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Solar Lighting Systems



The project is done and submitted for the fulfillment of the
Award of the degree
Electronics and Communication Engineering
Under the Guidance of

ADITYA B (097F1A0402)
B NARESH (097F1A0409)
G NARESH (097F1A0410)

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This is to certify that the project report title SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM is being submitted
by ADITYA B (097F1A0402), B NARESH (097F1A0409), G NARESH (097F1A0410), K
RAVI TEJA REDDY (097F1A0419) in partial fulfillment of the award of

Bachelor of

Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering, to Vishwa Bharathi Institute Of

Technology & Sciences is a record of bonafide work carried out by them under my guidance and
The results presented in this project have been verified and are found to be satisfactory.
They have not been submitted to any other University for the award of any degree or diploma
up to my knowledge.






Dr. D.Maheswar Reddy

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Self Confidence, hard work, commitment and planning are essential to carry out any
task. Possessing these qualities is sheer waste, if an opportunity does not exist. So, we whole
heartedly thank Mr C.ASHOK VISHNU Head of The Department, Electronics and
Communication Engineering for his encouraging support and guidance in carrying out the
We thank our project guide, Mr. GANESH for providing us with an excellent project
and guiding us in completing our project successfully.
We would also like to express our sincere thanks to all the staff of ECE Department, VBITS
for their kind cooperation and timely help during the course of our project. Finally, we would
like to thank our parents and friends who have always stood with us whenever we were in need
of them.

ADITYA B (097F1A0402)
B NARESH (097F1A0409)
G NARESH (097F1A0410)
Electronics & Communication Engineering (VBITS)

Solar Lighting Systems
























Electronics & Communication Engineering (VBITS)


Solar Lighting Systems






























Electronics & Communication Engineering (VBITS)


Solar Lighting Systems

Electronics & Communication Engineering (VBITS)


Solar Lighting Systems


Electronics & Communication Engineering (VBITS)


Solar Lighting Systems

The conventional energy supplied by the electricity department is not able to meet the
demand, & because of the power deficiency people are accepting power cuts. Particularly at
domestic side many groups of people are facing many problems because of frequent power cuts,
to avoid this problem alternative source is essential. In this regard this project work is taken up,
which is aimed to utilize solar energy for driving the basic domestic loads like ceiling fan, TV,
tube light, etc. The Solar Lighting System designed with power MOSFETS and PWM chip is
aimed to utilize solar energy, by which any low power domestic electrical appliance stated
above can be energized when required.
Since it is a prototype module, the solar panel & battery used here is not sufficient run the
appliances continuously, to run the devices continuously huge rating panels and batteries are
essential. The solar Lighting system designed here can be utilized to drive a maximum load of
80Watts. The prototype module contains all required devices including 10W panel & 7.5AH
battery, which makes the system as real working. The first & important application is to run a
ceiling fan, for this purpose single phase supply is generated from 12V battery, latest technology
is implemented such that if required fan speed can be varied linearly by switching the power
MOSFETS through PWM chip. Here high efficiency inverter is designed to minimize the
energy losses.
The solar panel used in the project work can deliver a maximum current of one amp under
the bright Sun & this energy is used for charging the battery. This system is designed to deliver
220V ac from 12V DC source availed from the battery. For this purpose high power
rechargeable battery is used as back-up source, there by the system can be used to drive the load
when required. The concept is to generate conventional energy from non-conventional energy
resource. In this regard, the system is designed to drive 60 to 80W loads. This system is quite
useful for remote areas, where the availability of main power is critical.

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As the availability of fossil fuel declines, there is need to find alternate energy sources,
of the many sources, solar energy available in abundance and renewable is the ultimate source
of all known forms of energy. It is clear, safe, and free, does not pollute the environment and
thus will be an extremely viable alternative in the days to come.
One way to utilize the solar energy is to generate electricity directly from the sunlight by
photovoltaic conversion. Since photovoltaic modules have now become extensively available in
the country. Solar energy has long been regarded as an ideal energy source but for the fact that
we knew little to tap or use it to our advantage. The advancement in science and technology
brought out by mankind had lead to developments like the photovoltaic cell. Solar panels
comprise of a number of such P V Cells. The output of the Solar Panel is proportional to the
intensity of incident radiation from the sun.
As the power generated is dependent on incident radiation and also the intensity varies with
time and season at a particular point, the efficiency of the fixed system is far less to exploit
commercially. As this system is designed as prototype module, here panel is set to a fixed angle
and it will not move according to the Sun direction. The panel used in the project work can
deliver a maximum power of 10 watts under the bright Sun.
Solar energy is increasingly used these days for wide variety of applications, in this regard
this project work is considered, which is aimed to design a low cost solar lighting system for
domestic applications. As this project work mainly exposes about solar energy, it is essential to
learn about solar radiation & photovoltaic (PV) systems. The detailed description about PV cells
& solar energy is provided in the following chapters.
Solar energy, with its virtually infinite potential and free availability, represents a nonpolluting and endless or inexhaustible energy source which can be developed to meet the energy
needs of mankind in a major way. The high cost, fast depleting fossil fuels and the public
concern about the eco-friendly power generation of power have led to a surge of interest in the

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utilization of solar energy. To evaluate the energy potential at particular place, detailed
information on its availability is essential. These include data on solar intensity, spectrum,
incident angle and cloudiness as a function of time.
The utilization of solar energy is increasing day by day, because the cost of solar panels is
reducing slowly. In 2005 the cost of solar panel was Rs: 200/- per watt, but today the same
panel is available for Rs: 140/-, this cost may further reduce in feature, because more
manufacturers are entering in to this field. But even today, unfortunately, energy provided by
solar panels is more expensive then using conventional energy sources, so it is important to
increase the production & reduce the panel cost. One main draw back is efficiency; the output of
the panel is very poor when compared with input, so it is important to increase the efficiency of
the PV cells. There are two ways to enhance the utility, one is by developing cheaper and more
efficient solar panels and the other method is by improving the efficiency of the system by
optimizing the operating conditions. Another important factor is long life of the panel.
As the initial expenditure is more, a long lifetime is expected to recover the cost of the
system both in financial and energy expenditure. Presently the panel manufacturers are offering
15 years life to their panels; few of them are claiming that their panels can work up to 20 years.
So validation of the panel is important by comparison of different technologies. Panels must be
tested perfectly before they install, for this reason proper testing equipment & methods are
essential for various reasons. One main reason is to measure the working power at different
conditions. The solar panel testing should be done close to the operating conditions. The
measurement system can be designed to determine the electrical parameters of a PV cell. The
main function of the solar panel is to utilize the solar energy by generating electricity directly
from the sunlight by photovoltaic conversion. Since photovoltaic modules have now become
extensively available in the country, they can be used for different applications there by burden
on the grid can be reduced to some extent.
Now coming to the project work, In order to generate 230V ac from 12V battery for the
inverter application, the best method of inverter with higher efficiency technique is to be
evolved which shall be high efficient, less power consumption, easy interface, and modular
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design. For this purpose an IC 3524 based (pulse width modulator) circuit is designed which can
work on a 12V sealed maintenance free battery there by it can provide an uninterruptible power
supply. The main function of this system is to provide power to the low power home appliances
like fan, TV, light, etc., because the system designed here can generate less power. During day
time, the battery gets charged and the appliance will be energized when required.
Initially the AC pulses at 50Hz in the form of square waves are generated from the inverter
chip; this device generates duel inverted outputs. The output of the oscillator is amplified in
terms of voltage and current, the drive circuit is designed with power mosfets & main output
transformer, & it is configured as push-pull amplifier. With the help of a duty cycle control
circuit interfaced with 3524 chip, output voltage can be controlled linearly.
The solar panel used in this project work generates unregulated output, this voltage as it is
can not be used to charge the battery, this panel generates the maximum voltage of 19V under
the bright Sun, and if the battery is charged with this voltage it may spoil due to excess voltage
charging. There by the panel output is regulated & the battery is charged with a constant voltage
source of 13.5V. The detailed description of the power source is described in following chapters.


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Figure 1

The block diagram and its description of the project work Solar Lighting System is
explained as per the individual blocks. The functional description of each block as per the main
block diagram is explained.


