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CHARGING MANAGEMENT

0.

Introduction

Telecommunication is a commercial service providing basic voice telephony and many other
bearer services. The measurement of the charge of calls and realising the revenue from its
customers is one of the most important management activity.
In electronic exchanges the process and related O & M procedures for recording of charges and
calls details is called Charging Management Procedure. Charging management needs
identification of the factors on which the charging of a call depends and define the same
appropriately in a data base form in different tables. During call processing this data base is used
by call processing programs to impose correct charging and increment the subscribers charge
meter accordingly.
The charge can be calculated by the exchange by following methods
using the digit analysis at the local end along with the source of the call, to determine the
metering parameters elements, for example in a local call.
using the charge metering pulses or information from forward system allowing the calculation
of the charging based on inward pulses.
A call can be non-metered / charge free if
the called line is charge free line
information in the translation files indicates that the call is not to be charged.

1.

Factors on which charging depends

Charging depends on the following factors


Source of the call (subscriber or junction) - identified by a charging category (CT)
Destination of the call - determined by the digits dialed.
Type of the day, for example on normal day imposing normal charge, where as Sundays which
is holiday the tariff is reduced, exceptional days like National holidays.
Time of the day- administration can decide different tariff rates at different time periods of
the day.
Duration of call conversation reckoning from the instant the called party answers.
Charging management deals with the CReation, MOdification, LIsting and INterrogation of the
above mentioned parameters appropriately.
Charging categories (CT) are defined to identify the source of the call. Digits dialed by the
subscriber along with the call source is used by Translator to determine charging parameter. A

charging category (CT) may be devided to a maximum of 64 Zones (ZG) as second level
indexing.

DIGITS & CHARGING CATEGORY (CT)

TRANSLATION

CT1

CT2

PTXa

ZG1

PTXb

ZG2

PTXc

CTk
PTXj

ZGk

PTXd

PTXx

CTn
PTXn

CT128
PTXz

ZG64

ZGn
PTXy

PTXy

1.1. Detailed billing


In addition charging management takes care of the management of detailed billing of each call
made by the subscriber. Detailed billing for national and international calls only are presently
being given by the Department.
The parameters related with charging are divided into two categories
1. Administrative charging parameters
2. Charge computation parameters

1.2. Administrative charging parameters


Administrative charging parameters are the guidelines regarding how to charge the call, which
meter of the subscriber is to be incremented, which charging code is to be used etc.
Administrative charging parameters are refered to as PTX. It defines CPTX, GFD, MDTX, MCT
& TXD.

CHARGING PARAMETER

CPTX

MDTX

MCT

TXD

INDTX

GFD

Digits + CT
Translation analysis phase I
PTX=n
CT=128

PTX=a
CT=1

File FLIT

Second level indexing (Optional)


Different PTXs as per
different ZG

Translation phase
ARCH=XATR
For each PTX
MDTX, CPTX, MCT, INDTX,
TXD, GFD
CTX n ( If MDTX=Pn)
Tariff type scheme table
Type of day

TYJ
from FICLX

File FPTX

File FICOT

STT
Tariff table pointer

File FISTH

STH

Time of the day


as per clock

Tariff time band table

File FIHTX
XATX Archive

CTX
Tariff
Q

NTP TYP CTXS

File FIMTX
TEMPO

1.2.1. Details of Charging Parameters


1.2.1.1. CPTX (Subscribers meter Number)
OCB 283 provides 4 charge counters per subscriber. Any one of these can be used for different
type of call made by subscriber. One charge counter (meter) may be for local calls, one for
national calls, one for international calls and one for chargeable facilities.
CPTX is the charge counter number.
CPTX = 0 means first charge counter. CPTX can have values 0<3.
1.2.1.2. GFD (Detailed billing group)
Number of charging parameters can be included in one GFD and detailed billing for calls using
these charging parameters can be allowed selectively for national and international calls
depending on the detailed billing category allotted to subscriber. The grouping may be as decided
by the administration in FGFD file.
Subscriber category
CAT

