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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

NAME : ..
CLASS : ..

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

CHAPTER 3 : CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS


A

RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS (RAM) AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS (RMM)


Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:

state the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale,

state the meaning of relative molecular mass based on carbon-12 scale,

state why carbon-12 is used as a standard for determining relative atomic mass and
relative molecular mass,

calculate the relative molecular mass of substances.

Activity 1 (refer text book pg 28 )


Relative atomic mass of an element , Ar
= The average mass of an atom of the element
1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Example:
Ar of C=12
Ar of O=16
Ar of Mg=24
1.

The Relative atomic mass of an element is ..


when compare with 1/12 of the
mass of an atom of carbon 12.

2.

Carbon-12 is chosen because it is a . and can be easily handled.

3.

Find the relative atomic masses of these elements.


Element

Relative Atomic Mass

Element

Calcium, Ca
Sodium, Na
Iron, Fe
Copper, Cu
Carbon, C
Hydrogen, H
Potassium, K
Lithium, Li
Bromine, Br

Argon, Ar
Silver, Ag
Caesium, Cs
Lead, Pb
Chlorine, Cl
Flourine, F
Aluminium, Al
Zinc, Zn
Helium, He

Relative Atomic Mass

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Activity 2 (refer text book pg 29)


Relative molecular mass of a substance, Mr
= The Average mass of a molecule of the substance
1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Calculating Relative molecular mass,Mr
Mr= The sum of Ar of all atoms present in one molecule
2 Hydrogen
atoms

Molecular
formula

Example:

Mr of Water, H2O = 2(1) + 16 = 18


Relative atomic mass
for Oxygen

Relative atomic mass


for Hydrogen

Mr of Carbon dioxide, CO2 = 12 + 2(16) = 44


For ionic substance , Relative formula mass , Fr
= The sum of Ar of all atoms present in the formula

All Ar, Mr and


Fr have no unit

Example:
Fr of Magnesium oxide, MgO = 24 + 16 = 40
Fr of Sodium chloride, NaCl = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5
1. The relative molecular mass of a molecule is
. when compared with 1/12 of the mass
of one atom of
2. Calculate the relative molecular masses of the substances in the table below.
Substance

Molecular formula

Hydrogen gas
Propane

H2
C3H8

Ethanol
Bromine gas
Methane
Glucose

C2H5OH
Br2
CH4
C6H12O6

Relative molecular mass, Mr


2(1) = 2

Ammonia
NH3
[Relative atomic mass : H,1; C,12; O,16; Br,80 ; N,14 ]

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

3. Calculate the relative formula masses of the following ionic compounds in the table.
Substance
Potassium oxide

Compound formula
K2O

Relative formula mass, Fr


2(39) + 16 = 94

Aluminium sulphate

Al2(SO4)3

Zinc nitrate

Zn(NO3)2

Aluminium nitrate

Al(NO3)3

Calcium carbonate

CaCO3

Calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

Hydrated copper(II)
sulphate

CuSO4.5H2O

Hydrated sodium
carbonate

Na2CO3.10H2O

Sodium hydrogen
sulphate

NaHSO4

Aluminium chloride

AlCl3

Copper(II) sulphate

CuSO4

Zinc carbonate

ZnCO3

Potassium
carbonate

K2CO3

2(27)+3[32+4(16)]=342

64 + 32 + 4(16) + 5[2(1) + 16]=250

[Relative atomic mass: O,16; C,12; H,1; K,39 ; Cu,64 ; Zn, 65; Cl, 35.5 ; Al, 27 S,32 ;
Ca, 40; Na,23; N, 14]

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

B THE MOLE AND THE NUMBER OF PARTICLES


Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
define a mole as the amount of matter that contains as many particles as the number of
atoms in 12 g of 12C,
state the meaning of Avogadro constant,
relate the number of particles in one mole of a substance with the Avogadro constant,
solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles to the number of particles of a
given substance and vice versa.

