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1. The diagram shows a student looking at a plane mirror.

The image observed by the student is

2. The diagram shows the fringe pattern produced from Young's

experiment using the monochromatic red light source.

double slit

W h a t h a p p e n s t o t h e f r i n g e s i f monochromatic yellow light

source is used?
A The bright fringes are wider than the dark fringes
B The dark fringes are wider than the bright fringes
C The distance between consecutive fringes decrease
D The distance between consecutive fringes increase

The diagram shows a light ray travelling from air into a glass prism.

What is the critical angle of the glass?

A 40
D 70
B 50
E 90
C 600


Which of the following shows total internal reflection?

Plane mirror


The diagram shows the design of a simple astronomical telescope.

The focal length of the lens P is fP and the focal length of lens Q is fQ

Which statement is correct?

A fP is shorter than fQ
B The power of lens P is higher than lens Q
C The image of lens P is real whereas the image of lens Q is virtual
D The image magnification is the ratio of fQ to fp


The diagram shows a cross-section of a fibre optic cable.

Which comparison is correct?

A Density of P < density of Q
B Density of P > density of Q
C Density of P = density of Q


Which graph represents the sound wave in the highest pitch?



The diagram shows an arrangement of apparatus for light diffraction


Which diffraction pattern appears on the screen?

An observer cannot see the coin in an empty glass as shown in Figure (i).
However, he can see the coin when the glass is filled with water as shown
in Figure (ii)

The observer can see the coin in Figure (ii) due to


the total internal reflection of light

the refraction of light
the reflection of light
the diffraction of light

T h e d i a g r a m s h o ws l i g h t r a y X O experiencing total internal

reflection when travelling from glass to air.

Which statements about total internal reflection are correct?

P 0 is more than the critical angle of glass
Q The speed of light in glass is higher than in air
R The refractive index of glass is greater than air
A P and Q
B P and R
C Q and R
D P, Q and R

The diagram shows Ahmad and Salim standing in front of a plane mirror at
a distance of 5 m and 3 m respectively.

What is the
Ahmad's image as
A 2m
B 5m
C 6m

distance of
seen by Salim?
D 8m
E 11m

The diagram shows a light ray with an incident angle of 5 being reflected by a
plane mirror MN. The mirror is then rotated clockwise through an angle of

What is the
reflection of the light ray?
A 5
B 10

new angle of
C 15
D 20


The diagram shows an object which is placed at u cm from the centre of a convex
lens. The focal length of the lens is 20 cm.

Which of the following characteristics of the image is not correct when u is 10

cm, 15 cm, 35 cm and 45 cm from the lens?
U /cm
A 10
B 15
C 35
D 45

Characteristics of the image

Virtual and bigger
Virtual and bigger
Real and smaller
Real and smaller

A timekeeper for a sprint event starts the stopwatch as he sees the smoke
from the pistol instead of hearing the shot.
This action is taken because
A sound produces echoes
B light travels in a straight line
C light travels faster than sound
D surrounding temperature affects the speed of sound


A system is oscillating at its natural frequency without damping.

What happens to the total energy of the oscillating system?
A It remains constant
B It decreases
C It increases



The diagram shows a boy appearing shorter hen he is in a swimming pool. The
depth of the water in the pool is 1.2 m.
The refractive index of water is 1.33.

What is the apparent

A 0.1 m
D 1.1
B 0.3 m
E 1.6 m 0.9 m

depth of the pool?



The diagram shows a light ray directed into a glass block.

Which is the angle of refraction?


The diagram shows an object placed in front of a concave mirror. The

distance of the object is less than the focal length, f, of the mirror.

What are the characteristics of the image formed?

A Real, upright, bigger than object
B Real, inverted, smaller than object
C Virtual, upright, bigger than object
D Virtual, inverted, smaller than object

The diagram shows a light ray, P, directed into a glass block. The critical
angle of the glass is 42.
In which direction does the light move from point Q?


A student
draws light rays passing
through lenses, P, Q, R and S as shown in the diagram below. F is the focal point
of lenses P, Q, R and S.

Which drawing shows the correct path of the light rays?

A II only
B I and III only
C I, II and IV only
D I, II, III and IV

Diagram 13 shows two cars, P and Q, travelling in the opposite
directions,passing through a sharp bend.

Which mirror is the most suitable to be placed at X so that the river in car P
can see car Q?


Diagram 14.1 and Diagram 14.2 show light rays travelling from glass to air at
different incident angles.

