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Tension

Members

Temporary Platform for Vehicles

Industrial building

Wind bracing

Direction of Wind load

Outline
Introduction
Section Properties
Gross Area
Net Area

Non-staggered arrangement of fastener holes


Staggered arrangement of fastener holes

Tension Capacity

Symmetrically connected members


Angles connected by one leg and other unsymmetrically connected members
Unequal angles connected by one leg

Slenderness Limit
Examples

Example TM-1(a) (Splicing of flat bars with non-staggered bolt arrangement)


Example TM-1(b) (Splicing of flat bars with staggered bolt arrangement)
Example TM-2(a) (Unequal angle bolted to its longer leg)
Example TM-2(b) (Unequal angle bolted to its shorter leg)
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Introduction
Design of tension member is essentially to provide sufficient crosssectional area to resist the applied load.
Connection of tension members is a very important consideration and
will usually govern the design of the member.
The types of connections can be grouped under welds or bolts.
This chapter only covers the determination of the tension resistance of
the member while the design of the connection is covered in the chapter
"Connections".

Section Properties

Section Properties
EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.2.2.1

Gross Area
The gross area A of a cross-section should be
determined using the nominal dimensions.
Holes for fasteners need not be deducted.

EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.2.2.2

Net Area
The net area Anet of a cross-section should be taken as its gross area less appropriate
deductions for all holes and other openings.

Non-Staggered Arrangement of Fastener Holes


When the fastener holes are not staggered, the total area to be deducted for fastener
holes should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross-section
perpendicular to the member axis.
p1
e2

Anet = A nd 0t

p2
d0

n = number of bolts

Plate thickness t

Anet
t

Staggered Arrangement of Fastener Holes


When fastener holes are staggered, the total area to be deducted for fasteners should be
the greater of:
1) the maximum sum of the section areas of the holes
on any line (aa) perpendicular to the member axis

Plate thickness t

Anet = A nd 0t

s2
measured on any zig-zag line (ab)
2) t nd 0
4p

s2
Anet =
A t nd 0t

4
p

p
b

d0

n is the number of holes extending


progressively across the section.

EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.2.2.2(5)

For angles or other members with holes in more than


one plane, the spacing p should be measured along
the centre of thickness of the material

p = ( pa t r ) + ( pb t r ) + 0.5 ( r + 0.5t )

p
pa

t
pb
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Standard dimensions for holes for non-preloaded bolts

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Example: Calculate the net areas for the tensile


failure lines
For minimum Anet, the tensile failure line should pass through as many bolt
holes as possible but using the minimum length of diagonal lines.
The three most probably failure lines:
Anet,1 = 7200 32220 = 5880 mm2.
Anet,2 = 7200 42220 + 220452/(460) = 5778 mm2.
Anet,3 = 7200 52220 + 220452/(460) + 220452/(460)
= 5675 mm2.
control

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1

Tension Capacity

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Tension Capacity
EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.2.3

Symmetrically connected members


The design value of the tension force NEd at each cross section shall satisfy:

N Ed N t , Rd

The design tension resistance Nt,Rd should be taken as smaller of the yielding of the gross
section or rupture of the net section: Nt,Rd = smaller of ( Npl,Rd or NuRd ).
a) the design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section

N pl , Rd =

Af y

M0

M0 = 1.00

NA to SS EN 1993-1-1: 2009

b) the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section at holes for fasteners

N u , Rd =

0.9 Anet f u

M2

M2 = 1.10

NA to SS EN 1993-1-1: 2009

fu = ultimate strength. The 0.9 factor is a reduction coefficient to take into account of unavoidable
eccentricities, stress concentrations etc.

