


Heredity
H eredity and Environment. Ed.
win Grant Conklin, 146
Heredity versus environment,
environment.
146- 1149
Hocking, Wm. Ernest, 132
Holbrook, David H., 229
Home. the, 175-194; developing
atIection for.
fort 58; re-estabaffection
lished, 63; instinct of, 65;
breaking up, 72; as a family
center.
center, 78; and children. 118;
not the institution
insttution of, for its
own sake 179; many kinds of
sodal
social work visits to, 180; proposed substitutes fort
for. 181; and
the school, 197; and the workshop. 201-202; rehabilitation
of, af
after
ter disasters. 219; as a
preparation for life. 258. See
also The Family
Hospital sodal
social work, 210-214,
f

230

Housing conditions, 120-121


Eowe,
Eowe. Maud, 7
Howe, Dr. Samuel Gridley, 7-9,
10

Human Interdependence,

126-

143. 257

Human Nature and lts


Its Remaking.
Wm. Ernest Hocking, 132
Human Psychology. Howard C
W
n, 94 (footnote)
Wanen,

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDEX
HumbIe services as a means of
Humble
treatment, 23, 58, 64, 107-108
Husband and wife disagree, 5159, 184

Huxley, Thos., 127-128


Illustrations: Miss Sullivan and
Helen KeIler,
Keller, 9-25; process of
choosing, 26-31; Maria Bielowski, a difficult girt
girl. 3 1 -43;
George Foster, a dependent
child placed out, 43-49; Mr.
and Mrs. Rupert Voung,
Young, husband and wife who cannot
agree, 51-59; Clara Vansca
and her neglected children, 5968; Winifred Jones
jones and her
children, widow not an efficient
home maker, 68-80; Lucia
Allegri and her relatives, who
AUegri
fail to understand her situation,
80-86; pellagra cases, 134-135;
desertion case, 135-136; group
case work, 139-142; unwise
service, 167-171; of visiting
teaching, 199-200; of case
work in compensation field,
205-206; relief in aid of wages,
236; reports to public departments, 238
Imaginativesympathy,
Imaginative sympathy, 23,37,42,
106, 107

Immigrant family, 80-86, 185186

Immigration: 117-118; recent,


154; and case work, 220-221
lndividual
Individual Differences, 144-158,
257-258

lndustrial:
Industrial: employment of women and equality, 152-153;
conditions, 237
Industrial disease legislation, 230
Infallibility, no claim of, 40
Innate make-up: and prognoses,
105 (footnote); not easily distinguished, J45
Insight into individuality and
sodal
social environment, 101-102,
103-107

Instinctive responses versus the


reasoning and habit-forming
processes, 164
Institutional care, 43, 60, 189
Intensive case work, 90, 142, 176,
251

Interest, any serious, has power


of radiation, 136
Interrelation of the different
forms of sodal
social work, 222-243
Introduction, 5-25
Introduction
I ntroduction to the Science of
Sociology. Park and Burgess,
228

Irresponsibility, 57
James. William,
WiIliam, 191
Jones.
jones. Winifred: story of. 68-80;
case of.
of, cited. 104. 108, I 12.
113, 114, 117, 119, 121, 166,
179. 189, 225

Keeping faith, 24, 108


KeIler,
Keller, Helen,
Helen. 10-25
Knowing what is happening, 41
Kropotkin, Prince, 129
Lane, Franklin K., 203
Legal aid societies, 220
Letters 0/
of William James, The.
Edited by his son, 191
Level of participation, 170
Life 0/
of Pasteur, The. Ren
Rene ValVaIlery-Radot.
lery-Radot, 192-194
Lippmann, Walter
WaIter.. 142 (footnote)
Long-term services to individuals.
individuals,
90, 142, 176, 251

