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72 Ansichten71 SeitenHomework solutions to Matter and Interaction

Jan 27, 2016

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Homework solutions to Matter and Interaction

© All Rights Reserved

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72 Ansichten71 SeitenHomework solutions to Matter and Interaction

© All Rights Reserved

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4.X.1 Were given aluminums density of 2.7 g/cm3 , and lets assume a cubic shape for an aluminum atom. First, get the

mass of one aluminum atom.

mAl

27 g/mol

6.022 1023 mol1

mAl

4.5 10

23

d3

d

d

mAl

d3

mAl

r

mAl

3

s

23

g

3 4.5 10

2.7 g/cm3

8

d 2.6 10

10

cm 2.6 10

4.X.2 Were given leads density of 11.4 g/cm3 , and lets assume a cubic shape for an lead atom. First, get the mass of one

lead atom.

mPb

207 g/mol

6.022 1023 mol1

mPb

3.4 10

22

d3

d

d

mPb

d3

mPb

r

mPb

3

s

22

g

3 3.4 10

3

11.4 g/cm

8

d 3.1 10

10

cm 3.1 10

4.X.3 A reasonable guess would be that one short springs stiffness would be twenty times the chains effective stiffness, or

800 N/m. Each spring contributes one twentieth of the total stretch (neglecting an individual springs mass). If each spring

stretches by only one twentieth of the total stretch for the same applied force, then each spring must have twenty times the

chains stiffness.

4.X.4 A reasonable guess would be that one springs stiffness would be one ninth the combinations effective stiffness, or

300 N/m. Each spring supports one ninth of the rocks weight. Each spring stretches the same amount. Since each spring

supports one ninth of the total weight for the same amount of stretch, each spring must have a stiffness that is one ninth the

combinations effective stiffness, or 300 N/m.

4.X.5 Shortening the wire by a factor of ten means a factor of ten fewer lengthwise interatomic bonds in the wire. So the

wire should be ten times stiffer than before. Therefore, it will only stretch one tenth of the original stretch, or 0.151 mm.

4.X.6 From the graph, a unit stress produces a strain of about 1.8 units. So Youngs modulus would be approximately

8

110 N/m2

1.8103 m/m

6 10

10

N/m2 .

L =

L =

~

F /A

L/L

~

F /A

Y /L

~

F /(r2 )

Y /L

3

(2 1011 N/m2 )/(3 m)

2.1 10

m)2 )

m 0.21 mm

4.X.8

(a) The block will not move.

(b) Since the block isnt moving (static), the forward force on the block by you must be nulled out by the force on the

block by the floor. Thus, the floor exerts a horizontal force of magnitude 60 N.

(c) 100 N is more than necessary to overcome friction, so the block will accelerate.

(d) Anything over 80 N causes the block to accelerate, so the maximum horizontal force the floor can exert on the block

must be 80 N.

4.X.9

3

(a) Apply the momentum principle to the system consisting of the block. Assume non-relativistic speeds.

px

mblock vx

mblock vx

mblock

vx

Fnet,x t

Fnet,x t

k ~FN t

k

mgt

v block

x

g

4 m/s

0.7 s

9.8

N

kg

0.58

(b) Since the net force on the system (block) is constant, we can approximate the blocks average velocity as the arithmetic

mean of the initial and final velocities and then solve for the blocks change in position.

1

(4 m/s + 0 m/s) 2 m/s

~vavg

2

x (2 m/s) (0.7 s) 1.4 m

(c) Assume the upper (3 kg) box doesnt slide on the other box. Youve effectively increased the systems mass, and thus

also increased the normal force on the system, by a factor of 1.6. As you saw in part (a), the systems mass divides out

for the purposes of calculating k . Therefore, the same change in velocity will take place during the same time interval.

Therefore, the new box will stop in 0.7 s. This seems counterintuitive, but in this problem, t is algebraically and

physically independent of mblock .

4.X.10 The rate of change of the objects momentum is precisely what we mean by net force on the object. Thus, the z

component of the net force on the object will be 4 N.

4.X.11 Constant momentum automatically implies that

d~

p

dt

4.X.12

~a

~a

~a

~vf ~vi

t

h5.02, 3.04, 0i m/s h5, 3, 0i m/s

0.01 s

h0.02, 0.04, 0i m/s

h2, 4, 0i m/s/s

0.01 s

Note that the unit of acceleration is m/s/s, which is usually abbreviated to m/s2 .

The rate of change of the balls momentum and the net force on the ball are the same physical entity, which is approximately

4.X.13

mball ~a

3

80 10 kg (h2, 4, 0i m/s/s)

mball ~a

h0.16, 0.32, 0i N

4

(a) First, calculate the stiffness.

(0.33 kg) 9.8

ks

ks

N

kg

mg

s

(5.5 102 m)

58.8 N/m

(b) Second, calculate the oscillation frequency, which tells how many oscillations per second the system will carry out.

r

ks

1

f =

2 m

s

1

58.8 N/m

f =

2.12 Hz

2

0.33 kg

(c) Now calculate how many oscillations will happen during a 5 s interval.

N

= f t

4.X.14

(a) Oscillation period is independent of amplitude, so one complete oscillation would still take 2 s.

(b) Oscillation period is proportional to

the square root of mass. Tripling the mass increases the period by a factor of

Therefore, the new period would be 3(2 s) 3.46 s.

4.X.15

s

|~v| =

s

ks

d

matom

10

40 N/m

2.1 10

m

25

3.3 10

kg

2970 m/s

4.X.16

4.X.17

L

|~v|

3m

2970 m/s

1 10

3.

5

The buoyant force on the iron is the weight of the blocks volume of air.