Activity 3 (refer text book pg 30 )


1. To describe the amount of atoms, ions or molecules , mole is used.
2. A mole is an amount of substance that contains as many particles as the ..
.. in exactly 12g of carbon-12.
3. A mole is an amount of substance which contains a constant number of particles
atoms, ions, molecules which is 6.02 x 1023
4. The number 6.02 x 1023 is called (NA)
5. In other words:

1 mol of atomic substance contains . atoms

1 mol of molecular substance contains . molecules

1 mol of ionic substance contains .. formula units

6. Relationship between number of moles and number of particles (atom/ion/molecules):

x Avogadro Constant
number of moles

A
vogadro Constant

number of particles

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Number of moles

Number of particles

0.5 mol of carbon atoms

atoms of
carbon

0.2 moles of hydrogen gas ( H2)

(i)
(ii)

2 mol of carbon dioxide molecules

..molecules
of hydrogen gas
.Atoms of
hydrogen

molecules of carbon dioxide gas


contains :
. atoms of C and
. atoms of O

0.007 mol of calcium ions

calcium ions

. mol of water

6.02 x 10 25 molecules of water

0.4 mol of ozone gas ( O3)

. molecules of ozone,
contains :
atoms of O

7. Complete these sentences .


a) 1 mol of calcium contains .. atoms
b) 2 mol of iron contains

.. atoms

c) 2 mol of magnesium oxide, (MgO) contains .. ions


d) 2 mol of sodium carbonate, (Na2CO3) contains . ions
e) 3 mol of carbon dioxide, (CO2) contains .. molecules
f) 0.5 mol Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 contains .. Cu2+ ions
and . NO3- ions

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

C NUMBER OF MOLES AND MASS OF SUBSTANCES


Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:

state the meaning of molar mass,

relate molar mass to the Avogadro constant,

relate molar mass of a substance to its relative atomic mass or relative molecular mass,

solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles of a given substance to its mass and
vice versa.

Activity 4 (refer text book pg 33 )


1.

The molar mass of a substance


= The molar mass of _________________ mole of the substance.
=

The mass of (NA) number of particles

The mass of ____________________ particles

x Molar mass

Number
Of
moles

Mass
in g

Molar mass

2. Calculating the Mass from a number of Moles


Number of moles

mass of the substance


.
Mass of 1 mole of the substance

Mass of substance

Number of moles x Mass of 1 mole

Therefore :

Example 1 :

What is the mass of 2 moles of carbon ?


Mass

=
=

2 x
24g

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Example 2 : What is the mass of 2 moles of H2O ?


Mass

36g

[ 2(1) +

16 ]

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

3. Calculate the masses of these substances


a) 2 moles of aluminium atoms
Mass =

b) 10 moles of iodine atoms


Mass =

c) 3 moles of lithium atoms


Mass =

d) 0.5 moles of oxygen gas (O2)


Mass =

e) 0.1 moles of sodium


Mass =

f)

g) 1 mole of carbon dioxide ( CO2)


Mass =

h) 3 moles of nitric acid, ( HNO3 )


Mass =

i)

j)

0.25 moles of calcium chloride (CaCl2 )


Mass =

k) 0.25 moles of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)


Mass =

l)

0.25 moles of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)


Mass =

m) 0.5 moles of potassium manganate (VII)


(KMnO4)
Mass =

n) 0.25 moles of hydrated magnesium


sulphate (MgSO4.7H2O)
Mass =

2 moles of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 )


Mass =

2 moles of chlorine molecules (Cl2)


Mass =

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Activity 5
4. Calculate the Number of Moles from a given Mass
Example : How many moles are there in 88g of CO2
Number of moles = 88
44

= 2 moles

2g of helium atoms
Number of moles =

6g of carbon atoms
Number of moles =

a)

b)

16g of helium atoms


Number of moles =

4g of sulphur atoms
Number of moles =

c)

d)

4g of oxygen molecules (O2)


Number of moles =

213g of chlorine molecules (Cl2)


Number of moles =

e)

f)

0.56g of nitrogen molecules (N2)


Number of moles =

254g of iodine molecules (I2)


Number of moles =

g)

h)

88g of carbon dioxide (CO2)


Number of moles =

3.1g of sulphur dioxide (SO2)


Number of moles =

i)

j)