Which angle is the critical angle of the glass?

C r
D s
23 .

Diagram 15 shows the path of light travelling from air into liquid X.

What is the
A 0.17 D 1.50
B 0.68
E 2.00
C 1.46


refractive index of X?

Diagram 16 shows the formatin of the image of an object by a convex lens.

If the height of the object is 2 cm, what is the height of the image?
A 6.50 cm
B 4.50 cm
C 4.00 cm

D 3.25 cm
E 2.25 cm

25. Diagram 17 shows Ali taking an eye test. The distance between Ali and the
plane mirror is 1 m. Ali sees the image of the object in the mirror.

If the distance between the image and Ali is 5 m, calculate the distance
between Ali and the object.
A 2m
B 3m

C 4m
D 8m

Diagram 25 shows a boy standing in front of a plane mirror.

Diagram 25
The boy moves 1 m backwards.
Calculate the distance between the boy and his image.
A 3m
B 4m
C 6m
D 8m


Diagram 26 shows the path of light from P to O.

Diagram 26

The critical angle of water is 48'. If 0' 48, which is the correct path of
light after passing through point 0?

2 7 Diagram 27 shows a ray of light passing into a glass block. The refractive
index of the glass is 1-54.

Diagram 27


Which of the following ray diagrams is correct for a magnifying glass?

Section A

Diagram 1 shows a mother observing the legs of her son in the pool. His
legs appear to be shorter because of a light phenomenon.

Diagram 1
(a) (i) Name the light phenomenon involved.
[1 mark]

Explain how this phenomenon occurs.

[2 marks]

In Diagram 2, draw a ray diagram from point P to the eye to

show how the legs appear shorter.

Diagram 2
[2 marks]


The depth of water is 0.4 m.

Calculate the distance of the image of the foot at point P from the
surface of the water. [Refractive index of water = 1.33]

[2 marks]
Diagram 2 shows in image of letters FIZI when viewed through a glass of

Diagram 2
(a) State the light phenomenon that causes the image of FIZI to be
[1 mark]
(b) What is the change in size of the image if the water is replaced with a
transparent liquid of a greater density?
[1 mark]
(c) The glass of water is replaced with a lens M with focal length of 10 cm. The

distance between the book cover and the centre of the lens is 8 cm.
It is observed that the image FIZIK is enlarged.
(i) Name the type of lens M.
[1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the distance of the image from lens M.

[2 marks]
(iii) In the space below sketch a ray diagram to show how the image is

[2 marks]
Diagram 3.1 shows a student standing 3 m from a plane mirror in a room.
The student can see the image of the wall clock located 2 m behind him.

Diagram 3.1

Diagram 3.2 shows the top view of the student in the room.

Diagram 3.2
(a) Name the light phenomenon that enables the student to see the image of
the wall clock in the plane mirror.
[1 mark]
(b)What is the distance between the student and the image of the wall
[1 mark]
(c)The student then moves 1 m towards the plane mirror.
What is the distance between the student and the image of
the wall clock?
[1 mark]

(d)The time shown by the wall clock is 9 a.m.

By drawing the hands of the clock in Diagram 3.3, complete the image of
the wall clock in the plane mirror as seen by the student.
Wall clock
Diagram 3.3

[1 mark]

(e)The student moves to position X. He can see the image of the lamp in the
plane mirror. In Diagram 3.4, draw a ray diagram to show how the student
can see the image of the lamp.

Diagram 3.4
[2 marks]

Diagram 4.1 shows a submarine equipped with an optical instrument P
Diagram 4.2 shows the structure of the optical instrument P


Name the optical instrument P

[1 mark]

(b) In Diagram 4.2, two glass prisms must be placed so that the object can
be seen by the observer. The position of one of the glass prisms is as
(i) In box A in Diagram 4.2, draw and shade the second prism.
[1 mark]

(ii) Explain why the prisms in optical instrument P are placed as in 4(b)
[2 marks]
(c) (i) In Diagram 4.2, complete the path of the light ray from the object to the
observer's eye.
[1 mark]
(ii) State one characteristic of the image observed.
[1 mark]
(d) The refractive index of the glass prism is 1.52. Calculate the critical
angle of the glass prism.

[2 marks]

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show a light ray passing through prism P an
prism Q , respectively.
Prism P and prism Q are made of glass with different densities.
Prism P

Diagram 5.1

Prism Q

Diagram 5.2

What is meant by critical angle ?