The solar panel used in this project work is rated for 0.8 Amps; it generates a maximum
power of 10 watts under the bright sun. Solar panels consisting of photo voltaic (PV) cells
convert the solar energy in to electrical energy. The electrical energy produced by the solar panel
is stored in the battery, and the stored energy is used to drive the load through system. This is the
main function of the system.
The photovoltaic effect is defined as the generation of an electromotive force as a result
of the absorption of ionizing radiation. Energy conversion devices, which are used to convert

sunlight to electricity by the use of the photovoltaic effect, are called solar cells.
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The solar panel used in this project work is designed to deliver a maximum voltage of 19
under the bright Sun; this is known as no load voltage, when it is loaded, the voltage may fall
down according to the load applied to the panel. As per the ratings specified by the panel
manufacturer, when a 10watts load is connected across the panel terminals, then the voltage may
fall down by less then 13V. This voltage varies according to the load applied to the panel. As the
battery consumes total power when it is in discharge condition, & though the panel output is
regulated, the voltage may fall down by less then 13V, as the battery is charging slowly, the
terminal voltage level boosts & charging current will be reduced gradually. As the charging
current reduced, battery terminal voltage will be increased, & this voltage reaches to a maximum
level of 13.5V, because panel out put is regulated by 13.5V. As the panel out put will not exceeds
beyond 13.5V, the battery will be charged with this constant voltage.

3.2 V.C.O
As described above, the panel voltage is not stable, it varies based on many factors, the
first reason is availability of solar energy, this is the input source to the solar panel, and if this
source is varied, accordingly panel output also varies. The second reason is that the panel voltage
varies according to the load applied to it. Based on these two reasons, the panel output as it is can
not be used for charging. Therefore here using a voltage regulator circuit, panel output is
regulated at 13.5V. Means under any condition (though the panel is exposed to the bright Sun),
the panel final output voltage will not exceeds more then 13.5V. This regulated source is used to
charge the battery. As the battery is charged with constant voltage source, the life of the battery
can be increased.

The battery used here is rated for 12V at 7.5 AH (Ampere Hour), since low power panel
is used, the battery will take lot of time to charge fully. As the panel generates 0.8Amps under
bright sun, the charging time is defined as, battery rating, i.e. 7.5AH / charging current, i.e.
0.8Amps = 9.3 hours approximately. If the battery is charged with high power panel, charging
time can be reduced. As the solar power is un-stable, the panel may not produce continuous
output, the power output may vary incidentally, there by average power will be always less
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then the rating. There by it is recommended to use high power panels for charging the higher
rating batteries. As it is a prototype module, here less power battery is used.
The battery back-up time can be defined as battery rating / consumed energy by the
system. The system designed here generates 0.3Amps at 220V output, i.e. the power output is
66Watts approximately. When the system is connected with 0.3A load, then the system may
consume nearly 6.5 Amps from the battery, this is the input power. According to the energy
consumed from the battery, the input power is defined as 78 watts. Therefore the system
efficiency is defined as 84.6%. When average power of battery is considered as 6.5Ah, the back
time will be 1 hour approximately. During utilization of battery power (in absence of main
power), if panel is also producing energy then back-up time will be increased slightly. For
example, if a higher rating panel is used, which can generate more then 6.5 amps, irrespective of
battery power, the system consumes energy directly from the panel. Solar cells of semiconductor
materials, most of the panels more then 90% are made of silicon. A number of solar cells
electrically connected to each other and mounted in a single support structure or frame is called a
photovoltaic module..
The battery is charged with constant voltage charger, this circuit is designed with 7815
three terminal voltage regulator chip, as the regulator itself can not generate sufficient current,
with the help of a power transistor configured as series pass regulator, energy produced by the
panel is supplied to the battery at constant voltage. The output of the voltage regulator is applied
to the transistor base; the final output is taken from transistor emitter. The regulator establishes
the base voltage for the transistor, this voltage is stabilized at 15V, but the voltage at the emitter
will be about 0.7V less, and the difference will become grater as the load current increases. In
addition to the above loss, as this circuit contains power diode connected in series with the
charging circuit to prevent from flow of reverse current, another 0.7V drop will be occurred
across the diode junction. After estimating these losses approximately, it is concluded that the
charging circuit is generating nearly 13.5V, means finally the voltage applied to the battery will
be 13.5V. If the battery is fully discharged, then it will consume more power from the panel, in
this condition the voltage may fall down by less then 12V. As the battery is getting charged, the
voltage level will be boosted slowly. Once the battery is charged fully, the battery terminal
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voltage will become equal to the charger voltage, when both levels are equal; battery will not
consume energy from the panel. As the panel generates very less energy of 0.8Amps, & where as
the transistor can with standup to 8Amps, heat sink is not required. The regulator used here can
generate sufficient base current, there by the transistor allows maximum load current through its
junction, i.e. between collector and emitter. The battery used in this project work is known as
lead acid type of rechargeable battery, these batteries are supposed to be charged with constant
voltage chargers. During charging condition, though the battery is fully charged, the battery
terminal voltage should not exceed more then 13.5V, otherwise it may damage due to the excess
voltage charging.
The power P produced by the panel can be calculated easily, initially the battery that
consumes energy from the panel for storing in to it is denoted as product of the voltage & current
(E & I). Thus P = E X I watts, if E is in volts and I in amperes, and the voltage across the battery
terminals can be measured with a volt meter, similarly current can be measured with an ammeter
connected in series with the load. Finally the power is calculated in watts by multiplying voltage
& currents produced by the panel. If the value of the load resistance (battery terminal resistance)
RL is known in ohms, power in watts can also be calculated by use of the formula P = I2 RL or P
= E2 / RL.
This system designed with power mosfets is aimed to generate 230V ac from 12 V dc,
since it is a prototype module a low power system is designed which can deliver a maximum
power of around 70Watts. Since the system consumes more power, the output of the panel is not
sufficient to drive the system. Therefore stored energy is used to energize the load when required.


The oscillator circuit designed with 3524 chip can generate inverted square pulses
at two different output pins of the IC. Based on this signal, the drive stage is configured
in push-pull mode of operation. This circuit consisting of two power mosfets switches the
transformer alternatively; there by continuous output can be obtained from the
transformer secondary. The advantage of generating duel inverted outputs is that the
transformer primary remains in energized condition continuously. As this transformer
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primary is having centre tap, it is divided in to two equal sections, and both sections are
energized continuously one after another. In this regard switching losses can be
The output voltage of the single-phase inverter is roughly square wave and it can be
controlled by means of pulse width Modulation. PWM technique is a control within the
inverter and is also known as variable duty cycle regulation. This method of regulation
employs variation of the conduction time per cycle to alter the RMS output voltage of the
inverter. PWM oscillator is constructed using IC 3524. It consists of built in oscillator,
comparators, error amplifiers and output control circuitry. In this IC, a 5V internal
regulator is also provided. Internally, for the comparators one input is fed with a sawtooth voltage and the other input is fed with a feedback monitoring voltage. As this
inverter is configured in open loop operation PWM technique is not implemented here,
there by output voltage is not regulated. The output voltage will be varied according to
the load applied to the inverter. In our trail runs we found that the system generates
around 240V in no load condition, when the system is connected with rated load of
around 70 watts, the voltage is fallen down by 220V.


The driver stage designed with power mosfets is configured as class B mode of
push-pull amplifier. The advantage of class B push-pull amplifiers are, it provides linear
amplification. Apart from that the DC collector current is less than the peak AC current.
Thus, less collector dissipation results and the efficiency increases. In the project work,
center tapped transformer is used, which supplies two base currents of equal amplitudes
but 1800 out of phase. There by in the first half cycle one MOSFET is off and the other
MOSFET is conducting. Whereas in the second half cycle other MOSFET is conducting
i.e., roles of power MOSFETS are reversed. The current in the conducting MOSFET
flows through the upper half of the primary winding and the resulting time varying flux
in the transformer core induce a voltage in the secondary winding. The voltage in turn
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produces the first half cycle of the current through the load. Similarly, when the
MOSFET roles are changing, the flux in the transformer core in a direction opposite to
the flux of previous half cycle of the load current. The final current of the load under
these conditions is thus directly proportional to the signal current. In practice the load
current would be extremely distorted near the zero crossing. This effect is called cross
over distortion and is due to Gate-source voltage in MOSFET VGS being zero when no
signal is applied. However linear operation of the (transistor) MOSFET begins only
when (base) Gate current is positive enough to cross the cut in voltage. To eliminate the
distortion base-emitter junction is biased at approximately 0.7V. The result is class AB
rather than class B operation but is very close to class B mode. The bias is called the
turn-on bias in practice, one often allows cross over distortion and relies on the
transformer and internal and stray capacitors to filter it out.