560g of potassium hydroxide (KOH)


Number of moles =

392g of sulphuric acid (H2SO4)


Number of moles =

k)

l)

170g of ammonia (NH3)


Number of moles =

120g of magnesium oxide (MgO)


Number of moles =

m)

n)

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

4g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)


Number of moles =

73g of hydrogen choride (HCl)


Number of moles =

o)

p)

15.8g of potassium manganate (VII)


KMnO4
Number of moles =

8g of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)


Number of moles =

q)

r)

0.78g of aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3


Number of moles =

0.92g of ethanol (C2H5OH)


Number of moles =

s)

t)

Activity 6
5. Complete the following table.
Element/
compound

Chemical
formulae

Molar mass

Copper

Cu

RAM= 64

Calculate
(a)Mass of 1 mol = g
(b) Mass of 2 mol = . g
(c)Mass of mol = .g
(d)Mass of 3.01x1023 Cu atoms =

Sodium
hydroxide

NaOH

RFM= 40

(a) Mass of 3 mol of sodium hydroxide


=
(b) Number of moles of sodium hydroxide in 20 g
=

Zinc nitrate

Zn(NO3)2

RFM =

a) Number of moles in 37.8 g of zinc nitrate :

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WAJA F4 Chemistry
D

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

NUMBER OF MOLES AND VOLUME OF GAS


Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
state the meaning of molar volume of a gas,
relate molar volume of a gas to the Avogadro constant,

make generalization on the molar volume of a gas at a given temperature and


pressure,
calculate the volume of gases at STP or room conditions from the number of moles and
vice versa,
solve numerical problems involving number of particles, number of moles, mass of substances
and volume of gases at STP or room conditions.

Activity 7 (refer text book pg 36, 37 )


1. The molar volume of a gas is defined as the .
.
2. One mole of any gas always has the under the same
temperature and pressure.
3. The molar volume of any gas is

24 dm3 at

22.4 dm3 at .

or

Example :
1 mol of oxygen gas, 1 mol of ammonia gas, 1 mol helium gas and 1 mol sulphur dioxide gas
occupies the same volume of 24 dm3 at room condition

x 22.4/24 dm3

Number of moles of
gas

Volume of gas

22.4/24 dm3

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

4. Calculate the volume of gas in the following numbers of moles at STP


Example : Find the volume of 1 mole of CO2 gas
Volume

=
=
=

number of moles x
1 x 22.4 dm3
22.4 dm3

3 moles of oxygen
Volume =

22.4 dm3

2 moles of CH4
Volume =

a)

b)

0.3 moles of Argon


Volume =

0.2 moles of SO3


Volume =

c)

d)

0.1 moles of N2
Volume =

1.5 mol of N2
Volume =

e)

f)

5. Complete the diagram below . (Refer to Page 33,34 & 38-Chemistry textbook)

Volume of gas (dm3)

Mass in gram

Number of moles

12

No of particles

WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Activity 8
Solve these numerical problems
1.

What is the volume of 0.3 mole of sulphur dioxide gas at STP?


[Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

(Ans: 6.72 dm3)


2.

Find the number of moles of oxygen gas contained in a sample of 120 cm3 of the gas
at room conditions.
[Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions]

(Ans: 0.005 mol)

3.

Calculate the number of water molecules in 90 g of water, H2O.


[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16. Avogadro constant, NA: 6.02 x 1023 mol-1]

(Ans; 3.01x 1024 molecules)

4.

What is the volume of 24 g methane ,CH4 at STP?


[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12. Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

(Ans: 33.6 dm3)

5.

How many aluminium ions are there in 20.4 g of aluminium oxide, Al2O3?
[Relative atomic mass: O, 16; Al, 27. Avogadro constant, NA: 6.02 x 1023 mol-

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


(Ans: 2 x 0.2 x 6.02 x1023)

6.

Calculate the number of hydrogen molecules contained in 6 dm3 of hydrogen gas at


room conditions.
[Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions Avogadro constant, NA: 6.02 x 1023
mol-1]

(Ans: 1.505x1023 molecules)

7.