~

Fb

(1.3 10

kg/cm3 )

1 kg

8 103 kg/cm3

N

(125 cm3 ) 9.8

kg

1.6 10 N

N

The blocks weight is (1 kg) 9.8 kg

= 9.8 N.

4.X.18

At the top of Earths atmosphere, P = 0. At Earths surface, P = 1 105

N

m2 .

gh

P

g

h =

h =

h =

kg

m3 .

N

m2

kg

N

m3 )(9.8 kg )

1 105

(1.2

8500 m

4.X.19

Draw a sketch of the region.

Volume of air

0.01 mm

Assume that the area is approximately 0.2 m 0.2 m = 0.04 m2

(0.01 mm)(0.04 m2 )

(1 105 m)(0.04 m2 )

4 107 m3

6

air = 1.2

Air is mostly nitrogen N2 with molar mass 14 2 = 28

Avogadros Number is NA = 6.02 1023

g

mol

kg

m3

= 0.028

kg

mol .

molecules

.

mol

Use unit cancelation to find the number of molecules of air between the book and table.

6.02 1023

molecules

mol

1

mol

0.028 kg

kg

3

= 1 1019 molecules

m

4 107

1.2 3

m

4.X.20

Assume the oscillation is along the x-axis.

px

Fx t

0

> = Fx t

pf x pix

pf x = Fx t

mv0

Then, v0 =

Ft

m

Ft

0 m

x

+ v02

0

ks

2

m Ft

ks

m

A

A

= A2

= A2

m Ft

ks m

r

m

=

v

ks 0

=

4.X.21

At t0 = 0, x0 = 0 and v0 =

2.

Ft

m .

Substitute t0 = 0 into

0

r

k

s

= A cos

t 0 +

m

= A cos

= A cos

cos

Figure 2: Graph of x vs t

r

v0

r

=

0

r

k

ks

s

A sin

t 0 +

m

m

ks

A sin

m

sin

= 1

=

270 or

3

2

Note: we chose v0 to be positive. If, however, v0 is negative, then sin is positive and

sin

+1

90 or

4.X.22

(a) Neglect the mass of the rope and assume that tension is uniform throughout the rope.

Apply the momentum principle to the climber. Sketch a free-body diagram. Define the system to be the climber.

~F = ~p

net

t

The climbers momentum is constant (since the climber is "motionless"), so

~F = 0

net

FT on climber by rope

~F

+ ~Fgrav by Earth

T by rope

~F

T by rope

= ~Fgrav by Earth

= < 0, mg, 0 >

= < 0, mg, 0 >

= < 0, (55 kg)(9.8

N

), 0 >

kg

= h0, 539, 0i N

~

FT by rope =

539 N

(b)

m

~F

T by rope

88 kg

= < 0, (88 kg)(9.8

N

), 0 >

kg

= h0, 862, 0i N

(c) Both (2) and (3) are true. Model the rope as balls connected by springs in one dimension. Tension (i.e. a force applied

to the rope) causes the interatomic springs (i.e. bonds) to stretch. As a result the atoms in the one-dimensional

model get further apart.

4.X.23

(a) is true. Also, as atoms get closer than their equilibrium distance, they repel. In this way, the bond acts like a spring.

(c) is partially, but not completely, true. It is only true for small amplitude oscillations about the equilibrium distance

between atoms.

9

4.X.24

m = 5 kg of gallium.

molar mass, M = 70

g

mol

= 0.07

kg

mol

atoms

mol

kg

Use unit cancelation to find the mass of one atom in atom

.

kg

1

kg

mol

0.07

= 1.2 1025

23

6.02 10 atoms

atom

mol

4.X.25

The radius of a hydrogen atom is called the Bohr radius and is about 0.5 1010 m. A copper atom is bigger than hydrogen,

so its radius is about 1 1010 , rounded to one significant figure.

4.X.26

(a) molar mass, M = 64

g

mol

kg

mol

1023 atoms

mol

= 0.064

mol

1

kg

kg

= 1.06 1025

.

0.064

6.02 1023 atoms

atom

mol

(b) Assume a simple cubic array as shown in Figure 4.

L =

=

L =

N

=

=

=

4.6 cm

0.046 m

Nd

L

d

0.046 m

2.28 1010 m

2.02 108 atoms

10

(c) A cubic block with each side of length 0.046 m has a volume

= L3

(0.046 m)3

9.73 105 m

The total number of atoms is the number of atoms along each side cubed.

Ntotal

= N3

side

m

(1.06 1025

0.870 kg

kg

)(8.21 1024 atoms)

atom

4.X.27

molar mass: M = 184

density: = 19.3

1.93 104

g

cm2

kg

= 0.184 mol

1 kg (100 cm)3

g

mol

1000 g

1 m3

kg

m3

Find the volume of a cube of the block that is taken by one atom.

1 m3

1.93 104 kg

mol

1

kg

m3

0.184

= 1.58 1029

23

6.02 10 atoms

atom

mol

11

This is the volume of a cube that is filled as much as possible by a spherical atom. The volume of the cube is d3 where d is

the diameter of the atom.

d3

d =

=

1.58 1029 m3

1

(1.58 1029 m3 ) 3

2.51 1010 m

4.X.28

A sketch of the situation is shown in Figure 6.

One wire

Two wires

FT by wire

FT by wire 1

m=10 kg

FT by wire 2

m=10 kg

Fgrav

Fgrav

With two wires, the tension in each wire is half the tension in the case of one wire. (This is a result of the momentum

principle.) Since the tension in the wire is proportional to the distance stretched, each wire, in the case of two wires, will

stretch half as much as one wire alone. The correct answer is (A), each wire stretches 4 mm.