The main output transformer used in the driver stage is designed to deliver 0.35
amps current at the secondary. This is a step up transformer and the primary of this
transformer is designed for 12V. This is a center tapped primary transformer and the
primary is wounded with by-filler winding, i.e., the primary is wounded with two copper
enameled wires simultaneously. Starting of the one winding is clubbed with ending of
another wire to form a center tap. The advantage of adopting by-filler winding concept at
primary side of the transformer is to maintain the accurate balance; there by the current
flowing through both sections of primary remains equal.


The complete circuit diagram shown at the end of this chapter is explained in detail, as
the oscillator circuit designed with SGS3524 IC playing major roll, the description is
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concentrated over internal structure of this device. Though the PWM technique is not
implemented here, it is explained well because this device offers good regulated output at lower
voltages. This IC is having 16 pins with all built-in features and this device is used for wide
variety of applications like inverters, converters, switch mode power supplies, etc. The following
are the key points.

It offers wide range frequency output; the frequency can be adjusted from 1Hz to 50 KHz. Pin
numbers 6 & 7 are the frequency compensation pins, by connecting a resistor & capacitor
externally to these pins, frequency can be set to required level. Here the required frequency is
50Hz, according to that the values of RT & CT (Resistor for timing & Capacitor for timing) can
be selected. The capacitor is charged with constant current through a fixed resistor, there by
regulated pulse output can be obtained either from common emitters or common collectors.


The pre-drive stage built in with the chip can able to supply a maximum current of 150ma from
each output, hence additional pre-amplifier to drive the power stage is not required.


As this chip is designed to generate duel inverted outputs, drive stage is configured in pushpull amplifier. The advantage of using this amplifier is that the output transformer remains in
energized condition continuously, thereby continuous output can be achieved from the system.


This chip offers +5V regulated output from pin number 16; this can be used as a reference
voltage for the control circuit. This voltage remains constant irrespective of variations in the
input source.


In this IC pin number 10 is a shut-down pin, always it remains in zero state, whenever any
control circuit generates high signal & it is fed to this pin, automatically output of this chip will
become zero. (As the inverter designed here doesnt contain any protection circuits, this facility
is not used.)


Soft start provision is made in the oscillator circuit, such that the system is protected burning
from sudden switching. This circuit is designed with RC network and it is connected to 9 TH pin,
this is a compensation pin. When the system is switched on, the capacitor charges through
resistor, based on the values of capacitor and resistor, the capacitor will take some time to charge
fully, until then the outputs will not be adjusted to its maximum levels.


The main important feature offered by this chip is varying the duty cycle very linearly. This can
be done by varying the voltage at compensation pin through a potential dividing network
designed with a preset.
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Although many switching techniques can be employed to implement a switched mode power
supply, either it is converter or inverter, the fixed frequency PWM system, a square wave pulse is
normally generated to drive the switching transistor / MOSFETS ON or OFF. By varying the
width of the pulse, the conduction time of the MOSFET is accordingly increased or decreased,
thus regulating the output voltage. The PWM control circuit may be single ended, capable of
driving a single MOSFET converter, such as Fly back or forward. If two or more MOSFETS
have to be driven, as with half-bridge or full-bridge circuits, a dual channel PWM circuit is
necessary. In this project work dual inverted outputs are taken from the PWM IC, so that the
drive stage is designed in push-pull configuration with two power Mosfets.

4.1 General Description of an Integrated PWM controller

In recent years, a number of integrated circuits have been developed which include all the
functions necessary to build a PWM switching power supply in a single package with little
addition of few external components. The basic building blocks of simple PWM controller and
its associated waveforms are shown below.

Figure 1

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Figure 2

An op-amp compares the feed back signal from the output of the power supply to a fixed
reference voltage (V-ref). The error signal is amplified and fed in to the inverting input of a
comparator. The non-inverting input of the comparator accepts a saw-tooth waveform with a
linear slope, generated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The oscillator output is also used to toggle
a flip-flop, producing square wave outputs Q and Q.
The comparator square wave output and the Flip-Flop outputs are both used to drive the AND
gates, enabling each output when both inputs to the gate are high. The result is a variable duty
cycle pulse train at channels A and B. In the above figure shows the output pulse width is
modulated when the error signal changes its amplitude, as detected by the doted lines. Normally
the outputs of the PWM controller are externally buffered to drive the main power switching
power MOSFETS. This type of circuit may be used to drive two transistors / MOSFETS or a
single Transistor / MOSFET. The merits of a PWM controller are pro-found, including the
programmable fixed frequency oscillator, Linear PWM section with duty cycle from 0 to 100
percent, adjustable dead time to prevent output transistor or MOSFET simultaneous conduction,
and above all simplicity, reliability, and cost effectiveness. The PWM control circuit is IC 3524,
which was designed to become the industry standard. These PWM controllers are the heart for
the complete switching power supply design and may be used equally well in single ended or
dual channel applications. The PWM comparator provides a means for the error amplifier to
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adjust the output pulse width from the maximum percent on time, established by the dead-time
control input, down to zero, as the voltage at the feed back varies from 0.5V to 3.5V. The error
amplifier outputs are active high. With this configuration, the amplifier that demands minimum
output on time dominates control of the loop.

4.2 The following are the salient features of PWM controllers

1) Fixed frequency operation, user programmable by a simple RC Network.
2) A variable slope Ramp generator for constant volt per second operation, providing open
loop line regulation and minimizing, or in some cases eliminating the need for feed back
3) A drive switch for low current start-up with direct off-line bias.
4) A precision reference generator with internal over voltage protection
5) Under voltage and over current protection including programmable shutdown and restart.
6) A high current, single ended PWM output optimized for fast turn-off of an external power
7) Logic control for pulse commendable or DC power sequencing
In this IC 3524, the internal linear saw-tooth oscillator is frequency programmable by resistor
RT and capacitor CT (0.1 uF) which are connected to Pins 6 and 7 of the IC. To tune the
frequency, in addition to 100K Resistor, 50K potentio-meter is also connected. The oscillator
frequency f out = 1 / RT CT. The Ramp voltage swings approximately 2.5V to change the
comparator output from 0 to 1, by comparing it to either one of two control signals, i.e., the error
amplifier output or the current limit amplifier output. The error amplifier input range exceeds
beyond 5V, eliminating the need for a pair of dividers, for 5V outputs. To provide a reference
voltage to the error amplifier, the on board 5V regulator provides with an accuracy of 1
percent. In this, the output pulse width modulation is accomplished by steering the resulting
modulated pulse output of the high gain comparator to the PWM latch along with the pulse
steering Flip-Flop, which is synchronously toggled by the oscillator output.

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The PWM latch insures, freedom from multiple pulsing within a period, even in noisy
environments in addition, the shutdown circuit feeds directly to this latch, which will disable the
outputs within 200 n. sec. of activation. The current limit amplifier is a wide-band, high gain
amplifier, which is useful for either linear or pulse by pulse current limiting in the ground or
power supply lines. Its threshold is set at 200mv. An under voltage lockout will disable the
internal circuitry, except the reference, until the input voltage is 8V. This action holds stand by
current low until turn on, simplifies the design of low power, off line switchers. These are the
advantages of this versatile controller, there by this can be used in a variety of Isolated or nonisolated switching power supplies like inverters or converters. Hence, in this project work, this
controller is selected for usage and the inverter is designed using this PWM controller.
The basic concept of pulse width Modulation is given below; In the case of op-amp, when
it is configured in open loop configuration, the output will go to either +V
high gain. The switching of +V


and V



or V


due to its

is, whenever the inverting input is slightly move

than Non-inverting input voltage, the output will be in V


i.e., if inverting input dominates

Non-inverting input, immediately the output will be V sat. The V sat will be V 1.5V. Similarly,
if the non-inverting voltage is slightly more over the inverting input voltage, the output voltage
will be +V sat. Thus, the output will be only either +V


or V sat. Now we will give RAMP or

saw-tooth voltage to the non-inverting input and the feedback or some variable DC voltage will
be given to the inverting input and we will see how the output voltage changes. There by the
output pulse width modulation takes place depending upon the feed back voltage. These are best
described with the waveforms, which are given below.

