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Planteamiento/Datos sobre migracion

Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.509.

An estimated 200 million people were living outside their home countries in
2005 (Koser, 2008).

Justificacion /Datos sobre migracin especializada


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.509
The highly skilled constitute a significant proportion of international migrants.
In 2000, a person with a university or graduate school education was six
times more likely to migrate legally than one with less than a high school
education. Thirty-five percent of the legal immigrant stock in OECD
countries, more than 20 million people all told, fell into the high-skill
category, compared with 30 percent a decade earlier (Docquier & Marfouk,
2005).

Justificacion/Razones para migrar


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.509
Human mobility is constrained for many reasons. Most people are attached
to their home countries and choose not to leave. Many others are too poor
to be able to leave. Yet there is no doubt that public policy also suppresses
migration flows.

Planteamiento/Por que los gobiernos actuan?

Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.510
Receiving country governments feel obliged to regulate people flows in
order to protect key constituents, defend perceived national interests, and
avoid the popular backlash that opening the borders would likely produce. In
doing so, these governments may be missing out on opportunities that
would produce mutual gains for both their own countries and the sending
countries.

Planteamiento/Por qu es importante la migracin?

Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.510
high-skill migration has an even greater potential to provide such payoffs.
Knowledge and skills are more potent creators of opportunity than muscle
power and the paychecks it generates. Moreover, the processes by which
knowledge and skills are created, shared, and received are changing
rapidly, transforming the high-skill labor market on a global basis and
perhaps expanding the range of opportunities for mutual gain.

Planteamiento/Valor de la capacitacin

Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.510
Highly skilled people are among the most valuable factors of production in
the contemporary world economy. Guthridge, Komm, and Lawson (2008) of
the McKinsey consulting firm, for instance, report that their global survey
indicates that intensifying competition for talent [will] have a major effect
on . . . companies over the next five years. No other global trend was
considered nearly as significant.

Planteamiento

Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.511
It is not surprising, then, that global demand for highly skilled workers is
rising. Modern technology, especially information and communications
technology, is complementary to highly skilled work, even as it displaces
unskilled labor (Acemoglu, 2002).

Planteamiento

Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.511
As in the business world, both incumbents and new entrants among
national governments are emphasizing the attraction and retention of highly
skilled workers.

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.511
The United Kingdom and France have recently instituted policies that their
policy makers hope will allow them to compete more effectively for global
talent. Even Germany and Japan, which have not historically welcomed
immigrants, are beginning to adjust to the new realities (Hart, 2006b).
Among the new entrants, Taiwan, Ireland, and Israel have demonstrated
that wooing home expatriates can be a very valuable component of a
knowledge-based economic development strategy (Breznitz, 2007).

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.511
The United States and India are not exempt from these trends. The United
States remains the central hub of the global high-skill migration system, and
it has not felt the pressure to adjust its policies as acutely as other
incumbents. But it has made important changes in recent years, as we
describe in more detail below, and high-skill migration policy remains on the
U.S. governments agenda.

Planteamiento/Guerra de talento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.511-512
Countries and companies typically assume that the competition for talent is
a zero-sum game: when a highly skilled person crosses national or
organizational boundaries, all the payoffs from the human capital that she
carries with her will follow. Common metaphors reflect this assumption.
Since the 1960s, international dialogue on high-skill migration has focused
on the idea that a brain drain makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.

Justificacin
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.512.
show that the migrants themselves and the economies that receive them
derive benefits from a simulated increase in international migration, whereas
those left behind in the source countries are made worse off

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.512.
Although the point is sometimes lost in political debate, the Winters and
others (2003) simulations point out that the migrants themselves are the
most significant direct beneficiaries of migration.

Justificacin
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.512.
Pritchett (2006) thus argues that migration is development. National
income statistics look quite different if they are calculated by summing up
the earnings of all those born in a particular country, regardless of their
current place of residence, than they do if they are measured within the
geographical boundaries of a nation (Clemens & Pritchett, 2008).

