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PANITIA MATEMATIK

TAMBAHAN
MAAHAD TAHFIZ NEGERI PAHANG, 26060
KUANTAN
NAMA :
.
.
KELAS : ................................................
JANUARI 2016

2
CONTENT
TOPIC
1. FUNCTIONS
2. QUADRATIC
EQUATIONS
3. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
4. SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
5. INDICES AND LOGARITMA
6. COORDINATES GEOMETRY
7. CIRCULAR MEASURES
8. STATISTICS
9. DIFFERENTIATION
10.SOLUTIONS OF TRIANGLES
11.NUMBER INDEXS

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FUNCTIONS ( CHAPTER 1 )

3
1.

Basic Concept OF Function


P = { 1, 2, 3}
Q = {2, 4, 6, 7,

A relation from P into Q is defined by the set of


ordered pairs
{ (1, 4), (1, 6), (2, 6), (3, 7) }.
State
(a) the
(b) the
(c) the
(d) the
(e) the
(f) the

2.

image of 1,
object of 4,
domain,
codomain,
range,
type of relation

P = { 2, 4, 6}

Q = {2, 3, 6, 7,

A relation from P into Q is defined by the set


of ordered pairs
{ (2, 2), (4, 2), (6, 7) }.
State
(a) the
(b) the
(c) the
(d) the
(e) the
(f) the

image of 4,
objects of 2,
domain,
codomain,
range,
type of relation

e
f

g
Set P
Set Q
(a) the
(b) the
(c) the
(d) the
(e) the
(f) the

image of g
objects of x,
domain,
codomain,
range,
type of relation

Finding the value of functions

1. Given the function f : x 3 x 1


, find
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

f (0)
f (3)
f(-2)
f(4)
f(-3)

2 . Given the function


g : x x 2 3 x , find

3. Given the function

a) g (0)
b) g (2)
c) g (4)
d) g (-3)
e) g (-1)

a)h (0)
b) h (1)
1
c) h ( )
2
d) h(-3)
1
e) h (
)
4

h:x

6
, find
3 4x

4
3.

Problem of function involving simple equations

1. Given that f : x 4 x 3 , find the


value of x if
f(x) = 17.

x =5

4. Given that f : x 2 x 10 ,
g : x 4 x 2 , find the value of x if
f(x) = g(x).

2. Given that f : x 3 x 7 , find the


value of x if f(x) = 4.

x = -1

5. Given f : x 3 x 9 ,
g : x x 7 , find the value of x if
f(x) = 3 g(x).

3. Given that g : x 3 x 2 , find


the value of y if g(y) = 2y + 4.

y=6

6. Given that f : x 2 x 8 , find the


values of x if f (x) = x2.

x = 4 , -2

x = -6
x=5

7. Given that g : x 2 x 2 5 , find the


values of y if g (y) = 45 .

8. Given that g : x 2 x 2 3 , find


the values of p if g(p) = - 5p .

9. Given that g : x 3 x 2 6 , find


the values of
y if g (y) = 6 .

y = -2 , 2
x = -5 , 5

10. Given the functions

p = 1/2 , -3

11. Given the functions

12. Given the functions f : x x 2

5
f : x 2 x 5 and
g : x x 2 , find

a) the value of x if
b) the value of y if
c) the value of p if
d) the value of x if

f(x) =
g(y) =
f(p) =
f(x) =

f : x 3 x 4 and
g : x 2 x , find

7
2y - 3
g(p)
g(x)

x = 6, y = 5, p = 7, x = 1

a) the value of p if f(p) = -5


b) the value of k if g(k) = 3k - 4
c) the value of x if 2 f(x) = g(x)
d) the values of y jika f(y) = y2

and

g : x 12 4 x , find
a) the image of 3 that is mapped by
f.
b) the values of x if f(x) = x,
c) the values of y if f(y) = g(y).

p = -3, k = 4, x = -2, y = -1,4


9, x = 0, 1 ; y = 6, -2

6
4.

Finding the value of composite functions

1. Given that f : x 2 x 1 and


g : x 3x ,
find f g(1) .

2. Given that f : x 2 x 9 and


g : x 1 3x ,
find gf(3).

Given that f : x 3 2 x and


g : x x 2 , find gf(4).

4. Given the functions f : x x 3


and
g : x 4 x 1 , find
a) f g(1)
(b) gf(1)

5. Given the functions


f : x 3 x 7 and
g : x 4 2 x , find
a) f g(0)
(b) gf(0)

6 Given that f : x 3 x and


g : x 2 x 2 , find
(a) fg(-2)
(b) gf(-2)

7
5.

Finding the value of composite functions f2 , g2

1. Given that f : x 2 x 3 , find f

2. Given that g : x x 5 , evaluate

3. Given that g : x 2 x 1 ,

gg(3) .

evaluate g 2(3).

4. Given that f : x 3 x 4 , find

5. Given that g : x 2 5 x , find g

6. Given that f : x 3 x 2 1 , find

f(0) .

f(1) .

7. Given that g : x 4 x , evaluate

8. Diberi f : x 2 x 2 4 x 3 . Nilaikan

gg(-2).

f 2(0) .

(2) .

(1).

6.

Solve all the following

1. Given

f : x 2x 3 ,

f(x)
thus (a)

7.

f(2)

2 Given

= 2x + 3
=

(b)

f(a)

(c)

f(p)

(d)

f(2k) =

(e)

f(x2)

(f)

f(-x2 ) =

(g)

f( - 3x)

thus

4 Given

g(-1)

(b)

g(2x)

(c)

g(x-1) =

(d)

g(3x) =

(d)

g(-x) =

(e)

g(x2) =

(e)

g(x2) =

g (3+2x) =

(f)

g (1+2x) =

g (2)

(b)

g(a)

(c)

g(s)

(g)

thus

g : x 2( x 2) ,
g(x) =

(a)

(a)

(f)
=

g : x 2 4x .

g(x) =

=
=

g(2 4x) =

Finding the Composite functions

1. Given that f : x 2 x 3 and


g : x 4x ,
find fg(x) .

2. Given that f : x 2 x 5 and


g : x 5 x , find the composite
function gf .

3. Given the functions f : x x 4


and
g : x 2 x 1 , find
(a) fg(x)
(b) gf(x)

9
4. Given that f : x 3 x 4 and
g : x 5 2x ,
find
(a)f g
(b) gf

7. Given that f : x 2 5 x , find the


function f 2.

5. Given that f : x 3 x and


g : x 2 x 2 , find the composite
functions
(a)fg
(b) gf

8. Given that g : x

1
x , find g 2(x).
2

6. Given that f : x 2 5 x and


g : x 1 x 2 , find the composite
function
(a)fg
(b) gf

9. Given that h : x
function f 2.

2
, find the
x2

10
8.

Finding the Inverse Functions

1. Given that f : x 4 + 8x , find f


1
.

4. Given that g : x 15 + 6x , find


g 1 .

2. Given that g : x 10 2x , find


g1.

5. Given that f : x 10 8x , find f


1
.

3. Given that f : x 4 3x , find f


1
.

6. Given that g : x 3
find g1 .

7. Given that f : x 5 + 2x , find f


1
.

8. Given that g : x 3
g

10. Given that g(x) =


1

(x).

3x 2
, find g
6

11. Given that f(x) =


1

3
x , find
4

(x).

x2
, find f
4x 2

9. Given that f(x) =


(x).

12. Given that g(x) =


g1 (x).

1
x ,
2

2x 5
, find f
4

2x
, find
4 x

11

9.

Finding the value of inverse function when x given

1. Given that f : x x + 2, find the


value of
f 1(3).

2. Given that g : x 7 x , find the


value of
g1(2).

3. Given that f : x 7 3x , find


the value of
f 1(-5).

4. Given that g : x 5 + 2x , find


the value of
g1 (5).

5. Given that f : x 3x -2, find the


value of
f 1 (10).

6. Given that g : x 7 x , find the


value of
g1(2).

7. Given that g : x
the value of

g1(4).

1
x , find
2

8. Given that f : x
value of
f 1 ( -1 ).

4
, find the
x3

9. Diberi g : x
g-1(-1).

3
, cari nilai
2 x

12

10. Finding the other related component function when given a composite function and one of its component function ( Method 1)
1. Given the functions f : x 2x 3
and
fg : x 2x + 3, find the function g .
Answer :

2. Given the functions g: x x + 3 and


gf : x 2x , find the function f .
Answer :

3. Given the functions f : x 3x + 4


and
fg : x 6x + 1, find the function
g.
Answer :

4. Given the functions g : x 2x - 1


and
gf : x 6x + 7 , find the function f .
Answer :

5. Given the functions f : x 2 x


and
fg : x 2 2x , find the function g,.
Answer :

6. Given the functions p : x 2x and


pq : x 4 2x , find the function q.
Answer :

7. Given the functions g : x 2 + 4x


and
gf : x 6 + 4x2, find the function f
.
Answer :

8. Given the functions h : x 1 x


and
hg : x 1 3x2, find the function g.
Answer :

9. Given the functions h : x 3x + 1


and
hf : x 7 9x2 , find the function
f.
Answer :

13

METHOD 2
1. Given the functions f : x 2x - 3
and
gf: x 2x , find the function g,.
Answer :

2. Given the functions g: x x + 3


and
fg : x 2x + 3 , find the function f.
Answer :

3. Given the functions f : x 3x + 4


and
gf : x 6x + 7, find the function g,.
Answer :

4. Given the functions g : x 2x - 1


and
fg : x 6x + 1 , find the function
f.
Answer :

5. Given the functions f : x 2 x


and
gf : x 4 2x , find the function g,.
Answer :

6. Given the functions g : x 2x


and
fg : x 2 2x , find the function f.
Answer :

7. Given the functions f : x 3x


and
gf : x 1 - 3x , find the function

8. Given the functions f : x 2 + 4x


and
gf : x 5 + 16x + 16x2, find the

14
g,.

function g,.
Answer :

Answer :

QUESTIONS BASED ON SPM FORMAT


1. The following information refer to the set A and set B.
Set A = { -3 ,- 2 , 2 , 3 }

2. Given that the functions f : x 2x + 6 and f-1 : x kx +


p ,where k and p are constants, find the value of k and of p.

Set B = { 4, 9 }
The relations between set A and set B is defined by the
set of ordered
pair { ( -3 , 9 ) , ( -2 , 4 ) , ( 2 , 4 ) ,( 3 , 9 )
a) State the type of relations
b) Using the functions notation, write a relation between
set A and set B

K=
= -3

3.
Given the functions f : x x + 4 and fg : x 2x 3 ,
find
a) g(x)
b) the value of x when gf(x) = 5

1
2

2x 3
4. Given the inverse functions f-1(x) =
, find the value of
2
a) f (4)
1
b) k if f-1(2k) =
2

15

[ f(4) = 11/2 , k = 1 ]
[ g(x) = 2x-7 , x = 2]

5. Given that the functions f : x 4x 1 and g : x 2ax b


, where a and b are constants. Find
a) f2(x)
b) the value of a and b such that if f2(x) = g(x)

6. Diagram shows the relation between two sets of number.


P = { -3 ,- 2 ,-1, 0, 1, 2 }
Q = {-1, 0, 1, 2, 3 }
Based on the above information, the relation between P and Q
is defined by the set of ordered pairs { (-2, 1), (-1,0), (0,1),
(1,2),(2,3) }. State
a) the image of 2
b) the object of 0

[ f2(x) = 16x 5 , a = 8 , b= 5 ]
7. The function f is defined by f : x kx2 + p and the
function g is defined by
g : x 1 + 2x. Given the
composite fg : x x2 + x + 6, find the values of k and p.

8. In the diagram, the function f maps x to y and the function


h
h maps y to z. f
y
x
z
3

7
State
a) f-1(3)

11

16
[k=

p = 23/4 ]

b) hf(7)
10. The following information is about the function h and the
inverse
function h-1.

4
,x k.
9. The function g-1(x) =
2x 1
a) State the value of k
b) Find g(x)

h : x 4 + ax and h-1 : x

2
+ 2bx
3

, where

, g(x) =

[ k=

4 x
,x 0]
2x

a and b are constant


Find the values of a and b.

[ a = -6 , b = -1/12]

11. Given the function f (x) = x -2 and hf (x) = x 2 + 3x + 1 .


Find

12. Given the composite function fg(x) = 2x 2 3 and function


g(x) = 3 x2 . Find
f(-2)

a) h(x)
b) the value of hf(-2)

[
h(x) = x2 + 7x + 11

[7]

-1 ]

13. Given the function


such that
f(x) = 7

f:x

2x 3

, find the values of x

14. Diagram shows the functions f and g.


f : x 2x + 1
g : x 3x 2
Find
a) f-1(5)
b) gf-1(5)
`

17
[ a) 2

b) 4 ]

[ x = 5 or, -2 ]

15. Given that

f-1 : x x 1 and

a) the function g(x)


b) The values of x if

gf : x 3x2 2 , find

16. Given the functions

h : x 2x2 + 5x, find

a) h(3)
b) the values of x which maps onto itself by h(x)

g(x) + 3 = x

[ g(x) =
3x2 6x + 1

, x = 1, 4/3 ]

[ h(3) = 33

, x = 0 or -2 ]

SPM QUESTIONS
1.

( SPM 03, P1, Q1 )


P={ 1,2,3}
Q = { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 }

Berdasarkan maklumat di atas, hubungan P kepada Q


ditakrifkan oleh
set pasangan bertertib { (1 , 2) , ( 1 , 4 ), ( 2 , 6 ) , (2 , 8
) }.
Nyatakan
c) Imej bagi 1
d) Objek bagi 2

2. ( SPM 03 , P1, Q2 )
Diberi g : x 5x + 1 dan h : x x2 2x + 3, carikan
a) g-1 (3)
b) hg(x)

a)
25x2 + 2

3. ( SPM 04, P1, Q1 )

4. (SPM 04, P1, Q2 )

2
5

b)

18
d

5
, dengan
8
keadan m dan k adalah pemalar, carikan nilai m dan nilai k.

e
f

Diberi fungsi h : x 4x + m dan h-1 : x 2kx +

x
Set P

Set Q

Nyatakan
a) Julat hubungan itu,
b) Jenis hubungan itu

m = -5/2 k = 1/8

5. ( SPM 04, P1 , Q3 )
Diberi fungsi

h(x) =

6. (SPM 2005 , P1, Q2)


6
x

,x

0 dan fungsi gubahan

hg(x) = 3x, carikan


a) g (x)
b) nilai x apabila gh(x) = 5

2
[ g(x) =
, x 0 , x = 15 ]
x
7. ( SPM 05, P1, Q1 )
Dalam Rajah 1, fungsi h memetakan x kepada y dan fungsi g
memetakan y kepada z.

Fungsi w ditakrifkan oleh w(x) =

5
2x

, x 2

a) w-1 (x)
b) w-1 (4)

2x 5
,x 0
x

[ w-1(x) =
,

3
4

8. (SPM 05, P1, Q3)


Maklumat berikut adalah berkaitan dengan fungsi h dan fungsi
h : x 2x 3
g : x 4x - 1

19

g.
z
8

Carikan gh-1 (x)

Tentukan
a) h-1(5)
b) gh(2)

gh-1(x) = 2x + 5

9.

(SPM 06, P2, Q2)


Given the function f : x 3 x 2 and

g:x

x
1 , find
5

(a) f 1 (x) ,
(b) f 1 g(x) ,
(c) h(x) such that hg(x) = 2x + 6 .

10.

(SPM 06, P1, Q2)


Diagram 2 shows the function h : x

x 0 , where m is a constant.
x

mx
x

1
2
Diagram 2

Find the value of m.

m x
,
x

20
(a)
x 15
(c) 10x 4
15
11. (SPM 07, P1, Q1)
Diagram show the linear function h.
x

x2
3

(b)
m=4

12. (SPM 07, P1, Q2)


Given the function f : x x 3 , find the values of x such that

h(x)
(a) f(x) = 5
(b) f(x) < 5

1
2
4

0
1
m

(a) State the value of m


(b) Using the function notation, express h in terms of x.

(a) m = 3
(b) h : x x + 1
13. (SPM 2008, P1, Q1)
Diagram 1 shows the graph of

f ( x ) 2 x 1 for the domain

0 x 5.
y

State

(b) 2 < x < 8

14. (SPM 2008, P1, Q2)


Given the functions g :
find
(a) g-1 (6)
(b) hg(x)

y = f(x)

(a) x = 8,
-2

x 5x 2

and h : x x 2 4 x 3 ,

21
(a) the value of t,
(b) the range of f(x) corresponding to the given domain.
(a)

(b) 0 f ( x) 9
15. (SPM 2008, P1 , Q3)
Given the functions f(x) = x 1 and g(x) = kx + 2,
find

1
2

(a) 4/5 or
0.8

(b) 25x2 10x - 1 ]

16. (SPM 2009, P1 , Q1)


Diagram shows the relation between set X and set Y in the
graph form
s
r

(a) f(5),
(b) the value of k such that gf(k) = 14.

Set Yq

p
2

4
Set X

State
a) the objects of q
b) the codomain of the relation
(a) 4

b) 4, -3
(a) 2 or 6

17. (SPM 2009, P1 , Q2)


Given the functions
g : x 2x 3 and h : x 4x, find
a) hg(x)
b) the value of x if hg(x) =

1
g(x)
2

(b) { p, q , r , s }

18. (SPM 2009, P1 , Q3)


Given the function g : x 3x 1 , find
a) g(2)
b) the value of p when g-1 (p) = 11

22
[ hg(x) = 8x 12

, x = 3/2 ]

[ g(2) = 5 , p = 32 ]

19. (SPM 2010, P1 , Q1)


Diagram shows the relation between set X and set Y in the
graph form
s
r
Set Yq
p

a) g-1(x)
b) hg-1(9)

20. (SPM 2010, P1 , Q2)


Given the functions
g : x 2x + 1 and h : x 3x + 6,
find

State
a) the relation in the form of ordered pairs
b) the type of the relation
c) the range of the ralation

Set X

x 1
2

; 18 ]

21. (SPM 2010, P1 , Q3)


Given the functions
, find
The value of hg(10)

(a) ((1,p) , (2,r) ,(3,s) (4,p)} (b) many


to one c) { p, r , s }

g 1

g:xx8

and h : x

x
2
,x
3x 2
3

1
]
2

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS ( CHAPTER 2 )

1. The roots of Quadratic Equation


1. Determine if 3 is a root of the
equation 2x2 x 15 = 0.

2. Determine if is a root of the


equation 4x2 + 2x 2 = 0.