= FD0
= FD1
= FD2
= FD3
= FD4

Detailed billing for ISD and STD calls (Default)


Detailed billing for ISD calls only
Detailed billing for STD calls only
No detailed billing
Detailed billing for all calls

Charging parameter
GFD

=0
Detailed billing for local calls and wake - up activation
=1
Detailed billing for ISD calls only
=2
Detailed billing for STD calls only
The following table determines the detailed billing
CAT

GFDi

GFD2

GFD1

GFD0

FD0

FD1

FD2

FD3

FD4

1.2.1.3. MDTX (Method of charging)


There can be different methods for charging.
(1) MDTX=Pn

MDTX=Pn indicates local periodic charging using charge code (CTX) number n. The periodic
interval defined with the charging code will be dealt in detail later in the handout.
(2) MDTX=IM
Charge pulse to be received from the forward network.
(3) MDTX=RTI
Charge band to be received from forward network ( applicable to charging information received
on CCS#7 link).
(4) MDTX=RC
Charging interval received from forward network ( applicable to charging information received
on CCS#7 link).
(5) MDTX=NTSR
No tariff when no answer signal is received from the forward system.
(6) MDTX=NTSE
Case of no tariff and no answer signal to be sent.
(7) MDTX=TMn
Manual charging with CTX=n. Charging to commence with manual intervention..
1.2.1.4. MCT (Transition of charge rate)
MCT defines how to change the tariff on transition from one charge rate to other
MCT

=1
=2
=3

No change in tariff.
Change in tariff after one complete period extended between one tariff rate to
another.
Immediate change in tariff at transition.
Charge rate change time
Call metering pulses before change time

Chrge meter pulses after chnage time


P1

MCT=1

P1

MCT=2
P1

P1

P1

P2

P2

MCT=3

1.2.1.5. TXD (Call details record)


With TXD parameter included in the charging parameter the switch keeps the charging
information like calling party identity, digits dialed, time of start and end of call, duration of
conversation etc. stored so that subsequently charge can be determined. If TXD=YES charge
will be computed later by a computer. TXD= YES is not used in our system.

1.2.1.6. INDTX (Charge band number)


INDTX is charge band number which will be transmitted to the originating station from the
forward system through CCS#7 link. The PTX which has got the corresponding INDTX will be
used for charging.
LOCAL EXCH. Incoming Circuit group
to have CTA=DFA4 TAX

DESTINATION
EXCHANGE

PTX=65MDTX=RTI
CCS#7
A

PTX=14 INDTX=14

PTX=14, INDTX=14

Example:
A is dialing to get B. Local exchange uses PTX= 65 in which the MDTX= RTI initially to
connect the call to TAX. After analysis of number of digits which can decide the charge, the
parent TAX intimates charge band INDTX=14 to originating exchange, which searches through
the PTX table to find PTX=14 matching with INDTX=14 and starts charging accordingly, after
getting answer message (ANM).
All the above factors are managed by translator and thus is a part of translation management.

1.3. Management commands for charging parameters


1. Creation
@PTXCR:
@PTX=11, GFD=2, MDTX=P11,CPTX=0, INDTX=11,TXD=NO:

Note:
PTX=0 means no charging
CPTX=0 by default
TXD = No by default
2. Explanation regarding use of GFD
File FGFD in Translator archive, having 16 records, is used for 16 possible detailed billing
categories.
GFD y
CAT
FDx

0
1
2
3
4

15
0
0
0
0
0

14
0
0
0
0
0

13
0
0
0
0
0

12
0
0
0
0
0

11
0
0
0
0
0

10
0
0
0
0
0

09
0
0
0
0
0

08
0
0
0
0
0

07
0
0
0
0
0

06
0
0
0
0
0

05
0
0
0
0
0

04
0
0
0
0
0

03
0
0
0
0
0

02
1
0
1
0
1

01
1
1
0
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
1

15
16 bits in each record correspond to detail billing groups LSB being GFD0 and MSB GFD15.
A call for which PTX belongs to GFDx will be detail billed for a subscriber having category FDy
if at the cross point x-y there is a 1 written in the file.
In this example subscribers belonging to category FD0 will be detailed billed to GFD1and GFD
2 only.
PTXMO, PTXSU, PTXIN & PTXIL commands are also available . Listing with a criterion like
INDTX is possible.

