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LTE Air Interface &

Signaling A-Z
Workshop
www.huawei.com

Prepared by: Ramy Khalil


NA NPS Department

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents
1- LTE Uu interface protocol Stack
2- LTE Physical layer Basic concepts and processing procedures

3- LTE Signaling procedures and UE initialization flow


4- LTE Typical signaling procedures

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page1

Contents
1- LTE Uu interface protocol Stack

LTE Protocol stack Introduction

NAS, RRC, PDCP, RLC & MAC Functions

Signal processing in PHY layer

OFDM & SC-FDMA overview

MIMO Introduction.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Introduction
E-UTRA
Uu

UE

1.4MHz, 3MHz,
5MHz, 10MHz,
15MHz, 20MHz

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eNB

Page3

Introduction

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Page4

LTE Control Plane and User Plane


NAS Control
Plane

E-UTRAN

EPC

S1-MME

UE

RRC
Control
Plane

MME
S11

eNB
S1-U
User
Plane

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S5/S8
S-GW

Page5

PDN-GW

Control plan Protocol stack

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Page6

User plan Protocol stack

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Page7

DL & UL Data processing of User Plan

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Page8

DL & UL Signaling processing of


Control Plan

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Page9

Contents
1- LTE Uu interface protocol Stack

LTE Protocol stack Introduction

NAS, RRC, PDCP, RLC & MAC Functions

Signal processing in PHY layer

OFDM & SC-FDMA overview

MIMO Introduction.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page10

NAS Signaling

EMM (EPS Mobility


Management)
MME
ESM (EPS Session
Management)
UE

eNB

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Page11

NAS EMM and ESM Procedures


EMM Procedures

ESM Procedures

Attach

Default EPS Bearer Context Activation

Detach

Dedicated EPS Bearer Context Activation

Tracking Area Update

EPS Bearer Context Modification

Service Request

EPS Bearer Context Deactivation

Extended Service Request

UE Requested PDN Connectivity

GUTI Reallocation

UE Requested PDN Disconnect

Authentication

UE Requested Bearer Resource Allocation

Identification

UE Requested Bearer Resource Modification

Security Mode Control

ESM Information Request

EMM Status

ESM Status

EMM Information
NAS Transport
Paging

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Page12

Radio Resource Control

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Page13

RRC States

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Page14

RRC Signaling Radio Bearer

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Page15

Packet Data Convergence Protocol


Control Plane
Encryption
Integrity Checking
User Plane
IP Header Compression
Encryption
Sequencing and Duplicate Detection

NAS Signaling
RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY
eNB

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Page16

IP Header Compression

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Page17

Radio Link Control


NAS Signaling
TM (Transparent Mode)
UM (Unacknowledged Mode)
AM (Acknowledged Mode)
Segmentation and Re-assembly
Concatenation
Error Correction

RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY
eNB

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Page18

Transmission Modes

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Page19

AM Use ARQ

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Page20

Concatenation & Segmentation

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Page21

Medium Access Control


NAS Signaling
RRC
Channel Mapping and Multiplexing
Error Correction - HARQ
QoS Based Scheduling

PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY
eNB

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Page22

Scheduling

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Page23

Scheduling strategies

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Page24

TB, TTI & Transmission Format

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Page25

HARQ

If receiver demodulate

Receiver will combine

The data in error, it will

retransmitted data

Save the data and

and initial data. If

Feedback NACK

correct, receiver would


feedback ACK.

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Page26

ARQ vs. HARQ


ARQ
Implemented at RLC Layer
Slow Retransmission
Not optimized for Radio Interference

UE

eNB

HARQ
Not New used in HSPA and HSPA+
Implemented at MAC and PHY Layers
Fast Retransmission
Optimized for Radio Interference
Improved system efficiency

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Page27

LTE Channels
Logical
Channels

RLC
MAC

Transport
Channels

PHY
Physical
Channels

Radio
Channel

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Page28

LTE Release 8 Transport Channels


BCH
PCH
DL-SCH
UE

eNB

RACH
UL-SCH

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Page29

Physical Layer
Error Detection
FEC Encoding/Decoding
Rate Matching
Mapping of Physical Channels
Power Weighting
Modulation and Demodulation
Frequency and Time Synchronization
Radio Measurements
MIMO Processing
Transmit Diversity
Beamforming
RF Processing

NAS Signaling
RRC
PDCP
RLC
MAC
PHY

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

eNB

Page30

Contents
1- LTE Uu interface protocol Stack

LTE Protocol stack Introduction

NAS, RRC, PDCP, RLC & MAC Functions

Signal processing in PHY layer

OFDM & SC-FDMA overview

MIMO Introduction.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page31

LTE Transport Channel Processing

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page32

Comment

The term channel coding can be used to describe the overall coding for the
LTE channel. It can also be used to describe one of the individual stages.