4.X.29

FT

A

L =

L

L

L

FT L

A Y

1

A

Half the area results in twice the distance stretched. The correct answer is (C), the second wire stretches 16 mm.

4.X.30

FT

A

= Y

L

L

FT

L

AY

L L

L =

12

If the wire is twice as long as the original wire, then it will stretch twice as far. Thus, the correct answer is (C), the second

wire stretches 16 mm.

4.X.31

The upward force of the spring on M is ks s1 . When you cut the spring in half, the resulting spring has a stiffness twice as

large as the original spring. (See solution to 4.X.32.) Since the upward force of the spring on M is the same, the distance

s

stretched must be half as much as the original spring. So, the answer is (C) 21 .

4.X.32

For springs in series, the effective stiffness is

1

1

1

=

+

ks,eff

ks,1

ks,2

For 2 identical springs,

2

1

=

ks,eff

ks

Thus, the stiffness of one spring is

ks

2ks,eff

Cutting the spring in half results in a spring that has twice the stiffness. The correct answer is (C) 2ks,eff .

4.X.33

Springs in series have an effective stiffness

1

1

1

=

+

+ ...

ks,eff

ks,1

ks,2

For N identical springs,

1

1

=N

ks,eff

ks

Each individual spring has a stiffness

ks

= N ks,eff

=

=

N

)

m

N

1.35 104

m

(50)(270

4.X.34

For identical springs in series,

1

ks,eff

=N

1

ks

13

Each individual spring has a stiffness,

ks

N ks,eff

(2)(190

380

N

)

m

N

m

4.X.35

For springs in parallel, the effective stiffness is

ks,eff = ks,1 + ks,2 + ...

For N identical springs,

ks,eff = N ks

Each individual spring has a stiffness

ks

=

=

=

ks,eff

N

N

20250 m

45

N

450

m

4.X.36

For identical springs in series,

1

ks,eff

ks

N ks,eff

2(140

280

1

ks

N

)

m

N

m

4.X.37

For identical springs in parallel,

ks,eff

= N ks

=

=

N

)

m

N

1950

m

5(390

14

4.X.38

How far a material stretches when a certain force is applied depends on the interatomic bond stiffness. Thus the correct

answer is (C).

4.X.39

(b) YA = YB because both wires are made of pure copper.

4.X.40

No, it is not a violation of the momentum principle. Before picking up the object, it is at rest. Thus, it must be sitting on

the ground or on the floor or on a table, for example. Or perhaps it is hanging by a chain or rope. Lets assume its sitting

on a table, as in Figure 7. Then,

Draw a free-body diagram (see Figure 8).

If you also lift the box and it remains at rest, then the free-body diagram looks like the one in Figure 9.

The net force on the object is still zero, according the the momentum principle. By you applying an upward force on the

object, the force by the floor on the object diminished, but the net force (i.e. the sum of all forces) on the object is still zero.

15

4.X.41

(a) Its cross-sectional area is the area of a circle, r2 .

= r2

= (4 103 m)2

=

5 105 m2

A =

wd

7.2 105 m2

A =

wd

3.6 105 m2

4.X.42

Since both wires are made of the same material, then they will have the same Youngs Modulus, Y. Youngs Modulus only

depends on the material of the wire. Thus, (1) YB = YA is true.

4.X.43

(a) First, sketch a picture (see Figure 10).

Define the system as the load. Apply the momentum principle. Draw a free-body diagram of the system (see Figure

11).

16

Load

Steel

~F

net

~F

+ ~Fsteel

grav

~p

t

0

~F

steel

~Fgrav

~F

steel

h0, 833, 0i N

N

), 0 >

kg

17

(b)

FT

A

L

L

FT L

L =

A Y

833 N

=

(0.28 m)(0.28 m)

= Y

0.28 m

2 1011 mN2

1.5 108 m

4.P.44

For Aluminum:

Y

Molar mass M = 27

g

mol

= 0.027

N

6.2 1010 2

m

(100 cm)3

g

1 kg

=

2.7

cm3

1000 g

1 m3

kg

= 2700 3

m

kg

mol

V

d =

=

1 m3

2700 kg

0.027 kg

mol

1

mol

1

6.02 1023 atoms

= 1.66 1029

d3

V

1

3

2.55 1010 m

Write Youngs modulus in terms of atomic quantities and solve for the bond stiffness.

ks,bond

For lead,

Yd

(6.2 1010

16

N

m

N

)(2.55 1010 m)

m2

m3

atom

18

1.6 1010

11.4

g

cm3

1.14 104

207

N

m2

g

mol

kg

0.207

mol

kg

m3

1 m3

1

0.207 kg

mol

V =

6.02 1023 atoms

1

mol

1.14 104 kg

3

m

V = 3.02 1029

atom

1

d = V3

3.11 1010 m

ks

= Yd

=

(1.6 1010

5.0

N

)(3.11 1010 m)

m2

N

m

4.P.45

(a) A: To analyze the interatomic compression at A, define the system to be the entire rod except the layer of atoms on

the left edge of the rod. Sketch the bonds between this layer of atoms and the rod as shown in Figure 12.

Apply the Momentum Principle to this system of the rod.

~F = ~p

net

t

Sketch a free-body diagram for the rod (see Figure 13).

~F

net

~F

A

~p

t

= mrod

~v

t

19

FA

A

C: At the right end of the rod at C, define the system to be a very thin layer of the rod of mass mC , as shown in Figure

14

Sketch a free-body diagram for the thin layer of the rod at C (see Figure 15).

Apply the Momentum Principle.

~F

net

~F

C

~p

t

= mC

~v

t

Note that the mass of the thin layer of the rod at C is much less than the mass of the rod. As a result, compare the

v

following equations. Note that ~

t is the same for all parts of the rod.