2.

Charge computation parameter

Charge computation can be done either by determining charge at originating local exchange level
or by charging information received from the parent TAX.
Note: In case of NSD/ISD calls, at local exchange level the charge computation parameters may
not be arrived at for out going calls, as the depth of analysis required may be insufficient to
determine charging, and hence information is obtained from TAX .
If however charge is to be determined by an exchange locally then method of charging indicated
by MDTX, associated with PTX shall be Pn type where n refers to the charging code CTX
and this CTX leads to the charging unit where charge computation will actually be done.

2.1. Management done at Charging unit.


2.1.1. Charging calendar management
This means writing in the charging unit calendar the type of day and rank of day for each day.
2.1.1.1. Commands used
Assuming that calendar programming is done on January 1, 2000, and Monday is taken as the
first day of the week.
TYJ defines type of day
TYJ=1 for normal day and TYJ=2 for holiday (Sundays and National Holidays are treated as
TYJ=2).
NJO defines rank of day in the week. (1=Monday, 2=Tuesday, ...... 7= Sunday)
@CLXMO:
@DAT=00-01-01, TYJ=1, NJO=6:
@DAT=00-01-02, TYJ=2:
@DAT=00-01-3<7, TYJ=1;
Interrogation by
@CLXIN:
@DAT=00-01-8<15;
will reveal that every NJO=1<6 will be TYJ=1 and NJO=7 will be TYJ=2. Thus what is required
to be managed is calendar for one week, subsequent week will automatically assume similar
calendar with respect to TYJ and NJO.
2.1.1.2. Exceptional day
CLXMO cannot be done for a date beyond 1 week of current date. If some date is to be allotted a
different TYJ, then the introduction of exceptional day becomes necessary.
January 26, 2000 is falling on Wednesday which will have NJO=3 and TYJ=1. But this day is to
be treated as National Holiday and will have to be made TYJ=2.

@FJFAD:
@DAT=00-01-26, TYJ=2;
FJFAD can be done for 275 day in advance and after 90 days the day automatically becomes
normal day as per normal calendar.
Writing of exceptional day by FJFAD also manages the creation of extra day in the leap year.
The normal type of day, on exceptional day, will be masked by the type of exceptional day. In the
subsequent week the same rank of the day will assume normal day.
2.1.2. Time bands and tariffs
The tariff for local and regional calls in the country are periodic but, the same tariff is applicable
through out the day while for national and international calls the tariff rate changes at different
times of the day. Administration may define different time bands for the purpose of charging
differently.
The actual time band tariff relationship as followed in the country is given in form of actual
printouts from the field in the Appendix.
There can be different time band - tariff relationship in differnt type of day. Also there can be
different time band - tariff relation in the same type of day. This is enabled by introduction of yet
another variable parameter STT (Tariff Type Scheme) which is linked with both time band - tarif
relation and CTX (Charging code).
Table for relation between day, rank of day and type of day from 01-01-2000
DAY=1
DAY=2

TYJ=1
TYJ=2

NJO=6
NJO=7

DAY=366

TYJ=

NJO=

On Type of day = TYJ1 now 5 STTs are there.


TYJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

STT
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

Time band
00.00 - 24.00
00.00 - 06.00
06.00 - 07.00
07.00 - 08.00
08.00 - 19.00
19.00 - 20.30
20.30 - 23.00
23.00 - 24.00
........................

