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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA

ORDNANCE FACTORY DUMDUM

NAME

SHREYASI DAS

CLASS

XII-C

ROLL NO.

36

SUBJECT

BIOLOGY

TOPIC

TO STUDY THE

GENETIC TRAIT
OF 2-3
FAMILIES

CERTIFICATE
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT MISS
_______________ DAUGHTER OF MR.
________________ BEARING CBSE ROLL NO.:________________ HAS SUCCESSFULLY
COMPLETED THE PROJECT ON THE TOPIC
TO
STUDY THE GENETIC TRAIT OF 2-3 FAMILIES
FOR AISSCE: - _______________.

__________________
INTERNAL EXAMINER

___________________
EXTERNAL EXAMINER
_________

PRINCIPAL
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It bring us great pleasure in submitting this project


report with deep sense of gratitude and profound
respect toward our guide Mr. B .K.Lal for his vital
support, guidance and encouragement. We are
grateful to our teacher for his continuous support.

INDEX

SL.N
O

TITLE

1.

CERTIFICATE

2.

ACKNOWLEDGEM
ENT

3.

OBJECTIVE AND
INTRODUCTION

4.

THEORY

5.

PROCEDURE

6.

OBSERVATION

7.

RESULT

8.

PRECAUTION

9.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE
NO.

OBJECTIVE
To Study The Genetic Trait Of 2-3
Families.

INTRODUCTION
The project is mainly concerned with the various
types of genetic traits in human being. The project
is based on survey of families from where we get
the inheritance pattern of different genetic traits
inherited from their ancestors. We also try to find
out the dominant and recessive alleles of the traits
surveyed by us.

THEORY
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic
variation in living organisms. It intersects frequently
with many of the life sciences and is strongly linked
with the study of information systems.

The set of alleles for a given organism is called its


genotype.

The observable traits of the organism are called its


phenotype.

When organisms are heterozygous at a gene two


alleles are there:

1. Dominant :- its qualities dominate the


phenotype of the organism.

2. Recessive: - its qualities recede and are not


observed.

When a pair of organisms reproduces sexually, their


offspring randomly inherit one of the two alleles from
each parent.

PROCEDURE
Two families were visited and surveyed for two pairs of
contrasting traits.

First survey was conducted for widows peak and no


widows peak.

Information was collected for three generations.


Pedigree charts were prepared for the two families and
compared.

Second survey was conducted for free earlobe and attached


earlobe with the same two families.

Again information regarding the pattern of earlobe was


collected and noted accordingly for the two families.

The pedigree charts were prepared and studied.

OBSERVATIONS

WIDOWS PEAK

FAMILY-1

A WIDOW'S PEAK IS A V-SHAPED POINT IN THE HAIRLINE IN


THE CENTER OF THE FOREHEAD.

FAMILY-2

PEDIGREE CHART SHOWING THE INHERITANCE OF


CHARACTERISTICS

EARLOBE PATTERN

FAMILY-1

F= Free Earlobes
f= Attached Earlobes

FAMILY-2

The Shaded Blocks = Genotype Ff


The Clear Block = Genotype FF Or Ff

CONCLUSION

FOR WIDOWS PEAK

In the pedigree charts of widows peak, W represents


widows peak and w represents no widows peak.

The shaded blocks represent the phenotype widows peak


with genotype either WW or Ww.

The clear blocks represent the phenotype no-widows peak


with genotype ww.

The phenotype widows peak is a dominant trait and nowidows peak is a recessive trait in both the families
FOR EARLOBE PATTERN

In the pedigree charts of earlobe pattern, F represents free


earlobes and f represents attached earlobes.

The shaded blocks represent the phenotype attached earlobes with


genotype ff.

The clear block represents the phenotype free earlobes with


genotype either FF or Ff.

The phenotype free earlobe is a dominant trait and attached earlobe


is a recessive trait for the two families.

PRECAUTION

1. Take sufficiently large number


of family
list for analysis to minimize
errors .
2. Observe the contrasting form
of the trait
carefully.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I.C.B.S.E.COM.
XII CLASS BIO BOOK.
PHOTOES FROM GOOGLE
IMAGES.
MORE INFORMATION FROM
WIKIPIDIA.
BOOKS AND JOURNALS.