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.512.
skilled migration is beneficial for receiving countries. Some analysts go
beyond the conventional human capital accumulation argument, claiming
that the diversity of ideas and relationships that migrants bring to their new
homes enhances their knowledge spillovers. The magic, states Zachary
(2003), is in the mixing.

Marco Teorico/ Definicion de Brain Drain


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.512.
The brain gain argument views the opportunity for skilled migration as an
increase in the expected value of investment in education. If a college
graduate can earn five figures as a nurse in Dubuque or an engineer in
Dubai, instead of four figures delivering mail in Manila, the thinking goes,
more people will seek such degrees.

Marco Teorico/ Definicion de Brain circulation


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.513
The brain circulation perspective asserts that the declining costs of
transportation and communication allow people to capitalize on knowledge
over much larger distances than ever before. Knowledge spillovers are
much less localized than they used to be, thanks to more frequent personal
visits and massive bandwidth.
Members of a diaspora can more easily maintain strong relationships with
the friends and colleagues that they left behind than they could in the past,
and these social networks in their home countries capture some of the
benefits that would have been concentrated in the receiving country in the
past.

Marco Teorico/ Definicion de migracin de retorno


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.513
Return migration, whether temporary or permanent, is more literally brain
circulation. When living conditions improve in the sending countries, return
can become an appealing prospect for high-skill migrants. Return migrants
bring with them the social capital as well as the human capital that they
have gained during their sojourn abroad, facilitating continued international
collaboration in creative and business activities.

Planteamiento/Politica migratoria
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.513
States typically view control over migration flows to be a fundamental
attribute of sovereignty (Cornelius, 2004). They implement migration policies
in response to powerful economic and social interests within domestic civil
society. These policies usually contribute to the security and foreign policy
objectives of the state itself as well.

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.514
Competition for brains among states, each of which is independently
pursuing its perceived self-interest, is not necessarily a bad thing. One
salutary effect of such competition is to give greater leverage to skilled
migrants (Kapur & McHale, 2005).
The interests of the migrants themselves are usually underrepresented in
the international arena, since they are not perceived to be full members of
either their country of origin or their country of destination.

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.514
If sending country educational systems are too weak or rigid to respond to
the increased pull from competing receiving countries, as the brain gain
theory anticipates, the sending countries may be made much worse off. In a
worst-case scenario, one can imagine intellectual protectionism that both
limits migration and also restricts postmigration contacts with the home
country.

Marco Teorico o Justificacion


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.514
The scope and focus of such cooperation will of necessity vary over time
and across space. Some sending countries are poor candidates for
cooperative arrangements, because they do not welcome contributions to
their development by members of the diaspora or because conditions on the
ground (such as civil conflict or political instability) make it extremely difficult
for expatriates to make a contribution.

Justificacion
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.514
Opportunities for cooperation also vary because migration flows are not
uniform. For many sending countries, a single receiving country dominates
the emigration pattern due to factors such as proximity, colonial history, and
shared language.

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.515
Although national interests are generally too diverse and sovereignty too
powerful a principle for multilateral negotiations to yield concrete outcomes,
global and regional forums on international migration can lead to information
exchange, visibility, and articulation of norms (Martin, Martin, & Cross, 2007)
that advance the prospects for bilateral deals (IOM, 2008, chap. 13).

Planteamiento/2da generacion mas educada


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.516
Indian-Americans are highly educated. Of the Indian-born citizens counted
by the Census, approximately 80 percent had completed some college, and
over 69 percent had completed at least a bachelors degree.

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.516
As we describe in more detail below, Indians dominate temporary
admissions for highly skilled work in the United States (Monger & Barr,
2009), and they comprise the largest nationality group among foreign
students in U.S. higher education as well (Institute of International
Education, 2008).

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.516
As we noted above, the most severely affected countries experience skilled
emigration rates of over 70 percent, whereas Indias is but 4.3 percent (7.3
percent for science and technology graduates) (Docquier & Marfouk, 2005;
NISTADS, 2009).