Tariff rate
1
4
3
2
1
2
3
4
.........................

.........................................

..........................

Note: Time band - Tariff table are to be defined under different tariff type scheme (STT) as per
national charging plan.

For this OCB283 provides for maximum of 16 types of days which can be divided in 20 possible
time bands. A tariff type scheme enables definition of different timeband - tariff relaionship in
same type of day.
2.1.2.1. Tarif Type Scheme (STT)
This is a parameter pointing to different time bands scheme in same type of day. In normal days
(TYJ=1), local and regional calls are charged at the same rate through out the 24 hours of the
day, while national and inter national calls are charged at different rate at different time of the
day.
A table below clearly differentiates the time band - tarif relationship for a particular type of day.
The charging code used for computation of charge is also linked with the STT.
If the CTX linked to PTX for charging belongs to STT=2 then the time band - tarif table
pertaining to STT=2 will be applicable.
The management therefore needs defining a CTX under one STT and then creating a table of
time band - tarif under the same STT.
2.1.2.2. Management commands
a) Interrogation of timeband tariff relationship under one tariff type scheme.
@TYJIN:
@TYJ=1, STT=1;
b) Time band - tariff relation under scheme 1 (STT=1) will be printed out.
Interrogation of timeband - tariff relationship under different schemes (STT).
@TYJIN:
@TYJ=1;
c) Creation and modification of timeband - tariff relationship.

LOCAL CALL
STT1

Normal day

Holiday & Exceptional day

TYJ1

TYJ2

TF1

TF1

0-24 Hrs

Time band

0-24 Hrs

CTXi
MTX1

CTXi
MTX1

IND=326

PTXn

Active
Normally a day will necessaryly have one time band i.e. 00 to 24 Hrs.
This 24 Hour period can be divided into maximum 20 time bands and there can be 16 possible
tariff rates applicable in time bands, as per the requirement of administration.
@TYJMO:
@TYJ=1, STT=1, HR=24-00, TF=1:
@TYJ=2, STT=1, HR=24-00, TF=1:
@TYJ=1, STT=2, HR=6-0+7-0+8-0+19-0+20-30+23-00+24-0, TF=4+3+2+1+2+3+4:
@TYJ=2, STT=2, HR=6-0+7-0+20-30+23-0+24-0 TF=4+3+2+3+4;
Similarly there can be different tariff schemes created with different STT values .

NATIONAL CALL
(Say IND = 0xy)
STT2

Normal day

Holiday / Exceptional day

TYJ1

TYJ2
Time band

TF1

TF2

TF3

TF4

TF2

TF3

TF4

CTXa
MTX1

CTXa
MTX2

CTXa
MTX3

CTXa
MTX4

CTXa
MTX2

CTXa
MTX3

CTXa
MTX4

TF1
TF2
TF3
TF4

0800-1900 Hrs
0700 -0800
1900-2030
0600-07-00
2030-2300
0000-0600
2300-2400

TF2
TF3

PTXk

0700 -2030 Hrs


0600-07-00
2030-2300
0000-0600
2300-2400

TF4
IND=0xy

Active

XATR
Digits
from MR

FLIA

NLIT

XATX
CTX

TYPTX=1 Charging without indexation


Routing chain TYPTX=2 Charging with indexation,
& there will be array of PTX for all ZGs
TYPTX
GFD
MDTX
CPTX
PTX
MCT
Max 512 FPTX
CTX *

FIANA NLIA CT-ACH

CT-PTX
128 CTs
FLIT

CTX defined by TR

1 to 255

FICOT

FICLX

1 to 31

1
STT

255
Gives tarif type
scheme (Max31)
for each CTX
(Max 256)
CTX 0 not used.

TYJ

FISTH

1 STH
16

1 to 32

Calendar file maintains


type of day and rank of day
for each day.
16 type of day possible.