3. Determine if 3 is a root of the


equation
x2 2x + 3 = 0.

23

4. If 3 is a root of the equation


x2 2kx + 12 = 0 , find k.

5. If -2 and p are roots of the


quadratic equation 2x2 + 3x + k =
0, find the value of k and p.

6. If -1 are roots of the


quadratic equation px2 4x + 3p
8 = 0, find p.

2. Finding the roots of Quadratic Equation ( by factorisation )


L1. Solve

x2 4x 5 = 0.

L2. Solve x ( 1 + x) = 6.

Solve the quadratic equation 2x (x


1) = 6.

Ans :
Ans : 1 , 5

3,2

x=

24

Solve (x 3)2 = 1.

L4. Solve 1 + 2x2 = 5x + 4.

Ans : 2, 4

Selesaikan (x 3)(x + 3) = 16.

Ans : 5 , 5

Ans :

3
2

or

x= 2

Solve (2x 1)2 = 2x 1 .

1, 3/2

L4. Solve 5x2 45 = 0.

Ans : , 1

L8. Solve 2(x2 9) = 5x.

Ans : 3 , 3

Ans : 2 , 9/2

3. Finding the roots of Quadratic Equation ( by completing the square )


Solve x2 + 4x 5 = 0 by method
of completing the square.

L1. Solve x2 + 4x + 3 = 0 by
method of completing the square.

L2. Solve x2 - 8x + 5 = 0 , give


your answers correct to 4 significant
figures.

25

x = -5 or

x = 1

(Ans :

1, 3)
Ans : 7.317, 0.6834

Solve x2 2x 9 = 0 by
completing the square, give your
answers correct to 4 significant
figures.

L4. Solve x2 + 10x + 5 = 0 , give


your answers correct to 4 significant
figures.

Ans :

Ans : 0.5279, 9.472

Solve x2 + x 8 = 0. Give your


answer correct to 4 significant figures.

(Ans : 2.372, -3.372)


2.212 , 4.162

L5. Solve x2 + 5x 4 = 0. Give


your answer correct to 4 significant
figures.

L7. Solve x2 + 7x + 1 = 0 , Give


your answer correct to 4 significant
figures.

L10. Solve 2x2 - 12x + 5 = 0


correct to two decimal places.

26

(Ans : 5.55 , 0.45 )


(Ans : 0.7016, -5.702)

L11. Solve -2x2 + 10x + 9 = 0


correct to two decimal places.

(Ans : -0.78 , 5.78 )

(Ans : -0.1459, -6.8541)

Solve
- x2 7x + 3 = 0 by
completing the square.

(Ans : -7.405, 0.4051)

4. Finding the roots of Quadratic Equation ( by using the formulae )

L1. By using formula, solve 2x2 12x + 5 = 0. Give your answer


correct to 4 significant figures.

L13. Solve x(3 2x) = -6 correct to


two decimal places.

L2. By using formula, solve


3 x2 = - 3(4x 3) correct to two
decimal places.

(Ans : -1.14 , 2.64)

b 4ac
2a
2

Solve x(2x 1) = 2 by using


formula, give your answer correct to
two decimal places.

27

(Ans : 5.550, 0.4505)


(Ans: 0.52 , 11.48 )
(Ans : 1.28, -0.78)
2

Solve x 4x = 2 by using formula.


Give your answer correct to
4
significant figures.

L6. Solve the quadratic equation


x(x 4) = (3 x )(x + 3). Give your
answer correct to two decimal places.

Solve 2x(2 3x) = -5 by using


formula, qive your answer correct to
two decimal places.

(Ans : 3.35 , -1.35 )


(Ans : 4.449 , -0.4495)

(Ans : 1.31 , -0.64)

5. To Form Quadratic Equation from Given Roots


1. Find the quadratic equation with
roots -3 dan 5.

2. Find the quadratic equation with


roots 0 dan - 3.

3. Find the quadratic equation with


roots - dan 6.

28
Ans : x2 2x 15 = 0

Ans : 2x2 11x 6 = 0

Ans : x2 + 3x = 0

4. Given that the roots of the


quadratic equation 3x2 + kx + p 2 =
0 are 4 and
- . Find k and p.

(Ans : k = -10 , p = -6)

5. Given that the roots of the quadratic


equation
x2 + (h 2)x + 2k = 0 are 4 and -2 .
Find h and k.

6. Given that the roots of the


quadratic equation 2x2 + (3 k)x + 8p
= 0 are p and 2p , p 0. Find k and
p.

(Ans : h = 0, k = -4)

6. Relationship between b2 4ac and the Roots of the Q.E.


1.
b2 4ac > 0
Q.E. has two distinct roots. The Graph y = f(x) cuts the x-axis at TWO distinct points.

(Ans: p = 2, k = 15)

29
y=f(x)

a>
0

y=f(x)

a<
0

2.
b2 4ac = 0
Q.E. has real and equal roots. The graph y = f(x) touches the x-axis [ The x-axis is the tangent to the curve]
y=f(x)

a>
0

y=f(x)

a<
0

<

3.
b2 4ac
0
Q.E. does not have real roots. Graph y = f(x) does not touch x-axis.

y=f(x)

Graph is above

a>
0

the x-axis since f(x) is always positive.

y=f(x)

a<
0

Graph is below the x-axis since f(x) is always


negative.

7. Solve all the following


1.Find the range of k if the quadratic
equation 2x2 x = k has real and

2. The quadratic equation 9 + 4x2 =


px has equal roots. Find the possible

3. Find the range of p if the quadratic


equation 2x2 + 4x + 5 + p = 0 has

30
distinct roots.

values of p.

( Ans : k > - 1/8 )

4. Find the range of p if the quadratic


equation x2 + px = 2p does not have
real roots.

( Ans : -8 < p < 0 )

p
q
7. Given
and
are roots of the
2
2
equation kx(x 1) = m 4x. If p + q
= 4 and pq = - 5, find the values of k

real roots.

( Ans : p = -12 atau 12)

5.The roots of the quadratic equation


2x2 + 8 = (k 3)x are real and
different. Determine the range of values
of k.

( Ans : k < -5 , k > 11 )

8
Given 2 and m are roots of the
equation (2x 1)(x + 3) = k (x 1), with
k as a constant, find k and m.
[4]

(Ans : p - 3 )

6. Find the range of values of k if the


quadratic equation x2 + 2kx + k + 6
= 0 has equal roots.

( Ans : k -2 , 3 )

9.
Show that the straight line y =
2 x does not meet the curve
2x2 y2 + k = 0 if k > 8.
[3]

31
and m

[5]

( k = -4 , m = -5 )

( k = 15 , m = 3 )

10. Find the range of x if the straight


line y = 2x + k does not intersect the
curve
x2 + y2 6 = 0.
[5]

11.
he quadratic equation
2x2 + px + q = 0 has roots -2 and 3.
Find the value of p anf q so that
2x2 + px + q = k has real roots.

12. Find the range of values of x for


which the equation x2 + kx + 2k 3 =
0 has no real roots.
[3]

( p = -2 , q = -12 ; k
(k < -5.477 atau k > 5.477)

QUESTION BASED ON SPM FORMAT

- 12.5 )

( 2 <k <6 )

32
1 . One of the roots of the equation 9x 2 + 3x + k = 0 is
two times the other root, find the possible value of k.

2
.
3
Give your answer in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b
and c are constant.
2.

Form the quadratic equations which has roots -4 and

[ k = 2/9 ]
[ 3x2 + 10x 8 = 0 ]

3.

Form the quadratic equations which has roots 6 and

1
. Give your answer in the form of ax 2 + bx + c = 0,
2
where a, b and c are constant.

4. Given that

1
is one of the roots of the quadratic equation
p

px2 + 7x 2p

= 0, find the values of p.

[ p = 2 or -2 ]
[ 2x2 11x 6 = 0 ]

5. Given the quadratic equation 3x ( x + 2 ) = 3x ( x +


2 ), find
a) the sum of roots
b) the product of roots.

6. If the quadratic equation x2 2x + 3 = -k has no roots,


find the range of values of k.

33
[ k > -2 ]
[ -4/3

7.

2/3 ]

Solve the quadratic equation 2x 2 6x = x( x + 3 ) 4 .


Give your answer correct to four significant figures.

8. Solve the quadratic equation 3 8( x 1 ) = 2x( x +


1) .
Give your answer correct to three decimal places.

[ x = 8.531 , 0.4689 ]
[ x = 0.928 , -5.928 ]

9. Given that -5 is one of the roots of the quadratic


equation 15 px = 2x2 .
Find the values of p.

10. Write the equation ( 3x + 1 )( x 1 ) = x ( x + 2 ) in


general form.

[p=7]
[ 2x2 4x 1 = 0 ]

Solve the quadratic inequality

x 2 2x

11. Find the range of values of p if the quadratic equation


8x2 + 12x + 7 = p has two different roots.

12.

[ p > 5 /2 ]

[ -1 < x < 3 ]

13. The quadratic equation x ( x + y ) + 8 = 0 does not


intersects the straight line x + 2y = p , where p is a
constant. Find the range of values of p.

14. Given one of the roots of the quadratic equation x 2 px


27 = 0 is the square of the other root.
a) Find the value of p
b) State the roots of the quadratic equation

< 3.

34

-8 <

x < 8 ]

[ p=6

, x = -3 , 9 ]

35
SPM QUESTIONS
1.
( SPM 03 , P1, Q3)
Selesaikan persamaan kuadratik 2x ( x 4 ) = ( 1 x ) ( x
+ 2 ). Tuliskan jawapan anda betul kepada empat angka
bererti.

2.
( SPM 03, P1, Q4)
Persamaan kuadratik x ( x + 1 ) = px 4 mempunyai dua
punca berbeza. Carikan julat nilai p.

( p < -3 or p > 5 )
( 2.591 , -0.2573 )

3.
( SPM 04, P1, Q4 )
Bentukkan persamaan kuadratik yang mempunyai puncapunca -3 dan .
Berikan jawapan anda dalam bentuk ax2 + bx + c = 0,
dengan keadaan a, b, dan c adalah pemalar.

4. ( SPM 04, P1, Q 5)


Cari julat nilai x bagi x ( x 4 ) 12.

( -2 x 6 )
( 2x2+ 5x 3 = 0 )

5. (SPM 05 , P1 , Q4 )
Garis lurus y = 5x 1 tidak bersilang dengan lengkung y =
2x2 + x + p. Carikan julat niilai p.

6. ( SPM 05, P1 , Q5)


Selesaikan persamaan kuadratik x ( 2x 5 ) = 2x 1 . Berikan
jawapan anda betul kepada tiga tempat perpuluhan.

(3.153 , 0.149 )
( p> 1 )

7. ( SPM 06, P1, Q3 )


Suatu persamaan kuadratik x2 + px + 9 = 2x mempunyai
dua punca sama.
Carikan nilai-nilai p yang mungkin.

8.
(SPM 06 , P1, Q5 )
Cari julat nilai x bagi ( 2x 1 )( x + 4 ) > 4 + x

36

( x < -4

or x > 1 )

( p = 8 or -4 )

9.
(SPM 07 , P1, Q4 )
a) Solve the following quadratic equation : 3x 2 + 5x 2
=0

10.
(SPM 07 , P1, Q5 )
Find the range of values of x for which

2x 2

1 + x

b) The quadratic equation hx2 + kx + 3 = 0 , where h and


k are constants, has two equal roots. Express h in terms of k.

( -1/2
( x = or -2 , h = k2/12 )

11.
(SPM 08 , P1, Q4 )
It is given that -1 is one of the roots of the quadratic
equation x2 4x p
= 0, find the values of p.

1)

12.
(SPM 09 , P1, Q4 )
The quadratic equation x2 + x = 2px p2 , where p is
constant, has two different roots. Find the range of values of
p.

[ p =-3 ]
[ p < ]

13. ( SPM 09, P2 , Q2 )


The quadratic equation x2 5x + 6 = 0 has roots h and k,
where h > k.
a) Find

37
i)
ii)

the value of h and of k


the range of x if x2 5x + 6 > 0
[ 5 marks ]
b) Using the values of h and k from 13 (a) , form the
quadratic equation which has roots h + 2 and 3k 2 .
[ 2 marks ]

[ h=3 ,k
=2

, x < 2 or x > 3 ]

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (CHAPTER 3 F4 )

1. To state the Minimum value of a Quadratic Function


No.

1.

Function

f(x) = x2

f(x) = ax2 + c ,

Minimum value of

Corresponding

Minimum

value of x

Point

x=0

(0, 0)

a>0
(Sketched) Graph

2.

y = x2 + 3

3.

g(x) = x2 - 5

(0, -4 )

38
y

h(x) = 10x2 + 1

4.

p(x) = 4 + 2x2

5.

y
x

2. To state the Minimum Value of a Quadratic Function in the form.

f(x) = a (x

+ p) + q , a > 0
No.

Function

Minimum value of

Corresponding

Minimum

value of x

Point

1.

f(x) = (x 1)2 + 2

2.

g(x) = (x- 2)2 + 4

(x 1)2 = 0
x=1

(1, 2)

(x 2)2 = 0
x=

(Sketched) Graph

(1,2

xx

x
O

39
3.

h(x) = (x 1)2 - 3
y
x

4.

(x 2)2

5.

f(x) = 2(x 1)2 + 3

x
O

6.

f(x) = 3(x + 2)2 - 1

x
O

x
O

7.

f(x) = 2 + (x + 1)2

x
O

40

8.

f(x) = 1 + 2 (x 3)2

x
2

3. To state the Maximum Value of a Quadratic Function in the form f(x) = ax + c , a < 0
Maximum value of
Corresponding
Maximum
No.
Function
y
value of x
Point

(Sketched) Graph

1.
f(x) = - x2

x=0

(0, 0)

y
O

2.
g(x) = - x2 + 4

y
4

3.

p(x) = 9 - x2

41

4.

f(x) = -2x2 + 3
y
x

O
2

g(x) = - x - 1

5.

y
x

4.

To state the Maximum Value of a Quadratic Function in the form. f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q , a < 0

No.
1.

Function
f(x) = (x 1)2 + 2

Maximum value of

Corresponding

Maximum

value of x

Point

(x 1)2 = 0
x=1

(Sketched) Graph

(1, 2)
y

2.

g(x) = - (x- 2)2 + 4

x
O

42
3.

h(x) = - (x 1)2 - 3

x
O

4.

f(x) = - 3(x + 2)2 - 1

x
O

5.

f(x) = 2 - (x + 1)2

x
O

5. To sketch the Graphs of Quadratic Functions in the form


f(x) = a (x + p)2 + q and state the equation of the axis of
symmetry
Case I :
a > 0 Shape of Graph is
atau

No.

Function

1.

f(x) = (x 1)2 + 2
Min. Point : (1, 2)
Axis of Symmetry :
x=1

Sketched Graph

Function

f(x) = (x 1)2 + 4
Min. Point. : ( , )
Axis of Symmetry : x =

Sketched Graph

y
O

(1,2
)
O

43

2.

f(x) = (x + 2)2 + 1
Min. Point. :
Axis of Symmetry :

f(x) = (x + 1)2 + 2
Min. Point. :
Axis of Symmetry :
x=

(-2,1)

3.

f(x) = (x+3)2
Min. Point :
Axis of Symmetry :

No.

1.

a<0

Function

f(x) = - (x 1)2 + 2
Max.Point : (1, 2)
Axis of Symmetry :
x=1

f(x) = (x+4)2
Min. Point :
Axis of Symmetry :

Case 2 :

Shape of Graph :

or

Sketched Graph

Function

f(x) = - (x + 1)2 + 4
Max.Point:
Axis of Symmetry :

y
(1,

Sketched Graph

2)
O

x
O

44

f(x) = - (x 3)2 + 1
Max.Point :
Axis of Symmetry :

2.

f(x) = - 2(x 1)
Max.Point:
Axis of Symmetry :

f(x) = - (x 3)2
Max.Point :
Axis of Symmetry :

f(x) = 5 - (x 2)2
Max.Point :
Axis of Symmetry :

4.

f(x) = 3 - (x 1)2
Max.Point. :
Axis of Symmetry :

3.

f(x) = - x 2 + 2
Max. Point :
Axis of Symmetry :

6. To express Quadratic Functions f(x) = ax2 + bx + c in the form a(x+ p)2 + q : Method of COMPLETING THE SQUARE
1.

f(x) = x + 4x + 3

2.

g(x)

= x - 6x - 7

(x + 2)2 - 1

4.

y=

x + x - 6

O
2

3.

h(x) = x

- 4x

( x - 2 )2 - 4

(x 3)2 - 16

5.

y =

x + x - 6

6.

= x + 3x + 2

45

(x + )2 - 25/4

7.

y = 2x - 6x + 3

(x + )2 - 25/4

8.

g(x) = 3x - 12x + 10

(x + 3/2)2 -

9.

h(x) = 2x

+ 6x - 5

2 x

2(x 3/2)2 - 3/2

7. Quafratic Function
the graph y = f(x)
Case1

19
2

3(x 2)2 - 2

f(x) = ax + bx + c . Relationship between the value of b2 4ac and the position of

b2 4ac > 0 . Graph y = f(x) cuts x-axis at TWO different points.

y=f(x)

a>
0

x
y=f(x)

a<
0

46
Case 2

b2 4ac

0 . Graph y = f(x) touches the x-axis.

y=f(x)

a>
0

Case 3

a<
0

y=f(x)

b2 4ac < 0 . Graph y = f(x) DOES NOT touch the x- axis.

y=f(x)

a>
0

Curve lies above the x-axis because f(x) is


always positive.

y=f(x)

a<
0

Curve lies below the x- axis because f(x) is


always negative.

7.1. Aplication (Relationship between b 2 4ac position of graph y = f(x)


1. Show that the function 4x 2x 2
5
is always negative for all values of
x.

Show that the function 2x2 3x + 2 x2


is always positive for all values of x.

L3. Show that the curve


y = 9 + 4x2 12x touches the
x-axis.

4. Find the range of p if the graph of


quarritic function f(x) = x2 + px 2p
cuts the x-axis at TWO different points.

5. The graph of the function


f(x) = 2x2 + (3 k)x + 8 does not
touch the x-axis. Determine the range

6. Find the values of k if the grapf of


the quadratic function y = x2 + 2kx +
k + 6 touches the x-axis.