MacIver, R. M.
Maclver,
M.,, 95 (footnote),
146

Macy, Mrs., see SullifJan


Marital difficulties.
difficulties, 52-59
Mark, Thistleton, 9S (footnote)
Marriage: current discussions of,
of.
177; the rights of children and,
181; laws relating to, 182; administration of, laws, 183, 227;
education for, 184-185

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDEX
M arriage and Divorce.
Felix
Adler, 184
Mead. George M . 130
M echanism. Life and Personality.
J. S. Haldane. 95 (footnote)
Medical-social work. 210-214;
Medical-sodal
pressure of numbers in, 212-

Offidalism, absence of, 108


Officialism,
Osler,
OsIer. Sir William, 243
Our Sodal
Social Heritage. .Graham
Wallas, 148, 153
Outlines of Historical J urisprudence.
den
ce. Sir Paul Vinogradoff.
202

213

Mendelian laws and human inheritance, 147


Mental examination, 72, 112
Mental experts, 106
Menta!
Mental hygiene: of industrial
workers, 204
Mental testing, 46; value of, 104
(footnote) ; and sodal
social evidence, 72, 104- 1 05
Meredith, George. 183
Meyer, Dr. Adolf, 183
Moberly. R. C . D.D . 94 (footnote)
M oral
aral and Social Significance of
the Conception of Personality.
Arthur George Heath. 165
Motive. 170-171
Mutual Aid, a Factor in Evolution.
Prince Kropotkin, 129
Myerson, Dr. Abraham, 147
Neglected children, 59-68
Neighborhood: opportunities of
a new, 66; work, 223; condibons, 229
New generation of administrators, 254
New
N ew State, The. M. P. Follett,
145
Numbers, pressure of: in visiting
teaching, 200; in hospital sodal
cial work, 212-213; in family
sodal
social work, 208, 210, 227, 239241;. in probation work, 2 I 7;
in public service, 247; in all
forms of social case work, 252
Obedience,lessons
Obedience. lessons in, 12-13, 22
Occupational resources. 119-120

Panic year,
year. figures of a, SI
51
Parent: and child, 160, 185; ob.
ligations to, 187
Park, Robert E., 227
Parole officers. 220
Participation of the dient
client in
making and carrying out plans
for his welfare. 39, 48, 109-110,
-171, 173
170 "171,

Pasteur,
Pasteur. Louis, 192-194, 243
Patience, 108
Pauperism, 167
Pearson,
Pearson. Sir Arthur, 162
Pedagogy and personality. 94
(footnote)
13S
Pellagra, 135
Perkins, Frances, 204-206
Perkins Institution for the Blind,
7, 9, 19

Permanent welfare as a test of


case work, 90,
90. 142
Perry, Bliss,
Bliss. 93 (footnote)
Personal eQuation,
equation, the, in discussions of the family, 177-178
Personal influence. 108
Personal side of case work, 126128, 244

Personality: of Helen Keller, 22;


the service of, 24-25; development of, the aim of case work,
90, 97, 260; effect of loss of
soda!
upon,
social status or health upon.
91; nature of, 92; and individual differences, 92;

must

grow oratrophy, 93; no seale


scale for

measunng. 121-122; not static,


static.
122, 131 i society the source
122.
and origln
origIn of. 129-13 2 , 257;
reverence for, 158, 248; all
forms of sodal
social work serve. 259