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.517
The positive-sum logic of brain gain and brain circulation suggests that
enhancing feedbacks from high-skill migration to economic and social
development in India is not incompatible with sustained contributions by
migrants to U.S. prosperity and continued improvement of the migrants own
well-being.

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.517
The binational networks that they have begun to create may give the United
States an important collaborative advantage (Lynn & Salzman, 2006) in
the global economy compared with other high-income nations that are not
as open to high-skill migration.
The prospect of aggregate gains for both India and the United States as a
result of high-skill migration does not preclude the possibility that particular
groups within one or both countries will be disadvantaged by it.

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.517
Some advocates argue that large swathes of U.S. high-technology industry
are in danger of being lost permanently due to the openness of the country
to foreign students and professionals. This position reverses the usual
direction of the brain drain argument, but maintains its zero-sum concept. A
third objective of bilateral cooperation between the United States and India
on high-skill migration, then, in addition to fostering brain gain and brain
circulation and enhancing the contributions of Indian immigrants to the
United States, should be to head off the threat of backlash by limiting highskill migrations negative consequences for U.S. workers.

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.517
Both the opportunities for high-skill migration between India and the United
States to achieve bilateral goals, and the threat of backlash that would
undermine the relationship,

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.520
The U.S. immigration system provides visa waivers for medical
professionals willing to work with such populations. The so-called Conrad
30 program has placed 8500 nonimmigrants doctors in rural communities
since its inception in 1994 (Conrad, 2009).

Marco Teorico
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.521
Graduate education is a third important sector within the U.S.India highskill migration relationship. Like medicine, education generally requires
personal presence for the process to have its intended effect. This is
particularly true at the graduate level, where students are picking up the
tacit, craft skills that will be critical for them to be able to practice their
professions.

Justificacin/Inversion de gobierno para educcion


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.522
Another important area of cooperation relates to the rapidly increasing cost
of education, who pays for it, and who benefits. The Indian public sector
makes a significant investment in undergraduate education, such as that
provided by the Indian Institutes of Technology, which feed U.S. graduate
institutions. Some in India see this as an investment lost when students
migrate for graduate education abroad. On the other hand, many Indian
graduate students receive support from U.S. federal R&D funds, which
domestic students and their elected representatives may view as
unwelcome foreign competition. A program of cooperation that facilitates
brain circulation and research-oriented collaboration between the United
States and India might head off any backlash that might arise due to these
frictions.

Marco Teorico/Acciones conjuntas


Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.522 a
An important long-term consequence of the bilateral flow of graduate
students from India to the United States is the shortage of doctoral degree
holders in India to fill teaching and research positions (Pritchett, 2006). This
shortage inhibits Indias efforts to build human capital and reduces its
domestic capacity for research and innovation. Demographic differences
guarantee that the United States will continue to receive a steady flow of
graduate students from India. While many of these migrants will remain in
the United States and contribute to its economy and society, it is in the
United States interest to facilitate the return of some of them in order to
seed further development of Indian higher education. Unilateral action,
either to restrict brain drain on the part of India or to restrict reverse brain
drain on the part of the United States, would miss this enormous opportunity
for mutual benefit. If too few of the hundreds of millions of young Indians are
able to receive a high-quality education, they may be channeled into

unproductive pursuits that could affect India and the United States
negatively.
Marco Teorico/Acciones conjuntas
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.522 b

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.523
The process of globalization, enabled by advances in information and
communication technologies, distributed business models, and liberalized
national policies, has created new choices for individuals who have skills
and knowledge that are in demand. These individuals are increasingly able
to migrate to wherever they believe they can best realize their potential.

Planteamiento
Davis, Ted & Hart, David (2010), International Cooperation to Manage HighSkill Migration: the Case of India-US Relations, Review of Policy Research,
P.523
These dynamics are fostering a global market for highly skilled people and
the possibility of a zero-sum war for talent among firms and countries.
However, the distribution of costs and benefits that result from this explosion
of mobility is not necessarily fixed. The mutual benefits of brain gain and
brain circulation may, under some circumstances, outweigh the
concentrated costs of brain drain.