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A Study of SMS Based and GPRS Based Remote Switching System Performance for Electric Power Distribution Network in Remote Areas

Muhammad Said Al Manshury, Guntur Supriyadi

PLN Research Institute Jakarta, Indonesia m.said@pln.co.id

AbstractThis paper presents a study on the comparative performance of SMS and GPRS as a communications media for remote switching in remote areas. The research method used is quantitative method by taking samples and conduct tests on samples. Four points of switching is taken in Payakumbuh and Lampung as samples, respectively 2 switching points. Result of the 4 switching points shows that there are two switching points that use SMS have a higher success rate and there are two switching points using GPRS has a higher success rate. This means the level of success depends on the quality of the signals and the cellular network at the location. As for the duration of switching, switching system which uses GPRS has a faster duration of switching than switching system using SMS.

Keywords-remote switching, GPRS, SMS

AbstrakPenelitian ini melakukan kajian tentang perbandingan kinerja SMS dan GPRS sebagai media komunikasi switching pada daerah terpencil. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif yaitu dengan mengambil sampel dan melakukan ujicoba pada sampel tersebut. Sampel yang digunakan ada 4 titik switching yaitu di Payakumbuh dan Lampung, masing-masing 2 titik switching. Hasil dari ke 4 titik switching ini diketahui bahwa ada 2 titik switching yang menggunakan SMS memiliki tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi dan ada 2 titik switching yang menggunakan GPRS memiliki tingkat keberhasilan lebih tinggi. Hal ini bisa diartikan bahwa tingkat keberhasilannya tergantung dari kualitas sinyal dan jaringan seluler di lokasi tersebut. Sedangkan untuk durasi switching, sistem switching yang menggunakan GPRS, memiliki durasi switching lebih cepat dibanding dengan sistem switching menggunakan SMS.

Kata kunci-switching jarak jauh, GPRS, SMS

I.

INTRODUCTION

Switching on the equipment, such as Recloser and Load Break Switch (LBS), which is done manually for remote areas take a long time. It is because, to perform switching, the officer must go to the location where the equipment is located, especially if the location is quite far away. The communications media available in remote areas is limited. While radio communication is not simple due to frequency license and the pilot cable or fiber optic are uneconomical, communications media that easy to use and relatively cheap are SMS communication and GPRS. This study will examine the comparison between using SMS and GPRS for remote switching system in remote areas.

II. REMOTE SWITCHING SYSTEM DESIGN

Switching system consists of hardware and software. Hardware specification of remote switching system in this study can be seen in Table 1, while the software specification can be seen in table 2.

TABLE 1. HARDWARE SPECIFICATION

Hardware

Type

Function

Server

Windows server

- Hardware where software sistem switching system software is run

- As event log storage media on the sender side.

Modem

CINTERION

For sending and receiving SMS in both the receiver and sender side.

TC65T

PC Lokal

Mini desktop

As event log storage media on the receiver side.

Dummy

User defined

The controlled devices.

 

TABLE 2. SOFTWARE

3.

Software

Function

Explanation

Delphi 7

As the interface on the sender side to perform control commands and receives feedback status from the client by using SMS communication media.

Installed at server

Java

As the interface on the receiver side to receive control commands and forwards the control command to the dummy and transmit the status of the dummy to the server using SMS communication media.

Installed at Modem

The system is made has the following specification:

Communication Media: SMS/GPRS

Control Function:

Able to control the switch/relay;

Control can be done manually (by selecting the equipment) or automatically (scheduled);

The control log along with the time is recorded in the event logger (on both the server and the local PC);

Monitoring Function

Obtain the status of the equipment when there is change of status or status of equipment (sent if requested by the server). Status is sent along with the time;

Changes of the status of the equipment along with the time are recorded in the event logger (on both the server and the local PC).

The system is made has the following restrictions:

using

The

equipment

is

controlled

equipment;

dummy

The control system is text-based.

