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Tension Member

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Members

Industrial building

Wind bracing

Outline

Introduction

Section Properties

Gross Area

Net Area

Staggered arrangement of fastener holes

Tension Capacity

Angles connected by one leg and other unsymmetrically connected members

Unequal angles connected by one leg

Slenderness Limit

Examples

Example TM-1(b) (Splicing of flat bars with staggered bolt arrangement)

Example TM-2(a) (Unequal angle bolted to its longer leg)

Example TM-2(b) (Unequal angle bolted to its shorter leg)

4

Introduction

Design of tension member is essentially to provide sufficient crosssectional area to resist the applied load.

Connection of tension members is a very important consideration and

will usually govern the design of the member.

The types of connections can be grouped under welds or bolts.

This chapter only covers the determination of the tension resistance of

the member while the design of the connection is covered in the chapter

"Connections".

Section Properties

Section Properties

EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.2.2.1

Gross Area

The gross area A of a cross-section should be

determined using the nominal dimensions.

Holes for fasteners need not be deducted.

Net Area

The net area Anet of a cross-section should be taken as its gross area less appropriate

deductions for all holes and other openings.

When the fastener holes are not staggered, the total area to be deducted for fastener

holes should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross-section

perpendicular to the member axis.

p1

e2

Anet = A nd 0t

p2

d0

n = number of bolts

Plate thickness t

Anet

t

When fastener holes are staggered, the total area to be deducted for fasteners should be

the greater of:

1) the maximum sum of the section areas of the holes

on any line (aa) perpendicular to the member axis

Plate thickness t

Anet = A nd 0t

s2

measured on any zig-zag line (ab)

2) t nd 0

4p

s2

Anet =

A t nd 0t

4

p

p

b

d0

progressively across the section.

one plane, the spacing p should be measured along

the centre of thickness of the material

p = ( pa t r ) + ( pb t r ) + 0.5 ( r + 0.5t )

p

pa

t

pb

9

10

failure lines

For minimum Anet, the tensile failure line should pass through as many bolt

holes as possible but using the minimum length of diagonal lines.

The three most probably failure lines:

Anet,1 = 7200 32220 = 5880 mm2.

Anet,2 = 7200 42220 + 220452/(460) = 5778 mm2.

Anet,3 = 7200 52220 + 220452/(460) + 220452/(460)

= 5675 mm2.

control

23

1

Tension Capacity

12

Tension Capacity

EN 1993-1-1 Clause 6.2.3

The design value of the tension force NEd at each cross section shall satisfy:

N Ed N t , Rd

The design tension resistance Nt,Rd should be taken as smaller of the yielding of the gross

section or rupture of the net section: Nt,Rd = smaller of ( Npl,Rd or NuRd ).

a) the design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section

N pl , Rd =

Af y

M0

M0 = 1.00

NA to SS EN 1993-1-1: 2009

b) the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section at holes for fasteners

N u , Rd =

0.9 Anet f u

M2

M2 = 1.10

NA to SS EN 1993-1-1: 2009

fu = ultimate strength. The 0.9 factor is a reduction coefficient to take into account of unavoidable

eccentricities, stress concentrations etc.

N t , Rd = N pl , Rd

13

Stress f

fu

fy

fu = ultimate stress

fy = yield stress

E = Youngs modulus

E 210 GPa

Strain hardening

Elastic

Plastic

sh

Strain

14

for non-alloy structural steel

EN 10025-2:2004

Nominal

Thickness

[mm]

S235

S275

S355

S450

fy

[MPa]

fu

[MPa]

fy

[MPa]

fu

[MPa]

fy

[MPa]

fu

[MPa]

fy

[MPa]

fu

[MPa]

t 16

235

360

275

410

355

470

450

550

16 < t 40

225

360

265

410

345

470

430

550

40 < t 63

215

360

255

410

335

470

410

550

63 < t < 80

215

360

245

410

325

470

390

550

215

360

235

410

315

470

380

550

195

350

225

400

295

450

380

530

185

340

215

380

285

450

175

340

205

380

275

450

15

Examples

16

A flat bar of 120mm width and 20mm thickness is used as a tie (tension member). The flat bar

requires a lap splice along its length using 8 M20 bolts in 22mm diameter holes as shown in

the figure below. Determine the tensile strength of the bar if the steel used is Grade S275.

t = 20

Nt,Rd

Nt,Rd

30

60

Nt,Rd

Nt,Rd

30

40 60

60

60 40

Net area:

For S275 steel, fy = 265N/mm2, fu = 410N/mm2

17

Af y

M0

2400 * 265 * 10 3

=

= 636kN

1.00

Anet f u

M2

= 0.9 *

1520 * 410

* 10 3 = 510kN

1.10

If the same flat bar has a staggered arrangement for the splicing as shown below, determine

the tensile strength of the bar.