20

FC

~F

A

~F

C

~v

t

~v

mC

t

mrod

The interatomic force at C will be less than the interatomic force at A, since mC << mA . As a result, the bonds at C

will be less compressed than at A.

B: Since we showed that the bonds are most compressed at A and least compressed at C, then at B the bonds will be

compressed less than at A and more than at C.

From A to C, down the length of the rod, bonds will vary in compression from most compressed at A and least

compressed at C.

(b) When the force is removed, the rods momentum (and thus velocity) will be constant and to the right. The net force

on the rod is zero.

If you choose any piece of the rod to be the system, its momentum is constant; therefore, the net force on the system

is zero. In this case, the compression in the interatomic bonds is uniform (i.e. the same) throughout the rod. In fact,

all bonds (springs) will be at their equilibrium length.

21

4.P.46

(a) Define the system to be m1 ,m2 , and m3 together. Sketch a free-body diagram (see Figure 16).

Figure 16: Free-body diagram for the entire system of m1 ,m2 , and m3 .

Apply the Momentum Principle to the system.

~F

net

d~p

dt

dvx

dt

msystem

dvx

dt

F

msystem

dvx

dt

F

(m1 + m2 + m3 )

Note that the acceleration will be the same for all parts in the system as well. So m1 ,m2 , and m3 all have the same

acceleration.

For the left end, define the system to be m3 . Sketch a free-body diagram (see Figure 17).

~F is the compression force on the left end of m due to its pushing on m .

2

2

3

Apply the Momentum Principle to the system.

d~p

dt

~F

net

F2

= m3

dvx

dt

22

F2

F2

F2

!

F

m3

m1 + m2 + m3

!

m3

F

m1 + m2 + m3

Note that this is the compression force at the left end of m2 and is less than the compression force at the right end of

m2 . This is expected since m2 has an acceleration to the left.

(b) Define the system to be m2 and m3 together. Sketch a free-body diagram of the system (see Figure 18).

F1

1

2

1

Apply the Momentum Principle to the system.

23

d~p

dt

~F

net

F1

= msystem

F1

dvx

dt

(m1 + m2 )

dvx

dt

F1

F1

(m1 + m2 )

F

m1 + m2 + m3

!

m1 + m2

m1 + m2 + m3

Note that this is less than the magnitude of the force F and greater than F2 , as expected.

(c) When sketching the free-body diagram in part (a), the direction of the force on the system is the same whether you

pull on block 3 or push on block 1. The only difference is that if you pull on block 3, interatomic bonds will stretch.

If you push on block 1, interatomic bonds will compress. But the magnitudes and directions of the forces will be the

same in the two cases.

4.P.47

This is an experimental question, and therefore precise results will vary. You should be able to obtain at least the correct

order of magnitude with even the simplest experimental setup.

4.P.48

kwire

Nbonds in 1 chain

Nchains

ks

(5 kg)(9.8

N

kg )

3

0.4035 10 m

1.214 N/m

23

48 g/mol

matom

g

23

1 8.0 10

6.022 10 mol

s

r

m

8

10

8.0 1023 g

d 3 atom 3

2.6 10 cm 2.6 10

m

4.51 g/c3 m

10

L

3m

2.6 10

10

d

2.6 10

m

Awire

13

4.6 10

Aatom

10

4.P.49

(1.214 N/m)(1.2 10 )

32 N/m

4.6 1013

24

(a)

(415 kg) 9.8

k

Nchains

1.26 10

N

kg

3.23 10 N/m

(b)

2

Awire

13

(0.15 10 m)2

3.57 10

10

2

Aatom

(2.51 10

m)

(c)

9

L

2.5 m

9.96 10

10

d

2.51 10

m

Nbonds in 1 chain

(d)

5

ks

(3.23 10 N/m)(9.96 10 )

90 N/m

(3.57 1013 )

4.P.50

(a)

Y

~

F /A

L/L

(14 kg)(9.8

7.9 10

N

kg )/()(1

10

m)2

(0.00139 m)/(2.5 m)

10

N/m

mAu

197 g/mol

6.022 1023 mol1

mAu

3.27 10

22

Now, use the density () and atoms mass to calculate an approximate interatomic spacing, assuming a cubical atom.

r

m

d 3 Au

s

8

10

3.27 1022 g

d 3

2.57 10 cm 2.57 10

m

3

19.3 g/cm

Finally, use the Youngs modulus and interatomic spacing to calculate the interatomic stiffness.

ks

ks

Yd

10

10

m 20.3 N/m

25

4.P.51 Start by calculating Youngs modulus for copper. It turns out that the data given in the question is not plausible.

In early printings of the textbook, the initial length was incorrectly given as 3.5 m, but it should be 0.95 m, as noted in the

textbook Errata found at matterandinteractions.org.

~

F /A

L/L

N

kg )/

(36 kg)(9.8

Y

1.90 10

()(0.7 10

m)2

(0.00183 m)/(0.95 m)

11

N/m2

mCu

63 g/mol

6.022 1023 mol1

mCu

1.05 10

22

Now, use the density () and atoms mass to calculate an approximate interatomic spacing, assuming a cubic atom.

r

m

d 3 Cu

s

8

10

1.05 1022 g

d 3

2.27 10 cm 2.27 10

m

9 g/cm3

Finally, use the Youngs modulus and interatomic spacing to calculate the interatomic stiffness.

ks

ks

Yd

11

10

1.2 10 N/m2 2.27 10

m 27 N/m

~

F /A

Y =

L/L

Y

Y

(52 kg)(9.8

N

kg )/()/(0.04

10

m)2

(0.0127 m)/(2.5 m)

11

2.0 10

N/m

mFe

56 g/mol

6.022 1023 mol1

mFe

9.30 10

22

Now, use the density () and atoms mass to calculate an approximate interatomic spacing, assuming a cubic atom.

r

m

d 3 Fe

s

8

10

9.30 1022 g

d 3

2.28 10 cm 2.28 10

m

7.87 g/cm3

26

Finally, use the Youngs modulus and interatomic spacing to calculate the interatomic stiffness.