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDEX
Philosophy of soda}
social case work.
128, 257
Physical condition, 35, 46, 48,
54,57,63.74,79,112,141
Physidans:
Physicians: and sodal
social case work,
135, 144; and patients, 160;
private practice of, 221
Pity, the handicap of an unnerving, 161-162
Placement work, 37. 44-49
Plato on equality, 151
Pound, Roscoe, 215
Prevention, 230
Preventive medicine, 211
of Sociology. E. A. Ross,
Principles ol
185
Privately supported agencies:
staff representation in, 248249; continuity of policy in,
248
Probation: for Maria Bielowski,
32-35, 42; insights needed
in, 122-123; pressure of numbers in, 216-217; need of good
sodal
social training for, work. 231
Professional organization of social workers, national in scope,
243
Prohibition, 241-242
Psychiatrie
Psychiatric Family Studies. Dr.
Abraham Myerson, 147
Psychiatry and social case work,
133, 144, 213, 221
from the Standpoint of
Psychology Irom
a Behaviorist. J. B. Watson, 94
(footnote), 164-165
Public administration and case
work, 238-239, 245-248, 253254
Public Education Association of
New York,
Vork, 198, 200, 228
Public employment bureaus, 207
Purposeful Action: the Basis of,
159-174; routine and, 164
Recreation, 37, 68, 73, 114, 223
Reid, Thomas, 91

Relatives, 12; participation of, in


case work, 16; of Rupert
Young, 53-59; of Clara Vansea, 62, 65, 113; of Winifred
sca,
Lucia Allegri.
AlIegri.
Jones, 69, 77; of Luda
84, 85; of a button maker'
maker'ss
family, 140
Relief, material: 167-174; as a
substitute for justice, 172; in
aid of wages, 236-237
Religious instruction. 20-2 I, 24,
113, 144
Repetition. 75, 109, 166
Rigidity, no permanence with
extreme of. 184
ROBs. E. A., 184-185
Ross.
Royce, Josiah, 130
Sainte-Beuve. Charles-Augustin,
~22

Schoolrecords,4S,4 8 ,66,74. 112 ,


169
School
Workshop . Hospita}
Hospital
--Court, 195-221
Schools: policy of same thing for
everybody in, 196; case work
in. 196-201
tOt 38
Self-respect, appeal to.
social work,
Sense of the whole in sodal
223, 245, 259
Sham families, 187-188
Shopmates, co-operation of, 140
Short term services to individuals, 88, 176
Sodal
Social agencies, team play between, 113-114. 141
Sodal
Social Case Work: in Being, 2686; defined, 87-125; unconscious, 5-'1, 11; as neighborliness, 7; when subsidiary to
some other professional service, 27. 88-89, 2 1 4. 259;
widening scope of. 30, 251;
profession of, not weil
well estab..
lished. 87 (footnote); of the
short-term variety, 88, 176;
of the long-term and intensive
type, 89-90, 142, 176, 251;
2S I; a
form of teaching, 94, 96; the

266

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDEX
special approach of. 96; dismass
tinguished from ma
ss treatment, 98; is, a specialized
skill? 100; material
form of skiU?
with which, deals a part of
daily life, 102, 177; personal side of, 126--128, 244;
must have a philosophy, 128,
257; and psychiatry, 133, 144.
213, 221; of one, two. and
14 2 ;
three dimensions, 138138-142;
social psychology, 142and sodal
143; field of, not identical with
that of other professions dealing with personality, 144; and
reverence for personality, 158;
present-day. 17S; intensive.
present-day,
bear
may be
ar a separate name
later, 176; short-term, 176;
in schools. 196-201; in workhospitals, 210shops, 204; in hospitaIs,
214; in courts, 216; private
practice of, 221; and group
work, 224; and social reforms,
225, 234; and social research,
Iabor cam227, 230; in child labor
paigns, 232-234; and industrial
conditions, 237; and public
officials, 238; under public and
private auspices, 248
Social case workers, increasing
demand for, 250
Social
diagnosis, skill in, saves
SodaI

time, 103-104
Social
Sodal environment: 99; insight
into the resources, dangers, and
influence of the, 102. 103-107;
approach through the. characteristic of case work, 1I I I;
indirect action through the.
illus., 139-142
Social and Ethical I nterpretaental Vevelopment.
Development.
tions
Hons in M
Mental
James Mark Baldwin, 130
Social
Sodal heritage, 147-149
Social
Socia! psychology and social
sodal case
work, 142-143
Social
Sodal reform, 223. 227, 228, 23 I
Social
Sodal relationship: no one, can
serve for all, 1 I I; a key to
client's life, 132; the approach
by way of, 133-134