LTE channel coding is typically focused on a TB (Transport Block). This is a


block of information which is provided by the upper layer, i.e. MAC (Medium
Access Control). The figure summarizes the typical processes performed by
the PHY (Physical Layer), these include:

CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) attachment for the Transport Block.

Code block segmentation and CRC attachment.

Channel Coding.

Rate Matching.

Code Block Concatenation.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page33

Transport Block CRC

Transport Block

Calculate
CRC

Calculate
CRC

CRC
Compare

Transport Block
Transmitter

CRC

Transport Block
Receiver
Possible radio
interface errors

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Page34

CRC

Comment

The error detection method across the air interface is

based on the addition of a CRC (Cyclic Redundancy


Check). The figure illustrates the basic concept of
attaching a CRC to the Transport Block. The purpose of
the CRC is to detect errors which may have occurred
when the data was being sent. In LTE the CRC is based on
complex parity checking.

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Page35

Code Block CRC Attachment and


Segmentation
Transport Block CRC
Transport Block

CRC

CRC
Code Block #1

Code Block #2

Filler Bits

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Code Block #3
Code Block CRC

Page36

Comment

The next stage in the processing of the transport block is

code block segmentation and CRC attachment. The figure


illustrates the concept of code block segmentation. This
process ensures that the size of each block is compatible
with later stages of processing, i.e. the turbo interleaver.
In addition, each code bock (segment) has a CRC included
for the turbo coding.

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Page37

Channel Coding
Transport Channel Coding Options
Transport Channel

Coding Method

Rate

Turbo Coding

1/3

Tail Biting Convolutional Coding

1/3

DL-SCH
UL-SCH
PCH
MCH
BCH

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Page38

Comment

Channel coding in LTE facilitates FEC (Forward Error Correction) across the air interface.
There are four main types:

Repetition Coding

Block Coding.

Tail Biting Convolutional Coding.

Turbo Coding.

The actual method used is linked to the type of LTE transport channel or the control
information type.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page39

Comment

The actual LTE tail biting convolutional coder is shown in

the figure. There are six shift registers and hence 6bits are
required to initialize the coder. The input bit stream is
identified by ck, dk(0), dk(1) and dk(2) correspond to the first,
second and third parity streams, respectively.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page41

Comment1

Turbo coding defines a high-performance FEC mechanism.

The term Turbo coding can be used to describe many


different types of encoders. For example, in LTE the turbo
encoder is known as a PCCC (Parallel Concatenated
Convolutional Code) and it has two 8 state constituent
encoders and one contention-free QPP (Quadratic
Permutation Polynomial) turbo code internal interleaver.
As previously mentioned, the coding rate of the LTE turbo

encoder is 1/3.
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Page43

Comment2

i.e. for each input bit, three bits are produced. The structure of a

turbo encoder is illustrated in the figure.

The LTE turbo encoder employs two recursive convolutional encoders


connected in parallel, with the QPP turbo interleaver preceding the
second encoder. The outputs of the constituent encoders are
punctured and repeated to achieve the correct output. It can be seen
that the turbo coder encodes the input block twice, i.e. with and
without interleaving, to generate two distinct sets of parity bits.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page44

Rate Matching
dk(0)

Sub-block
Interleaver

vk(0)

dk(1)

Sub-block
Interleaver

vk(1)

dk(2)

Sub-block
Interleaver

vk(2)

Virtual
Circular
Buffer
Bit
wk
Bit Selection
Collection
and Pruning

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Page45

ek

Comment

The rate matching for turbo coded transport channels is

defined per coded block and consists of interleaving the


three information bit streams dk(0), dk(1) and dk(2), followed
by the collection of bits and the generation of a circular
buffer as illustrated in the figure.

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Page46

Code Block Concatenation


Code Block CRC Attachment and Segmentation
3800bits

4200bits

3840bits

4224bits

Channel Coding

Channel Coding

Rate Matching

Rate Matching

Code Block Concatenation


ek

ek

fk

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Page47

Comment

Code block concatenation effectively concatenates the

previously segmented code blocks.