Yd

11

10

m = 46 N/m

ks

ks

4.P.53

(a) Assume a simple cubic lattice for iron. Find the volume of a cube that surrounds a spherical atom.

g

=

7.87

cm2

kg

= 7870 3

m

=

=

1 kg

1000 g

(100 cm)3

1 m3

g

mol

kg

0.056

mol

56

1 m3

0.056 kg

1

mol

6.02 1023 atoms

mol

1

7870 kg

29

3

1.18 10

m

V

=

=

= d3

d = V

=

1

3

2.28 1010 m

(b) Determine Youngs Modulus. Begin by applying the Momentum Principle to the hanging mass. Draw a free-body

diagram, as shown in Figure 19.

The hanging mass is in equilibrium.

~F

net

~F + ~F

grav

T

d~p

dt

0

~F

T

~Fgrav

h0, 637, 0i N

N

), 0 >

kg

27

T on massby wire

F

F

FT

A

=

=

Ft

R

637 N

0.09 cm

=

2

= 0.045 cm

=

L =

L =

Y

L

Y

L

FT

L

A

L

FT

L

R2

L

4.5 104 m

2.0 m

0.01

m

637 N

=

(4.5 104 m)2

N

= 2.0 1011 2

m

2m

0.01 m

k

4.P.54

= Yd

=

(2.0 1011

46

N

m

N

)(2.28 1010 m)

m2

28

(a) Begin by applying the Momentum Principle to the hanging mass. Draw a free-body diagram, as shown in Figure 20.

T on massby wire

F

F

The hanging mass is in equilibrium.

~F

net

~F + ~F

grav

T

d~p

dt

0

~F

T

~Fgrav

h0, 647, 0i N

N

), 0 >

kg

FT

A

Y

L

= Y

L

FT

L

=

A

L

FT

L

=

R2

L

647 N

2.2 m

=

(4.5 104 m)2

0.0112 m

N

= 2.0 1011 2

m

(b) Assume a simple cubic lattice for iron. Find the volume of a cube that surrounds a spherical atom.

29

g

7.87

cm2

kg

7870 3

m

=

=

56

1 kg

1000 g

(100 cm)3

1 m3

g

kg

= 0.056

mol

mol

1 m3

0.056 kg

1

mol

6.02 1023 atoms

1

mol

7870 kg

29

3

1.18 10

m

V

=

=

= d3

d = V

=

1

3

2.28 1010 m

= Yd

=

(2.0 1011

46

N

)(2.28 1010 m)

m2

N

m

4.P.55

Spring force is F = bs3

(a) Define the system as the hanging mass. Draw a free-body diagram.

Apply the Momentum Principle. The system remains at rest (i.e. in equilibrium).

~F

net

~F

+ ~Fgrav

spring

~F

spring

< 0, bs3 , 0 >

d~p

dt

0

= ~Fgrav

= < 0, mg, 0 >

30

on massby spring

F

F

bs3

b

= mg

mg

=

s3

Where s = L L0 = 29 cm 25 cm = 4 cm = 0.04 m.

b =

=

(0.018 kg)(9.8

N

kg )

(0.04 m3 )3

N

2760 3

m

(b) The following ideas were used in the analysis for part (a).

The Momentum Principle

The fact that the gravitational force acting on an object near Earths surface is approximately mg.

The rate of change of momentum of the system is zero.

4.X.56

Spring force is F = bs3

(a) For Bob, there is clearly a frictional force of the floor on the box that has a magnitude of 20 N and is in the opposite

direction as the force of Bob on the box, since the net force on the box is zero. Assuming that the frictional force is not

dependent on speed (which is generally the case) then the force by Alice on the box must also be 20 N. Though she

pushes the box such that it has a greater speed, its velocity is constant and so the net force on the box is zero. Since

there is a frictional force of magnitude 20 N, she must be pushing with an oppositely directed force of magnitude 20 N.

(b) Initially, to make the box speed up, both Alice and Bob had to push with a force of magnitude greater than 20 N. When

the box reached a speed of 20 m/s, Bob reduced his force to 20 N and the box moved with constant speed of 1 m/s.

When the box reached a speed of 2 m/s, Alice reduced her force to 20 N and then her box moved with a constant speed

of 2 m/s.

31

4.X.57

It also must be pulled by 3 N. The frictional force does not generally depend on the area of the surfaces in contact, but only

on the materials in contact and the normal (perpendicular) contact force.

4.X.58

(a) To start the box moving, you must apply a force parallel to the surfaces in contact that is greater than the maximum

static force. Thus,

fs,max

s FN

Apply the Momentum Principle. Define the system to be the box. Draw a free-body diagram for the box (see Figure

22).

F N by table onbox

F by personon box

~F

net

d~p

dt

~F

net

In the y-direction,

32

Fnet,y

FN + mg

FN

= mg

=

(3 kg)(9.8

29.4 N

N

)

kg

In the x-direction,

Fby

person on box

Fby

+ fs,max

person on box

= fs,max

= s FN

=

(0.3)(29.4 N)

8.82 N

(b) To move at constant speed, the box is in equilibrium with ~Fnet = 0, but the frictional force is kinetic friction. Define

the system to be the box, and apply the Momentum Principle.