Tick ( ) the correct answer in the box provided.
The angle of incidence when the angle of refraction is 90
The angle of incidence when the incident ray is totally
[1 mark]


Explain why the light ray does not bend when it enters both prisms
at point A.

[1 mark]
(c) (i) Based on Diagrams 5.1 and Diagrams 5.2 , how can the angle of
incidence at point B be made equal to the critical angle?
Prism P
Prism Q
[2 marks]



Diagram 5.1 shows the light ray passing from glass to air at point
Compare the density of glass with the density of air

[1 mark]
Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 , what happen to the light
ray after passing point B ?
Diagram 5.1

Diagram 5.2

[2 marks]


Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 5.2

[1 mark]

Section B
Diagram 6.1. and 6.2 show the parallel rays of light directed toward the curved
mirrors, J, K and K. CP is the radius of curvature, and F is the focal point of
the mirrors.
Curved mirror J

Diagram 6.1

Curved mirror K

Diagram 6.2

(a) What is meant by focal point?

[1 mark]
(b) Using Diagram 6.1 and 6.2, compare the curvanture of mirrors J and K
and the effects on reflected rays.
State the relationship between the curvanture of the mirrors and their
focal lengths.
[5 marks]
(c) Diagram 6.3 shows a cross section of a parabolic reflector used in a car
headlamp. The headlamp has two bulbs, X and Y. Bulb X is located at the
focal point of the reflector while bulb Y is above bulb X.

Diagram 6.2
Explain what happens to the light rays from the bulb when only:
(i) bulb X is switched on,
(ii) bulb Y is switched on.
You may use diagrams to illustrate your answers.
[4 marks]

(d) You are given two pieces of plane mirror measuring 5 cm x 6 cm to make

a periscope.
Using these mirrors and other materials, describe how you would
make the periscope.
[4 marks]
Explain why the image observed through the periscope using plane
mirrors are not very clear.
[2 marks]

Suggest modification that can be made to the periscope to

produce clearer and bigger images.
[4 marks]

7 Diagram 7.1 and Diagram 7.2 show the light rays from two identical objects
passing through the convex lenses, J and K. Both the lenses produce virtual
images. F is the focal point for each lens.

Diagram 6.1

Diagram 7.2

(a) (i) What is meant by virtual image?

[1 mark]
(ii) With reference to Diagram 7.1 and Diagram 7.2, compare the thickness
of the lenses, the focal length and the size of image produced by the
lenses J and K.
Relate the size of the image with the focal length to make a deduction
regarding the relationship between the power of the lens and the focal
[5 marks]
(b) Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed
towards hot sun rays.
[4 marks]
(c) You are given two convex lenses, P and Q, with focal lengths 40 cm and 5 cm
respectively. Both the lenses are used to build a simple astronomical
telescope at normal adjustment.
(i) Using the two lenses, explain how you are going to build the simple
astronomical telescope.
[6 marks]
(ii) Suggest modifications that need to be done on the telescope to produce
clearer and bigger images.
[4 marks]

Section C

8. (a)
Diagram 8.1 shows two convex lenses, R and S, used in an
astronomical telescope. The focal length for R is 40 cm and for S is 10 cm.

Diagram 8.1

Define the power of a lens.

[1 mark]
Give two reasons why R is used as the objective lens of the
[2 marks]
Using lenses R and S, draw a ray diagram of Diagram 8.1 to show the
formation of the final image by the telescope at normal adjustment.
Use a scale of 10 cm to 1 cm.
[5 marks]



Calculate the magnification of the final image formed by the

telescope at normal adjustment.
[2 marks]
Presbyopia is an inability of the eye to adjust the focussing of far and
near objects. This usually happens when we get old, where the ciliary
muscles is less able to change the shape of the eye lens to focus the
image on the retina, as shown in Diagram 8.2 and 8.3.

Diagram 8.2

Diagram 8.3

As an optician, you have three designs of lenses, X, Y and Z, in your shop. The
cross-section of X, Y and Z are shown in Diagram 8.4.

Diagram 8.4

Choose the most suitable design of lens in Diagram 8.4 to correct the sight of
a person with presbyopia and explain the suitability of the design.
Explain why the other two designs are not suitable. Either low or high
refractive index glass can be used to make the lenses.
Which type of glass is not suitable to make the lens chosen in
(b)(i)? Give reasons for your choice.
[10 marks]