Figure 3

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As we see the output, its on / off periods is changing every cycle depending up on the feed
back voltage. This concept is called pulse width Modulation. Also this concept is called duty
cycle variation. Duty cycle is equals to

4.3 The following is the circuit diagram of PWM Oscillator

Figure 4

In the above circuit, the inverting input of Error amplifier (Pin No.2) is fed from V ref, built in
5V regulator through a voltage divider of two 4.7K resistors. This +5V regulator is available
inside the IC.
The voltage at Pin NO.2 is 5V x 4.7K / 4.7K + 4.7K = 2.5V.
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The current limit amplifier is not used at present, hence are connected to ground. The
frequency of the internal Oscillator is adjusted with R T and CT. The Ramp generator is internally
connected inside the IC to the pulse width Modulator. For details related to the internal details
of the IC, it was described in the Chapter Hardware details. To shutdown the IC, i.e., to disable
the PWM output, such as excess current drawn by load, the high signal to shutdown pin disables
the output, and thereby inverter is protected from overload. The built in PWM generator, the
complementary Q and Q output from the internal Flip-Flop and passes through internal NOR
gates clocked by the internal Oscillator. These outputs are at 50Hz frequency (approximately)
PWM output, are further amplified using class B push-pull stages. The Pin .9 compensation
input is connected with soft start circuit. This makes the PWM regulator to generate the output,
when the switch ON the unit, slowly, there by it avoids false triggering of the protection
circuits. The time constant RC is designed with 82K x 10MF = 820m sec. To reduce this delay a
6.8K and 10K potentiometer are connected as a voltage divider.
By varying the voltage at Pin no.9 (Compensation Pin) output duty cycle can be changed,
for this purpose 10K Pot (variable resistor) is connected between Pin NO.9 and ground. By
varying the resistance reference voltage at compensation pin also can be varied very linearly.
Hence by varying duty cycle output voltage can be controlled.

4.4 Description about drive stage

As described in previous chapters, the drive stage is configured as push-pull amplifier. The
main purpose of this amplifier is to amplify the voltage and current levels to the required level;
the required level is to drive a 60Watts load, which may consume a maximum current of 300ma
at 220V ac. There fore to be safe side, this amplifier is designed to generate 350ma maximum. In
a voltage amplifier, the output voltage is many times greater than the input voltage. Similarly
current is also amplified. The components in an amplifier are selected to give high gain or
amplification which is the ratio of the output voltage to input voltage. The output of the
oscillator, where ac signal is produced at low voltage and low currents is extremely small, and
need amplification before being really useful to drive the motor. A power amplifier may have
voltage gain, but the main consideration is the power output which is the product of current and
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In a class B push-pull amplifier consists of two identical drive stages at output circuitry,
designed with power mosfets drives the main transformer. These mosfets are excited with equal
but opposite (180 degrees out of phase) voltages from the input signal. When operated in this
manner, one of the mosfet amplifies the positive half cycles of the signal voltage while the other
mosfet amplifies the negative half cycles. The amplified half cycles are then combined in the
output transformer in such a manner as to produce an amplified reproduction of the input voltage
and current. In actual practice, the two mosfets are switched in a sequence one after another
according to the biasing signals produced by the oscillator. This avoids crossover distortion. The
mosfets are conducted one after another according to the time period, based on this frequency
produced by the oscillator, a gap between the time when one mosfet shuts off and the other is
turned on and this produces a clipping effect on the output voltage. In this condition output is
distorted, this type of distortion is called crossover distortion.

4.5 The following is the circuit diagram driver stage.

Figure 5

In the above circuit, BC 557 general-purpose PNP switching transistors are used to drive the
Power MOSFETS. The PWM outputs of regulator, which are obtained from emitters of A and B
transistors (provided inside IC) are amplified to drive the load. For this, class B push-pull
stages are used in pre-driver stage and driver stage. Thus, a great deal of this distortion
introduced by the Non-linearity of the dynamic transfer characteristic may be eliminated by
push-pull configuration. In this case when the signal on one MOSFET is positive, the signal on
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other is negative by an equal amount. The advantage of push-pull amplifier is it will eliminate
even harmonics. The fact that the output current contains no-even-harmonic terms means that the
push-pull possesses Half wave or mirror symmetry in addition to the zero axis symmetry.
Because no even harmonics are present in the output of a push-pull amplifier, such a circuit will
give more output per active device for a given amount of distortion. For the same reason, the
push-pull arrangement is used to obtain less distortion for a given power output per MOSFET.
Another advantage of push-pull arrangement is that the DC components of the collector current
oppose each other magnetically in the transformer core. This eliminates any tendency toward
core saturation and consequent Non-linear distortion that might arise from the curvature of the
transformer magnetization curve. Another advantage is effects of ripple voltages that may be
contained in the power supply because of inadequate filtering will be balanced out.
The advantage of using power MOSFETS, when compared with bipolar power transistors,
because of its input high impedance No load current can be reduced and efficiency can be