Fby

~F

net

FN

29.4 N

fk

person on box

k FN

(0.2)(29.4 N)

5.9 N

4.X.59

Assume a horizontal floor.

Define the system to be the box. Draw a free-body diagram (see Figure 23).

Apply the Momentum Principle

~F

net

d~p

dt

33

F N by floor on box

f k bytable on box

F by personon box

Fnet,y

FN

py

t

0

+ Fgrav,y

FN + mg

by f loor on box,y

FN

= mg

=

(20 kg)(9.8

196 N

In the x-direction,

Solve for vf x .

Fnet,x

Fperson + fk,x

Fperson + k FN

90 N (0.25)(196 N)

90 N 49 N

41 N

px

t

px

t

px

t

pf x pix

t

pf x pix

t

pf x pix

t

N

)

kg

34

41 N

41 N

vf x

mvf x mvix

t

(20 kg)(vf x 3 m/s)

0.6

s

41 N

= 3 m/s +

(0.6)

20 kg

= 3 m/s + 1.23 m/s

=

4.23 m/s

vavg,x

=

=

=

xf

vix + vf x

2

3 m/s + 4.23 m/s

2

3.62 m/s

xi + vavg,x t

8 m + (3.62 m/s)(0.6 s)

10.2 m

4.X.60

The magnitude of momentum is largest when the oscillating mass-spring system is at equilibrium. At this instant, the net

force on the mass is smallest it is zero.

4.X.61

(a) and (e) are true. At the lowest point, the spring is stretched more than it is at equilibrium. Thus ~Fspring > mg at the

lowest point in the oscillation.

4.X.62

T

T

r

m

2

k

m

=

2(1 s) = 1.4 s

35

4.X.63

r

T

of 0.71 s.

1 .

2

m

k

4.X.64

For identical springs in series,

1

keff

k

= N

1

k

= N keff

=

2keff

1

2

4.X.65

Period is independent of amplitude. Therefore, the period will remain 1 s.

4.X.66

Period is independent of g. Therefore, the period will remain 1 s.

4.X.67

Define the system to be the mass. Sketch a free-body diagram when x = +s (see Figure 25).

Apply the Momentum Principle in the x-direction.

36

x=s

x=0

x=s

by spring on mass

F

Substitute vx =

Fnet,x

Fspring,x

ks x

ks x

ks

x

m

dpx

dt

dpx

dt

dpx

dt

dv

m x

dt

dvx

dt

dx

dt .

ks

x

m

d2 x ks

+ x

dt2

m

d2 x

dt2

37

A solution for this differential equation is

x =

ks

t+

m

ks

m

A cos

4.X.68

Angular frequency is

1

2

ks

m

m

ks

m

ks

Since T = f1 , then

4.X.69

Period is independent of amplitude. Therefore, doubling the amplitude does not affect the period.

2.

1

p

ks

38

Doubling the stiffness changes the period by a factor of

1 .

2

4.X.70

For x = A cos t, the systems velocity should be zero at t = 0, and the systems position is most positive at x = A.

For x = A sin t, the systems velocity should be a maximum and positive at t = 0; thus the system should be moving in the

+x direction at t = 0.

4.X.71

An oscillating diatomic moleciule is not a harmonic oscillator (except for very small amplitude oscillations).

A pendulum with a large initial angle from vertical is not a harmonic oscillator.

4.X.72

(a)

r

ks

m

=

=

N

4m

1.14 kg

rad

1.69

s

(b)

2f

=

2

1.69 rad

s

=

2

= 0.269 s1

(c)

T

=

=

=

1

f

1

0.269 s1

3.72 s

(d) The period does not depend on g. Therefore, the period of this system would be the same on Moon as it is on Earth,

3.72 s.

4.X.73

39

ks

m

N

8m

2.2 kg

rad

1.91

s

=

=

= A cos (t + )

= A cos t

=

rad

)(1.15 s))

s

= 0.105 m

4.X.74

ks,A

mA

dA

= 3mB

dB

3ks,B

= d

s

ks,i

=

d

ma

These effects cancel out so that (b) vA = vB .

1 .

3

4.X.75

The speed of sound only depends on the material (the interatomic bond stiffness, atomic mass, and atomic diameter). Since

both rods are made of titanium and since their lengths are the same, then the time for the disturbance to travel to the end

of the rod is the same. The answer is (c).

4.X.76

The time it takes for a ball to fall from rest at an initial height h is given by

40

*+0 1 Fnet,y t2

v0,y

t

2 m

1

2

h =

(g)t

2

1

gt2

h =

2

s

t =

2h

g

s

t =

2h

g

Thus the period of a bouncing ball that returns to its same height is

s

t =

Since t

doubles.

2h

g

4.X.77

T = 2

m

ks

(a)

T

2.

(b)

1

T p

ks

If you double ks , T changes by a factor of

1 .

2

(c) If you double both m and ks , the effects cancel each other out and T remains the same.

(d) T is independent of A, so if you double A, T remains the same.

41

T by rod on ball

F

F

4.P.78

Apply the Momentum Principle to the ball. Define the system to be the ball. Draw a free-body diagram, as shown in Figure

26.

Since the body is in equilibrium,

~F

net

~F + ~F

grav

T

~F

T

~p

t

0

= ~Fgrav

= < 0, mg, 0 >

=

= h0, 402, 0i N

~

FT = 402 N

FT

A

Y

L

L

FT L

A L

= Y

=

N

), 0 >

kg

42

4.65 106 m2

2.6 m

402 N

=

4.65 106 m2

0.002898 m

N

= 7.8 1010 2

m

=

Calculate the diameter of a silver atom. Assume a simple cubic lattice. Find the volume of a cube taken up by a spherical

atom.