47
of k.

p < -8 , p > 0

k = -3 , k = 2
-5 < k < 11

7. (a) Given f(x) = 2x2 8. Find the


range
of x so that f(x) is positive.
(b) Find the range of x which
satisfy the
inequality (x 1)2 > x 1

(Ans : (a) x < -2, x > 2


x > 2 )

8. (a) Find the range of x if 3x (2x +


3) 4x + 1
(b) Solve 5 + m2 > 9 3m.

(a) x < -1, x > 1/6


m > 1

(b) x < 1,

9. (a) Find the range of x if x (x +


2) 15
(b) State the range of x if 5x >
2 3x2.

(b) m < -4,


(a) x -5 , x 3
-2 , x > 1/3

(b) x <

Questions based on SPM Format


1. Express f(x) = x2 - 4x + 3 in
the form
(x + p)2 + q; with p and
q as constants. Hence
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

State the minimum value of


f(x) and the corresponding
value of x,
Sketch the graph of y = f(x)
and state the equation of the
axis of symmetry.

2. Express f(x) = 2x2 + 4x - 3 in


the form
a (x + p)2 + q. Hence

3. Given f(x) = x2 + 2kx + 5k (k


constant) has a minimum value 4.

a) State the minimum value of f(x)


and state the coressponding value of
x,
b) Sketch the graph of y = f(x) and
state the equation of the axis of
symmetry.

a) By completing the square,


determine the TWO positive values of
k
b) Sketch the graph of y = f(x) for the
bigger value of k and state the
equation of the axis of symmetry.

48

k = 1 or

k=4

4. Express f(x) = - x - 8x + 9 in
the form
- (x + p)2 + q. Hence

2 (x+1)2 - 5
5. Express f(x) = 5 8x - 2x2 in the
6.
Given y = h + 4kx 2x2 = q
2
form
q - a (x + p) . hence
2(x + p)2

a) State the maximum value of f(x)


and state the coressponding value of
x,
b) Sketch the graph of y = f(x) and
state the equation of the axis of
symmetry.

a) State the maximum value of f(x)


and state the coressponding value of
x,
b) Sketch the graph of y = f(x) and
state the equation of the axis of
symmetry.

p = -2 , q = - 1
2

a) Find p and q in terms of h and / or


k.
b) If h = -10 and k = 3,
State the equation of the axis of
symmetry,
Sketch the graph of y = f(x)

49

p = 4 , q = 25

13 2 (x+2)2
(Ans : p = -k , q = 2k2 + h ; axissymmetri : x = 3)

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 1 & 2


1. ( SPM 03, P2, Q2 )
Fungsi
f(x) = x2 4kx + 5k2 + 1 mempunyai nilai
maksimum r2 + 2k, dengan keadaan r dan k ialah pemalar.
a) Dengan menggunakan kaedah menyempurnakan
kuasa dua, tunjukkan bahawa r = k -1.
b) Seterusnya atau dengan kaedah lain, carikan nilai k
dan nilai dan nilai r jika graf bagi fungsi itu bersimetri
pada x = r2 1

2.
(SPM 04 , P1, Q6 )
Rajah 2 menunjukkan graf bagi fungsi
dengan keadaan k adalah pemalar.
y

0
-3

y = - ( x k ) 2 2,

( 2 ,-3
)

50
Carikan
a) nilai k,
b) persamaan paksi simetri
c) Koordinat titik maksimum
( r = 3 or -1 k = 4 or 0 )

3. ( SPM 05, P1, Q6 )


Rajah 2 menunjukkan graf kuadratik f(x) = 3 ( x + p ) 2 + 2,
dengan keadaan p ialah pemalar.
y

4. ( SPM 06, P1, Q4 )


Rajah 3 menunjukkan suatu graf fungsi kuadratik y = f(x). Garis
lurus y = - 4 ialah tangent kepada lengkung y = f(x).
y

y=
f(x)

y=
f(x)

(1 ,
q)

x
0
Lengkung y = f(x) mempunyai titik minimum ( 1, q ) dengan
keadaan q ialah pemalar. Nyatakan
a) nilai p,
b) nilai q,
c) persamaan paksi simertri
5.
(SPM 07 , P1, Q5 )
Find the range of values of x for which

( -1/2

2x 2

1 + x

0 1

y = -4
a) Tuliskan persamaan paksi simetri lengkung itu
b) Ungkapkan f(x) dalam bentuk ( x + b)2 + c, dengan
keadaan b dan c ialah pemalar
6.
(SPM 07 , P1, Q6 )
The quadratic function f(x) = x2 + 2x 4 , can be expressed in
the form
f(x) = ( x + m )2 n , where a m and n are
constants. Find the value of m and of n .

1)
[m =1 .n=5]

51
7.
(SPM 08 , P1, Q5 )
The quadratic function f(x) = p ( x + p ) 2 + r, where p, q and
r are constants, has a minimum value of -4. The equation of
the axis of symmetry is x = 3.
State
a) The range of values of p
b) The value of q
c) The value of r

8.
(SPM 08 , P1, Q6 )
Find the range of the values of x for ( x 3 ) 2 < 5 x .

[1 < x < 4]

9.
(SPM 09 , P1, Q5 )
Diagram shows the graph of a quadratic function f(x) = - ( x
p )2 +q, where p and q are constant.
y
( -3 , 0
x
0
)

10.
(SPM 09 , P1, Q6 )
The quadratic function f(x) = -x2 + 4x + a2, where a is a
constant, has maximum value 8. Find the values of a.

( 0 ,-9
)

y = f(x)
State

a) The value of p,
b) The equation of the axis of symmetry
[ a = -2 or 2 ]

11 ( SPM 08, P2, Q2 )


Diagram below shows the curve of a quadratic function f(x)
= -x2 + kx 5 . The curve has a maximum point at B( 2 , p )
and intercepts that f(x)-axis at point A.
O

f(x)

B
( 2 ,p )

12 ( SPM 10, P1, Q4 )


Diagram below shows the curve of a quadratic function y =
f(x)
y

x
5

-1

y=
f(x)
3

52

State
a) State the coordinate of A.
[ 1 marks ]
b) By using the method of completing the square , find
the value of k and of p.
[ 4 marks ]
c) Determine the range of values of x , if f(x) -5
[ 2 marks ]

= -1

c)

0 x4

A( 0 , -5 )

, b) k = 4

,p

a) The roots of the equation f(x) = 0


b) The equation of the axis of symmetry of the curve
[ 3 marks ]

[ x = -1 , x = 3 , axis symmetry
x=1]

13.
(SPM 10 , P1, Q5 )
The quadratic function ( 1 p )-x2 - 6x + 10, where p is a
constant, has two difference roots . Find the range of values
of p.

14.
(SPM 10 , P1, Q6 )
The quadratic function f(x) = -x2 + 4x 3 can be expressed in
the form of
f(x) = -(x 2 )2 + k , where a is k constant.
a)
Find the value of k
b)
Sketch the graph of the function f(x) on the given axes.

53

f(x)

O
[ p > 1/10 ]
[ k =1 ]

SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS ( CHAPTER 4 F4 )


1. ( SPM 00, P2, Q1 )
Solve the simultaneous equations

2. ( SPM 02, P2, Q1 )


Solve the simultaneous equations :

3x 5 = 2y

x+y3

y(x + y) = x(x + y) 5

x2 + y2 xy

21

54

( x=

(x=3 y=2)

1, y = 4 ; x = 4, y = 1 )

3. ( SPM 03, P2, Q1 )


Solve the simultaneous equations :
4x + y
x2 + x y

4. ( SPM 04, P2, Q1 )


Solve the simultaneous equations p m = 2 and p 2 + 2m =
8. Give your answers correct to three decimal places .

= 8
=

( x=
2,y=0 ; x= 3,y=4)

( m = 0.606, p = 2.606 ;
m = 6.606 , p = 4.606 )

5.

( SPM 05, P2, Q1 )

Solve the simultaneous equations


10 = 2x

1
y 1 and y2
2

6. ( SPM 06, P2, Q1 )


Solve the simultaneous equations 2x + y = 1 and 2x 2 + y2
+ xy = 5. Give your answers correct to three decimal places
.

55

( x=

( x = 1.618, y = 2.236

4,y=3 ; x= ,y=3)

, x = 0.618, y = 0.236)

7.

8.

( SPM 07, P2, Q1 )

Solve the simultaneous equations

( SPM 08, P2, Q1 )

Solve the simultaneous equations

2x y 3 = 0 and 2x2 10x + y + 9 = 0

x 3y + 4 = 0
x2 + xy 40 = 0

( x

( x = 5,

= 3,y=3 ; x=1,y= 1)

y=3 ;

x = - 6 , y = - 2/3 )

9. ( SPM 09, P2, Q1 )


Solve the simultaneous equations
k 3p = 1 and p + pk
2k = 0 . Give your answers correct to three decimal
places.

10. ( SPM 10, P2, Q1 )


Solve the simultaneous equations x 2y = 7 and xy x =
9y . Give the answers correct to two decimal places.

( p = 1.577 or
0.423 , k = 3. 731 or 0.269 )

INDICES AND LOGARITMS ( CHAPTER 5 )


Basic formulae that must be remember

56

am

an =

am a n =

am + n

(am)n

am n

a0 =

amn

a m

(ab)m =

1
am

am b m

1. Simplify all the following


a.

e)

i)

m)

53 X 5 4 =

23 =
2 4
5n 3 53n 1

9n 2
31 n 271 n

2. Solve all the following

b.

f)

j)

n)

2x

23x =

( 73) -2 =

2 2 n 1 23n 1

3 3n 1

c)

g)

k)

o)

23

X 53 =

(33)-2 X 32

n 1 3

72n

2n 2n 1

1
24

d)

a a

h)

2 n 1 8n 1

ab

3 2

l)

p)

a 4b
a 3b

5n 1 5n 5n 1

57
a)

3x = 81

b)

e)

4x = 32

f)

27x = 9

i)

271 x = 92x

j)

2 82x

m)

q)

x+1

= 64

5( 4-x ) = 80

n)

r)

2x = 32

1

3

c)

g)

= 16x + 3

2 x 1

81

64(163x) = 1

3. To convert numbers in index form to logaritmic form and vice-versa.

k)

4x = 64

8x

d)

= 16x 3

16 42x 3
x

1
16

o)

4x 3

s)

3x-1 = 9x

= 322

8x

= 16

h)

4x+2 = 32x - 1

l)

251 3x = 5
125x

p)

t)

4x+1 = 8x

x+2

= 27

1x

58
No.

Index Form

1.

102 = 100

2.

23

3.

pq

Logaritmic Form

Index Form

Logaritmic Form

11.

log3

= 8

12.

loga

= r

13.

log2

32

4.

104 = 10000

14.

log3 (xy)

5.

a3

= b

15.

logy

10x

6.

81

= 34

16.

log10 100y

17.

logp

7.

m = pk

8.

2x

9.

v =

10.

log10 100 = 2

No.

= y

10x

64 = 43

4. To find the value of a given Logaritm .

18.

Log5 125 = 3

19.

1
= log8 2
3

20.

Logy 5 = -3

loga ax : =
IMPORTANT

59
1.

log10 1000 = 3

6.

log p

p8

11.

log a

a2

2.

log2

7.

log m

m-1

12.

logm

1
m2

3.

log10

0.01

8.

log a

13.

log p

4.

log 4

64

9.

loga

14.

log b bk

5.

log p

10.

log p (pp2) =

15.

log p

32

1
a4

p-5

Laws of Logaritm
x

loga (xy) = loga x


+ loga y

= loga x
loga
y

loga y

loga xm
m loga x

loga xn =

loga x

loga 1 =

loga a =

5. Use the law of the logarihm .


1.

loga 3pr = loga 3 + loga p


+ loga r

2.

loga 2mn =

3.

loga 3aq =

60

4.

log10 10yz =

7.

loga

p
q

= loga p loga q

10
=
kx

10.log10

13.

loga x3 = 3 loga x

5.

log10 1000xy =

8.

loga

p
2r

xy

100

11. log10

14.

6.

9.

log2 ( xy 4 ) =

log2 4mn =

log2

12. (e) loga

15.

4
m

3a
=
m

loga

1
x2

61
16.

log2 ( 4 y 4 ) =
17.

19.

log10 10000x

log2

k2
4x 3

log4

y3
64

=
20.

22.

log2

y4
8

logp ( 8 p 5 ) =
23.

y4
x

18.

log2

21.

log2 (

24.

log10 100x3 =

xy 4
) =
8

6. EQUATIONS IN INDICES (Which involves the use of LOGARITM)


1. 3x = 18
log10 3x = log10 18
x log10 3 = log10 18

log10 18
log10 3

2.631

2. 5x+2 = 16
log10 5x+2 = log10 16
(x+2) log10 3 = log10
18

x2

x+2

log10 16
log10 5

3. 2x = 9

4. 7x = 20

62
x

5. 4x+1

6. 3x-2 = 8

28

9. 63x-2 = 66

10.2

3x + 1

7. Change of Base of Logarithms . Formula :

1.

log4 8 =
=

3
2

log 2 8
log 2 4

2.

7. 2x+3

=5

loga x =

11.3

8. 71-x

= 5

12. 7 = 9l0g3 x

2.8

log b x
log b a

log4 32 =

log 2 32
log 2 4

log2 x

= 200

3. log16 8 =

4.

log8 2 =

63
5.

log9 27 =

6. log25 625

7.

log9 3 =

8. log4 2 =

(With a calculator) Change to base 10


1.

log4 9 =
=

log10 9
log10 4
1.585

(a) log5 20 =

(b) log4 0.8 =

log10 20
log10 5

(c) log7 2 =

(d) log9 77 =

(e) log3 9.6 =

(f) log6 2.5 =

(g) log5 2000 =

(h) log12 6 =

8. Aplication of the Laws of Logaritm To Solve Simple Equations involvong logaritms


Solve the equation log2 (x+1) = 3.
Answers:
log2 (x+1) = 3
x + 1 = 23
x+1= 8
x
= 7

1. Solve the equation log2 (x 3 ) =


2.

x=7

3. Solve the equation log5 (4x 1 )


= 1.

4. Solve the equation log3 (x 6)


2.

2.Solve the equation log10 (3x 2)


= 1.

x
= 0.7
5. Solve the equation log10 (1+ 3x)
= 2

64

Ans : x = 0.3

6.Solve the equation log3 (2x 1) +


log2 4 = 5 .

Ans : x = 15

Ans : x = 33

7. Solve the equation :


log4 (x 2) + 3log2 8 = 10.

8.Solve the equation


log2 (x + 5) = log2 (x 2) +
3.

Ans : x = 6
Ans : x = 14

9. Solve the equation


log5 (4x 7) = log5 (x 2) + 1.

Ans : x = 3

10.Solve log3 3(2x + 3) = 4

Ans : x = 3

11 . Solve log2 8(7 3x) = 5

Ans : x = 12

Ans : x = 1

9. To Determine the value of a logarithm without using calculator.


Given log2 3 = 1.585, log2 5 =
2.322. Without using a calculator
find the value of
(a) log2 15 =
=
=
=

log2 (3 5)
log2 3 + log2 5
1.585 + 2.322

(b) log2 25 =

log2 (5 5)

(c) log2 0.6 =

log2 (

3
)
5

65
(d) log2 10

(e) log4 5

(g) log5 2

L1. Given log3 5 = 1.465 , log3 7 =


1.771 . Withouf using calculator,
evaluate

(b) log3 49 =

(c) log3 1.4 =

(a) log3 35 =

(d) log3 21 =

(f) log5 3

(e) log9 21 =

SPM QUESTIONS
1. ( SPM 01, P1, Q )
Given log3 x = m and log2 x = n. Find logx 24 in terms of m
and n.

2. ( SPM 98, P1, Q )


Given log3 x = p and log9 y = q. Find log3 xy2 in terms of p and
q.

66
( 3/n + 1/m )

( p + 4q )

3. ( SPM 03, P1, Q5 )


Given log 2 T - log4 V = 3, express T in terms of V.

4. ( SPM 03, P1, Q6 )


Solve the equation 42x 1 = 7x

( T = 8V

( 1.677 )

5. ( SPM 04, P1, Q7 )


Solve the equation 82 x 3 48 x 6 .

6. ( SPM 04, P1, Q8 )


Given that log 5 2 m and log 5 7 p , express
terms of m and p.]

( x=3

( 2p m - 1 )

7. ( SPM 05, P1, Q7 )


Solve the equation 2 x 4 2 x 3 1 .

8. ( SPM 05, P1, Q8 )


Solve the equation log 3 4 x log3 (2 x 1) 1 .

( x = -3 )

( x = 3/2 )

9.

10.

( SPM 05, P1, Q9 )

Given that log m 2 p and log m 3 r , express


in terms of p and r.

27 m

log m

( SPM 06, P1, Q6 )

2 x 3

Solve the equation 8

1
4x2

log 5 4.9 in

67

( 3r 2p + 1 )

( x=1)

11. ( SPM 06, P1, Q7 )


Given log2 xy = 2 + 3log2 x log2 y, express y in terms of
x.

12. ( SPM 06, P1, Q8 )


Solve the equation 2 log 3 ( x 1) log 3 x .

( x= 9/8

( y = 4x )

13. ( SPM 07, P1, Q7 )


Given that log2 b = x and log2 c = y, express
8b

14. ( SPM 07, P1, Q8 )


Given that
9 ( 3n-1 ) = 27n , find the value of n.

in terms of x and y.

3 x y
]
2
15. ( SPM 08, P1, Q7 )
Solve the equation
: 162x 3 = 84x
[

log4

[ n=]
16. ( SPM 08, P1, Q8 )
Given that log4 x =

log2 3 , find the value of x.

68

[ x = -3 ]

[x=9]

17. ( SPM 09, P1, Q6 )


Given
3n-3 X
27n = 243 , find the value of n.

18. ( SPM 09, P1, Q7 )


Given that log8 log2 q = 0, express p in terms of q.

[ n = 2 ]
[ p = q3 ]

18.
( SPM 2010 , P1 , Q7)
Solve the equation:
3x 2 3x

19. ( SPM 2010, P1, Q8 )


Given log2 3 = a and log2 5 = b, express log8 45 in terms of a
and b.

8
9

[ x = -2 ]

b
3

COORDINATE GEOMETRY ( CHAPTER 6 )

2a
3

69
1. To Find the distance between two points

[BACK TO BASICS] .

A( x1 , y1 ) and B( x 2 , y 2 ) :

AB =

( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2 .
Eg. 1 Given two points A(2,3) and
B(4,7)

E1.

P(4,5) and Q(3,2)

E2.

R(5,0) and S(5,2)

PQ =
Distance of AB =

E3.

(4 2) (7 3)
2

4 16

20 unit.