A. Remote Switching System Design Using SMS

V i a S M S Remote switching system using SMS is a system that
V i a S M S
Remote switching system using SMS is a system that has
functions to control remotely from one place to the equipment
installed in other places and gets feedback on the status of the
installed equipment using SMS communication media.
PC Lokal
Via RS232
Provider
Modem
Server
Modem
Module I/O
Digital Output
Digital Input
Switch
Switch
LED
LED
V i a S M S
Via GPIO

Figure 1. Remote switching system using SMS

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Flowchart of the software is described in figure 2 and figure

Start
Start

Intialize the modem :

Setting the parameter of port RS232

Setting the parameter of modem

Setting the periodic time for sending command via SMS

Periodic time has been reached? Y
Periodic time has been
reached?
Y

N

N

command via SMS Periodic time has been reached? Y N N Send command via SMS Save
command via SMS Periodic time has been reached? Y N N Send command via SMS Save

Send command via SMS

Save command event in the

logger

Any new SMS? Y
Any new SMS?
Y

Read the SMS

command event in the logger Any new SMS? Y Read the SMS Save the event in

Save the event in the logger

Figure 2. Flowchart of remote switching system software using SMS on the server side

Start Intialize the modem :  Setting the clock  Setting the parameter of URC
Start
Intialize the modem :
 Setting the clock
 Setting the parameter of URC (Unsolicited Result Codes)
 Setting the parameter of SMS
 Setting the parameter of GPIO (General Purpose Input Output)
N
Any incoming SMS atau
Any status change?
Y
SMS :
SMS :
SMS :
SMS :
SMS :
status change
Check
Status
command ON
comma
nd
OFF
command SHUTDOWN
command
RESTART
Check Status at
command ON at
command OFF at
Read status change
SHUTDOWN
RESTART
input
output
output
at input
modem
modem
Send status change
Send status to
to server
server via SMS
via SMS
Send data to PC via RS232
End

Figure 3. Flowchart of remote switching system software on the client side

B. Remote Switching System Design Using GPRS

V i a G P R S Remote switching system using GPRS is a system
V i a G P R S
Remote switching system using GPRS is a system that has
functions to control remotely from one place to the equipment
installed in other places and gets feedback on the status of the
installed equipment using GPRS communication media.
PC Lokal
Via RS232
Provider
Server
Terkoneksi ke internet
Modem GPRS
Dan memiliki IP public
Module I/O
Digital Output
Digital Input
Switch
Switch
LED
LED
V i a G P R S
Via GPIO

Figure 4. Remote Switching System Design Using GPRS

Flowchart of the software is described in figure 4 and figure

5.

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Start
Start

Intialize the modem :

Setting the socket parameter in the server

Setting the polling parameter

Create socket connection at a port

T Any request connection from the client? Y
T
Any request connection
from the client?
Y

Setting the periodic time for

sending command

N Periodic time has been reached? Y N Send command to the client Save command
N
Periodic time has been
reached?
Y
N
Send command to the client
Save command event in the
logger
Any new data from
client?
Y
Save the event in the logger

Figure 4. Flowchart of remote switching system software using GPRS on the server side

Start Intialize the modem :  Setting the clock  Setting the parameter of URC
Start
Intialize the modem :
 Setting the clock
 Setting the parameter of URC (Unsolicited Result Codes)
 Setting the parameter of GPRS
 Setting the parameter of GPIO (General Purpose Input Output)
Create connection to server
N
Any command from server or any
Status change ?
Y
command
POLLING
command ON
comma
nd OFF
Status change
command SHUTDOWN command
RESTART
POLLING the
command ON at
command OFF at
Read status change
SHUTDOWN
RESTART
modem
output
output
at input
modem
modem
Send status change
to server
via GPRS
Send data to PC via RS232
End

Figure 5. Flowchart of remote switching system software using GPRS on the client side

III. REMOTE SWITCHING SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

For implementation, the equipments on the receiver side should meet the following installation criteria:

Location is remote

Communication signal for SMS and GPRS is not stable

220 V AC supply is available.

The data that has been collected is in 4 switching locations. They are:

Batu hampar, Payakumbuh, West Sumatera;

Aur Kuning, Payakumbuh, West Sumatera;

Pring Sewu, Lampung; and

Metro, Lampung.

In each of these switching point, the switching equipments (either using SMS or communications media that uses GPRS communication media) are installed. So the number of switching systems that will be processed there are 8 systems (4 switching systems using SMS communication media and 4 switching systems using GPRS communications media).

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IV. DATA COLLECTING AND PROCESSING

The parameters will be compared are including the success rate and duration of switching. To be able to calculate the success rate and duration, the following switching data is needed:

• Time command (control); and

• Time receive feedback (status).