=

M

1 kg

kg

g

(100 cm)3

= 1.05 104 3

3

3

cm

1000 g

1m

m

g

kg

108

= 0.108

mol

mol

10.5

1 m3

1.05 104 kg

1.71 1029 m3

V

d =

=

0.108 kg

1 mol

1 mol

6.02 1023 atoms

1

3

2.56 1010 m

ks

= Yd

=

(7.8 1010

20.0

N

)(2.56 1010 m)

m2

N

m

s

v

ks

d

ms

ma

=

=

kg

1 mol

0.108

mol

6.02 1023 atoms

kg

1.79 1025

atom

43

s

v

=

=

N

20 m

(2.56 1010 m)

1.79 1025 kg

2710 m/s

4.P.79

r

T

m

k

The period does not depend on amplitude or g. Increasing m by a factor of 6 increses the period by a factor of

the stiffness by a factor of 10 changes the period by a factor of

Thus,

1 .

10

6. q

Increasing

6

10 TEarth .

r

Tplanet

=

=

6

(2.1 s)

10

1.6 s

4.P.80

(a) To do this experiment, measure the initial unstretched length of the spring L0 with no mass on the spring. Add mass

to the end of the spring and measure the length L of the spring. Record both the total mass and length of the spring.

Continue adding mass to the end of the spring. Each time, you should record both the total mass and length of the

spring. Fill out Table 1 with approximately 8 - 10 data points. Calculate the distance stretched s and the magnitude

of the force on the spring by the hanging mass for each data point.

Graph ~Fon spring by mass m vs. s. Though the y-intercept may not be zero, as expected from Hookes law, the graph will

be linear as shown in Figure 27.

(b) To measure the period of oscillation, you can use a sonic ranger and computer data acquisition system such as a LabPro

by Vernier. However, you can also use a stopwatch. If you use a stopwatch, place a reasonable mass on the spring that

will give a reasonable period to measure. You dont want the mass to be too small, or the period will be small and

harder to measure. You dont want the mass to be too large, or the spring may stretch too far and become deformed.

Choose a mass somewhere in the middle of the range that you used in part (a) of this experiment.

Pull the hanging mass downward a known, measured distance A and release it from rest. When the object later reaches

its lowest point, start the stop watch. Count 10 complete oscillations and stop the stopwatch when the object reaches

its starting point after its tenth oscillation.

Measure the total time for 10 oscillations and divide by 10 to get the time for one oscillation, which is the period. Note

that you can use any number of oscillations. You want to use enough oscillations that the small reaction time to start

and stop the stopwatch is small compared to the total. However, if you use too many oscillations, then the oscillator

loses energy and the period may not be constant (i.e. in this case you are not controlling the variable of amplitude).

10 oscillations is probably a reasonable number that is neither too small nor too large.

44

m (kg)

L (m)

~

Fon spring by mass m (N)

0

s (m)

force on the spring vs. distance stretched

7

|F| (N)

0

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

s (m)

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Figure 27: A sample graph of ~Fon spring by mass m vs. s.

Its a good idea to repeat this measurement of the period about 5 more times so can report the average and standard

deviation. This gives you an idea about how repeatable the experiment is and how precise your measurements are.

Even if you use a LabPro, graph x vs. t, and determine the period from the graph, its a good idea to repeat the

45

experiment numerous times and report the average period and standard deviation.

(c) Double the amplitude and repeat your measurement of the period in part (b). Again, make multiple measurements

of the period and calculate the average and standard deviation. Note whether the periods are the same or different,

within the uncertainty of your measurement of the period.

4.P.81

Sketch a picture of the system, as shown in Figure 28.

m

x

The distance of mass m from the center of the Earth is r. The position of mass m is x. The gravitational force on the mass

is

Fgrav,x

~F

mg

x

R

mg

= <

x, 0, 0 >

R

Define the system to be the mass m. Apply the Momentum Principle to the mass m. The only force on m is the gravitational

force defined above. Write it in component form.

~F

net

Fnet,x

dx

dt .

mg

x

R

Thus,

d~p

dt

dpx

=

dt

dv

= m x

dt

=

46

mg

d dx

x = m

R

dt dt

mg

d2 x

x =

m 2

R

dt

d2 x

g

+ x = 0

dt2

R

This looks like the equation of motion for an oscillating mass-spring system which is

k

d2 x

+ x =

dt2

m

q

k

Where = m

. By comparing the equations, you can see that they are the same. Thus, the mass m will oscillate back and

forth through Earth with an angular frequency given by

r

=

1

2

g

R

2f

2

T

2

s

2

R

g

4.P.82

1

T

2

s

1

R

=

(2

)

2

g

s

R

=

g

47

(a)

T

spring, is

=

=

m

ks

2(1.2 s)

1.7 s

ks,eff

N ks

Thus, two springs in parallel have twice the stiffness of one spring. Since

1

T

k

The period will be

1

(1.2 s)

2

0.849 s

1

keff

1

ks

ks

= N keff

ks

2keff

48

1

(1.2 s)

2

0.849 s

=

=

(d) Period is independent of g; therefore, the period of the oscillator on the Moon is the same as on Earth.

4.P.83

(a) Assume that ks 10

N

m.

g

1

mol

1 mol

6.02 1023 atoms

1.66 1024 g

1.66 1027 kg

k

m

N

10 m

1.66 1027 kg

1

2

1

2

1 1013 Hz

Note that this does not take into account the fact that both H atoms in the diatomic molecule are oscillating.