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In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern,
alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One
such alternative is solar energy. Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the
sun and collected elsewhere, normally the Earth. The sun creates its energy through a
thermonuclear process that converts about 650,000,000 tons of hydrogen to helium every second.
The process creates heat and electromagnetic radiation. The heat remains in the sun and is
instrumental in maintaining the thermonuclear reaction. The electromagnetic radiation (including
visible light, infra-red light, and ultra-violet radiation) streams out into space in all directions.
Only a very small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the Earth. The radiation
that does reach the Earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of energy used today. The
exceptions are geothermal energy, and nuclear fission and fusion. Even fossil fuels owe the
origins to the sun; they were once living plants and animals whose life was dependent upon the
Much of the world's required energy can be supplied directly by solar power. More still
can be provided indirectly. The practicality of doing so will be examined, as well as the benefits
and drawbacks. In addition, the uses solar energy is currently applied to will be noted.
Due to the nature of solar energy, two components are required to have a functional solar
energy generator. These two components are a collector and a storage unit. The collector simply
collects the radiation that falls on it and converts a fraction of it to other forms of energy (either
electricity and heat or heat alone). The storage unit is required because of the non-constant nature
of solar energy; at certain times only a very small amount of radiation will be received. At night
or during heavy cloud cover, for example, the amount of energy produced by the collector will be
quite small. The storage unit can hold the excess energy produced during the periods of
maximum productivity, and release it when the productivity drops. In practice, a backup power
supply is usually added, too, for the situations when the amount of energy required is greater
than both what is being produced and what is stored in the container.
Methods of collecting and storing solar energy vary depending on the uses planned for
the solar generator. In general, there are three types of collectors and many forms of storage
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units. The three types of collectors are flat-plate collectors, focusing collectors, and passive
Flat-plate collectors are the more commonly used type of collector today. They are arrays
of solar panels arranged in a simple plane. They can be of nearly any size, and have an output
that is directly related to a few variables including size, facing, and cleanliness. These variables
all affect the amount of radiation that falls on the collector. Often these collector panels have
automated machinery that keeps them facing the sun. The additional energy they take in due to
the correction of facing more than compensates for the energy needed to drive the extra
Focusing collectors are essentially flat-plane collectors with optical devices arranged to
maximize the radiation falling on the focus of the collector. These are currently used only in a
few scattered areas. Solar furnaces are examples of this type of collector. Although they can
produce far greater amounts of energy at a single point than the flat-plane collectors can, they
lose some of the radiation that the flat-plane panels do not. Radiation reflected off the ground
will be used by flat-plane panels but usually will be ignored by focusing collectors (in snow
covered regions, this reflected radiation can be significant). One other problem with focusing
collectors in general is due to temperature. The fragile silicon components that absorb the
incoming radiation lose efficiency at high temperatures, and if they get too hot they can even be
permanently damaged. The focusing collectors by their very nature can create much higher
temperatures and need more safeguards to protect their silicon components.
Solar energy is often used to directly heat a house or building. Heating a building requires
much more energy than heating a building's water, so much larger panels are necessary.
Generally a building that is heated by solar power will have its water heated by solar power as
well. The type of storage facility most often used for such large solar heaters is the heat-of-fusion
storage unit, but other kinds (such as the packed bed or hot water tank) can be used as well. This
application of solar power is less common than the two mentioned above, because of the cost of
the large panels and storage system required to make it work. Often if an entire building is heated
by solar power, passive collectors are used in addition to one of the other two types. Passive
collectors will generally be an integral part of the building itself, so buildings taking advantage
of passive collectors must be created with solar heating in mind.
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These passive collectors can take a few different forms. The most basic type is the
incidental heat trap. The idea behind the heat trap is fairly simple. Allow the maximum amount
of light possible inside through a window (The window should be facing towards the equator for
this to be achieved) and allow it to fall on a floor made of stone or another heat holding material.
During the day, the area will stay cool as the floor absorbs most of the heat, and at night, the area
will stay warm as the stone re-emits the heat it absorbed during the day.
Another major form of passive collector is thermosyphoning walls and/or roof. With this
passive collector, the heat normally absorbed and wasted in the walls and roof is re-routed into
the area that needs to be heated.
Solar energy can be used for other things besides heating. It may seem strange, but one of
the most common uses of solar energy today is cooling. Solar cooling is far more expensive than
solar heating, so it is almost never seen in private homes. Solar energy is used to cool things by
phase changing a liquid to gas through heat, and then forcing the gas into a lower pressure
chamber. The temperature of a gas is related to the pressure containing it, and all other things
being held equal, the same gas under a lower pressure will have a lower temperature. This cool
gas will be used to absorb heat from the area of interest and then be forced into a region of higher
pressure where the excess heat will be lost to the outside world. The net effect is that of a pump
moving heat from one area into another, and the first is accordingly cooled.
Besides being used for heating and cooling, solar energy can be directly converted to
electricity. Most of our tools are designed to be driven by electricity, so if you can create
electricity through solar power, you can run almost anything with solar power. The solar
collectors that convert radiation into electricity can be either flat-plane collectors or focusing
collectors, and the silicon components of these collectors are photovoltaic cells.
Photovoltaic cells, by their very nature, convert radiation to electricity. This phenomenon
has been known for well over half a century, but until recently the amounts of electricity
generated were good for little more than measuring radiation intensity. Most of the photovoltaic
cells on the market today operate at an efficiency of less than 15%; that is, of all the radiation
that falls upon them, less than 15% of it is converted to electricity. The maximum theoretical
efficiency for a photovoltaic cell is only 32.3%, but at this efficiency, solar electricity is very
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economical. Most of our other forms of electricity generation are at a lower efficiency than this.
Unfortunately, reality still lags behind theory and a 15% efficiency is not usually considered
economical by most power companies, even if it is fine for toys and pocket calculators. Hope for
bulk solar electricity should not be abandoned, however, for recent scientific advances have
created a solar cell with an efficiency of 28.2% efficiency in the laboratory. This type of cell has
yet to be field tested. If it maintains its efficiency in the uncontrolled environment of the outside
world, and if it does not have a tendency to break down, it will be economical for power
companies to build solar power facilities after all.
Of the main types of energy usage, the least suited to solar power is transportation. While
large, relatively slow vehicles like ships could power themselves with large onboard solar panels,
small constantly turning vehicles like cars could not. The only possible way a car could be
completely solar powered would be through the use of battery that was charged by solar power at
some stationary point and then later loaded into the car. Electric cars that are partially powered
by solar energy are available now, but it is unlikely that solar power will provide the world's
transportation costs in the near future.
Solar power has two big advantages over fossil fuels. The first is in the fact that it is
renewable; it is never going to run out. The second is its effect on the environment. While the
burning of fossil fuels introduces many harmful pollutants into the atmosphere and contributes to
environmental problems like global warming and acid rain, solar energy is completely nonpolluting. While many acres of land must be destroyed to feed a fossil fuel energy plant its
required fuel, the only land that must be destroyed for a solar energy plant is the land that it
stands on. Indeed, if a solar energy system was incorporated into every business and dwelling, no
land would have to be destroyed in the name of energy. This ability to decentralize solar energy
is something that fossil fuel burning cannot match.
As the primary element of construction of solar panels, silicon, is the second most
common element on the planet, there is very little environmental disturbance caused by the
creation of solar panels. In fact, solar energy only causes environmental disruption if it is
centralized and produced on a gigantic scale. Solar power certainly can be produced on a
gigantic scale, too.
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Suppose that of the 4.5x1017 kWh per annum that is used by the earth to evaporate water
from the oceans we were to acquire just 0.1% or 4.5x1014 kWh per annum. Dividing by the hours
in the year gives a continuous yield of 2.90x1010 kW. This would supply 2.4 kW to 12.1 billion
This translates to roughly the amount of energy used today by the average American
available to over twelve billion people. Since this is greater than the estimated carrying capacity
of the Earth, this would be enough energy to supply the entire planet regardless of the
Unfortunately, at this scale, the production of solar energy would have some
unpredictable negative environmental effects. If all the solar collectors were placed in one or just
a few areas, they would probably have large effects on the local environment, and possibly have
large effects on the world environment. Everything from changes in local rain conditions to
another Ice Age has been predicted as a result of producing solar energy on this scale. The
problem lies in the change of temperature and humidity near a solar panel; if the energy
producing panels are kept non-centralized, they should not create the same local, mass
temperature change that could have such bad effects on the environment.
Of all the energy sources available, solar has perhaps the most promise. Numerically, it is
capable of producing the raw power required to satisfy the entire planet's energy needs.
Environmentally, it is one of the least destructive of all the sources of energy. Practically, it can
be adjusted to power nearly everything except transportation with very little adjustment, and
even transportation with some modest modifications to the current general system of travel.
Clearly, solar energy is a resource of the future.

5.1 Introduction to photovoltaic (solar cell) systems

Solar cells convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power
calculators and watches. They are made of semi conducting materials similar to those used in
computer chips. When these materials absorb sunlight, the solar energy knocks electrons loose
from their atoms, allowing the electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity. This
process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage) is called the photovoltaic (PV)
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Solar cells are typically combined into modules that hold about 40 cells; about 10 of
these modules are mounted in PV arrays that can measure up to several meters on a side. These
flat-plate PV arrays can be mounted at a fixed angle facing south, or they can be mounted on a
tracking device that follows the sun, allowing them to capture the most sunlight over the course
of a day. About 10 to 20 PV arrays can provide enough power for a household; for large electric
utility or industrial applications, hundreds of arrays can be interconnected to form a single, large
PV system.
Thin film solar cells use layers of semiconductor materials only a few micrometers thick.
Thin film technology has made it possible for solar cells to now double as rooftop shingles, roof
tiles, building facades, or the glazing for skylights or atria. The solar cell version of items such as
shingles offers the same protection and durability as ordinary asphalt shingles.


Solar Panels draw energy from the sun that is converted to electricity to recharge the
battery. The panel is at its maximum effectiveness during hours of peak sunlight and at the other
extreme, makes no contribution at night. In the space of a few sun hours, a panel can provide
enough energy to keep the battery charged
A photo-voltaic (PV) cell turns sunlight directly into electricity. Normally the cells are
connected together to form PV modules, which can be mounted on your roof to give you your
own mini power station.
The main application of PV in Scotland is to provide some electricity for buildings, which
dont have mains electricity, supply. That includes remote houses, cabins, boats and caravans. In
that situation, PV electricity can be more attractive than the alternative of a diesel or petrol
generator. Sometimes PV can be combined with wind power. That can reduce the amount of
battery capacity needed for all off-grid applications. If you wish to run normal electrical
appliances, you will also need a device called an invertor which converts the battery low voltage
DC (direct current) to the normal 230V AC (alternating current) which these appliances need.

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It is possible to have a PV system on dwellings which have a mains power supply. In that
case, no battery is needed and the direct current (DC) supplied by the PV can be changed to the
alternating current (AC) of the mains, so the two systems can be interconnected. If your PV is
generating more electricity than you need, then you can export the surplus to the grid/mains,
though you normally will not earn as much as you pay to buy it. When electrical needs are
greater than your PV supply, then you buy from the mains, as normal.


The sun is a large sphere and its chemical composition is mainly Hydrogen with less
amount of Helium. Energy is generated in its interior through the nuclear fusion of Hydrogen
and Helium at a temperature about 15 million Kelvins. The energy finds its way to the surface
and eventually emitted into space primarily in the form of electromagnetic radiation.


surface of the sun the photosphere is actually, a transition region in which the density falls of
rapidly. As we move from the interior of the sun to the outer part of the photosphere, we pass
from an optically opaque medium to a relatively transparent one. Further more the temperature
falls to approximately 6000 Deg. K. Above the photosphere is the Suns atmosphere, which is
called the chromospheres because it selectively absorbs certain colors of the radiation emitted
from the photosphere.
The simplified model of the sun is shown in the next page assumes that the sun behaves
as a black body whose surface is maintained at T=6000 Deg. K.
kept constant by a source of energy located in the interior.

This surface temperature is

As a result of this elevated

temperature, the surface glows and electromagnetic radiation is emitted in all directions of space.

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Figure 6

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun covers a very large range of
wavelengths, from radio waves through the infrared, visible and ultraviolet to X-Rays and
Gamma Rays. However, 99% of the energy of solar radiation id contained with in the
wavelength band from 0.15 to 4 Microns with a maximum at about 0.5 Microns. Roughly one
half of the radiation lies in the visible region of the spectrum between 0.38 and 0.77 Microns and
the reminder in the invisible ultraviolet and infrared regions.
The suns diameter is approximately 1.39 X 109 meters while that of the earth is 1.27 X
107 meters. The total Mass of the Sun is 1.99 X 10 30 kgs.
and the earth is 1.5 X 1011 meters.