Find the volume of nitrogen in cm3 at STP that consists of 2.408 x 1023 nitrogen
molecules.
[Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP. Avogadro constant, NA: 6.02 x 1023 mol-1]

(Ans: 8.96 dm3 )

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

E CHEMICAL FORMULAE
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to
state the meaning of chemical formula
state the meaning of empirical formula
state the meaning of molecular formula
determine empirical and molecular formula of substances
compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula
solve numerical problems involving empirical and molecular formula.
write ionic formula of ions
construct chemical formulaf ionic compounds
state names of chemical compounds using IUPAC nomenclature.
use symbols and chemical formula for easy and systematic communication in the field of
chemistry.

ACTIVITY 9 (Refer text book pg 40)


1) A Chemical formula - A representation of a chemical substance using letters for
and subscripts to show the numbers of each type of
.. that are present in the substance.
The letter H
shows
.
.

Subscript shows 2
hidrogen atoms in
a molecule

H2

2) Complete this table


Chemical subtance

Chemical

Notes

formulae
Water

..

2 atoms of H combine with 1 atom of O

..
Propane

NH3

. atoms of H combine with 1 atom of N

C3H8

.. atoms of C combine with .


atoms of H

Magnesium oxide

..

..

H2SO4

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

3). There are two types of chemical formulae. Complete the following:
** Empirical Formula

The simplest

.. ratio of atoms of each .

in the compound.
** Molecular Formula

The actual of atoms of each that are


present in a molecule of the compound

Remember:

Molecular formula = (Empirical formula)n

Example: (i) Compound Ethene

(ii)

Molecular formula - C 2 H 4
Empirical formula - ...................

Compound Glucose
Molecular formula - C 6 H 12 O 6
Empirical formula - ....................

Activity 10
1 Find the empirical formula of a compound
Example of calculation:
a) When 11.95 g of metal X oxide is reduced by hydrogen, 10.35 g of metal X is
produced. Find the empirical formula of metal X oxide [ RAM; X,207; O,16 ]
Element
Mass of element(g)
Number of moles of atoms

X
10.35
10.35207

O
11.95-10.35
(11.95-10.35)16

Ratio of moles
Simplest ratio of moles
Empirical formula :

b) A certain compound contains the following composition:


Na 15.23%, Br 52.98% , O 31.79%, [ RAM : O, 16; Na, 23; Br,80]

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

(Assume that 100g of substance is used)


Element
Mass of element(g)
Number of moles atoms
Ratio of moles
Simplest ratio of moles

Na
15.23
15.23 23

Br
52.98
52.9880

O
31.79
31.7916

Empirical formula:: .
c)

Complete the table below.


Compound
Water
Carbon Dioxide
Sulphuric Acid
Ethene
Benzene
Glucose

Molecular Formula
H2O
CO2
H2SO4
C2H4
C6H6
C6H12O6

Empirical formula

Value of n

CO2
CH2

d) 2.52g of a hydrocarbon contains 2.16 g of carbon. The relative molecular mass of the
hydrocarbon is 84. [RAM H,1; C,12]
i.

Find the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon

ii.

Find the molecular formula of the carbon.

Activity 11

:Chemical Formula for ionic compounds:

Complete the table below :


Cation

Formula

Anion

Formula

Hydrogen ion

Flouride ion

Lithium ion

Chloride ion

Sodium ion

Bromide ion

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Potassium ion

Iodide ion

Magnesium ion

Hydroxide ion

Calcium ion

Ca 2

Nitrate ion

Barium ion

Ba 2

Manganate(VII) ion

Copper(II) ion

Ethanoate ion

CH 3COO

Iron(II) ion

O 2

Iron (III) ion

Sulphate ion

Lead (II) ion

Sulphide ion

Zinc ion

Carbonate ion

Chromium (III) ion

Dichromate (VI) ion

Aluminium ion

S 2

Cr2 O7

Al 3

Ammonium ion

PO4

Chromate (VI) ion

Avtivity 12
a) Chemical formula of an ionic compound comprising of the ions Xm+ and Yn- is constructed
by exchanging the charges of each element. The formula obtained will XnYm
Example : Sodium oxide

Copper (II) nitrate

Na+

O2-

Cu2+

NO3-

+1

-2

+2

-1

Na+ + Na+

O2-

(+1) + (+1)

-2

= Na2O

b)

....................