[2]

[ 10 ]

T(7,1) and U(2,5)

E4.

V(10,6) and W(4,2)

E5.

X(-4,-1) and Y(-2,1)

[ 52 ]

[ 18 ]

E2. The distance between two


points P(-1, 3) and Q(k, 9) is 10.
Find the possible values of k.

E3. The distance between two


points R(-2, 5) and S(1, k) is 10 .
Find the possible vales of k.

41 ]

More challenging Questions.


E1. The distance between two points
A(1, 3) and B(4, k) is 5. Find the
possible vales of k.

7, -9
7, -1

6, 4

70
E4. The distance between two points
K(-1, p) and L(p, 9) is 50 . Find p.

E5. The distance between two


points U(4, -5) and V(2, t) is 20 .
Find the possible vales of t.

p = 0, 6

E6. If the distance between O(0, 0)


and P(k, 2k) is the same as the
distance between the points A(-4,
3) and B(1, -7), find the possible
values of k.

t =-9, -1
k = 5, -5

Division of a Line Segment


2. To find the mid-point of Two Given Points. Formula :
Eg.

P(3, 2) and Q(5, 7)

E1

P(-4, 6) and Q(8, 0)

E4

P(-3,8) and Q(-11, 0)

x1 x 2 y1 y 2
,

2
2

Midpoint M =
E2

P(6, 3) and Q(2, -1)

E5

P(-2,- 5) and Q(-10, -5)

35 27
,

2
2
9
=
(4 ,
)
2

Midpoint, M =

(2, 3)

E3

P(0,-1), and Q(-1, -5)

(- , -3)

(7 , 4)

(4, 1)

(-6 , -5)

71

3. Q divides the line segment PR in the ratio PQ : QR =


m

m : n. P(x, y), R(x, y)


m

P(x1, y1)

Q(x, y)

R(x2, y2)

Q(x, y)
R(x2, y2)

P(x1, y1)

nx1 mx 2 ny1 my 2
,

mn
mn

Q (x,y) =

Eg1. The point P internally divides the


line segment joining the point M(3,7)
and N(6,2) in the ratio 2 : 1. Find the
coordinates of point P.
1
2

E1. The point P internally divides


the line segment joining the point M
(4,5) and N(-8,-5) in the ratio 1 : 3.
Find the coordinates of point P.

E2. P divides AB in the ratio 3 : 2.


Find the coordinates of P if
a) A(2, -3) and B( -8, 7)

N(6, 2)

P(x, y)

M(3, 7)

b) A(-7, 5) and B(8, -5)

1(3) 2(6) 1(7) 2( 2)


,

2 1
2 1

15 11
,
=
3 3

P=

= 5,

11

5
1,
2

E3. M is a point that lies on the

E4. P is a point that lies on the

(a) (-4, -3)

(b) (2 , -1)

E5. The points P(3, p), B(-1, 2) and

72
straight line RS such that 3RM = MS. If
the coordinates of the points R and S
are (4,5) and (-8,-5) respectively, find
the coordinates of point M.
3RM = MS
RM
1
=
,
MS
3

straight line TU such that 3TP =


2PU. If the coordinates of the points
T and U are (-9,7) and (1,-3)
respectively, find the coordinates of
point P.

C(9,7) lie on a straight line. If P


divides BC internally in the ratio m :
n , find (a) m : n , (b) the
value of p.

RM : MS = 1 : 3

Ans :

1,

4. To Find Areas of Polygons .


E1. P(0, 1), Q(1, 3) and R(2,7)
Area of PQR =

(a) 2 : 3

Area of a polygon

1
2

x1
y1

x2
y2

x3 ... x1
y3 ... y1

1. P(2,3), Q(5,6) and R(-4,4)

2. The coordinates of the triangle


ABC are (5, 10), (2,1) and (8, k)
respectively. Find the possible
values of k, given that the area of
triangle ABC is 24 units2.

Area of PQR =

1 0 1 2 0
2 1 3 7 1

1 unit 2

(b) p = 4

(-5, 3)

17
unit2
2

k = 3 , 35

73
3. The coordinates of the triangle RST
are (4, 3), (-1, 1) and (t, -3)
respectively. Find the possible values
of t , given that the area of triangle
RST is 11 units2.

4. P(1,5), Q(4,7), R(6,6) and S(3,1).


Area of PQRS =

8 unit 2

t = 0 , -22

5.

5. P(2, -1), Q(3,3), R(-1, 5) and S(-4,


-1).

[27]

If the area is zero, then the points are collinear.

1. Given that the points P(5, 7), Q(4, 3)


and R(-5, k) are collinear, find the value of
k.

k= 33

2. Show that the points K(4, 8), L(2, 2)


and M(1, -1) are collinear.

3. Given that the points A(2,p), B(-1,-2)


and C(5,6) are collinear, find the value of
k.

p=2

74

6.

Equations of Straight Lines

a. If given the gradient and one


point:

y y1 = m( x x1 )

E1. Find the equation of a straight line


that passes through the point (5,2)
and has a gradient of -2.

E2. Find the equation of a straight line


that passes through the point (-8,3)
3
and has a gradient of
.
4

P(x1, y1)
Gradient = m

y = -2x + 12

b. If two points are given :


Note : You may find the gradient first,
then use either (a) y = mx + c
Or
(b) y y1 = m( x x1)
Or
(c)

E1. Find the equation of a straight line


that passes through the points (2, -1)
and (3,0)

4y = 3x + 36

E2. Find the equation of a straight line


that passes through the points (-4,3)
and (2,-5)

y y1
y 2 y1
=
x x1
x 2 x1

y=x-3

c) The x-intercept and the y-intercept

E1. The x-intercept and the y-intercept

4x + 3y +7 = 0

E2. The x-intercept and the y-intercept

75
of the straight line PQ are 4 and -8
respectively. Find the gradient and the
equation of PQ.

are given:

y int ercept
m = -
x int errcept

of the straight line PQ are -6 and 3


respectively. Find the gradient and the
equation of PQ.

y int ercept

Equation of Straight Line is :

x
y
+
=1
a
b

m PQ =
x int errcept
y
8

=
4
= 2
O

-8

Equation :

x
y
+
=1
4
8

y 2x 8

E3. The x-intercept of a straight line


AB is -5 and its gradient is -3. Find the
y-intercept of the straight line AB and
the equation of AB.

E4. The x-intercept of a straight line


RS is 2 and its gradient is 3. Find
the y-intercept of the straight line RS
and the equation of RS.

2y = x+6
E5. Find the gradient and the equation
of AB.
y
6
O
-2

B
x

3x + 5y +15 = 0

y = 3x + 6

x 3y = 6

76
7.

Parallel Lines and Perpendicular lines .

Eg. y = 3x 2 and

3x y = 4

Parallel lines, m1 = m 2

1. y = 2x +5 and

4x + 2y = 5

Perpendicular lines, m1 m 2 = -1

2. 2x 3y = 5 and 6y = 4x + 9

y =3x2 ,
m1 = 3
3x y = 4
y = 3x 4 , m2 = 3
Since m1 = m2 , the two line
are parallel .

Eg. y = 3x 2 and

x + 3y = 4

y =3x2 ,
x + 3y = 4
3y = x + 4

1.

3y = 2x 2 and

2x + 3y = 1

2. x 3y = 2 and

4.

6y = 2 - 3x and

x y
4
3 6

5.

6x + 2y = 5

m1 = 3

1
4
1
y x , m2 =
3
3
3
1
Since m1 . m2 = 3 1 ,
3
The two given lines are

perpendicular .

3. y = 2x +5 and

4x + 2y = 9

x y
1 and 8y + 6x 3 = 0
3 4

y
R

8.

Solve all the following


P

Diagram
2

Diagram
3
S
O

O
A

x
Diagram
4

77

78
Equation of a Locus
9. To Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its distances of P from the points Q and R are
equal.
E1. Q(2,5) and R(4,2)

E2. Q(-3, 0) and R(6, 4)

4x 6y+9 =0

E4. Q(6, -2) and R(0, 2)

E3. Q(2, -3) and R(-4, 5)

18x + 8y = 43

E5. Given two points A(3, 2) and B(7,


-4). Find the equation of the
perpendicular bisector of AB.

3x 2y 9 = 0

3y =2x - 13

3x 4y + 3 = 0

E6. Given two points P(4, 10) and QB(6, 0). Find the equation of the the
perpendicular bisector of PQ.

x+y=4

79
10. : To find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its distances from the points A and B are
in the ratio m : n
E1.
:1

A(1, 5), B(4, 2) and m : n = 2

x2+y2 10x 2y + 19 = 0

E4. A(5, -2), B(-4, 1) and m : n =


1:2

E2. A(-3, 2), B(3, 2) and m : n =


2:1

x2+y2 10x 6y + 13 = 0

E5. P(-1, 3), Q( 4, -2) and m : n = 2 :


3

E3. A(1, 3), B(-2, 6) and m : n = 1 :


2

x2+ y2 3x 3y = 0

E6. A(1, 5), B(-4, -5) and m : n =


3:2

80
x2+ y2 16x + 6y + 33 = 0

x2+y2+ 10x 14y + 2 = 0

x2+y2 + 16x +26y + 53 = 0

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 1


1. ( SPM 03, P1, Q9 )
2. ( SPM 03, P1, Q11 )
The points A(2h, h) , B( p , t ) and C (2p, 3t) are on a straight
y x
1 and 5y = 3x
The equations of two straight lines are
line. B divides AC internally in the ratio 2 : 3 . Express p in
5 3
terms of t.
+ 24. Determine whether the lines are perpendicular to each
other.

(Yes )

( p = -2t )
3.
( SPM 04, P1, Q14 )
Diagram 4 shows a straight line PQ with the equation

x y
1.
2 3

Find

the

equation

of

the

straight

perpendicular to PQ and passing through the point Q.


y
Q

P
O

Diagram
4

line

4.
( SPM 04, P1, Q15 )
The point A is (-1, 2) and B is (4, 6). The point P moves such
that
PA : PB = 2 : 3. Find the equation of locus of P.

81
2
3

( y x 3)
5. ( SPM 05, P1, Q14 )
The following information refers to the equations of two
straight lines, JK and RT, which are perpendicular to each
other.
JK
:
y = px + k
RT

(5x2+5y2+50x+12y+163=0)

6. ( SPM 06, P1, Q12 )


Diagram 5 shows the straight line AB which is perpendicular to
the straight line CB at the point B.
y
A(0,

4)
B

y = (k 2)x + p

Express p in terms of k.

O
C

Diagram
5

The equation of CB is y = 2x 1 . Find the coordinates of B.

7.

1
2k

( SPM 07, P1, Q13 )


x y
1 has a y-intercept of 2 and is
The straight line
6 h
parallel to the straight line y + kx = 0. Determine the value
of h and of k.

(2, 3)

8. ( SPM 07 , P1, Q14 )


The vertices of a triangles are A(5,2) , B(4,6) and C(p,-2).
Given that the area of the triangles is 30 unit 2 , find the values
of p.

82

[ h = 2 , k = 1/3 ]

[ p = -9 or 21 ]

9. ( SPM 08 , P1, Q13 )


Diagram 13 shows a straight line passing through S(3,0)
and yT(0,4).

10. (SPM 08, P1, Q14 )


The point (0 ,3), ( 2 ,t) and ( -2 , -1 ) are the vertices of a
triangles. Given that the area of the triangle is 4 unit 2, find the
values of t.

T(0,4)
S (3,0 )x
a) Write down the equation of the straight line ST in the
x y
form of 1
a b
b) A point P(x ,y) moves such that PS = PT. Find the
equation of the locus of P.
[

x y
1 , 6x 8y 7 = 0 ]
3 4
11.
(SPM 09 , P1, Q15 )
Diagram shows a straight line AC.
y
A(-2,3)

[ t = 11 or 3 ]

12.
(SPM 10 , P1 , Q13 )
A straight line passes through A ( -2, -5 ) and B ( 6,7).
a) Given C(h , 10 ) lies on the straight line AB , find the value
of h.
b) Point D divides the line segment AB in the ratio 1 : 3. Find
the coordinates of D.

B (h,k )

C( 4,0 )

The point B lies on AC such that AB : BC = 3 : 1.


the coordinates of B.

Find

13. ( SPM 10, P1, Q14 )


Point P moves such that its distance is always 5 units from Q(3,4). Find the equation of the locus of P.

83

5 3
, ) ]
2 4
1. (SPM 2002, P2, Q11)
[ B = (

2. (SPM 2003, P2, Q11)

Given that A( 1 , 2 ) and B(2, 1) are two fixed points.


Point P moves such that the ratio of AP to PB is always 1 :
2.

A point P moves along the arc of a circle with centre A(2, 3).
The arc passes through Q(-2, 0) and R(5, k).
(a) Find

(a)

Show that the locus of P is x2 + y2 +4x + 6y +5 = 0.


Show that the point C(0, -5) lies on this locus.

[2

(c)

Find the equation of the line AC.

(d)

Given that the line AC cuts the locus of P again at point


[3 marks ]

(ii)

the values of k.

[6 marks]

at point T.
Find the area of triangle OQT.

marks]

D. Find the coordinates of D.

the equation of the locus of P,

(b) The tangent to the circle at point Q intersects the y- axis

[2 marks]
(b)

(i)

[3 marks]

marks]

[4

84

[ x2 + y2 - 4x - 6y - 12 = 0, k
= -1 or 7 , T(0, -8/3) , 8/3 ]

3. (SPM 04, P2, Q2)


Diagram 1 shows a straight line CD which meets a straight
line AB at the point D. T he point C lies on the y- axis.
y
Diagra
m1

C
O

4. (SPM 05, P2, Q9)


In Diagram 5, ABC = 900 and the equation of the straight
line BC is 2y + x + 6= 0.
A (-4,
9)
y

B(9,
0)

A(0,
6)down the equations of AB in the form of
(a) Write

(b)

Find

intercepts.
[ 1 mark ]

Diagra
m5

(c)

(i)

the equation of the straight line AB

(ii)

the coordinates of B

The straight line AB is extended to a point D such that


AB : BD =

(b) Given that 2AD = DB , find the coordinates of D.

[5 marks]

2 : 3. Find the coordinates of D.


[2 marks]

[ 2 marks ]
(c) Given that CD is perpendicular to AB, find the yintercept of CD.
[ 3 marks ]

(d)

A point P moves such that its distance from point A is


always 5 units.
Find the equation of the locus of P.

marks]

[3

85

[ x/9 y/6 = 1 ,

[ y = 2x + 17 , B(-8, 1 ) , D(-14, -11), x2 +

D( 3 , -4 ) ,y-intercept = ]

y2 + 8x - 18y + 72 = 0 ]

5.
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9)
Diagram 3 shows the triangle
AOB where O is the origin.
Point C lies on the straight line AB.

6. ( SPM 07, P2, Q2 )


In diagram below, the straight line AB has an equation y + 2x
+ 8 = 0. AB intercepts the x-axis at point A and intercepts the
y
y-axis at point B.

A(-3,

4)

Diagra
m3

B(6,
-2)
(a)

Calculate the area, in units2, of triangle AOB.

y + 2x + 8 = 0

[2

marks]
(b)

Given that AC : CB = 3 : 2, find the coordinates of


C.

(c)

[2 marks]

A point P moves such that its distance from point A is


always twice its distance from point B.
(i)

Find the equation of locus of P,

(ii)

Hence, determine whether or not this locus


intercepts the y-axis.
[6 marks]

Point P lies on AB such that AP : PB = 1 : 3. Find


a) The coordinates of P
[ 3 marks ]
b) The equation of the straight line that passes through P
and perpendicular to AB.
[ 3 marks ]

86

[ P([ a) 9

b) ( 12/5 , 2/5 )

c) i) 3x 2 + 3y2

3, -2) ,

54x + 24y 135 = 0 ]

7. ( SPM 08, P2 , Q10 )


Diagram below shows a triangle OPQ. Point S lies on the
line PQ. y
P(

3
,k)
2

1
1
x ]
2
2

8. ( SPM 09, P2 , Q9 )
Diagram below shows a trapezium OABC. The line OA is
perpendicular to the line AB, which intercepts the y-axis at the
3
point Q. It is given that the equation of OA is y = x and
2
the equation of yAB is 6y = kx + 26.
B
6y = kx + 26

S ( 3, 1))

Q
x

AQ

a) A point W moves such that its distance from point S is


1
always 2
units.
2
[ 3 marks ]
b) It is given that point P and point Q lie on the locus of
W. Calculate
i)
the value of k
ii)
the coordinates of Q
[ 5 marks ]
c) Hence, find the area, in unit 2 , of triangle OPQ.

O
a) Find
i)
ii)

C
x

the value of k
the coordinates of A
[ 4 marks ]
b) Given AQ = QB = 1 : 2 , find
i)
the coordinates of B
ii)
the equation of straight line BC

87
[ 2 marks ]

[ 4 marks ]
c) A point P ( x, y ) moves such that 2PA = PB. Find
the equation of the locus of P
[ 2 marks ]

[ 4x + 4y 24x 8y + 15 = 0 , k
2

= 3 , Q (4 , -1 ) , 7 ]

9. ( SPM 10, P2 , Q5 )
Diagram below shows a straight line AC which intersects the
y-axis aty point B .