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Page48

OFDM Signal Generation


Codewords

Scrambling

Layers
Modulation
Mapper
Layer
Mapper

Scrambling

Antenna
Ports
Resource
Element
Mapper

OFDM
Signal
Generation

Resource
Element
Mapper

OFDM
Signal
Generation

Precoding

Modulation
Mapper

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page49

Comment

There are various Physical Layer stages involved in the

generation of the downlink and uplink signals. The figure


illustrates the possible stages for a PDSCH.

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Page50

Scrambling
Interference

F1

F1

No
Scrambling
PRB

PRB
Less
Interference

eNB

PRB

Cell RNTI
specific
scrambling

eNB

PRB

The scrambling feature statistically improves the interference by scrambling the


information with a scrambling code based on the physical cell ID and RNTI.
Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page51

Comment

This stage is applied to the signal in order to provide

interference rejection properties. Scrambling effectively


randomizes interfering signals using a pseudo-random
scrambling process. The figure illustrates the concept of
scrambling, showing a Physical Resource Block on each of
the cells using the same frequency.

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Page52

Modulation Mapper
BPSK

QPSK

Q
1
-1
1

Q
0

1
-1

16QAM
Q

10

-1
11

00

1
-1

01

1011

1001

0001

0011

1010

1000

0000

0010

-3

-1

1110

1100

0100

0110

1111

1101

0101

0111

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-1

-3

Page53

Comment

The modulation mapper converts the scrambled bits to

complex-valued modulation symbols (BPSK, QPSK,


16QAM or 64QAM).

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Page54

64 QAM Modulation Mapper


64QAM
Q
7

101111

101101

100101

100111

000111

000101

001101

001111

101110

101100

100100

100110

000110

000100

001100

001110

101010

101000

100000

100010

000010

000000

001000

001010

101011

101001

100001

100011

000011

000001

001001

001011

-7

-5

-3

-1

111011

111001

110001

110011

010011

010001

011001

011011

111010

111000

110000

110010

010010

010000

011000

011010

111110

111100

110100

110110

010110

010100

011100

011110

111111

111101

110101

110111

010111

010101

011101

011111

5
3
1

-1
-3
-5
-7

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Page55

Codeword, Layer and Antenna Port


Mapping
Codeword
Rank 1
1

Rank 2
1

Rank 3
1

Rank 4
2

1 Layer

2 Layers

3 Layers

4 Layers

1, 2 or 4
Antenna
Ports

2 or 4
Antenna
Ports

4 Antenna
Ports

4 Antenna
Ports

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Page56

Comment1

To Map codeword into different antennas

Prior to identifying the various stages it is worth clarifying

the concept of codewords, layers and antenna ports. The


use of layers and multiple antenna ports is related to
diversity and MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). In
addition, the term rank is typically applied to the
number of layers.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page57

Comment2

In LTE, when discussing the Physical Layer processing, a codeword

corresponds to a TB (Transport Block). One or two codewords can be


used and these are mapped onto layers. The number of layers can vary
from one up to a maximum which is equal to the number of antenna
ports. When there is one codeword, i.e. one transport block, a single
layer is used. In contrast, two codewords, i.e. two transport blocks, can
be used with two or more layers.

It is important to note that the number of modulation symbols on each


layer needs to be the same. As such, when operating with three layers,
the second codeword is twice as large as the first. This can be achieved

due to the supported TB sizes and the other Physical Layer stages.

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Page58

Comment

The next stage is precoding the complex-valued modulation symbols on each


layer for transmission. The figure illustrates the different precoding options:

Single Antenna Port.

Transmit Diversity.

Spatial Multiplexing - This includes two options, i.e. with CDD (Cyclic
Delay Diversity) and without.

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Page60

Comment

Following on from the precoding stage the resource

element mapper maps the complex-valued symbols to the


allocated resources.

Frequency selective scheduling is used to choose best


frequency for some Ues, to map the bits into the
frequency with good radio conditions, so it take channel
quality into consideration

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page62

Contents
1- LTE Uu interface protocol Stack

LTE Protocol stack Introduction

NAS, RRC, PDCP, RLC & MAC Functions

Signal processing in PHY layer

OFDM & SC-FDMA Overview

MIMO Introduction.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page63

General Revision

OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access)
OFDM is a type of Multi-Carrier Transmission.
OFDM is a special case of FDM Technology.

It is a way of FDM but with the condition of orthogonality


OFDM is the DL Accessing Technique for LTE.

Think About the benefits?


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Page64

Frequency Division Multiplexing


Guard Band

Subcarrier

Frequency
Channel
Bandwidth

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Page65

Comment

OFDM is based on FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) and is a

method whereby multiple frequencies are used to simultaneously


transmit information. The figure illustrates an example of FDM with
four subcarriers. These can be used to carry different information and

to ensure that each subcarrier does not interfere with the adjacent
subcarrier, a guard band is utilized. In addition, each subcarrier has
slightly different radio characteristics and this may be used to provide

diversity.