The mean distance between the sun

The Sun subtends an angle of 32 minutes at the earths



There are two motions of the earth: the revolution of the earth around the sun and the
rotation of the earth about its axis. The earth revolves in an elliptical orbit with Sun at one focus
of the ellipse, at a mean distance of 1.5 X 108 kms with a variation of 1.7%.
The following is the figure shows, schematic of Sun Earth relationship.

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Figure 7

DIA = 1.39 X 106km

Distance = 1.5X108km. Approx.
The solar constant ISC is the total (overall wave length) solar Radio active energy that
strikes a unit area exposed to perpendicular rays of the sun at the mean Sun Earth distance.
The currently accepted value of the Solar constant is 1353 20 watts/mtr Sq.

The extra

terrestrial radiation IO striking the earth waves throughout the year, primarily because of the

change in the Sun earth distance, but also due to Sunspots, flares and other random activity of
the Sun. The variation due to the distance change can be expressed
As IO (n) = ISC {1+0.034 cos (360n/365)}
Where n is the day number counted from January 1.

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An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current
(AC); the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate
transformers, switching, and control circuits.
Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from
small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current
applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from
DC sources such as solar panels or batteries.
The electrical inverter is a high-power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early
mechanical AC to DC converters was made to work in reverse, and thus was "inverted", to
convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier. In this project
work, one amp output inverter is designed to drive the ac motor.
An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or
fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can
operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired
voltage. Grid tie inverters can feed energy back into the distribution network because they
produce alternating current with the same wave shape and frequency as supplied by the
distribution system. They can also switch off automatically in the event of a blackout. Microinverters convert direct current from individual solar panels into alternating current for the
electric grid.

6.1 Uninterruptible power supplies

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power
when main power is not available. When main power is restored, a rectifier is used to supply DC
power to recharge the batteries.

6.2 Variable-frequency drives

Variable-frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by controlling the
frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor. An inverter provides the controlled
power. In most cases, the variable-frequency drive includes a rectifier so that DC power for the
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inverter can be provided from main AC power. Since an inverter is the key component, variablefrequency drives are sometimes called inverter drives or just inverters.

6.3 The general case

A transformer allows AC power to be converted to any desired voltage, but at the same
frequency. Inverters, plus rectifiers for DC, can be designed to convert from any voltage, AC or
DC, to any other voltage, also AC or DC, at any desired frequency. The output power can never
exceed the input power, but efficiencies can be high, with a small proportion of the power
dissipated as waste heat.

6.4 Basic designs

In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to a transformer through the centre tap
of the primary winding. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back
to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary winding and then
the other. The alternation of the direction of current in the primary winding of the transformer
produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit.
The electromechanical version of the switching device includes two stationary contacts and
a spring supported moving contact. The spring holds the movable contact against one of the
stationary contacts and an electromagnet pulls the movable contact to the opposite stationary
contact. The current in the electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch so that the
switch continually switches rapidly back and forth. This type of electromechanical inverter
switch, called a vibrator or buzzer, was once used in vacuum tube automobile radios. A similar
mechanism has been used in door bells, buzzers and tattoo guns.

6.5 Output waveforms

The switch in the simple inverter described above produces a square voltage waveform as
opposed to the sinusoidal waveform that is the usual waveform of an AC power supply. Using
Fourier analysis, periodic waveforms are represented as the sum of an infinite series of sine
waves. The sine wave that has the same frequency as the original waveform is called the
fundamental component. The other sine waves, called harmonics that are included in the series
have frequencies that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency.
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The quality of output waveform that is needed from an inverter depends on the
characteristics of the connected load. Some loads need a nearly perfect sine wave voltage supply
in order to work properly. Other loads may work quite well with a square wave voltage.

6.6 Advanced designs

H-bridge inverter circuit designed with transistor switches and anti parallel diodes. There
are many different power circuit topologies and control strategies used in inverter designs.
Different design approaches address various issues that may be more or less important depending
on the way that the inverter is intended to be used. The issue of waveform quality can be
addressed in many ways. Capacitors and inductors can be used to filter the waveform. If the
design includes a transformer, filtering can be applied to the primary or the secondary side of the
transformer or to both sides. Low-pass filters are applied to allow the fundamental component of
the waveform to pass to the output while limiting the passage of the harmonic components. If the
inverter is designed to provide power at a fixed frequency, a resonant filter can be used. For an
adjustable frequency inverter, the filter must be tuned to a frequency that is above the maximum
fundamental frequency.
Since most loads contain inductance, feedback rectifiers or anti parallel diodes are often
connected across each semiconductor switch to provide a path for the peak inductive load current
when the switch is turned off. The anti parallel diodes are somewhat similar to the freewheeling
diodes used in AC/DC converter circuits.
Modulating, or regulating the width of a square-wave pulse is often used as a method of
regulating or adjusting an inverter's output voltage. When voltage control is not required, a fixed
pulse width can be selected to reduce or eliminate selected harmonics. Harmonic elimination
techniques are generally applied to the lowest harmonics because filtering is more effective at
high frequencies than at low frequencies. Multiple pulse-width or carrier based PWM control
schemes produce waveforms that are composed of many narrow pulses. The frequency
represented by the number of narrow pulses per second is called the switching frequency or
carrier frequency. These control schemes are often used in variable-frequency motor control
inverters because they allow a wide range of output voltage and frequency adjustment while also
improving the quality of the waveform.

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Multilevel inverters provide another approach to harmonic cancellation. Multilevel inverters
provide an output waveform that exhibits multiple steps at several voltage levels. For example, it
is possible to produce a more sinusoidal wave by having split-rail direct current inputs at two
voltages, or positive and negative inputs with a central ground. By connecting the inverter output
terminals in sequence between the positive rail and ground, the positive rail and the negative rail,
the ground rail and the negative rail, then both to the ground rail, a stepped waveform is
generated at the inverter output. This is an example of a three level inverter: the two voltages and

6.7 Three phase inverters

Figure 8

3-phase inverter with connected load

Three-phase inverters are used for variable-frequency drive applications and for high
power applications such as HVDC power transmission. A basic three-phase inverter consists of
three single-phase inverter switches each connected to one of the three load terminals. For the
most basic control scheme, the operation of the three switches is coordinated so that one switch
operates at each 60 degree point of the fundamental output waveform. This creates a line-to-line
output waveform that has six steps. The six-step waveform has a zero-voltage step between the
positive and negative sections of the square-wave such that the harmonics that are multiples of
three are eliminated as described above.
To construct inverters with higher power ratings, two six-step three-phase inverters can be
connected in parallel for a higher current rating or in series for a higher voltage rating. In either
case, the output waveforms are phase shifted to obtain a 12-step waveform. If additional
inverters are combined, an 18-step inverter is obtained with three inverters etc. Although
inverters are usually combined for the purpose of achieving increased voltage or current ratings,
the quality of the waveform is improved as well.
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A Power MOSFET is a specific type of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor
(MOSFET) designed to handle large amounts of power. Compared to the other power
semiconductor devices, its main advantages are high commutation speed and good efficiency at
low voltages. It shares with the IGBT an isolated gate that makes it easy to drive. It was made
possible by the evolution of CMOS technology, developed for manufacturing Integrated circuits
in the late 1970s. The power MOSFET shares its operating principle with its low-power
counterpart, the lateral MOSFET. The power MOSFET is the most widely used low-voltage
switch. It can be found in most power supplies, inverters, DC to DC converters, and low voltage
motor controllers. In general this device is used for amplifying or switching electronic signals.
The basic principle of the device was first proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. In
Mosfets, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel
between the two other contacts called source and drain. The channel can be of n-type or p-type,
and is accordingly called an NMOSFET or a PMOSFET (also commonly nMOS, pMOS). It is by
far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction
transistor was at one time much more common.
The 'metal' in the name is now often a misnomer because the previously metal gate
material is now often a layer of polysilicon (polycrystalline silicon). Aluminum had been the
gate material until the mid 1970s, when polysilicon became dominant, due to its capability to
form self-aligned gates. Metallic gates are regaining popularity, since it is difficult to increase the
speed of operation of transistors without metal gates. IGFET is a related term meaning insulatedgate field-effect transistor, and is almost synonymous with MOSFET, though it can refer to FETs
with a gate insulator that is not oxide. Another synonym is MISFET for metalinsulator
semiconductor FET
Usually the semiconductor of choice is silicon, but some chip manufacturers, most notably
IBM, recently started using a compound (mixture) of silicon and germanium (SiGe) in MOSFET
channels. Unfortunately, many semiconductors with better electrical properties than silicon, such
as gallium arsenide, do not form good semiconductor-to-insulator interfaces, thus are not suitable
for Mosfets. Research continues on creating insulators with acceptable electrical characteristics
on other semiconductor material. In order to overcome power consumption increase due to gate
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current leakage, high- dielectric replaces silicon dioxide for the gate insulator, while metal gates
return by replacing poly silicon.
The gate is separated from the channel by a thin insulating layer, traditionally of silicon
dioxide and later of silicon oxynitride. Some companies have started to introduce a high-
dielectric + metal gate combination in the 45 nanometer node. When a voltage is applied
between the gate and body terminals, the electric field generated penetrates through the oxide
and creates an alleged "inversion layer" or "channel" at the semiconductor-insulator interface.
The inversion channel is of the same type, P-type or N-type, as the source and drain, thus it
provides a channel through which current can pass. Varying the voltage between the gate and
body modulates the conductivity of this layer and allows controlling the current flow between
drain and source.

