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# Theory of Equations

1.

2.

3.

Let

and

f(0) = 2,

1+ 5 .

f(x) = 0 ,

4.

5.

## Show that the equation

2

6.

and

x4 12x2 + 12x 3 = 0

and 4

3.

x2 mx + n = 0
In the case

7.

## if the sum of two roots is zero.

a + 1 , b + 2 , where a , b

a b , find q, r in terms of

and

## are the real roots of the equation

m, n.

a = b , show that

q = 4(2r + 1) .

x2
x +1

2x + 2
x2

3=0

it completely.
8.

9.

If the equations

and

y , prove that

Prove that

2 x + 3x + 3
2

,

between

Draw a rough

and 3 .

10.

If

11.

## If the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0

12.

Solve 3(x x 1) = x2 + x 2

13.

2

## are in the ratio p : q , prove that ac(p + q)2 = b2 pq .

by the substitution

y = x x 1 .

are such that their difference is one-half of the sum of their reciprocals.
3

14.

The roots of
the value of

15.

px2 + x + q = 0

are

,.

## Without solving the equation, find, in terms of

and q ,

(p3 + q) + (p3 + q) .

## Prove that, if all roots of the simultaneous equations :

then

x2 + y2 = 1, Lx + My = 1

are real,

L2 + M2 1.

16.

(a)

If

numbers

(b)

x 2 + 2ax + b

f(x) =

x2 +1
k

such that

f(x) k

and

( Ax + B)2

is of the form

## Make a rough sketch of the curve

If

k1 and k2 , where

17.

a and

x2 + 1

## k1 < k2 , show that

f (x) k r =

[(1 k r )x + a ]2
for
(1 k r )(x 2 + 1)

Prove also that (1 k1)(1 k2) = a2 and deduce that for real values of x , k1 f(x) k2 .

r = 1, 2.
(c)

, where

y = f(x) for

## a > 0, indicating the position of the curve with

y = k1 , y = k2 .

y = 1,

are unequal real numbers whose sum is not zero, show that

## (a b)x2 2(a2 + b2)x + (a3 b3) = 0

has real or complex roots according as a

and

2(a + b ) ab

ax2 + bx + c = 0

x+2+

1
x

b2

ab

and .

are

in the interval

x cos + ax

## 20. Prove that if

then

3 cos + sin + a = 0

and

the roots of

0 2

## for which the equation in

are real.
ax2 + bx + c = 0 and

:=:,

b2 = ( + )2 ca .
a , b , c , a, b, c ) for the roots of the above equation to be in the same

ax2 + bx + c = 0

ratio as those of
a

Express in terms of

and

21. If

ac

2

## 0 < a < 1 , prove that the roots of the equation

(1 a)x2 + x + a = 0

## are always real and negative.

Find the equation whose roots are the squares of the reciprocals of the roots of this equation.
22. If

, ,

are roots of

( Hint : y + 2 =

23. If
(a)

2 + 2 + 2

1

(a + b )

(a + b )

3
q

p
q

.
+ ,
+ , +

+1 . )

(b)

(a + b )

(a + b )3

.
2

24. If

## and are roots of

3(3 + 3) + (2 + 2) ( + ) = 0 ,

## and 3(4 + 4) + (3 + 3) (2 + 2) = 0 . Hence find the values of 3 + 3 and 4 + 4 .

25. Given that a, b, c are the roots of the equation x3 + px2 + qx + r = 0 , express a3 + b3 + c3

## p , q , r and show that

1
a3

1
b3

1
c3

3pqr q 3 3r 2
r3

in terms of

.
x2 + 2ax + b = 0 to a

26. Prove that the equation whose roots are the four numbers obtained by adding a root of

27. If

## a , b , c are the roots of the equation x3 + mx + n = 0 , prove that

a 6 + b6 + c6 =

28. If

1
3

(a 3 + b 3 + c3 )2 + 1 (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )(a 4 + b 4 + c 4 )
2

## 1 , x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 are the roots of the equation x5 1 = 0, prove that

(1 x1) (1 x2) (1 x3) (1 x4) = 5

30. If

and

## a1 , a2 , , an are the roots of xn + p1 xn 1 + p2xn 2 + + pn 1 x + pn = 0 , show that

(1 + a12)(1 + a22) (1 + an 2) = (1 p2 + p4 )2 + (p1 p3 + p5 )2 .

## 31. Prove that

x3 + 3x 3 = 0 has one and only one real root , and hence that x4 + 6x2 12x 9 = 0

## has just two real roots.

32. Find the range of k for which the following equations have 4 distinct roots. Illustrate the results by

sketches.
(a)

x4 14x2 + 24x k = 0

(b)

n

33. If

x a
r =1

(a)

=0

## has exactly (n 1) roots

p( x ) = ( x a 1 )( x a 2 )...( x a n )

xa
r =1

(b)

;
r

## by applying Rolles theorem to f(x) = (x a1) (x an) .

(You may assume, without loss of generality a1 < a2 < < an ) .

34. (a)

## If pn < 0 , and n is even, prove that the equation

p(x) xn + p1 xn 1 + p2xn 2 + + pn 1 x + pn = 0
has at least one positive and at least one negative root.

(b)

Prove that the number of positive roots of p(x) = 0 is odd if and only if pn < 0.