32 records (0-31)
one per STT
each with 16 items,
one per TYJ

FIMTX
0 to 15
TF

1 to 16

366
DAY

FIHTX
H-M-TF

CLOCK

32 record for
32 time bands
each with 20 items
for tariff rates.

TYP
NTP
MTX

256 records for CTX


each with 16 items for
time bands.

As many as 31 STT values are available.


Presntly for local, national and international calls there are 5 different time band schemes
available and three STTs are in use. (For actual printouts see Appendix)

2.2. Charging code management


Charging code defines all those parameters required for actual charge computation.
The parameters are
Q

Number of unit fee to be imposed on answeing by called party

P - P =
Interval defined in seconds and milliseconds at which the call is to be
charged again.(P=Seconds, P=Milli seconds)
NTP

Number of unit fee to be imposed at intervals P-P

TYP

=
=
=

Type of charging
1 Flat rate charging
2 Periodic charging where first and subsequent periods are same and
there is no warning tone.
=
3 Periodic charging where first and subsequent periods are different.
=
4 Same as TYP=2, but with warning tone.
=
5 Same as TYP=3 , but with warning tone.

TF

Tariff Number (1 < 16)

CTXS

Subsequent charging code.

TEMPO =

Time in seconds after which CTXS will come into effect.


2.2.1. Management commands

@CTXMO:
@CTX=20, STT=2:
@CTX=20, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=1, TF=1, TYP=2:
@CTX=30, MTX=0-90-0,NTP=1, NTP=1,TF=1,TYP=2:

A Special Case of excess metering and solution:


In OCB 283 exchanges charging parameter may either be arrived at by analysing locally or on
information received from forward network, may be originating TAX. Usually for regional and
internal calls the charging parameter is locally determined while for other station calls it is
determined by originating TAX which sends either the charge pulses (R2MF) or charge band
(CCS#7).
In case charge pulses are received from forward system the processing register in TX takes care
of incrementing the meter by number of pulses received including the one received just on
answering by called party. The subscribers charge meter is incremented at the completion of the
call.

In case of local charging or charging by receipt of charge band the corresponding PTX points to
appropriate CTX.
It is seen that the number of charges is one more than what it should be owing to the fact that one
charge is imposed on answer message (ANM) or signal (R2 signalling) and another charge takes
place equivalent to NTP number of pulses in the begining of a period as defined by CTX.
In order to resolve the problem of one excess metering the following management for charging
code is proposed.
1. Chose CTX=2(say) which is not created as yet and is proposed to be associated with the PTX
for charging with 180 sec pulse.
2. Create a CTX=102 (say) to be used as CTXS to CTX=2 of TYPE=2 as follows
@CTXMO:
@CTX=102, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=1, TF=1, TYPE=2;
3. Link CTX=2 with CTX=102 as CTXS
@CTXMO:
@CTX=2, CTXS=102;
4. Include the initial tariff by the TYPE to 3
@CTXMO:
@CTX=2, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=0, TF=1, TYPE=3;
TEMPO=0 by default.

If an existing CTX is to be changed ....


If the CTX 2 is already existing and was not linked to any CTXS then the following procedure
may be followed.
Make all items in the record of CTX in FIMTX file NULL by CTXMO command, making all QP-R values to 0 in all MTXs.
Example:
@CTXMO:
@CTX=2, MTX=0-0-0, NTP=0, TF=1, TYPE=2;
Then..
@ARCMO:
@ARCH=XATX, FICH=FIMTX, NUME=<CTX No.>, NUMA=0<15, CHSI=N-0, AF=ALL:
@ARCH=XATX, FICH= FICOT, NUM= (CTX No. say 2), CHSI=STT-0, AF=ALL;
This will make the CTX un-used (NNU) and procedure as discussed in the previous para can be
followed.
Use of TYPE=3 CTX ensures periodic charging. Only answer (call set up charge) is levied
during the first period and then periodic charging is continued as per CTXS after the end of the
period defined in the CTX as TEMPO=0.