When connection is by welding,

N t , Rd = N pl , Rd

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Mechanical Properties of Steel


Stress f

fu

fy

fu = ultimate stress
fy = yield stress
E = Youngs modulus
E 210 GPa

Strain hardening

Elastic
Plastic

sh

Strain

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Nominal values of yield strength fy & ultimate strength fu


for non-alloy structural steel
EN 10025-2:2004

Nominal
Thickness
[mm]

S235

S275

S355

S450

fy
[MPa]

fu
[MPa]

fy
[MPa]

fu
[MPa]

fy
[MPa]

fu
[MPa]

fy
[MPa]

fu
[MPa]

t 16

235

360

275

410

355

470

450

550

16 < t 40

225

360

265

410

345

470

430

550

40 < t 63

215

360

255

410

335

470

410

550

63 < t < 80

215

360

245

410

325

470

390

550

80 < t < 100

215

360

235

410

315

470

380

550

100 < t < 150

195

350

225

400

295

450

380

530

150 < t < 200

185

340

215

380

285

450

200 < t < 250

175

340

205

380

275

450

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Examples

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Example TM-1(a): Splicing of flat bars with non-staggered bolt arrangement


A flat bar of 120mm width and 20mm thickness is used as a tie (tension member). The flat bar
requires a lap splice along its length using 8 M20 bolts in 22mm diameter holes as shown in
the figure below. Determine the tensile strength of the bar if the steel used is Grade S275.
t = 20
Nt,Rd

Nt,Rd
30
60

Nt,Rd

Nt,Rd

30
40 60

60

60 40

Gross area: A = 120 * 20 = 2400mm2


Net area:

Anet = (120 2 * 22) * 20 = 1520mm2

Thickness t = 20mm 40mm (EN 10025-2)


For S275 steel, fy = 265N/mm2, fu = 410N/mm2
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Design plastic resistance: N pl , Rd =

Af y

M0

Design ultimate resistance: N u , Rd = 0.9

2400 * 265 * 10 3
=
= 636kN
1.00

Anet f u

M2

= 0.9 *

1520 * 410
* 10 3 = 510kN
1.10

Design tensile resistance: N t , Rd = min(636,510) = 510kN

Example TM-1(b): Splicing of flat bars with staggered bolt arrangement


If the same flat bar has a staggered arrangement for the splicing as shown below, determine
the tensile strength of the bar.
t = 20

Nt,Rd

Nt,Rd
a

30
60

Nt,Rd
a

40 60

Nt,Rd

30
60

60

60

60

60

60 40
18

30
60

Nt,Rd
a

40 60

Nt,Rd

30
60

60

60

60

60

60 40

Net area along line a-a: Anet = (120 22) * 20 = 1960mm2


Net area along line b-b: Anet

602
s2
= 1820mm2
= 2400 - 20 2 * 22
= A t nd 0
4 * 60
4p

Anet = min(1960,1820) = 1820mm2

Design plastic resistance:

N pl , Rd =

Af y

M0

Design ultimate resistance: N u , Rd = 0.9

2400 * 265 * 10 3
=
= 636kN
1.00

Anet f u

M2

= 0.9 *

1820 * 410
* 10 3 = 754kN
1.10

Design tension resistance: N t , Rd = min(636,754) = 636kN

Effect of holes can be ignored!

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Eccentric Connections
F

F
e

For angles, channels and T sections, use reduced


tension capacity

Reduction in capacity due to eccentricity is much less


because angle will bend so that the axis aligns with the
line of applied force
P

P
Y

P
Y

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Centroid of
section

Welded bracing connections


Coincident lines of
force (no eccentricity)

Tee chord

30 mm gap
to allow for
welding

Angle bracing

Gusset plate
(6No. bolts)
X-Bracing (back to back or single angle)

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Bolted bracing connections

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Tension Capacity of Angles


EN 1993-1-8 Clause 3.10.3 gives particular rules for Angles connected by one leg
& other unsymmetrically connected members

A single angle in tension connected by a single row of bolts in one leg may be treated as
concentrically loaded over an effective net section for which the design ultimate
resistance should be determined as follows:
with 1 bolt:
with 2 bolts:

N u , Rd =
N u , Rd =

with 3 or more bolts: N u , Rd

2.0(e2 0.5d 0 ) t f u

M2

2 Anet f u
M2

3 Anet f u
=
M2

e1
d0

e2
t
e1

p1

e1

p1

For

Anet = A nd 0t

P1 2.5d0

0.4

0.5

M2 = 1.10 as in EC3

2.5d0 p1 5.0d0 0.1 + 0.12( p1 / d 0 ) 0.3 + 0.08( p1 / d 0 )


P1 5.0d0

0.7

0.7

p1

Part 1-1

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Unequal angles connected by one leg


For unequal-leg angle connected by its long leg, the effective cross-sectional area can be
taken as the gross area of the angle.
N pl , Rd =
b

Effective Section

Aeff f y

M0

Aeff
b

For unequal-leg angle connected by its short leg, the effective cross-sectional area should
be taken as the gross area of an equivalent angle of leg size equal to that of the short leg.
N pl , Rd =
h

Effective Section

Aeff f y

Aeff

M0

h
b

b
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Questions
1. How does the tensile capacity of an angle member connected
through a single leg using bolt connection differs from another
identical member connected using weld connection?
2. For an unequal-leg angle connected by its smaller leg, the
effective (net) area should be taken as equal to the gross/net
cross-sectional area of an equivalent equal-leg angle of the leg
size equal to that of the smaller leg. Why?

Slenderness Limit
Tension members transfer load very efficiently and thus they tend to
have relatively small cross-section.
The slenderness of tension members is limited for practical reasons
in order to prevent excessive deflection owing to member self-weight or
wind gusting, or damage during transportation.
A suitable limit would be = L/imin = 300 for main members, and =
400 for secondary members.
L = member length
imin = minimum radius of gyration

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Eccentrically Connected Member But


Design as Concentrated Loaded Member
Example:
Angle member connected on one leg

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Example TM-2(a): Unequal angle bolted to its longer leg


Determine the tensile strength a 125x75x10 unequal angle that is bolted to its longer leg by a
row of 3 M20 bolts in 22mm diameter holes as shown below. The steel used is Grade S355.

125

22
10
75

100

100

Gross area: A = 1910mm2


Net area:

Anet = 1910 22 * 10 = 1690mm2

Thickness t = 10mm 16mm (EN 10025-2). For S355 steel, fy = 355N/mm2, fu = 470N/mm2

1910 * 355 * 10 3
Design plastic resistance: N pl , Rd =
=
= 678kN
1.00
M0
p
100
= 0.664
Reduction factor for angles bolted on one leg: 3 = 0.3 + 0.08 1 = 0.3 + 0.08
d0
22
3 Anet f u 0.664 * 1690 * 470
=
=
N u ,Rd =
* 103 479kN
Design ultimate resistance:
M2
1.10
Af y

=
N t ,Rd min(678,479)
= 479kN
Design tensile resistance:

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Example TM-2(b): Unequal angle bolted to its shorter leg


Determine the tensile strength a 125x75x10 unequal angle that is bolted to its shorter leg by a
row of 3 M20 bolts as shown below. The steel used is Grade S355.
75

22

10
125

100

100

Effective area: Aeff (75 * 10 + (75 10) * 10) = 1400mm2


Net area:

Anet = 1400 22 * 10 = 1180mm2

Thickness t = 10mm 16mm (EN 10025-2). For S355 steel, fy = 355N/mm2, fu = 470N/mm2
Design plastic resistance: N pl , Rd =

Aeff f y

M0

1400 * 355 * 10 3
=
= 497kN
1.00

p
100
= 0.664
Reduction factor for angles bolted on one leg: 3 = 0.3 + 0.08 1 = 0.3 + 0.08
d
22
0
(with 3 or more bolts)

=
N u ,Rd
Design ultimate resistance:

3 Anet f u 0.664 * 1180 * 470


=
=
* 103 335kN
M2
1.10

=
N t ,Rd min(497,335)
= 335kN
Design tensile resistance:

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