7.1 Circuit symbols

A variety of symbols are used for the MOSFET. The basic design is generally a line for the
channel with the source and drain leaving it at right angles and then bending back at right angles
into the same direction as the channel. Sometimes three line segments are used for enhancement
mode and a solid line for depletion mode. Another line is drawn parallel to the channel for the
The bulk connection, if shown, is shown connected to the back of the channel with an arrow
indicating PMOS or NMOS. Arrows always point from P to N, so an NMOS (N-channel in Pwell or P-substrate) has the arrow pointing in (from the bulk to the channel). If the bulk is
connected to the source (as is generally the case with discrete devices) it is sometimes angled to
meet up with the source leaving the transistor. If the bulk is not shown (as is often the case in IC
design as they are generally common bulk) an inversion symbol is sometimes used to indicate
PMOS, alternatively an arrow on the source may be used in the same way as for bipolar
transistors (out for NMOS, in for PMOS).
Comparison of enhancement-mode and depletion-mode MOSFET symbols, along with JFET
symbols (drawn with source and drain ordered such that higher voltages appear higher on the
page than lower voltages):
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Figure 9

For the symbols in which the bulk, or body, terminal is shown, it is here shown
internally connected to the source. This is a typical configuration, but by no means the only
important configuration. In general, the MOSFET is a four-terminal device, and in integrated
circuits many of the Mosfets share a body connection, not necessarily connected to the source
terminals of all the transistors.

7.2 MOSFET operation

For the symbols in which the bulk, or body, terminal is shown, it is here shown internally
connected to the source. This is a typical configuration, but by no means the only important
configuration. In general, the MOSFET is a four-terminal device, and in integrated circuits many
of the Mosfets share a body connection, not necessarily connected to the source terminals of all
the transistors.

Figure 10

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7.3 Metaloxidesemiconductor structure

A traditional metaloxidesemiconductor (MOS) structure is obtained by growing a layer
of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on top of a silicon substrate and depositing a layer of metal or
polycrystalline silicon (the latter is commonly used). As the silicon dioxide is a dielectric
material, its structure is equivalent to a planar capacitor, with one of the electrodes replaced by a
When a voltage is applied across a MOS structure, it modifies the distribution of charges
in the semiconductor. If we consider a P-type semiconductor (with NA the density of acceptors, p
the density of holes; p = NA in neutral bulk), a positive voltage, VGB, from gate to body (see
figure) creates a depletion layer by forcing the positively charged holes away from the gateinsulator/semiconductor interface, leaving exposed a carrier-free region of immobile, negatively
charged acceptor ions (see doping (semiconductor)). If VGB is high enough, a high concentration
of negative charge carriers forms in an inversion layer located in a thin layer next to the
interface between the semiconductor and the insulator. Unlike the MOSFET, where the inversion
layer electrons are supplied rapidly from the source/drain electrodes, in the MOS capacitor they
are produced much more slowly by thermal generation through carrier generation and
recombination centers in the depletion region. Conventionally, the gate voltage at which the
volume density of electrons in the inversion layer is the same as the volume density of holes in
the body is called the threshold voltage.

7.4 MOSFET structure and channel formation

Figure 11

Cross section of an NMOS without channel formed: OFF state

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Figure 12

Cross section of an NMOS with channel formed: ON state

A metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is based on the modulation
of charge concentration by a MOS capacitance between a body electrode and a gate electrode
located above the body and insulated from all other device regions by a gate dielectric layer
which in the case of a MOSFET is an oxide, such as silicon dioxide. If dielectrics other than an
oxide such as silicon dioxide (often referred to as oxide) are employed the device may be
referred to as a metalinsulatorsemiconductor FET (MISFET). Compared to the MOS
capacitor, the MOSFET includes two additional terminals (source and drain), each connected to
individual highly doped regions that are separated by the body region. These regions can be
either p or n type, but they must both be of the same type, and of opposite type to the body
region. The source and drain (unlike the body) are highly doped as signified by a '+' sign after the
type of doping.
If the MOSFET is an n-channel or nMOS FET, then the source and drain are 'n+' regions and
the body is a 'p' region. As described above, with sufficient gate voltage, above a threshold
voltage value, electrons from the source (and possibly also the drain) enter the inversion layer or
n-channel at the interface between the p region and the oxide. This conducting channel extends
between the source and the drain, and current is conducted through it when a voltage is applied
between source and drain.

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The system designed here utilizes solar power. As long as the solar energy is
available, the battery will be charged at different current ratings. As the out put of panel is
variable, it may not be stable. If the Sun is bright, the panel can deliver maximum out put current
of 800ma at around 12V.

This device can be called as chemical voltage source; a chemical voltage source is one of
the most important sources of electrical energy. It is a self contained voltage source and does not
need any out side energy. When the battery is discharged it is supposed to be charged with
suitable power source either from solar panel or from mains supply, i.e. single phase
conventional energy source. The electrical energy supplied by a chemical source of voltage is
produced by chemical action within the source itself. Chemical voltage sources normally exist in
the form of batteries and cells of various types. These batteries are extensively used for mobile
Here in this project work re-chargeable storage battery is used. As it is a prototype module,
the battery used here can withstand for one hour, but for real applications heavy duty battery can
be used for long back-up.
Batteries are maintenance free sealed lead acid rechargeable batteries. The batteries are
having excellent economy stability and superior output. Various characteristics have been
improved such as leak proof, overcharging and over discharging. This compact & powerful
sealed lead-acid battery with higher performance can be used as a power source for portable
instruments and also for power backup use. Batteries are now being used in a wide range of


These Batteries are maintenance free. There is no need to add water. Battery performance
and service life are greatly affected by the charging method. There are various different charging
methods: constant voltage charging, constant current charging, tapered current charging and
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some combination systems. Batteries can be charged by any of those methods. However,
constant voltage charging combined with limited current is recommended for obtaining
maximum capacity and service life together with acceptable recharge times and economy. Here
the battery is charged with constant voltage source.