C
O

A (- 3, -7) B

The equation of AC is 3y = 2x - 15 . find


a) the equation of the straight line which passes through
point A and perpendicular to AV
[ 4 marks ]
b) i) the coordinates of B
ii)the coordinates of C, given AB : BC = 2 : 7
[ 3 marks ]

[
a) k = 4 , A( -2, 3)
3y2 + 24x 10y 13 = 0 ]

b) B( 4 , 7 ) , 2y + 3x = 26

c) 3x 2 +

88

CIRCULAR MEASURE ( CHAPTER 7 )


1. RADIAN
1.1 Converting Measurements in Radians to Degrees and Vice Versa
Example: 25.8o
Since 180o = rad

25.8 25.8
180
0.4504 rad

(a) 30o =

A
o

25.8
O

[0.5237 rad]

(c) 81.5o =

(d) 122.8o =

[1.423 rad]

(f) 225o 36 =

(b) 45o =

[0.7855 rad]

(e) 154o 20 =

[2.144 rad]

(g) -50o =

[2.694 rad]

(h) -950 =

89
[3.938 rad]

Example: 0.75 rad


Since rad = 180o
180
0.75 rad 0.75

42.97

[-0.02773 rad]

(a) 0.6 rad =

(b) 1.54 rad =

P
0.75 rad
O

[88.22o]
[34.37 ]
o

Always use = 3.142


18
rad
(c)
5

(e) (1 + ) rad =

1
(d) - 2 rad
3

[206.24o]

[237.29o]

[-133.67o]

2. ARC LENGTH OF A CIRCLE

(a) r = 20 cm and = 0.6 rad

S
=> S = r
r
(b) r = 15 cm and = 1.4 rad

[12 cm]
(d) r = 10 cm and = 60o

[21 cm]
(e) r = 1.5 m and = 82.8o

[10.47 cm]

[2.168 m]

2.1 For each of the following, find the length of the arc S given the values of r and .
Example:
P
r = 10 cm and = 1.5 rad
Since S = r
= 10 1.5 S 1.5 rad O
= 15 cm
Q

(c) r = 30 cm and =

[15.71 cm]

rad
6

2.2 For each of the following, calculate the length of the radius r given the values of S and .

S
=> S = r
r

90
Example:
A
S = 4.5 cm and = 1.5 rad
r
Since S = r
4.5 = 1.5r
O 1.5 rad
4.5
r
1.5
B
= 3 cm
(c) S = 9 m and = 30o

[17.19 m]

(a) S = 9 cm and = 1.5 rad

(b) S = 4.5 cm and = 1.8 rad

[6 cm]

(d) S = 15 cm and = 32.8

[2.5 cm]

(e) S = 10 cm and =

rad
8

[26.20 cm]

[25.46 cm]

S
2.3 For each of the following, find the angle in radian given the values of r and S..
=> S = r
r
Example:
(a) r = 9 cm and S = 36 cm
(b) r = 7 cm and S = 5.6 cm
A
r = 5 cm and S = 10 cm
Since S = r
10 = 5
O
10
=
5
= 2 rad
B
[4 rad]

(c) r = 20 cm and S = 0.7 m

(d) r = 7.15 cm and S = 0.28 m

[3.5 rad]

[0.8 rad]

(e) r = 5.6 cm and S = 3 cm

[224.34o]

3. AREA OF SECTOR
3.1 For each of the following, find the area of the sector A given the values of r and .

[96.43o]

91
Example:
r = 3 cm and = 1.8 rad
1
Since A r 2
2
1
32 1.8
O
2
= 8.1 cm2

(a) r = 5 cm and = 0.8 rad

(b) r = 2.11 cm and = 1.78 rad

1.8 rad

[10 cm2]

(c) r = 2.7 cm and =

2
3 rad

[6.075 cm2]

4
(d) r = 12 mm and = 5 rad

[3.962 cm2]

(e) r = 1.5 m and = 122.8o

[180.98 mm2]

[2.411 m2]

3.2 For each of the following, find the length of the radius r given the values of and A
Example: = 1.2 rad and A = 15
cm2
1
Since A r 2
2
1
15 r 2 1.2
2
O
15
2
r2
r
r
1.2
1.2 rad
= 25
P
Q
r = 5 cm

(a) = 3 rad and A = 6 cm2

(b) = 1.4 rad and A = 118.3 cm2

[2 cm]

[13 cm]

92

(c) =

rad and A = 3 m2
6

3
(d) = 1 rad and A = 78.25 cm2
7

[6 m]

[109.55 cm]

(e) = 102o and A = 215 cm2

[15.54 cm]

93
3.3 For each of the following, find the angle in radian given the values of r and A.
Example: r = 5 cm and A = 9
1 2
r
2
3 1
9 52
8 2
75 2

8 25
3
rad
4

3
cm2
8

(a) r = 2.4 cm and A = 1.44 cm2

(b) r = 8 cm and A = 64 cm2

Since A

5 cm

_3 cm2
98
A

[0.5 rad]

(c) r = 3.2 m and A = 5 m2

[55.95o]

[80o]

Area of segment
1 2
1
r r 2 sin
2
2
1 2
r sin
2

[2 rad]

(b) r = 8 cm and A = 48 cm2

(a) r = 15 cm and A = 50 cm

[85.93o]

94
4 Perimeter and Area of Segments of a Circle
For each of the following diagrams, find
(i)
(ii)

the perimeter and


the area of the shaded segment.
A

(a)

(b)

(c)

P
O

0.5 rad

1 rad
O
O

[Perimeter = 4.974 cm, Area = 0.2579 cm2]

[Perimeter = 9.472 cm, Area = 1.489 cm2]

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 1


1. ( SPM 04, P1, Q19 )

2. ( SPM 05 , P1, Q18)

[Perimeter = 10.19 cm, Area = 1.145 cm2]

95
The diagram shows a circle with centre O. Given that the length of the
major arc AB is 45.51 cm, find the length, in cm, of the radius.
(Use = 3.142)
A
O

The diagram shows a circle with centre O. The length of the minor arc AB is 16
cm and the angle of the major sector AOB is 290o.
Using = 3.142, find
(a) the value of , in radians,
(Give your answer correct to four significant figures.)
(b) the length, in cm, of the radius of the circle.

0.354 rad

( 7.675

(a) 1.222 rad

cm2 )

3. ( SPM 06 P1 Q16 )

4. ( SPM 07 P1 Q18 )

The diagram shows sector OAB with centre O and


sector AXY with centre A. Given that OB = 10 cm, AY = 4 cm,
< POQ = 1.1 radians and the length of the arc AB = 7 cm, calculate
(a) the value of , in radian,
(b) the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.

The diagram shows a sector BOC of a circle with centre O.


It is given that (AD = 8 cm) < AOD = 1.85 radians and
BA = AO = OD = DC = 5 cm. Find
(a) the length, in cm, of the arc BC,
(b) the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.

A
Y
X

A
1.85 rad

O
(a) 0.7 rad

(b) 13.09 cm

(b) 26.2 cm2

5. ( SPM 08 P1 Q18 )
The diagram shows a circle with centre O and radius 10 cm. Given that P, Q

(a) 18.5 cm

(b) 80.5 cm2

6. ( SPM 09 P1 Q12 )

96
and R are points such that OP = PQ and < OPR = 900, find
that OP = PQ and <OPR = 90o, find
[Use = 3.142]
(a) <QOR, in radians,
(b) the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.

The diagram shows a sector BOC of a circle with centre O.


It is given that < BOC = 1.42 radians , AD = 8 cm and
OA = AB = OD = DC = 5 cm. Find
(a) the length, in cm, of the arc BC,
(b) the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.

10 cm

=
P

A
1.85 rad

O
(a) 1.047

(b) 30.72

cm2
(a) 14.2 cm
cm2

7. ( SPM 10 P1 Q17 )
The diagram shows a sector OPQ of a circle with centre O and sector
NRS of a circle with centre N.
P

10 cm

N
S

8 cm
Q
R

It is given that < POQ = 1.5 radians and < RNS = 0.5 radian, find the area ,
in cm2 of the shaded region

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 2

(b) 59

97
. ( SPM 03 P2 Q4 )
The diagram shows a sector POQ with centre O and radius
10 cm. Point R lies on the straight line OP with condition that
OR : OP = 3 : 5. Calculate
(a) the value of, in rad,
(b) the area, in cm2 of the shaded region.
P

2. ( SPM 04 P2 Q9 )
The diagram shows a circle PQRT with centre O and radius 5 cm.
JQK is the tangent to the circle at Q.The straight lines JO and KO,
intersect with the circle
at P and R respectively. OPQR is a rhombus. JLK is an arc of the
circle with centre O. Calculate
L

rad

K
R

(a) the angle , in terms of ,


(b) the length, in cm, of the arc JLK,
(c) the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.

(a) 0.9274 rad

(b) 22.37 cm2

3. ( SPM 05 P2 Q10 )
The diagram shows a sector POQ of a circle, centre O. The

(a)

(b) 20.95 cm

(c) 61.43 cm2

4. ( SPM 06 P2 Q10 )
The diagram shows the plan of a garden. PCQ is a semicircle

98
point A
lies on O P, the point B lies on OQ and AB is perpendicular to
OQ. The length of OA = 8 cm and <POQ =
given that OA : OP = 4 : 7.
(Use = 3.142) Calculate
P

radian. It is
6

with centre O and has a radius of 8 m. RAQ is sector of a circle


with
centre A and has a radius of 14 m. Sector COQ is a lawn. The
shaded
region is a flower bed and has to be fenced. It is given that AC
=8m
and <POQ = 1.956 radians.
(Use = 3.142) Calculate
R

A
8 cm

_ rad
6

Q
B
(a) the length, in cm, of AP,
[1]
(b) the perimeter, in cm, of the shaded region,
[5]
(c) the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.
[4]

(a) the
(b) the
the
(c) the

area, in m2, of the lawn,


length, in m, of the fence required for fencing
flower bed,
area, in m2, of the flower bed.

(a) 62.592 m2
(a) 6 cm

(b) 24.403 cm

(c) 37.463 cm 2

(b) 38.252 m

(c) 14.71 m2

[2]
[4]
[4]

99
5. ( SPM 07 P2 Q9 )
The diagram shows a circle, centre O and radius 10 cm
inscribed in a sector APB of a circle, centre P. The straight
lines,
AP and BP are tangents to the circle at point Q and R,
respectively.
[Use = 3.142] . Calculate
(a) the length, in cm, of the arc AB,
[5]
(b) the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.
[5]
A

O
Q

6. ( SPM 08 P2 Q9 )
The diagram shows two circles. The larger circle has centre X
and radius 12 cm. The smaller circle has centre Y and radius 8
cm.
The circles touch at point R. The straight line PQ is a common
tangent
to the circles at point P and point Q.
[Use = 3.142]
Given that<PXR = radian,
(a) show that = 1.37 (to two decimal places),
[2]
(b) calculate the length, in cm, of the minor arc QR,
[3]
(c) calculate the area, in cm2, of the shaded region.
[5]

60 o
P

100
(a) 14.176 cm
(a) 31.41 cm

(b) 88.6 cm

(b) 40.616 cm2

7. ( SPM 09 P2 Q10 )
In diagram below, POQ is a sector of a circle with centre O
and radius 26 cm. SRT is a quadrant of a circle R and radius
5 cm.
P

7. ( SPM 10 P2 Q11 )
Diagram below shows a circle with centre O.PD is the midpoint
of AC and <DOC = 60o .

S
O
O

60o

It is given that S is the midpoint of OP. Use = 3.142 and


give the answers correct to two decimal places . Calculate
(a) POQ, in radian
[ 2 marks ]
(b) the perimeter in cm of the coloured region .
[ 4 marks ]
(c) the area in cm2, of the coloured region .
[ 4 marks ]

B
It is given that the area of the major sector OAC is 209
Use = 3.142 Find
(a) the value of in radian
[1 marks ]
(b) radius , in cm , of the circle,
[2 marks ]
(c) perimeter , in cm, of the shaded region ,
[ 4 marks ]
(d) the area , in cm2 , of segment ABC
[ 3 marks ]

7
cm2.
15

101

[1.047, 21.99,
159.14 , ]

[ 0.39 rad , 40 cm , 82.18 cm ]


2

STATISTICS ( CHAPTER 8 F4 )
1. ( SPM 05 P1 Q23 )
The mean of four numbers is m . The sum of the squares of
the
numbers is 100 and the standard deviation is 3k. Express m
in terms of k.

2. ( SPM 06 P1 Q24 )
A set of positive integers consists of 2, 5 and m. The variance
for this set of integers is 14. Find the value of m.

( 11 )

25 - 9k2

3. ( SPM 07 P1 Q22 )
A set of data consists of five numbers. The sum of the
numbers is 60 and
the sum of the squares of the numbers is 800. Find, for the
five numbers
(a) the mean,
(b) the standard deviation. [ 3 ]

4. ( SPM 08 P1 Q22 )
A set of seven numbers has a mean of 9.
(a) Find x.
(b) When a number k is added to this set, the new mean is
8.5.
Find the value of k.

(a) 63
(a) 12

(b) 4

5. ( SPM 09 P1 Q24 )
A set of 12 numbers x1 , x 2 ,.............., x12 , has a variance of

(b) 5

102
40 and it is given that x2 = 1080 . Find
(a) the mean , x.
(b) the value of x .

(a) 7.0711

(b) 84.853

1. ( SPM 03 P2 Q5 )
A set of test marks: x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6 has a mean value of 5
and standard deviation of 1.5.
(a) Find the
(i) sum of marks, x,
(ii) sum of squared marks,x2. [ 3 ]
(b) Each mark is multiplied by 2 and then 3 is added.
For the set of new marks, find the
(i) mean,
(ii) variance.
[4]
(a) (i) 30
(ii) 163.50

(b) (i) 13 (ii) 3

2. ( SPM 04 P2 Q4 )
A set of data contains 10 numbers. The sum of these numbers
is 150
and the sum of their squares is 2472.
(a) Find the mean and variance for these 10 numbers.
(b) Another number is added to this set of data and the
mean
increase by 1.
Find
(i) the value of this number,
(ii) the standard deviation for the set of 11 numbers.
[4]
(a) mean = 15, variance = 22.2
(b) (i) 26 (ii) 5.494

3. ( SPM 05 P2 Q4 )
The diagramshows a histogram which represents the
distribution of
14
12the marks obtained by 40 pupils in a test.

Number of Pupils

10
8
6
4
2
0
0.5

10.5

20.5

30.5

40.5

50.5

Marks

4. ( SPM 06 P2 Q6 )
The table beside shows the frequency distribution of the
scores of a group
of pupils in a game.
Number
Score
of
Pupils
10 - 19
1
20 - 29
2
30 - 39
8
40 - 49
12

103

(a) It is given that the median score of the distribution is


(a) Without using an ogive,
calculate the median mark.
[3]
(b) Calculate the standard deviation of the distribution.
[4]

(a) 24.07

42.
Calculate the value of k.
(b )Use the graph paper provided by the invigilator to
answer this
question.
Using a scale of 2 cm to 10 scores on the horizontal
axis and 2 cm to
2 pupils on the vertical axis, draw a histogram to
represent the
frequency distribution of the scores.
Find the mode score.
(c) What is the mode score if the score of each pupil is
increased by 5?

(b) 11.74

a) 4

5. ( SPM 07 P2 Q5 )
The table below shows the cumulative frequency distribution
for the scores of 32 students in a competition.
Score
Number of
students

< 10
4

< 20
10

< 30
20

< 40
28

< 50
32

(a) Based on the table above, copy and complete the table
below. [ 1 ]
Score
0-9
10 - 19 20 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49
Number of
students
(b) Without drawing an ogive, find the interquartile range of
the distribution.
[5]
(a)

(b) 42.6

(c) 47.6

6. ( SPM 08 P2 Q6 )
The table beside shows the marks obtained by 40 candidates
in a test.
Marks

Number of
Candidates
10 - 19
1
20 - 29
x
30 - 39
y
40 - 49
10
50 - 59
8
Given that the median mark is 35.5, find the value of x and of
y.
Hence, state the modal class.

104
4, 6, 10, 8, 4

(b)

22
3

x = 13, y
= 5, modal class = 20 - 29

7. ( SPM 10 P2 Q6 )
The table shows the frequency distribution of the marks of a
group of student.
Marks

Number of
Students
1 - 10
5
11 - 20
8
21 -30
20
31 - 40
10
41
50
7
a)
Using a scale of 2
cm to 10 marks on the horizontal axis and 2 cm to 2
students on the vertical axis , draw a histogram to
represent the frequency distribution of the marks in the
above table. Hence , find the mode mark
[ 4 marks ]
b) Calculate the standard deviation of the marks.
[ 4 marks ]

x = 13, y =
5, modal class = 20 29

DIFFERENTIATION ( CHAPTER 9 F4 )
1. To Determine the first derivative of the function y = ax n using formula.
y= x3
y= x4
y= x7
dy
= 3 x 31
dx
= 3 x2
[4x3]

y= 5x

y= 8x

y = 5x

[ 7x6]

f(x) = 2x -4
f(x) =

[15x2]

f(x) = 6x -1
f(x) =

105
dy
=
dx
[-40x ]

[ -20x ]
y=

3 4
x
2

[- x85 ]

y=

1 3
x
6

y=

1 4
x
2

[- x62 ]
y=

1
x
3

dy
=
dx

2 3
x
3
dy
2 31
=3
x
dx
3
= 2 x2
y=

y=

2
x
3

[2x5 ]

2 x3

[ 2x1 4 ]

[ 6x3]

f(x) =

5
2x

f(x) =

f(x) =

4
3x 6

f(x) =

[- 2x5 2 ]

[ x47 ]

[- x87 ]

2. To determine the first derivative of a product of 2 polynomial.


y= x ( x3+1)
u=x , v =x3+1
du
dv
1,
3x 2
dx
dx
dy
d

(uv)
dx dx
dv
du
u
v
=
dx
dx
=
2
x(3x )+(x3+1)(1)

y= x ( x4+2)

y= ( x 5+1)x

y= ( x3-1)x

106
=

3 x3+x3+1
= 4x3 +1
y= 3x2 ( x3-1)

[ 5x4+2]
3

[ 6x5+1]
3

y= ( x -1)(5x )

[ 15x4-6x]

f(x)= (2-x) ( x3+3)

y= ( x -1)(-4x )

[ 25x4-10x]

y= (2x+1) (

x
+1)
2

[4x3 -1]
3

f(x)= (x-1) ( 1+x )

[ -20x4+8x]

y= (x4+1) (

x
+1)
3

[4 x3-3x2+1]

y= (3-x3) (

5 4
1
3
[ x 4x ]
1
3
3
[2x+ 2 ]
[ -4x3+6x2-3]
2
3. To determine the first derivative of a quotient of two polynomials using formula

x
x 1
v x 1
dv
1
dx

Example : y
ux
dy
1
dx

1. y

5x
2x 3

2.

y =

3x
4x 5

3. y =

x
+1)
3

[-

4 3
x 3x 2 1 ]
3

6x
2x 7

107
du
dv
u
dy
dx 2 dx
dx
v

x 11 x1

x 1 2
x 1 x

x 1 2
1

x 1 2
v

4. y =

15
(2x+3)2

5x 4
3x 2

5. y =

1 4x
1 x

15
(4x+5)2

7. y =

x2
x 3

5
- (1+x)
2

22
- (3x-2)
2

42
- (2x-7)
2

8. y =

x2 1
5x 3 4

x
x-3

-5x 4 +15x 2 -8x


(5x 3 -4)2

4. Determine the first derivative of composite function using chain rule.


Example
1

Exercise

y ( x 2) 2
dy
2( x 2)1 1
dx
2( x 2)

y (3 x 2) 2

y ( x 3) 4

y ( x 2) 5

y ( x 8) 3

[3(x+8)2]
[4(x+3) ]

[5(x+2) ]

y (2 x 3) 4

y ( 4 x 2) 5

y (5 x 8) 3

108
dy
2 (3 x 2)1 3
dx
6(3 x 2)
[8(2x+3)3]

y 2( x 2)
dy
2 2( x 2)1 1
dx
4( x 2)
2

y 5( x 2)

[20(4x+2)4]
4

y 3(4 x 2)

[20(x+2)3]

2
( x 2) 2

y 2( x 2) 2
dy
2 2( x 2) 3
dx
4( x 2) 3
4

( x 2) 3

5
( x 2) 4

y 2( 2 x 8) 3

[60(4x+2)4]

3
( x 2) 5

[12(2x+8)3]

5
2(3 x 4) 4

15
[- (x+2)
6 ]

20
[- (x+2)
5]

5.