Calculation of the rate of success is done by comparing the number of feedback (status) that is successfully received by the

server and the total number of switching commands.

To calculate the switching duration, time tag of command sent and command received are needed. The switching duration is the lapse of the time when command sent and command received.

SERVER T1 Time command Time receive feedback T3
SERVER
T1
Time command
Time receive
feedback
T3

Δt

ΔT = switching duration = T3- T1

CLIENT (Modem)

Dummy
Dummy

Figure 6. The Calculation of Switching Duration

The processed data results information as shown on table 2

TABLE 2. RESULT OF PROCESSED DATA

 

BATU HAMPAR

AUR KUNING

PAYAKUMBUH

SMS

GPRS

SMS

GPRS

AVERAGE (second)

15,54

8,77

14,50

3,99

MIN (second)

12

2

10

3

MAX (second)

257

95

257

26

The number of control

2237

1114

4244

2207

Failure

32

41

62

50

Success

2205

1073

4182

2157

The percentage of success

98,57%

96,32%

98,54%

97,73%

The percentage of failure

1,43%

3,68%

1,46%

2,27%

 

PRING SEWU

METRO

LAMPUNG

SMS

GPRS

SMS

GPRS

AVERAGE (second)

14,25

3,53

14,84

3,74

MIN (second)

12

3

10

2

MAX (second)

58

15

254

26

The number of control

3317

3143

4745

3960

Failure

94

12

66

10

Success

3223

3131

4679

3950

The percentage of success

97,17%

99,62%

98,61%

99,75%

The percentage of failure

2,83%

0,38%

1,39%

0,25%

V.

ASSESMENT

A. Switching Success Rate

The success rate of switching systems that use SMS communication compared to the switching system using

GPRS communications media is shown on table 3 and Figure

7.

TABLE 3. SWITCHING SUCCESS RATE COMPARISON

SWITCHING SUCCESS RATE

SMS

GPRS

Payakumbuh - Batu Hampar

98,57%

96,32%

Payakumbuh - Aur Kuning

98,54%

97,73%

Lampung - Pring Sewu

97,17%

99,62%

Lampung - Metro

98,61%

99,75%

97,17% 99,62% Lampung - Metro 98,61% 99,75% Figure 7 Switching Success Rate Comparison The data above

Figure 7 Switching Success Rate Comparison

The data above shows that:

The first two switching systems, on the table above, that use SMS communication media have a higher success rate compared to the switching system using GPRS

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communication media. It happened in Payakumbuh - Batu Hampar and Payakumbuh - Aur.

The last two switching systems, on the table above, that use SMS communication media have a lower success rate

compared to the switching system using GPRS

communication media. It happened in Lampung-Pring Sewu and Lampung-Metro.

B.

Switching Duration

The duration of the switching system using SMS compared

to GPRS is shown on Table 4 and Figure 8.

TABLE 4. SWITCHING DURATION

SWITCHING DURATION (SECOND)

SMS

GPRS

Payakumbuh - Batu Hampar

15,54

8,77

Payakumbuh - Aur Kuning

14,50

3,99

Lampung - Pring Sewu

14,25

3,53

Lampung - Metro

14,84

3,74

Sewu 14,25 3,53 Lampung - Metro 14,84 3,74 Figure 8 Switching Duration Average From the table

Figure 8 Switching Duration Average

From the table and figure above, it is seen that all switching system using GPRS communication media, has shorter duration compared to the one using SMS. This is because the system using GPRS communication media is connection oriented communications system. It means the communication a path between two end-terminals is established built before the data is being sent.

VI.

CONCLUSION

From the comparison, it can be concluded that :

The success rate of switching system using SMS communication or using GPRS communication depends on the quality of the signals and the cellular network at that location. Furthermore, to determine the switching system which is most suitable for a given location, it is necessary

to measure the success rate of switching using SMS and GPRS first.

Switching system using GPRS communication media, has shorter duration compared to the one using SMS. Because the system using GPRS communication media is connection oriented communications system.

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[1]

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[2]

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Seminar Nasional Ketenagalistrikan dan Aplikasinya SENKA 2015

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[19] Wie

Cara

http://id.scribd.com/doc/120455295/cara-kerja-SMS

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