FDM systems are not that spectrally efficient (when compared to


other systems) since multiple subcarrier guard bands are required.

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Page66

OFDM Subcarriers
Orthogonal
Subcarriers

Centre Subcarrier
Not Orthogonal

Frequency
Channel
Bandwidth

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Page67

Comment

OFDM follows the same concept as FDM but it drastically increases

spectral efficiency by reducing the spacing between the subcarriers.


The figure illustrates how the subcarriers can overlap due to their
orthogonality with the other subcarriers, i.e. the subcarriers are

mathematically perpendicular to each other. As such, when a


subcarrier is at its maximum the two adjacent subcarriers are passing
through zero. In addition, OFDM systems still employ guard bands.

These are located at the upper and lower parts of the channel and
reduce adjacent channel interference.

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Page68

Inverse Fast Fourier Transform


Subcarrier
Modulation

Coded
Bits

Serial
to
Parallel

Inverse Fast
Fourier
Transform

IFFT

RF

Complex
Waveform

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Page69

Comment

OFDM subcarriers are generated and decoded using

mathematical functions called FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)


and IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform). The IFFT is used
in the transmitter to generate the waveform. The figure
illustrates how the coded data is first mapped to parallel
streams before being modulated and processed by the
IFFT.

IFFT is used to convert signal from frequency domain into

time domain
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Page70

Fast Fourier Transform


Subcarrier
Demodulation
Fast Fourier
Transform

Receiver

FFT

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Parallel
Coded
to
Bits
Serial

Page71

Comment

At the receiver side, this signal is passed to the FFT which

analyses the complex/combined waveform into the


original streams. The figure illustrates the FFT process.

FFT is used to convert signal from time domain into


frequency domain

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Page72

OFDM Symbol Mapping


Modulated
OFDM
Symbol

Time

Amplitude
Cyclic
Prefix

Frequency
OFDM
Symbol

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Page73

Comment

The mapping of OFDM symbols to subcarriers is

dependent on the system design. The figure illustrates an


example of OFDM mapping. The first 12 modulated
OFDM symbols are mapped to 12 subcarriers, i.e. they are
transmitted at the same time but using different
subcarriers. The next 12 subcarriers are mapped to the
next OFDM symbol period. In addition, a CP (Cyclic Prefix)
is added between the symbols.

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Page74

Inter Symbol Interference


1st Received
Signal

Delayed
Signal

Interference
Caused

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Page75

Comment

The delayed signal can manifest itself as ISI (Inter Symbol

Interference), whereby one symbol impacts the next.

ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) is typically reduced with

equalizers. However, for the equalizer to be effective a


known bit pattern or training sequence is required.
However, this reduces the system capacity, as well as
impacts processing on a device. Instead, OFDM systems
employ a CP (Cyclic Prefix).

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Page76

OFDM & SC-FDMA

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Page77

OFDM
Peak to Average Power Ratio
PAPR (Peak to Average
Power Ratio) Issue
Amplitude

OFDM
Symbol

Peak
Average
Time

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page78

Contents
1- LTE Uu interface protocol Stack

LTE Protocol stack Introduction

RRC, PDCP, RLC & MAC Functions

Signal processing in PHY layer

OFDM & SC-FDMA overview

MIMO Introduction

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page79

MIMO Historical Overview

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Overview

Multi antenna systems is the use of multiple receive and/or transmit antennas

If one transmitting and many receiving, is called SIMO(single input multi output)

If many transmitting and one receiving, is called MISO(multi input single output)

If many transmitting and many receiving, is called MIMO(multi input multi output)

Multi antenna techniques are used to increase system performance including

capacity, coverage, QoS.

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Benefit of MIMO

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MIMO Channel Model

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MIMO Modes

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Page84

UL MIMO Technology

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Page85

Comment

No Spatial Multiplexing in UL because no mobiles with multiple

antennas

UL MU-MIMO used to improve UL cell throughput.

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Page86

Beam Forming

The idea of beam forming is to direct the antenna


radiation pattern towards a certain group of users in a
certain place

This is done by multiplying by a certain pre-coding


Matrix calculated from user feedback about the channel
spatial characteristics

Beam Forming increases the SINR and decreases the


interference

It is not used till now in any operator

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MIMO Transmission modes

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Page88

Adaptive MIMO scheme

CQI, RI & PMI


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Page89

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.