In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern,
alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One
such alternative is solar energy. Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the
sun and collected where required. The sun creates its energy through a thermonuclear process
that converts about 650,000,000 tons of hydrogen to helium every second. The process creates
heat and electromagnetic radiation. The heat remains in the sun and is instrumental in
maintaining the thermonuclear reaction. The electromagnetic radiation (including visible light,
infra-red light, and ultra-violet radiation) streams out into space in all directions.
Only a very small fraction of the total radiation produced reaches the Earth. The radiation
that does reach the Earth is the indirect source of nearly every type of energy used today. The
exceptions are geothermal energy, and nuclear fission and fusion. Even fossil fuels owe their
origins to the sun; they were once living plants and animals whose life was dependent upon the
sun. Much of the world's required energy can be supplied directly by solar power. More still can
be provided indirectly. The practicality of doing so will be examined, as well as the benefits and
Due to the nature of solar energy, two components are required to have a functional solar
energy generator. These two components are a collector and a storage unit. The collector simply
collects the radiation that falls on it and converts a fraction of it to other forms of energy (either
electricity and heat or heat alone). The storage unit is required because of the non-constant nature
of solar energy; at certain times only a very small amount of radiation will be received. At night
or during heavy cloud cover, for example, the amount of energy produced by the collector will be
quite small. The storage unit can hold the excess energy produced during the periods of
maximum productivity, and release it when the productivity drops. In practice, a backup power
supply is usually added, too, for the situations when the amount of energy required is greater
than both what is being produced and what is stored in the container.
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Solar photovoltaic systems use solar energy to produce electricity. The term photovoltaic is
composed of "photo", the Greek root for "light", and "volt", a common measurement of
electricity named after Alessandro Volta, a scientist renowned for his research on electricity.
Together, these terms literally mean "light electricity". Photovoltaic technology can be referred to
in short as photovoltaics or PV. Photovoltaic technology relies on the electrical properties of
certain materials known as semiconductors. When hit by sunlight, a semiconductor material
responds by creating an electrical charge which can then be transferred to anything that uses
electricity. These semiconductors are produced in the form of cells, which can then be assembled
in groups in a panel. There are many different types of panels available, and each has its
particular advantages. Individual panels are often used to charge batteries that power small or
remote electric equipment. Depending on the amount of electricity needed, these panels can then
be connected in an array to provide larger amounts of electricity to a building or other large user
of electricity.
Photovoltaic cells and panels can be manufactured and installed at almost any scale, and as
a result are used to power a broad variety of applications. At its smallest, photovoltaic
technology powers calculators, laptop computers and other appliances that run on batteries. At its
largest, it powers homes, offices and other buildings that use large amounts of electricity, and can
be connected to utilities to increase the diversity of our collective electricity supply.
In connecting a photovoltaic system to an end use, several additional structures and
technologies are needed. While photovoltaics can be mounted on roofs, it is important to
consider the angle at which they face the sun. To transfer electricity to its end use, photovoltaics
are connected through intermediary technologies that condition and modify the electricity they
produce. These considerations are known as balance of system components, as they maximize
the system's efficiency and allow higher amounts of electricity to reach its end use.
There are many benefits to using photovoltaics as an electricity source, most notably their
environmental benefits. As one of the cleanest electricity-generating technologies available,
photovoltaics hold much promise for reducing environmental impacts from energy production.

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Photovoltaic cells, which convert light directly into electricity, have become
commonplace on devices such as calculators and watches. There are a number of technologies in
development with the aim of making PV more economic for electrical power generation. All use
semiconductor materials like those used in silicon chips.
The heart of a PV cell is the interface between two different types of semiconductor. When a
light photon hits a silicon atom in this region, it throws out an electron. The electron can travel
through the n-type semiconductor to metal contacts on the surface. The hole left by the absence
of the electron travels in the opposite direction. Once at the metal contact the electron flows
through an electrical circuit back to meet up with a hole at the other contact.
As it flows through the external circuit, the electron does useful work, like charging a
battery, or operating an electrical appliance. Photovoltaic systems have been reducing in cost,
and increasing in efficiency in recent years. The most efficient commercially available systems
can convert up to 16% of the light energy that strikes them into electrical energy.
Since 1988 world-wide production of photovoltaic modules has increased at a rate of up
to 40% per year. Today, it is used for a wide range of applications, including stand-alone systems,
grid-linked systems and building integrated systems. Major national and international
investments in research, development, demonstration and dissemination have resulted in
important technical improvements and a drop in the price of PV cells by a factor of more than 20
over the last two decades. This has opened up opportunities for cost-effective uses and both
commercial and donor-supported applications are resulting in continued major growth in the
global markets.
It is used for a variety of off-grid applications in developing countries where PV
technology is considered as a promising alternative to the slow arrival of grid electricity,
particularly as its cost is expected to decrease. Its reliability, very low operational and
maintenance costs, and its modularity which provides for easy expansion, make it very
advantageous in many rural settings.

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Sunlight is composed of photons containing energy which correspond to the different
wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a PV cell, their energy is transferred to
an electron in the semiconductor material of the cell. With this extra energy, the electron is then
able to escape from its normal position in the atom creating a "hole", which will become part of a
current in an electrical circuit.
A diode is formed when two layers of semiconductor materials are doped so that one will
conduct negative carriers and the other positive carriers. When photons fall on these layers they
transfer energy and momentum to charge carriers, which increase their potential energy by an
amount depending on the diode's material properties. Because of their electrical properties, PV
modules produce direct current (DC) rather than alternating current (AC). In the simplest PV
systems, DC current is used immediately in applications but where AC is required; an inverter is
added to the system to convert DC into AC.
The efficiency of the photovoltaic conversion process would be about 85% if each photon
could transfer all its energy into that of charge carriers. However, this is normally not the case as
any transfer of energy from photon to charge carrier can only be of the amount given by the
band-gap of the semiconductor material. Photons with energies below the energy band-gap of the
material are lost from the photovoltaic effect and converted into heat. In addition, photons with
energies above the band-gap transfer no more than the band-gap energy, and any excess energy is
lost. In today's cells, both of these effects individually limit the theoretical efficiency to 50%.
Currently, practical maximum efficiencies are in the range of 15-20%. Ideally, PV cells would
consist of material layers with different band-gaps, for each photon to be absorbed exactly where
its energy matches the band-gap energy.
The output from a PV module depends on the amount of incident light and other factors
such as temperature and the cleanliness of the cell surface. Modules are rated in terms of their
peak output (Peak Watts, or WP), which is the maximum power that they will produce given
calibrated solar input and operating conditions. However, PV cells can produce useful quantities
of power in less than ideal solar conditions

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DATE: 28-AUGUST-2012

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Solar Energy is a renewable form of energy and tends to give us large amount of energy
and light. Oil, on the other hand is not renewable and also degrades the environment.

Solar cells are very silent in their working and they are quite efficient too,

Solar energy equipments do not emit any harmful gases or radiations. They are highly

Solar cells require very less maintenance and they have a long life too.

Though, the initial set up of the solar panels is expensive, later on they turn out to be
highly cost effective,

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The project work Solar lighting system is successfully designed tested and a demo
unit is fabricated. Since it is a demonstration unit, a low power inverter is designed which can
able to deliver a maximum current of 350 milliamps at 220V at the system output. But for the
practical applications, a higher rating inverter can be designed which can be used for the multiple
applications simultaneously.
As the system is designed to deliver less power, protection circuits are not included. In
general the higher rating inverters are equipped with thermal protection over load cut off circuits.
With the help of a load monitoring circuit often designed with CT, the load applied to the inverter
will be monitored continuously, whenever the load exceeds more then the rated value,
immediately system will be shut-down. After reducing the load and by activating the reset button
power will be resumed.
In this project work solar energy is used for charging the battery, this is one type of method,
which comes under non-conventional method of power generation. Sun is the primary source of
the energy; the energy radiated by the sun is in the form of electro magnetic waves. The winds
produced by the nature are used to drive small power generators called as windmills. Such
generators are also can be used for charging the batteries. The great advantage of using the above
two methods in non-conventional energy resources, the energy produced by these two methods is
plentiful, inexhaustible, non-polluting and it does not require in a operator and also does not
require any maintenance. These kinds of systems are very rugged systems so that during the long
run they may not create any problems.

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Solar power deals with the use of solar radiation for practical purposes. It has been
employed in order to decrease the carbon footprints from our environment. It is the basic motor
of all forms of energy generation methods. It is free and clean to use. This form of energy is
available in abundance in our environment. The fossil fuels are also mere frozen solar power.
Solar energy has remained a necessary ingredient for decades now. It's demand for usage still
It is mainly used for the domestic purposes these days. Solar power systems operate by
converting the solar energy into the electrical energy. Usage of this power helps tremendously in
reducing the power bills and also largely helps our environment. Using this form of power for
domestic purposes has many advantages. The people who use it know it better. All of the people
who use only solar power operated electric appliances do not wish to switch to other power
As the technology has advanced, we now have started making use of electric vehicles
too. Such vehicles have started becoming readily available and are operated using battery
technology as well as solar energy. Their costs are now dropping and such vehicles are
becoming readily available to the masses. Electric vehicles have a wonderful future for sure as
they do not pollute the environment. They are also cheap in their usage.

The ICs and other important components used in this project work are procured from the
Hyderabad Electronics Market. The details or data sheets of the IC 3524 are down loaded from
the Internet.
The following are the IC and other important components used in this project work:
1) SG 3524 Regulating Pulse Width Modulation
2) Z44 Power MOSFET
3) Voltage Regulator
4) Mains output transformer
5) Current Transformer
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In order to select a suitable topic for the project, few books are referred. The list is
as follows:
1) Power systems
2) Solar Energy Utilization


By: G.D. Rai

3) Power from the Sun A practical guide to solar electricity

By: Dan Chiras
4) Wind and solar power systems

By: Mukund R. Patil

5) Solar electricity hand book

By: Michael boxwell

6) National Semiconductors

(Company Catalog)

7) Power Electronics

By: P.C. Sen

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