Sodal
Social research, 224, 227. 230, 251
-253

Sodal
Social settlements, 143, 223. 232
Social Work in Hospitals. Ida M.
Cannon, 213 (footnote)
Sodal
Social work and soda!
social case work,
115

Society the source and origin of


personality, 129-132
Special ability. eudowment
endowment of,
251-254

Spiritual gains, 20-2 I. 68


Staf!
Staff representation on committees of private agendes.
agencies. 249
Stages of development: in social
case work. 154; in medicine,
2 I I ; in the administration of
justice. 215
Standard of Life, The. Mrs. Bernard Bosanquet, 163
Stimulation: and encouragement,
progtam of, 72, 75, 80, 109;
of wants, 166
Story of My Life, The. Helen
KeIler,
Keller, 11-22
Stout. G. F . 162
Stranded travelers, 220
Studies in Good
Cood and Evil. Josiah
Royce, 130
Study of Poetry, A. Bliss Perry,
93 (footnote)
Subsidiary case work, supplementing service of another
profession, 27, 88-89. 214, 259
Suggestion. 73
Sullivan, Anne Mansfield (Mrs.
Macy). 9-25. 40,
4 0 , 95. 107, 117,
224
Summary of ground covered, 255260
Sympathy, two kinds of, 23;

lmagmatlve, 37. 42
Syphilis, 35. 41

Tallentyre. S. G., 6
Teacher and pupil, 160

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

INDEX
Teaching and social
sodal case work,

Van Dyke, Dr. Henry, 151


Vansca, Clara, story of.
of, 59-68;
case of, cited, 108, 109, I13,
1I3,

95, 133, 144

Technique:
and constructive
imagination, 107; versus slogans, 242; and a sense of the
whoIe, 243
whole.
Temperament, 91 (footnote)
Thrift, lessons in, 64-65.
64-65, 67, II4
Thrift.
Trade union a serious interest,

114, 116, 118, 119, 121, 179

Victory Over Blindness.


Sir
Arthur Pearson, 162
Vinogradofi,
Vinogradoff, Sir Paul,
PauI, 202
Visiting Teacher in the United
States, The. A survey by the
National Association
tion of Visiting Teachers and Home and
School Visitors, 200
Visiting teachers, 197-201, 228
Vocational guidance, 206, 220

136

soda! workers, need of,


Trained social
157, 251

soda} work,
Training schools of social
243

Truancy and Non-Attendance in


the Chicago Schools. Abbott
and Breckenridge, 196
Trust estates, administration of.
sodal case work, 219
a field for social
Tuberculosis. 140
Turgenev, Ivan, 187

1 48, 153
Wallas, Graham, 147147-148,
Wants: stimulation of, 166; progressive and higher, 167
Warren, Howard C., 94 (footnote)
Watson, J. B., 94 (footnote), 164
Wider self, theory of the, 131
Widow with children, 68-80
Working homes, 36, 44
Workmen's compensation administration and case work,

Unemployed, the, 154, 208-210.


239-242

Unfavorable conditions, 165-166


Unfit,the,
Unfit,
the, 127-128, 182
Unfolding of Personality, the, as
the Chief A im of Education.
Thistleton Mark, 95 (footnote)
Unwise,service, 167-171

204- 2 06

Workshop, the: and the home,


201-202; case work in, 204, 220
Young, Mr. and Mrs. Rupert,
story of, SI-59;
51-59; case of, cited,

Vaile, Gertrude, 150-151


VaJlery-Radot, Ren,
Rene, 194

lIS,
108, 110, 112, 113, 116, 118,
120, 121,210,239-242

268

Harvard University - Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America / Richmond, Mary Ellen. What is social case work?. New York: Russell
Sage Foundation, 1922.

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