Construct a chemical formula for each of the following ionic compounds:

(i)

Magnesium chloride

(ii)

Potassium carbonate

(iii)

Calcium sulphate

(iv)

Copper (II) oxide

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

(v)

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Silver nitrate

(vi)

Zinc nitrate

(vii) Aluminium oxide

(viii) Iron(II) hydroxide

(ix)

(x)

Lead(II) sulphide

Chromium(III) sulphate

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to
1. state the meaning of chemical equation
identify the reactants and products of a chemical equation
2. write and balance chemical equations
3. interpret chemical equations quantitatively and qualitatively
4. solve numerical problems using chemical equations
5. identify positive scientific attitudes and values practiced by scientist in doing research
6. justify the need to practice positive scientific attitudes and good values in doing researsh
7. use chemical equations for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Activity 13 (refer text book pg 48)


C (s) + O2 (g) CO 2 (g)

Example:

Reactant

product

1) Qualitative aspect of chemical equation:


a) Arrow in the equation the way the reaction is occurring
b) Substances on the left-hand side

..

c) Substances on the right-hand side


d) State of each substance : (s), (l), gas .and aqueous
solution .
2)

Quantitative aspect of chemical equations

Coefficients in a balanced equation the exact proportions of reactants and products in


equation.
Example:

2 H 2 (g)

+ O2 (g)

2 H 2 O (l)

(Interpreting): 2 molecules (2 mol) of H 2 react with1 molecule (1 mol) of O2 to produced 2


molecules(2 mol) of water
Complete the following word equations and write in chemical equation
a) Sodium

b)

chlorine

..

NaCl

Carbon

..

Carbon dioxide

..

oxygen

..

..

c) Sulphur
..
d) Zinc

+ oxygen

..

+ O2

..

3) Write a balanced equation for each of the following reactions and interpret the equations
quantitatively.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

(a). Carbon monoxide gas + oxygen gas carbon dioxide gas

Interpreting:

(b). Hydrogen gas + nitrogen gas ammonia gas


.
Interpreting:
..
(c). Aluminium + Iron (III) oxide aluminium oxide + Iron
.
Interpreting:
.

Activity 14
** Numerical Problems Involving Chemical Equations
Hydrogen peroxide decomposes according to the following equation:
2 H 2 O2 (l) 2 H 2 O (l) + O2 (g)
1). Calculate the volume of oxygen gas, O2 measured at STP that can be obtained from the
decomposition of 34 g of hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O2 .
[Relative atomic mass : H, 1 ; O, 16. Molar volume : 22.4 dm 3 mol 1 at STP]

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

(Ans: 11.2 dm3)

2).Silver carbonate Ag2CO3 breaks down easily when heated to produce silver metal
2 Ag2CO3(l)

4 Ag (s) + 2 CO2 (g) + O2

Find the mass of silver carbonate that is required to produce 10 g of silver


[Relative atomic mass: C, 12 ; O, 16 ; Ag, 108]

(Ans : 12.77g)

3). 16 g of copper (II) oxide, CuO is reacted with excess methane, CH 4 . Using the equation
below, find the mass of copper that is produced.
[Relative atomic mass : Cu, 64 ; O, 16]
4 CuO (s) + CH 4 (g) 4 Cu (s) + CO2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (l)

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WAJA F4 Chemistry

Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations


(Ans : 12.8 g)

4). A student heats 20 g of calcium carbonate CaCO3 strongly. It decomposes according to the
equation below:
CaCO3 (s)

CaO (s) + CO2 (g).

(a). If the carbon dioxide produced is collected at room conditions, what is its volume?

(b). Calculate the mass of calcium oxide, CaO produced.


[Relative atomic mass: C, 12 ; O, 16; Ca, 40. Molar volume :
24 dm3 mol 1 at room conditions]

(Ans : (a). 4.8 dm 3 (b) 11.2 g)

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