[15(5x+8)2]
5

10
[ (3x-4)
5]

Problem of Second Derivatives

yf(x)
dy
f'(x)
dx

Differentiate the first


time

First
derivative
Differentiate the
second time

d2y
f ' ' ( x)
2
dx

Second
derivative

Example :
5
Given that f ( x ) 3 2 x 2 , find f (x) .
Hence, determine the value of f (1)
Solution:

(1) Given that


y 2 x 3 4 x 2 6 x 3 , find

d2y
dx 2

109

f ( x) 3 2 x 2

4x
-20x 3 - 2x

f ' ( x) 5 3 2 x 2

2 4

f " ( x) (3 2 x 2 ) 4 [20] (20 x)[4 3 2 x 2 (4 x )]


20(3 2 x 2 ) 4 320 x 2 (3 2 x 2 ) 3

20 3 - 2x 2 16 x 2 (3 2 x 2 )

12x + 8

20(3 - 2x 2 ) 3 18 x 2 3

(2) Given that f ( x) 2 x 2 40 3 x , find


f(x).

60(3 - 2x 2 ) 3 (6x 2 - 1)
f " (1) 60(1)(5)
300
(3) Given that f ( x ) ( 4 x 1) 5 , find f (0)

(4) Given that s 3 t 2 1


,calculate the value of
t=

d 2s
when
dt 2

1
.
2

320
160 36x
3

6.

Determine the Gradient of a Tangent and a Normal at a point on a Curve.

Example 1 : Find the gradient of the


tangent to the curve
y 2 x 3 3x 2 7 x 5 at the point (2,5)

Example: Given f ( x) x( 2 x 3) and


the gradient of tangent at point P on
the curve
y = f(x) is 29, find the
coordinates of the point P.

(1) Given that the equation of a


parabola is y 1 4 x 2 x 2 , find the
gradient of the tangent to the curve at
the point (-1,-3)

110
Solution:

y 2 x 3 3x 2 7 x 5

dy
6x 2 6x 7
dx
At point (-2,5), x=-2
Hence, the gradient of tangent at
the point (-2,5)
dy
when x 2
dx
6 x 2 6 x 7 when x 2

mT

6(2) 2 6(2) 7

Solution:

y f (x )
y = 2x2 3x since f(x) =

x(2x-3)
dy
4x 3
dx
dy
29
At point P,
dx
4x 3 = 29
x=8
y = 104
The coordinates of P is (8 , 104)

mT 8

(2) Find the gradient of the tangent


to the curve y x 2 x 3 at the
point (3,6).

(3) Given that the gradient of the


tangent at point P on the curve
2
y 2 x 5 is 4, find the coordinates
the point P.

mT 7

P(2 , 1)

(4) Given f ( x) x

4
and the
x2

gradient of tangent is 28. Find the


value of x.

2
3

7. Determine the Equation of a Tangent and a normal at a Point on a Curve.


Example 1 :
Find the equation of the tangent at
the point (2,7) on the curve

Example 2 :
Find the equation of the normal at the
point
x = 1 on the curve

y 3x 5

y 4 2 x 3x

(1) Find the equation of the tangent at


the point (1,9) on the curve
y 2 x 5

111
Solution:

Solution:

y 3x 2 5

y 4 2 x 3x 2

dy
6x
dx

dy
2 6 x
dx
dy
when x 1,
2 6(1) 4
dx

when x 2,

dy
6(2) 12
dx

Gradient of tangent, m T =12


Equation of tangent is

y y1 mT x x1
y 7 12 x 2

y 7 12 x 24
y 12x 17 0

(2) Find the equation of the tangent


y 2 x 1 x 1 at the
to the curve
point where its x-coordinate is -1.

1
4
when x = 1 , y = 4
2(1) + 3(1)2 = 5
Equation of normal is
Gradient of normal, m N

y y1 m N x x1

1
x 1
4
4 y 20 1( x 1)
x 4 y - 21 0
y 5

y 12 x 21

(3) Find the equation of the normal to


the curve y 2 x 2 3 x 2 at the point
where its
x-coordinate is 2.

y 3 x 3

(4) Find the gradient of the curve


4
y
at the point (-2,-4) and
2x 3
hence determine the equation of the
normal passing through that point.

mT 8 ; x 8 y 30 0
x 5 y 22 0

8. Determine the Types of Turning Points (Minimum and Maximum Points)


Example :
Find the turning points of the curve

(1) Find the coordinates of two turning


points on the curve y x x 2 3 and

(2) Determine the coordinates of the


y x 2 4x 4 .
minimum point of

112
y 2 x 3 12 x 2 18 x 3 and

determine
whether each of them is a
maximum or a
minimum point.
2
y 2 x 3 12 x 18 x 3
dy
Solution:

dx
At turning points,

determine whether each of them is


maximum or a minimum point.

dy
0
dx

6 x 2 24 x 18 0
x 2 4x 3 0
x 1 x 3 0
x 1 or x 3

Substitute the values of x into


y 2 x 3 12 x 2 18 x 3

When x = 1 ,
y 2(1) 3 12(1) 2 18(1) 3 11
When x = 3 ,
y 2(3) 3 12(3) 2 18(1) 3 33
Thus the coordinates of the turning
points are
and
2

d y
12 x 24
dx 2

When x = 1 ,
d2y
12(1) 24 12 0
,
dx 2
Thus (1 , 11) is the
When x=3,

point

d2y
12(3) 24 12 0
dx 2

(2 , 0)
(1 , 2) and (1 , 2)

113
Thus , (3 , 33) is the
point
9. Problems of Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function.
x = that satisfies

dy
d2y
0 will minimize y if the value of
0 at x =
dx
dx 2

x = that satisfies

dy
d2y
0 will maximize y if the value of
0 at x =
dx
dx 2

(1) Given L x 2 ( 25 2 x) , find the


value of x for which L is maximum.
Hence, determine the maximum
value of L.

(2) Given y 36 x 4 x 2 7 , find the


value of x for which y is maximum.
Hence, determine the maximum value
of y.

(3) Given y

1
(3 x 2 8 x 2) , find the
2

value of x
for which y is minimum.
Hence, determine the minimum
value of y.

x 43 , y min 53

114

25
3

, Lmax 15625
27

x 92 , y max 88

(4) The diagram below shows the


skeleton of a wire . Box with a
rectangular base of x by 3x and the
height of h.

(5) A length of wire 160 m is bent to


form a sector OPQ, of a circle of centre
O and radius r as shown in the diagram
below.

h
x

3x
Given the total length of the wire is
348 cm,
express h in terms of x, show that the
volume of the box, V cm3 , is given by
V = 3x2 (87 4x),
find the stationary value of V, stating
whether it is maximum or minimum
value.

(6) The diagram below shows a solid


cylinder with circular cross-section of
radius r and the height of h.
r

160
2
r
(ii) the area, A, of the sector

Show that (i)


is

given by A = 80r r 2
(b) Find the value of and r when the
area is a
maximum.
(d) Determine the maximum area.

Given the total surface area of the


cylinder is
300 cm2 ,
(a) express h in terms of r,
(b) show that the volume of the
cylinder, V cm3 , is given by V = 150 r
r3,
(c) determine the maximum volume of
the
cylinder when r varies.

115

(a) h = 87 4x (b) (c) Vmax


18291.75 cm

(b) r = 40 m , = 2 rad (c) Amax 1600

2
(a) h = 150r (b) (c) 100
r

9. Problems of Rates of ChangeIf y = f (x) and x = g(t), then using the chain rule

50

or 399

dy dy dx

,
dt dx dt

dy
dx
is the rate of change of y and
is the rate of
dt
dt
change of x.
where

(1) Given that y 3 x 2 2 x and x is


increasing at a
constant rate of 2 unit per
second, find the rate of
change of
y when x = 4 unit.
dx
2
dt
y 3x 2 2 x
dy
6x 2
dx
When x 4
dy
6( 4) 2
dx
22
dy
dy dx

dt
dx dt
( 22)(2)
44 unit s 1

(2) Given that y 4 x 2 x and x is


increasing at a constant rate of 4 unit
per second, find the rate of change of
y when x = 0.5 unit.

(3) Given that v 9 x

1
and x is
x

increasing at a
constant rate of 3 unit per second, find
the rate of change of v when x = 1
unit.

116

12 unit s 1
30 unit s 1

(4) The area of a circle of radius r cm


increases at a constant rate of 10
cm2 per second. Find the rate of
change of r when r = 2 cm.
( Use = 3.142 )

(5) The area of a circle of radius r cm


increases at a constant rate of 16 cm 2
per second. Find the rate of change of
r when r = 3 cm.
( Use
= 3.142 )

(6) The volume of a sphere of radius r


cm increases at a constant rate of 20
cm3 per second. Find the rate of change
of r when r = 1 cm. ( Use = 3.142 )

Answer :
dA
10
dt
A r2
dA
2 r
dr
When r 2 cm
dA
2 ( 2)
dr
4
dA
dA dr

dt
dr
dt
dr
10 4
dt
dr
0.7957 cm s 1
dt

(7) The volume of water , V cm, in a


1 3
container is given by V h 8h,
3
where h cm is the height of the
water in the container. Water is
poured into the container at the rate
of 10 cm 3 s -1 . Find the rate of
change of the height of water, in
cm 3 s -1 , at the instant when its

1.591 cm s 1
0.8487 cm s

(8) A spherical air bubble is formed at


the base of a pond. When the bubble
moves to the surface of the water, it
expands. If the radius of the bubble is
expanding at the rate of 0.05 cm s 1 ,
find the rate at which the volume of the
bubble is increasing when its radius is
2 cm.

(9) If the radius of a circle is decreasing


at the rate of 0.2 cm s 1 , find the rate
of decrease of the area of the circle
when its radius is 3 cm.

117
height is 2 cm.

5
6

cm s 1

(10) The radius of a spherical


balloon increases at the rate of 0.5
cm s 1. Find the rate of change in the
volume when the radius is 15 cm.

0.8 cm s
3

1.2 cm2 s 1
1

(11) The edge of a cube is decreasing


at the rate of 3 cm s 1. Find the rate of
change in the volume when the
volume is 64 cm3.

(12) Diagram 1 shows a conical


container with a
diameter of 60 cm and height of 40
cm. Water is
poured into the container at a constant
rate of
1 000 cm 3 s -1 .
60 cm

40 cm

Water

Diagram 1
Calculate the rate of change of the
radius of the water
level at the instant when the radius of
the water is 6 cm.
(Use = 3.142; volume of cone
1
r 2 h )
3

118

450 cm3 s 1

144 cm3 s 1

6.631cm3 s 1

(13) Oil is poured into an inverted


right circular cone of base radius 6
cm and height 18 cm at the rate of
2 cm 3 s -1 . Find the rate of increase of
the height of water level when the
water level is 6 cm high. ( Use =
3.142 )

(14)

4 cm

(15)

V
4x
cm
E

20 cm

h
cm

The above figure shows an inverted


cone with a
height of 20 cm and a base-radius of 4
cm. Water is poured into the cone at
the rate of 5 cm s 1 but at the same
time, water is dripping out from the
cone due to a leakage a the rate of 1
cm s 1 .

6x
cm
6x
A
B
The above diagram
shows
a
solid
which
cm
consists
of a cuboid with a square base of side
6x cm,
surmounted by a pyramid of height 4x
cm. The
volume of the cuboid is 5832 cm.

(a) If the height and volume of the


water at time t s are h cm and V cm
respectively, show that
1
V
h 3 .
75

(a) Show that the total surface area of


the solid,
3888
2
.
A cm, is given by A 96 x
x

(b) Find he rate of increase of the


water level in

(b) If the value of x increasing at the


rate

119
the cone at the moment the water
level is 12 cm.
( Use = 3.142 )

0.08 cm s -1 , find the rate of


increase of the
total surface area of the solid at the
instant
x = 4.

0.1591 cm s 1

(b) 0.2210 cm s 1

42 m2 s 1

11. Problems of Small Changes and Approximations .


Small
Changes

(1) Given that y x 2 4 x , find the


small
change in y when x increases from
2 to 2.01.

Approximate
Value

(2) Given the area of a rectangle ,

A 3x 2 x ,
2

where x is the width, find the small


change in the area when the width
decreases from 3 cm to 2.98
cm.
Answer :

(3) Given that y

4
, calculate the
x5

dy
if
dx
x = 2. Hence, estimate the values

value of
of

4
2.03 5
Solution :

120
y x 2 4x
dy
2x 4
dx
x 2 2.01
x 2.01 2
0.01
dy
2(2) 4 when x 2
dx
8
dy
y
x
dx
y (8)(0.01)
y 0.08

A 3x 2 2 x
dA
6x 2
dx
x 3 2.98
x 3 2.98
0.02
dA
6(3) 2 when x 3
dx
20
dA
A
x
dx
A (20)(0.02)

A 0.4 cm s

2 1

(4) Given that y 2 x 2 x , find the


small
change in y when x decreases from
8 to 7.98.

(5) A cuboid with square base has a


2
total surface area, A 3x 4 x , where

x is the length of the side of the base.


Find the small change in the total
surface area when the length of the
side of the base decreases from 5 cm
to 4.99 cm.

4
4 x 5
5
x

dy
20
20 x 6 6
dx
x
dy
20
5
When x 2, 6
dx
16
x
(a )

y new y original y
y original

dy
x
dx

4
4
4
5 y , where y 5 and x 2 2.03
5
2.03
2
2
dy
4
5
x
dx
2
4
5
5 2.03 2
2
16
4
3

32 320
0.116525
(6) Given y

27
dy
, find the value of
3
dx
x

when x = 3. Hence, estimate the value


of

27
.
3.033

121

0.26 cm2

dy
dx

1 ; 0.97

0.62

dy
.
dx
Hence, find the small change in y
when x increases from 4 to 4.02.
(7) Given that y 4 x , find

dy
dx

2
x

(8) The volume, V cm3 , of a cuboid with


rectangular base is given by
V x 3 2 x 2 3 x , where x cm is the
width of the base. Find the small
change in the volume when the width
increases from 4 cm to 4.05 cm.

; y 0.02

32
dy
, find
. Hence,
4
dx
x
32
.
estimate the value of
1.99 4
(9) Given y

dy
dx

128
x5

; 2.04

1.75 cm3

20
, find the
2 x
approximate change in x when y
increases from 40 to 40.5.
(10) Given that y

(11) A cube has side of 6 cm. If each


of the side of the cube decreases by
0.1 cm, find the
approximate decrease in the total
surface area
of the cube.

(12) Given that y

5
, find the value of
x3

dy
when
x = 4.
dx
Hence, estimate the value of
5
(a)
(b)
4.02 3
5

3.99 3

122

1
160

7.2 cm2
dy
dx

15
; (a) 0.07930 ; (b) 0.07871
256

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 1 & 2


1. ( SPM 03 P1 Q15 )
Given that y = 4x ( 5 x ), calculate
a) the value of x when y is a maximum
b) the maximum value of y
[ 3 marks ]

2. ( SPM 03 P1 Q16 )
Given that y = x2 + 5x, use differentiation to find the small
change in y when x increases from 3 to 3.01
[ 3 marks ]

123

( x = 5 /2 , y = 175/2 )

( 0.11 )

3. ( SPM 04 P1 Q20 )
Differentiate 3x2 (2x 4)4 with respect to x.
[3 marks]

4. ( SPM 04 P1 Q21 )
Two variables, x and y are related by the equation y = 3x +
2
. Given that y increases at a constant rate of 4 units per
x
second, find the rate of change of x when x = 2.
[ 3 marks ]

( 8/5 )
[ 6x (6x 5 )(2x 5 )

5.

( SPM 05 P1 Q19 )

Given that h( x)

3x 5

, evaluate h "(1) .

[4

marks ]

6. ( SPM 05 P1 Q20 )
The volume of water, V cm3, in a container is given by

1 3
h 8h , where h cm is the
3

height of the water in the

container. Water is poured into the container at the rate of 10


cm3 s -1. Find the rate of change of water, in cm s-1, at the
instant when its height is 2 cm.
[3
marks]

( 27/8 )

( 0.8333 )

7. ( SPM 06 P1 Q17 )
The point P lies on the curve y = (x 5)2. It is given that the

8.

( SPM 06 P1 Q18 )

It is given that y

2 7
u , where u = 3x 5.
3

Find

dy
in
dx

124
gradient of the normal at P is
P.

1
.
4

Find the coordinates of

terms of x.
[ 3 marks ]

[ 3 marks ]

[ 14 (3x 5 )6 ]
[ P(7,4 ) ]

9. ( SPM 06 P1 Q19 )
Given that y = 3x2 + x 4 ,
(a) find the value of

dy
when x = 1,
dx

(b) express the approximate change in y, when x changes


from 1 to
1 + p, where p if a small value.
[ 4 marks ]

[ 7

, 7p ]

11.
( SPM 07, P1, Q20 )
The curve y = x2 32x + 64 has a minimum point at x = p
, where p is a constant . Find the value of p.
[ 3 marks ]

10.

( SPM 07, P1, Q19 )

The curve y = f(x) is such that

dy
= 3kx + 5 , where k is a
dx

constant . The gradient of the curve at x = 2 is 9 . Find the


value of k
[ 2 marks ]

[ k = 2/3 ]

12.