t = 20

Nt,Rd

Nt,Rd

a

30

60

Nt,Rd

a

40 60

Nt,Rd

30

60

60

60

60

60

60 40

18

30

60

Nt,Rd

a

40 60

Nt,Rd

30

60

60

60

60

60

60 40

Net area along line b-b: Anet

602

s2

= 1820mm2

= 2400 - 20 2 * 22

= A t nd 0

4 * 60

4p

N pl , Rd =

Af y

M0

2400 * 265 * 10 3

=

= 636kN

1.00

Anet f u

M2

= 0.9 *

1820 * 410

* 10 3 = 754kN

1.10

19

Eccentric Connections

F

F

e

tension capacity

because angle will bend so that the axis aligns with the

line of applied force

P

P

Y

P

Y

21

Centroid of

section

Coincident lines of

force (no eccentricity)

Tee chord

30 mm gap

to allow for

welding

Angle bracing

Gusset plate

(6No. bolts)

X-Bracing (back to back or single angle)

22

23

EN 1993-1-8 Clause 3.10.3 gives particular rules for Angles connected by one leg

& other unsymmetrically connected members

A single angle in tension connected by a single row of bolts in one leg may be treated as

concentrically loaded over an effective net section for which the design ultimate

resistance should be determined as follows:

with 1 bolt:

with 2 bolts:

N u , Rd =

N u , Rd =

2.0(e2 0.5d 0 ) t f u

M2

2 Anet f u

M2

3 Anet f u

=

M2

e1

d0

e2

t

e1

p1

e1

p1

For

Anet = A nd 0t

P1 2.5d0

0.4

0.5

M2 = 1.10 as in EC3

P1 5.0d0

0.7

0.7

p1

Part 1-1

24

For unequal-leg angle connected by its long leg, the effective cross-sectional area can be

taken as the gross area of the angle.

N pl , Rd =

b

Effective Section

Aeff f y

M0

Aeff

b

For unequal-leg angle connected by its short leg, the effective cross-sectional area should

be taken as the gross area of an equivalent angle of leg size equal to that of the short leg.

N pl , Rd =

h

Effective Section

Aeff f y

Aeff

M0

h

b

b

25

26

Questions

1. How does the tensile capacity of an angle member connected

through a single leg using bolt connection differs from another

identical member connected using weld connection?

2. For an unequal-leg angle connected by its smaller leg, the

effective (net) area should be taken as equal to the gross/net

cross-sectional area of an equivalent equal-leg angle of the leg

size equal to that of the smaller leg. Why?

Slenderness Limit

Tension members transfer load very efficiently and thus they tend to

have relatively small cross-section.

The slenderness of tension members is limited for practical reasons

in order to prevent excessive deflection owing to member self-weight or

wind gusting, or damage during transportation.

A suitable limit would be = L/imin = 300 for main members, and =

400 for secondary members.

L = member length

imin = minimum radius of gyration

27

Design as Concentrated Loaded Member

Example:

Angle member connected on one leg

28

Determine the tensile strength a 125x75x10 unequal angle that is bolted to its longer leg by a

row of 3 M20 bolts in 22mm diameter holes as shown below. The steel used is Grade S355.

125

22

10

75

100

100

Net area:

Thickness t = 10mm 16mm (EN 10025-2). For S355 steel, fy = 355N/mm2, fu = 470N/mm2

1910 * 355 * 10 3

Design plastic resistance: N pl , Rd =

=

= 678kN

1.00

M0

p

100

= 0.664

Reduction factor for angles bolted on one leg: 3 = 0.3 + 0.08 1 = 0.3 + 0.08

d0

22

3 Anet f u 0.664 * 1690 * 470

=

=

N u ,Rd =

* 103 479kN

Design ultimate resistance:

M2

1.10

Af y

=

N t ,Rd min(678,479)

= 479kN

Design tensile resistance:

29

Determine the tensile strength a 125x75x10 unequal angle that is bolted to its shorter leg by a

row of 3 M20 bolts as shown below. The steel used is Grade S355.

75

22

10

125

100

100

Net area:

Thickness t = 10mm 16mm (EN 10025-2). For S355 steel, fy = 355N/mm2, fu = 470N/mm2

Design plastic resistance: N pl , Rd =

Aeff f y

M0

1400 * 355 * 10 3

=

= 497kN

1.00

p

100

= 0.664

Reduction factor for angles bolted on one leg: 3 = 0.3 + 0.08 1 = 0.3 + 0.08

d

22

0

(with 3 or more bolts)

=

N u ,Rd

Design ultimate resistance:

=

=

* 103 335kN

M2

1.10

=

N t ,Rd min(497,335)

= 335kN

Design tensile resistance:

30

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