XATR
Digits
from MR

FLIA
FIANA NLIA CT-ACH

NLIT

XATX
CTX

TYPTX=1 Charging without indexation


Routing chain TYPTX=2 Charging with indexation,
& there will be array of PTX for all ZGs
TYPTX
GFD
MDTX
CPTX
PTX
MCT
Max 512 FPTX
CTX *

CT-PTX
128 CTs
FLIT

CTX defined by TR

1 to 255

FICOT

FICLX

1 to 31

FISTH
1 to 32
1 STH
16

1
STT

255
Gives tarif type
scheme (Max31)
for each CTX
(Max 256)
CTX 0 not used.

TYJ

1 to 16

366
DAY
Calendar file maintains
type of day and rank of day
for each day.
16 type of day possible.

32 records (0-31)
one per STT
each with 16 items,
one per TYJ

CLOCK

FIHTX
H-M-TF

FIMTX
0 to 15
TF

32 record for
32 time bands
each with 20 items
for tariff rates.

TYP
NTP
MTX

256 records for CTX


each with 16 items for
time bands.

XATR
Digits
from MR

FLIA

NLIT

XATX
CTX

TYPTX=1 Charging without indexation


Routing chain TYPTX=2 Charging with indexation,
& there will be array of PTX for all ZGs
TYPTX
GFD
MDTX
CPTX
PTX
MCT
Max 512 FPTX
CTX *

FIANA NLIA CT-ACH

CT-PTX
128 CTs
FLIT

CTX defined by TR

1 to 255

FICOT

FICLX

1 to 31

1
STT

255
Gives tarif type
scheme (Max31)
for each CTX
(Max 256)
CTX 0 not used.

TYJ

FISTH

1 STH
16

1 to 32

Calendar file maintains


type of day and rank of day
for each day.
16 type of day possible.

32 records (0-31)
one per STT
each with 16 items,
one per TYJ

FIMTX
0 to 15
TF

1 to 16

366
DAY

FIHTX
H-M-TF

CLOCK

32 record for
32 time bands
each with 20 items
for tariff rates.

TYP
NTP
MTX

256 records for CTX


each with 16 items for
time bands.

=20, CTXS=30:

@CTX

@CTX=20,TEMPO=0,TYP=3;

Special note:
For regional calls on circuit with R2MF signalling it is noted that on Answer Signal ONE
metering takes place and is further incremented at the begining of the periodic interval defined.
In order to avoid extra meter increments it has been decided to manage the same as follows:
Say the PTX for R2MF call is 11 which has MDTX=P11 i.e. CTX applicable is 11.
For regional calls where charge is uniform through out 24 hours of the day we can have only one
tariff - time band scheme indicating TF1 applicable in the single band 0-24 hrs on all days
irrespective of type of day (TYJ).
Say the time band tariff relation is defined under STT=2 (see the correct STT to be used in
REDA). Then CTX11 must be defined under STT=2 as follows:
@CTXMO:
@ CTX=11, STT=2;
For additional charge and to make periodic charging effective it is decided to go for charging
code (CTX) of type 3 i.e. first and subsequent period are different. Chose a suitable CTX as
CTXS. Create it as per the required interval.
Say for CTX11 , CTXS is 111.
@CTXMO:

@ CTX=111,MTX=0-180-0,NTP=1,TYP=2, TF=1;
This include CTXS as parameter of CTX so that right after answering of call the subsequent
charging is governed by CTX=111.
@CTXMO:
@CTX=11, CTXS=111, MTX=0-180-0, NTP=1, CTXS=111, TEMPO=0, TYP=3., TF=1;
Similarly for regional calls with CCS#7 signalling since the answering condition is as charge
message with out any charge information (as per Indian specification) similar modifications are
carried out with the difference that in the initial CTX call set up charge (Q) is included.