( SPM 08, P1, Q19 )

Two variables, x and y, are related by the equation y

16
.
x2

Express , in terms of h , the approximate change in y, when x


changes from 4 to 4 + h, where h is a small value.
[ 3 marks ]

125

[p = 16 ]

13.
( SPM 08, P1, Q20 )
The normal to the curve y = x2 5x at point P parallel to the
straight line
y = -x + 12 . Find the equation of the normal
to the curve at point P
[ 3 marks ]

1
h ]
2
14.
( SPM 09, P1, Q19 )
[

The gradient function of a curve is

dy
= kx 6 , where k is
dx

a constant . It is given that the curve has a turning point at ( 2,


1 ) . Find
a) the value of k

[ y = -x 3 ]

15. ( SPM 09 , P1, Q20 )


A block of ice in the form of a cube with sides x cm, melts
at a rate of 9.72 cm3 per minutes. Find the rate of changes
of x at the instant when
x = 12
[ 3 marks ]

[ - 0.0225 ]

17. ( SPM 10 , P1, Q21 )


The volume of a sphere is increasing at a constant rate of
12.8 cm3s-1 . Find the radius of the sphere at the instant
when the radius is increasing at a rate of 0.2 cms -1.
4
r 3
[ Volume of sphere =
[3
3
marks ]

[k=3 ]

16. ( SPM 10 , P1, Q20 )


Given y = 2x ( x 6 ) , find
dy
a)
,
dx
b) the value of x when y is minimum,
c) the minimum value of y
[ 3 marks ]

[ 4x 12, x = 3 , y = -18 ]

126

[r = 4 ]

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 2


1. ( SPM 05, P2, Q2 )
A curve has a gradient function px2 4x, where p is a
constant . The tangent to the curve at the point ( 1 , 3 ) is
parallel to the straight line
y + x 5 = 0. Find
a) the value of p,
3 marks ]

2. ( SPM 07, P2, Q4 )


A curve with gradient function 2 x

2
x2

has a turning point

at ( k, 8 )
[

a ) Find the value of k


[ 3 marks ]
b) Determine whether the turning point is a maximum or
minimum point.
[ 2 marks ]

[p = 3 ]

[k = 1 ,( 1,8 ) is min point ]

3. ( SPM 09, P2, Q3 )


The gradient function of a curve is hx2 kx , where h and k
are constant. The curve has a turning point at ( 3, -4 ) . The
gradient of the tangent to the curve at the point x = -1 is 8.
Find

4.
( SPM 10, P2, Q8 )
The curve y = x3 6x2 + 9x + 1 passes through the point A
( 2 , 3 ) and has two turning points, P(3,1) and Q. Find
a) the gradient of the curve at A
[ 3 marks ]
b) the equation of the normal to the curve at A

127
a) The value of h and of k
[ 5 marks ]

[ 3 marks ]
c) the coordinates of Q and determine whether Q is the
maximum or the minimum point.
[ 4 marks ]

[ h = 2 and k = 6 ]

SOLUTIONS OF TRIANGLES ( CHAPTER 10 F4 )


find unknown sides :
Use Sine Rule to find the unknown sides or angles of aTo
triangle.
a
b
c

sin A sin B sin C

To find unknown angles :


sin A sin B sin C

a
b
c

1. Find the unknown sides of a triangle when two of its angles and one of the corresponding sides are known.
(a) Diagram 1 shows the triangle
ABC.

(b) Diagram 2 shows the triangle PQR

(c) Diagram 3 shows the triangle DEF.


D
15
cm

Diagram 1

350
0
E
16
Diagram
Calculate the length
of DE.
3
60

Diagram
Calculate the length
of PQ. 2
Calculate the length of BC.

128

8.794 cm
10.00 cm

12.32

(d) Diagram 4 shows the triangle


KLM.
L
K
420
0
63
15
cm
M

(e) Diagram 5 shows the triangle ABC.

(f) Diagram 6 shows the triangle PQR

Diagram 5

Diagram
4

Calculate the length of KM.

Diagram 6
Calculate the length of PR.

Calculate the length of AC.

[11.56 cm]

[ 6.527 cm ]

[ 11.26 cm ]

2. Find the unknown sides of a triangle when two of


its angles and the side not corresponding to the angles are known.
7.2
R
0 triangle PQR.
(a) Diagram 10 shows the triangle
(b) Diagram
11
shows25
the
(c) Diagram 12 shows the triangle DEF.
P
cm
0
28
ABC.
72
E
Q

Diagram
11

510

5.6
cm
Diagram

129

Calculate the length of PQ.


Calculate the length of DE.

Calculate the length of AC.

[ 3.810 cm ]

[ 5.189 cm ]

[ 4.517 cm ]

3.
Find the unknown angles of a triangle when two sides and a non-included angle are given.
(a) Diagram 1 shows the triangle
(b) Diagram 2 shows the triangle KLM
(c) Diagram 3 shows the triangle DEF.
15
ABC.
L
A
D
K
cm
10
cm
B

15
cm

9 cm

3.5
cm

500

60
0

Diagra
m1

Find KLM

430
E
24
Diagram
Find DFE. 3

Diagram
2

12.5
cm
F

Find ACB.

[ 27.360 ]

A
[ 35.27o]

13
R
(d) Diagram
4 shows the triangle
P
cm
PQR.
13
00
Q

10
cm
Diagram
4

14
(e) Diagram 5 shows the
cmtriangle ABC.
1100
Diagra
m5

[ 11.090 ]

4.2
L
cm
(f) Diagram 6 shows the triangle KLM.
K

B
9 cm

Diagra
m6

250

2.8
cm
M

130

Find ABC.

Find QPR.

Find KLM.

[ 32.84o]

[ 138.640 ]

[ 36.11 ]
0

4.
Find the unknown angles of a triangle when two sides and a non-included
(a) Diagram 1 shows the triangle
(b) Diagram 2 shows the triangle KLM
ABC.
9 cm
L
A
K
14
40
37
0
cm
0
7 cm
B
Diagram
M
Diagra
9 cm
C
2
m1
Given that KLM is an obtuse angle,
Given that ACB is an obtuse angle,
find
find
the length of ML.
the length of AC.

angle are given.


(c) Diagram 3 shows the triangle DEF.
D
8 cm

420

F
Diagram
3 is greater
Given that the value of EDF
than
900, find the length of DE.
11
cm

131

[ 2.952 cm ]
8.018 cm

(d) Diagram 4 shows the triangle


PQR.
8.5
R
P
cm
460

(e) Diagram 5 shows the triangle KLM.

6.9
cm

23
Q

Diagram
4

Given that PQR is an angle in the


second
quadrant of the cartesian plane, find
the
length of QR.

17.3
9.2
cm is an angle in cm
Given that KLM
the
Diagram
second
5
M find
quadrant
of the cartesian plane,
the
length of KL.

[ 5.040 cm ]

132

[ 9.686 cm ]
[ 2.707 cm

Use Cosine Rule to find the unknown sides or angles

b2 c2 a 2
cos A
of a triangle. 2bc
cos B

a2 c2 b2
2ac

cos C

a2 b2 c2
2ab

1.
Find the unknown side of a triangle when twoRsides and an included angle are given.
(a) Diagram 1 shows the triangle
(b) Diagram 2 shows the triangle PQR
(c) Diagram 3 shows a triangle with
PQR such
such that
sides 5 cm ,
x
5 cm
5 =5 cm and PQR =
that PR =12.3 cm , QR =16.4
PQx =7 cm, QR
13 cm and an included
angle 43 .
cm
cm and
cm
75 . cm
75 5cm
PRQ = 67 .
430
0
Q
P
E
7
13
cm
Diagram
cm
Diagram

133
P
12.3
cm

x
cm
Q

67

0
R
16.4
cmDiagram

Find the value of x .

1
Find the value of x.

Find the value of x.

[ 9.946 ]
[ x = 16.21 ]

(d) Diagram 4 shows the triangle


7 cm
C
PQR.
A
0
53
6.3
cm

(e) Diagram 5 shows the triangle KLM.


K

48

5.8
cm

(f) Diagram 6 shows the triangle PQR.


R

Find the length of BC.

[ 5.967 cm ]

[ 7.475 ]

Diagra
m4

4
cm
Diagram
5

P
M

750
31
5.40

2.23
cm
Q

Diagram
cm
6
Find the length of PR.

Find the length of LM.

[ 4.312 cm ]

[ 5.302 cm ]

134
2.
Find the unknown angle of a triangle when three sides are given.
(a) In Diagram 1, ABC is a triangle
(b) Diagram 2 shows a triangle ABC
where
where
AB = 13 cm, AC = 14 cm and
AB = 11 cm, AC = 13 cm and BC=
BC= 15 cm.
16 cm.
A

A
14 cm

13cm

(c) Diagram 3 shows a triangle ABC


where
AB = 13 cm, AC = 16 cm and BC =
17.5 cm.

15 cm
Diagram 1

13 cm

11cm

Find BAC .

16 cm
Diagram 2

(d) Diagram 4 shows a triangle ABC


where
AB = 12.67 cm, AC = 16.78 cm
and
BC= 19.97 cm.
A
12.67cm

16.78 cm

19.97 cm
Diagram 4

Calculate BCA

Find BAC .

[ 67.38o ]

16 cm

13cm

17.5 cm
Diagram 3
Calculate BAC

[ 83.17]

(e) In Diagram 5, PQR is a triangle such


that
PR = 6.45 cm, RQ = 2.23 cm and
PQ = 5.40 cm.
R
6.45 cm
P

2.23 cm
Q

5.40 cm
Diagram 5

Find RQP .

[ 73.41]

(f) In Diagram 6, PQR is a triangle such


that
PR = 23.5 cm, RQ = 12.5 cm and
PQ= 18.7 cm.
R
23.5
cm
P

12.5
cm
Q
18.7 cm

Diagram 6
Calculate the smallest angle in the
triangle.

135
[108.07]
[39.17]

(g) For triangle ABC in Diagram 7, AB


= 8.56
cm, AC = 11.23 cm and BC=
14.51 cm.
A

14.5 1cm

16 cm

13cm

11.23cm

8.56cm

[31.96]

(h) For triangle ABC in Diagram 8, AB


= 13
cm, AC = 16 cm and BC= 17.5 cm.

Diagram 7
Calculate the largest angle in the
triangle.

17.5 cm
Diagram 8

Calculate the second largest angle in


the
triangle.

[61.19]
[93.33]

Use the formula

1
1
1
bc sin A =
of = ab sin C =
ab sin C or its equivalent to find the area of Area
a triangle.
2
2
2

1. Find the area of a triangles given in each of the following.


(a) In Diagram 1, ABC is a triangle
(b) In Diagram 2, ABC is a triangle with
with
AC= 6 cm, BC = 5 cm and
AB= 6 cm, AC = 9 cm and
ACB 78 .
BAC 53 .

53

B
8 cm

A
9 cm

(c) In Diagram 3, ABC is a triangle with


AC= 6 cm, BC = 8 cm and
ACB 120 .

6 cm

120

B
Diagram
1

C
6 cm
A

Diagram 3

136
A

Find the area of ABC

Find the area of ABC.


6 cm

[ 21.56 ]

[ 20.78 cm2 ]

5 cm

78
C

Diagram 2
Find the area of ABC.

[ 14.67 cm2 ]

(d) In Diagram 4, ABC is a triangle


with
AC= 6 cm, BC = 12.5 cm and the
reflex
angle ACB 250 .
B

(e) In Diagram 5, ABC is a triangle such


that
AB= 12.5 cm , AC = 6 cm and
ACB=80.
C

80
6 cm

12.5 cm
250

12.5 cm

(f) In Diagram 6, ABC is a triangle such


that
AB= 11 cm , AC = 15 cm and
ACB=4534.

15 cm

6 cm

Diagram 4
A

Diagram 5
Find (a) CBA,
(b) the area of the triangle.

Find the area of ABC.


[ 35.24 cm2

(g) In Diagram 7, ABC is a triangle


such that
AC = 7 cm, AB = 15 cm and
ACB = 11530.

11cm

[ 28.21o , 35.62 ]

(h) In Diagram 8, ABC is a triangle


where
AB= 15 cm, BC =11 cm and AC=8
cm.

4534'
C
Diagram
Find (a) CBA, 6
(b) the area of the triangle.

[ (a) 76.830 (b) 69.66 cm2 ]

(i) In Diagram 9, ABC is a triangle where


AB= 30 cm, BC =25 cm and AC=20
cm.

137
A

15 cm

8cm

7cm 11530'
C

11 cm

15 cm

30 cm

Diagram 7

25 cm

20 cm

Diagram 9

Diagram 8

Find (a) CBA,


(b) the area of the triangle

Find (a) the smallest angle,


(b) the area of ABC.

Find (a) the largest angle,


(b) the area of ABC.

H
H

G
[ (a) 24.91 (b) 33.46 cm ]
0

[ 31.30o , 42.86 ]
[ (a) 82.820 (b) 248.04 cm2

Solve problems involving three-dimensional objects


(1)

C
B

(b)
A

138

The diagram above shows a cuboid with a rectangular base,


ABCD. Given that AB = 6cm, BC = 4cm and CG=3 cm.
Find BHC

The diagram above shows a cuboid with a rectangular


base ABCD. Given that AB = 16 cm, BC = 4cm and CG=13
cm. Find BHC

G
H

E
(c)

[ 30.81o ]

E
(d)

The diagram on the left shows a


cuboid with a rectangular base
ABCD. Given that DG=6.1 cm,
[10.98]
BG=7.2 cm and BGD =41.02.

Find the length of BD.


B

139

The diagram above shows a cuboid with a


rectangular base ABCD. Given that AB = 6
cm, BC = 4cm and CG = 3 cm.
Find BGD.

[74.44]

[ 4.772 cm ]

Further Practice with questions based on SPM format.


(1) Diagram 1 shows a trapezium
LMNO.

(2) In Diagram 2, BCD is a straight


line.

(3) In Diagram 3, FGH is a straight line


and G is
the midpoint of FH.

140
L

13 cm

32o

16 cm

14 cm

10 cm

7 cm

16 cm

31o
O

18 cm

Diagram 1
Calculate (a) LNM,
(b) the length of LN,
(c) the area of OLN.

[ (a) 24.740 (b) 25.67 cm (c) 118.99 cm2 ]

(4) Diagram 4 shows a quadrilateral


KLNM.

5 cm

Diagram 2

[ (a) 111.80 (b) 3.769 cm (c) 28.50 cm ]

(5) In Diagram 5, QRS is a straight


line.

Diagram 3

Find (a) ACD,


(b) the length of BC,
(c) the area of triangle ABD.

10 cm

Find (a) EFG,


(b) the length of EG,
(c) the area of triangle EGH.

[ (a) 52.620 (b) 11.23 cm (c) 52.62 cm2 ]

(6) In Diagram 6, BCD is a straight


line.

141

Diagram 4
Calculate (a) the length of LM,
(b) MNL,
(c) the area of
quadrilateral KLNM.

Diagram 5
Find (a) QPR,
(b) the length of RS,
(c) the area of triangle PRS.

Diagram 6
Calculate (a) the length of AB,
(b) CAD,
(c) the area of triangle
ACD.

[ (a) 54.310 (b) 4.157 cm (c) 74.75 cm2 ]


[ (a) 6.678 cm (b)84.740 (c) 13.17 cm2 ]

[ (a) 12.92 cm (b) 31.730 (c) 141.65 cm2 ]

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 2

142
1. ( SPM 03 P2 Q15 )
Diagram below shows a tent VABC in the shape of a pyramid
with triangle ABC as the horizontal base. V is the vertex of
the tent and the angle between the inclined plane VBC and

2. ( SPM 04 P2 Q13 )
Diagram below shows a quadrilateral ABCD such that A BC is
acute.

the base is 50o


(a)Calculate
(i) ABC
(ii) ADC
(iii) the area, in cm2, of quadrilateral
ABCD
[

Given that VB =VC =2.2 m and AB =AC =2.6m, calculate


(a) the length of BC if the area of the base is 3 m 2.
[ 3 marks ]
(b) the length of AV if the angle between AV and the base is
250.
[3 marks]
(2.700, 3.149, 2.829 )
(c) the area of triangle VAB
[4 marks]

(b) A triangle ABC has the same measurements as those


given for triangle ABC, that is, AC=12.3 cm, CB=9.5cm and

B ' A 'C ' 40.5o , but which is different in shape to triangle ABC.
(i)sketch the triangle ABC
(ii) State the size of A'B'C'
[2 marks]

143
( 57.23, 106.07, 80.96, 122.77)

5. ( SPM 05 P2 Q12 )
Diagram below shows triangle ABC

(a) Calculate the length, in cm, of AC.


marks]

6. ( SPM 08 P2 Q9 )
Diagram below shows a quadrilateral ABCD.

[2

(b) A quadrilateral ABCD is now formed so that


AC is a diagonal, ACD 40o and AD =16 cm.
Calculate the two possible values of ADC
[2 marks]
( c) By using the acute A DC from (b) , calculate
(i)
(ii)

the length , in cm, of CD


(ii) the area, in cm2, of the quadrilateral

[ 19.27, 50.73, 24.89, 290.1 ]

The area of triangle BCD is 13 cm2 and


BCD is acute. Calculate
(a) BCD ,
marks]
(b) the length, in cm, of BD,
marks]
(c) ABD ,
marks]

( 60.07, 5.573, 116.55 35.43 )

[2
[2

[3

144
5.

( SPM 07 P2 Q15 )

6. ( SPM 08 P2 Q14 )
In the diagram below, ABC is a triangle. ADFB,AEC and BGC are
straight lines. The straight line FG is perpendicular to BC.

Diagram shows quadrilateral ABCD.


(a) Calculate
(i) the length, in cm, of AC
(ii) ACB

[4 marks]

(b) Point A lies on AC such that AB =AB.


(i) Sketch A ' BC
(ii) Calculate the area , in cm2 , of A ' BC
marks ]

[6

It is given that BD = 19 cm, DA =16 cm, AE = 14 cm,


DAE 80 and FBG 45
(a) calculate the length, in cm, of
(i)
DE
(ii)
EC
[5 marks]
(b) The area of triangle DAE is twice the area of triangle
FBG,
Calculate the length , in cm, of BG
[4 marks]
(c) Sketch triangle ABC which has a different shape from
triangle ABC
[ 1 mark]

( 13.36, 23.88

13.80)

(19.344, 16.213, 10.502)

145

7. ( SPM 09, P2 , Q12 )


Diagram below shows a trapezium KLMN. KN is parallel to
LM and LMN is obtuse.
N

8. ( SPM 10, P2 , Q13 )


Diagram below shows triangle ABC and triangle CDE where
BCE and ACD are straight lines.
A

12.5 cm

80

25o
4 cm
E

M
5.6 cm

32o
L

Find
a) the length, in cm of LN
[ 2 marks ]
b) the length, in cm, of MN
[ 3 marks ]
c) LMN
[ 3 marks ]
d) The area , in cm2 , of triangle LMN
[ 2 marks ]

6 cm

50o
C
2.5 cm

D
a)Calculate the length, in cm ,
i) BC
ii)
DE
[5 marks ]
b)Point C lies on BE such that AC = AC
i) Sketch triangle ACB
ii)
Find ACB
iii) Calculate the area, in cm2, of triangle ACB
[5 marks ]

146

[ LN = 23.23 , MN = 21.761 , <LMN =


98o12, area LMN = 60.308 ]

147
NUMBER INDEXS ( CHAPTER 11 F4 )
1.

Calculate Index number

a) The student population of


school A increased from
768 students in year 1999
to 960 students in year
2002. Calculate the index
number to show the change
in the student population in
year 2002 based on year
1999.

b) The student population of


a school B decreased from
800 students in year 2000
to 720 students in year
2002. Calculate the index
number to show the change
in the student population in
year 2002 based on year
2000.

c)Company A sold 504 units


of a certain model of DVD
player in year 2001. It only
managed to sell 441 units in
year 2003. Calculate the
index number in year 2003
based on year 2001.

[87.50]
[125]

2. Calculate Index number


i)
Given
Price of a semi Year
auto washing
machine
RM480
2002
RM560
2003
Calculate the price index for the year
a) 2003 based on year 2002
b) 2002 based on year 2003
Round off your answer to the nearest
integer.

d)Company B sold 910


units of a certain model of
television in year 2002. It
managed to sell 1021 units
in year 2003. Calculate the
index number in year 2003
based on year 2002.

[112.2]

[90]

ii)
Given
Cost of cell
Year
phone
RM 5010
1992
RM 1550
2005
Calculate the price index for the year
a) 2005 based on year 1992
b) 1992 based on year 2005
Round off your answer to the nearest
integer.

iii) The price of a plate of fried


noodles in the year 1998 and the year
2005 are RM2.40 and RM3.00
respectively. Calculate the price index
for a plate of fried noodles in the year
1998 based on the year 2005.

148
[117, 86]

[80]
[31,323]

iv) A particular pen cost RM0.80 in


the year 1997 and RM0.90 in the
year 1999. Calculate the price index
of the pen in the year 1999 based on
year 1997.

v) Given
Item

vi) Given
Price
in
1990

Price
in
1995

RM2.0 RM2.5
0
0
Q
RM6.0 RM9.0
0
0
Find the value of x and y

Price
index
in
1995
based
on
1990
x
y

Item

Price in Price in
2000
2005

RM15.
RM16.5
00
0
S
RM24.
RM30.0
00
0.
Find the value of x and y

Price
index
in
2005
based
on
2000
x
y

[112.5]
[ 125, 150]

vii) Given

Ingredie
nts

1.05

Price
index
for the
year
2004
based
on the
year
2001
x

0.70

Price per
kg
(RM)

Yea
r
200
1
P
0.8
0
Q
0.4
5
Find the value of

Year
200
4

x and y

viii) The diagram below shows the price


indices of three types of house.
Year
house
Terrace
Bungalow
Apartmen
t

1995
(1990=1
00)
160
q
175

2000
(1990=1
00)
240
180
r

Find the value of p, q and r.

2000
(1995=1
00)
p
200
140

[ 110 , 125]

ix) The diagram below shows the price


indices of three types of fruit.
1996
(1992=1
Year
00)
house
Banana 125
Rambut q
an
Durian
110
Find the value of p,

2003
(1992=1
00)

2003
(1996=1
00)

150
150

p
120

r
q and r.

135

149

[150, 90, 245]


[120, 125, 148.5]
[131.3, 155.6]

3. Find Q0 or Q1 given relevant


a)The price of a plate of fried noodles
in year 2005 was RM3.00 The price
index for a plate of fried noodles in the
year 1998 based on the year 2005
was 80. Calculate the price of the
fried noodle in year 1998..

[RM2.40]

d)Hanims total salary in the year


1996 is RM12200. The price index for
Hanims total salary is 134 in the year
2000 based on the year 1996.
Calculate Hanims total salary in the
year 2000.

information
b)A particular pen cost RM0.80 in the
year 1997 and the price index of the pen
in the year 1999 based on year 1997 was
112.5. Calculate the price for that
particular pen in year 1999.

[RM0.90]

e)The price for 1 kg of salt in the year


2002 was RM1.20. The price index of 1
kg of salt in the year 2002 using year
2001 as the base year was 150.
Calculate the price of 1 kg of salt in the
year 2001.

c) The average monthly phone bill for


a school in the year 2000 was
RM60.00. The price index of the phone
bill was 125 in the year 2004, using
year 2000 as the base year. Calculate
the average monthly phone bill for the
school in the year 2004.

[RM75]

f)A companys profits from online sales


in the year 2002 were RM1.8 million.
The price index of the profit from
online sales through internet for the
company in year 2002 based on year
2001 is 120. Calculate the profits from
online sales in the year 2001.

150

[RM1.5 million]

[RM16,348]
[RM0.80]

g)The price indices of an item in year


1987 and 1999 based on year 1996
were 105 and 120 respectively. If the
price of the same item in year 1999
was RM50.40, find the price of the
item in year 1987.

[RM44.10]

4. Calculate composite index


a)The table below shows the index
numbers and the weightages of three
items. Calculate the composite index
of all the items.
Item
A
B
C
Index
105
120
116
number
weighta 4
1
5
ge

h)The price index for a scientific


calculator in the year 1998 and the year
2000 are 130 and 145 respectively when
the year 1985 is used as the base year.
Find the price of the scientific calculator
in the year 1998 if the price in the year
2000 is RM58.00

[RM52]

b)The table below shows the index


numbers and the weightages of three
items. Calculate the composite index of
all the items.
Item
A
B
C
Index
117
105
120
number
weighta 3
1
2
ge

c)The table below shows the price


indices of four types of food items in
year 2000 based on year 1995,
together with their respective
weightages.
Food Item
Price Index
weightag
e
Meat
120
8
Rice
110
7
Milk
130
2
vegetable
90
3
Calculate the composite index of all
the food items in year 2000 based on

151
year 1995.

[112]

[116]
[113]

d)The table below shows the price


indices of four types of magazines in
year 2002 based on year 2000,
together with their respective
weightages.
Magazine
Price Index
weightag
e
EDGE
115
3
DIGEST
105
6
TRADING 85
7
WOMEN
180
4
Calculate the composite index of all
the magazines in year 2002 based on
year 2000.

e)The table shows the price indices and


percentage of usage of four items, P,Q, R
and S, which are the main ingredients in
the production of a type of biscuit
Item
Price Index Percentage of
in year
usage (%)
2002
based on
year 1999
P
115
20
Q
125
40
R
120
10
S
85
30
Calculate the composite index of all the
items in year 2002 based on year 1999.

f)The table shows the price indices and


percentage of usage of four items,
P,Q, R and S, which are the main
ingredients in the production of a type
of pie.
Item
Price
Percentage of
Index in
usage (%)
year 2004
based on
year 2000
P
80
20
Q
120
30
R
110
10
S
85
40
Calculate the composite index of all
the items in year 2004 based on year
2000.

[110.5]
[114.5]

5. Finding index number or weightage given relevant information


a)The table below shows the price
b)The table below shows the price
index and the weightages of three
indices and the weightage of four types
types of item in the year 1997 using
of food for the year 2000 using 1995 as

[97]

c)The table below shows the price


index and the weightages of three
types of item in the year 2001 using

152
1993 as the based year.
Item
Price
Weightag
index
e
P
105
x
Q
120
1
R
116
5
The composite index of all the items in
year 1997 based on year 1993 was
112. Find the value of x.

the base year.


Food
Price
Weightag
index
e
chicken 123
7
fish
115
p
Beef
138
5
prawn
148
3
The composite index of the four types of
food for the year 2000 based on year
1995 was 128.5.
Calculate the value for p

1999 as the based year.


Item
Price
Weightag
index
e
W
a
3
X
90
2
Y
110
5
The composite index of all the items in
year 2001 based on year 1999 was
133. Find the value of a.

[200]

[4]
[5]

d)The table below shows the price


indices of four types of bag sold by a
trader for the year 1998 using 1995 as
the base year.
Bag Price
Monthly
index
expenditure in
year 1998(RM)
A
x
3000
B
122
4000
C
119
5000
D
110
2000
The composite index of the four types
of bag for the year 1998 based on
year 1995 was 113.
Calculate the value for x

e)The table shows the price indices and


percentage of usage of four items, P,Q, R
and S, which are the main ingredients in
the production of a type of biscuit
Item
Price Index Percentage of
in year
usage (%)
2002
based on
year 1999
P
115
20
Q
125
p
R
x
10
S
85
30
The composite index of all the items in
year 2002 based on year 1999 was
110.5.
Find the value of p and x.

f)The table shows the price indices and


percentage of usage of four items,
P,Q, R and S, which are the main
ingredients in the production of a type
of pie. The composite index of all the
items in year 2004 based on year
2000 was 97
Item
Price
Percentage of
Index in
usage (%)
year 2004
based on
year 2000
P
80
20
Q
120
30
R
110
x
S
y
40
Calculate the value for x and y .

153

[95]

[40, 120]

[ 10, 85]

6. Solve problems involving index number and composite index


a. Table below shows the prices, price indices and the
weightage
for Mr. Loos various expenditures.
expenditu
re

Price
200 200
0
3

Food

900

Transport
Clothing
Utility
Rental

x
300
600
250

108
9
480
336
y
275

Price
index for
the year
2003
based on
the year
2000
121

Weightage

120
z
117
110

5
4
6
3

b. Table below shows the prices and the price indices for the
four
ingredients, P,Q,R and S, used in making biscuits of a particular
kind.
Price per kg
Ingredie
nts

10

Find
a) the value for x, y and z
b) the composite index for the year 2003 using year 2000

P
Q
R
S

(RM)
Year
2001
0.80
2.00
0.40
z

Year
2004
1.00
y
0.60
0.40

Price index for the


year 2004 based on
the year 2001
x
140
150
80

Diagram below show a pie chart which represents the relative


amount
of the ingredients P,Q,R and S, used in making these biscuits.

154
as the
based year.
c) Mr. Loos monthly expenditure in year 2003 was
RM4200.00.
Find his corresponding monthly expenditure in the year
2000.
Find the value of x, y and z.
(i) Calculate the composite index for the cost of making these
biscuits
in the year 2004 based on the year 2001.
(ii) hence, calculate the corresponding cost of making these
biscuits
in the year 2001 if the cost in the year 2004 was RM2985.

Answer :[RM400, RM702, 112. 117.5 RM3574.47]


Answer (a) 125, 2.80, 0.50 (b) 129.44, RM2306.09

3. Table below shows the price indices and percentage of


usage of four items, P,Q, R and S, which are the main
ingredients in the production of a type of biscuit.
Ite
Price index for the
Percentage of
m
year 1995
usage (%)
Based on the year
1993
P
135
40
Q
x
30
R
105
10
S
130
20
Calculate
a) the price of S in year 1993 if its price in the year
1995 is RM37.70.
b) the price index of P in the year 1995 based on the
year 1991 if its

155
price index in the year 1993 based on the year 1991
is 120.
c) The composite index number of the lost of biscuit
production
for the year 1995 based on the year 1993 is 128,
Calculate
i)
the value of x
ii)
the price of a box of biscuit in the year 1993 if
the corresponding
price in the year 1995 is RM32.00

Answer (a) RM29.00, 162,

(b) 125, RM25.00

SPM QUESTIONS PAPER 2

156
1. ( SPM 03 P2 Q13 )
Diagram below is a bar chart indicating the weekly cost
of the items P,Q,R ,S and T for the year 1990. Table
below shows the prices indices for the items.
Items

Price in
1990

Price in
1995

Price index in
1995 based
on 1990

RM 0.70

175

RM2.00

RM2.50

125

RM4.00

RM5.50

RM6.00

RM9.00

150

RM2.50

120

(a) Find the value of


(i) x (ii) y (iii) z
[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the composite index for the items in the year 1995 based on
the year 1990.
[2 marks]
(c) The total monthly cost of the items in the year 1990 is RM456. Calculate
the corresponding total monthly cost for the year 1995.
[2 marks]
(d) The cost of the items increases by 20% from the year 1995 to the year
2000. Find the composite index for the year 2000 based on the year 1990.
[3marks]

Answer:RM0.40, 137.5,RM3.00, 140.9 RM642.5

157
2. ( SPM 04 P2 Q12 )
Table below shows the price indices and the percentage
of usage of four items, P,Q, R and S, which are the main
ingredients in the production of a type of biscuit.
Items
Price index
Percentage
for the year
of usage
1995 based
(%)
on the year
1993

3. ( SPM 05 P2 Q13 )
Table below shows the prices and the price indices for the four ingredients,
P,Q, R and S, used in making biscuits of a particular kind.
Price per kg (RM)
Price index for
Ingredient
the year 2004
s
based on the
Year 2001 Year 2004
year 2001
P

0.80

1.00

135

40

2.00

140

30

0.40

0.60

150

105

10

0.40

80

130

20

Diagram below show a pie chart which represents the relative amount of the
ingredients P,Q,R and S, used in making these biscuits.

(a)Calculate
(i)
the price of S in the year 1993 if its price
in the year 1995 is RM 37.70
(ii)
the price index of P in the year 1995
based on the year 1991 if its price index
in the year 1993 based on the year 1991
is 120.
[5 marks]
(b)The composite index number of the lost of biscuit
production for the year 1995 based on the year
1993 is 128. Calculate
(i)
the value of x,
(ii)
the price of a box of biscuit in the year
1993 if the corresponding price in the
year 1995 is RM32.
[5 marks]

(a) Find the value of x, y and z.


(b) (i) Calculate the composite index for the cost of making these
biscuits in the year 2004 based on the year 2001.
(ii) hence, calculate the corresponding cost of making these biscuits in
the year 2001 if the cost in the year 2004 was RM2985.

Answer (a) 125, 2.80, 0.50 (b) 129.44, RM2306.09

158
Answers: RM29, 162, 125, RM25
4. ( SPM 06 P2 Q15 )
A particular kind of cake is made by using four
ingredients, P,Q, R and S. Table below shows the prices
of the ingredients.
Ingredient
Price per kilogram (RM)
Year 2004

Year 2005

5.00

2.50

4.00

4.00

4.40

(a) The index number of ingredient P in the year 2005


based on the year 2004 is 120. Calculate the value of w.
[ 2 marks]
(b)The index number of ingredient R in the year
2005 based on the year 2004 is 125. The price
per kilogram of ingredient R in the year 2005 is
RM2.00 more than its corresponding price in
the year 2004. Calculate the value of x and of y.
[3 marks]
(c) The composite index for the cost of making the
cake in the year 2005 based on the year 2004 is
127.5
Calculate
(i)
the price of a cake in the year 2004 if its
corresponding price in the year 2005 is RM
30.60
(ii)
the value of m if the quantities of
ingredients P,Q,R and S used in the ratio of
7: 3: m : 2
[5 marks]

159

Answers: 6, 8, 10, RM24, 4


5. ( SPM 07 P2 Q13 )
Table below shows the prices and the price indices of
five components, P,Q,R,S and T. used to produce a kind
of toy.
compone
Price (RM) for the year
Price index
nt
for the year
2004
2006
2006 based
on the year
2004
P

1.20

1.50

125

2.20

110

4.00

6.00

150

3.00

2.70

2.00

2.80

140

Diagram below shows a pie chart which represents the


relative quantity of components used.

(a) Find the value of x and of y


[3marks]
(b) Calculate the composite index for the production cost
of the toys in the year 2006 based on the year 2004
[3marks]
(c) The price of each component increases by 20% from
the year 2006 to the year 2008. Given that production
cost of one toy in the year 2004 is RM55, calculate the
corresponding cost in the year 2008
[4marks]

160

Answer : 2.00, 90, 123.5 148.20, RM81.51


6. ( SPM 08 P2 Q13 )
Table below shows the prices and the price indices of four
ingredients, fish, flour, salt and sugar, used to make a type of
fish cracker.
Ingredients

Price (RM) per kg for the


year

Price index
for the year
2005 based
on the year
2004

(a) Find the value of h and of k.


[3 marks]
(b) Calculate the composite index for the cost of making
these crackers in the year 2005 based on the year 2004.
[3 marks]
(c) The composite index for the cost of making these
crackers increases by 50% from the year 2005 in the
year 2009.

2004

2005

Fish

3.00

4.50

150

Calculate

Flour

1.50

1.80

(i)

Salt

0.90

112.5

Sugar

1.40

1.47

105

(ii)

the composite index for the cost of making


these crackers in the year 2009 based the year
2004
the price of a box of these crackers in the year
2009 if its corresponding price in the year 2004
is RM25
[4 marks]

161

7. ( SPM 09 P2 Q13 )
Table below shows the prices , the price indices and
weightages for four types of stationery P, Q, R and S.
Stationer
y

Price (RM)per unit

Price index
for the year
2008 based
on the year
2007

Weightage

2007

2008

2.8

2.1

4.00

4.80

120

2.00

13

5.8

116

a) Find the value of


i) x

8. ( SPM 10 P2 Q15 )
Table below shows the price indices for three items, P, Q and
R used in the production of a type of bag.
Items
Price index
Price index
for the year
for the year
2006 based
2008 based
on the year
on the year
2004
2004
P

125

150

116

120

(a) Find the price index of item P in the year 2008 based
on the year 2006
[2 marks]
(b) The price of item Q in the year 2004 is RM 7.50 and its
price in the year 2008 is RM 10.50. Find
(i)
the value of x,

162
ii) y
iii)z

(ii)

[ 3 marks ]
b) The composite index for the price of stationery in the
year 2008 based on the year 2007 is 108.4. Calculate
the value of m.
[ 3 marks ]
c) The total expenditure for the stationery in the year 2007
is RM 525. Calculate the corresponding total expenditure
in the year 2008.
d) The price index for Q in the year 2009 based on the year
2007 is 132. Calculate the price index for Q in the year
2009 based on the year 2008.
[ 2 marks ]

[ x = 75, y = 2.6, z = 5.00 ,


b) m = 6 , c) RM 569.10

d) 110]

the price of a item Q in the year 2006


[3 marks]
(c) The composite index for the production cost of the bag
in year 2006 based on the year 2004 is 118.5. The
cost of the items P, q and R used are in the ratio 2 : 1 :
3. Find the value of y. [3 marks ]
(d) Given the price of the bag in the year 2006 is RM
47.40, find the corresponding price of the bag in the
year 2004.
[ 2 marks ]

Answers: RM29, 162, 125, RM25