(b) The mass of an oxygen atom is

g

16

mol

1 mol

6.02 1023 atoms

2.66 1024 g

2.66 1026 kg

k

m

N

10 m

2.66 1026 kg

1

2

1

2

3 1012 Hz

49

(c) Deuterium has twice the mass of hydrogen. Thus, since f

1

fhydrogen

2

1 ,

m

1

(1 1013 Hz)

2

0.7(1 1013 Hz)

7 1012 Hz

(d) The ratios of the frequencies is proportional to the inverse of the square root of the ratio of their masses, if their bond

stiffnesses are the same. In this case, since both hydrogen and deuterium have the same charge in their nucleus, they

have the same bond stiffness.

4.P.84

g

kg

59

= 0.059

mol

mol

g

(100 cm)3

1 kg

=

8.9

cm3

1000 g

1 m3

kg

= 8900 3

m

=

(2 mm)(2 mm)

=

=

4 106 m2

To determine the time for a disturbance to travel down the rod, we need the speed of sound in nickel. To get the speed of

sound in nickel, we need to know its bond stiffness, the mass of a nickel atom, and the diameter of a nickel atom. Atomic

mass and diameter are easy to calculate from the given properties of nickel, but the bond stiffness must be calculated from

Youngs Modulus which must also be determined from the given data.

The diameter of an atom is found from the volume of a cube taken up by the spherical atom. Assume a simple cubic lattice

for nickel.

V

=

=

d =

=

1 m3

8900 kg

8.509 kg

1 mol

1.10 1029 m3

V 1/3

2.2 1010 m

1 mol

6.02 1023 atoms

50

kg

1 mol

0.059

mol

6.02 1023 atoms

9.80 1026 kg

FT

A

Y

L

L

FT L

A L

= Y

=

The tension in the rod is equal in this case to the weight of the mass hanging from the rod, according to the Momentum

Principle applied to the hanging mass. Thus,

FT

mg

(40 kg)(9.8

392 N

N

)

kg

392 N

2.5 m

=

4 106 m2

1.2 103 m

N

= 2.04 1011 2

m

ks

Yd

(2.04 1011

45.3

N

)(2.22 1010 m)

m2

N

m

ks

d

matom atom

N

45.3 m

(2.22 1010 m)

9.8 1026 kg

=

=

4770 m/s

51

Speed is defined as

|~r|

t

|~r|

v

2.5 m

4770 m/s

t =

=

5.2 104 s

4.P.85

Approximate each atom in the bar to be a simple harmonic oscillator that oscillates with an angular frequency

ks

m

where ks is the bond stiffness in the material and m is the mass of an atom.

Since U238 and U235 have the same number of protons and electrons (for a neutral atom), their bond stiffnesses are the same.

However, U238 atoms have more mass and therefore will vibrate with less frequency.

The speed of sound in the material is

r

v

ks

d

m

Thus, the speed of sound in U238 will be less since U238 has more mass than U235 .

4.X.86

Calculate the volume of 1 kg of lead. Convert kg to grams.

1000 g

g

11 cm

3

90.9 cm3

The buoyant force of air on the lead is equal to the weight of an equal volume of air. The density of air is approximately (at

kg

3

20 C and atmospheric pressure) 1.2 m

of air is (be sure to pay attention to units)

3 . Thus, the weight of 90.9 cm

52

wair

= mg

1 m3

N

kg

3

90.9 cm

9.8

=

1.2 3

m

(100 cm)3

kg

= 0.0011 N

=

1.1 103 N

The buoyant force on the lead is a paltry 1.1 103 N. The weight of the lead object is 9.8 N. The ratio of the buoyant

force on the object to the weight of the object is approximately

103 N

10 N

104

Thus the buoyant force is about one ten-thousandth the weight of the object. The buoyant force in thie case is clearly

negligible.

4.X.87

Area A

Depth h

The pressure at depth h is the pressure at the top plus the weight of the volume of water divided by its area.

pbottom

= ptop +

mg

A

pbottom

= ptop +

mgh

Ah

h

h

53

kg

m3 .

mgh

V

+ water gh

pbottom

ptop +

pbottom

ptop

Solve for h.

h =

=

=

pbottom ptop

water g

N

5 N

m2 1 10 m2

kg

N

(1000 m

3 )(9.8 kg )

3 105

20.4 m

h =

=

=

kg

m3 .

Thus in seawater,

pbottom ptop

seawater g

N

5 N

m2 1 10 m2

kg

N

(1030 m

3 )(9.8 kg )

3 105

19.8 m

4.P.88

(a) Begin by sketching a picture of the floating block of wood (see Figure 30).

Area A

Depth y

Height h

2 102 m2

h =

6 cm = 0.06 m

54

wood

water

1 kg

g

(100 cm)3

=

0.7

cm3

1000 g

1 m3

kg

= 700 3

m

kg

g

= 1000 3

= 1.0

cm3

m

Define the system to be the block. Apply the Momentum Principle to the block. Draw a free-body diagram for the

system, as shown in Figure 31.

B onblock by water

F

F

~F

net

~p

t

The block remains at rest, so ~p = 0. Write the Momentum Principle in the y-direction.

Fnet,y

FB,y + Fgrav,y

FB,y

= Fgrav,y

= (mg)

= mg

m =

=

Thus,

kg

)(2 102 m2 )(0.06 m)

m3

0.84 kg

(700

55

FB,y

(0.84 kg)(9.8

8.23 N

N

)

kg

The buoyant force is also equal to the weight of water displaced by the wood. The volume of water displaced by the

wood is

= Ay

=

(2 102 m2 )y

m =

=

=

V

kg

)(2 102 m2 )y

m3

kg

(20

)y

m

(1000

= mg

=

=

N

kg

)y(9.8

)

m

kg

N

(196 )y

m

(20

Thus,

FB

= wwater

displaced

N

8.23 N = (196 )y

m

8.23 N

y =

N

196 m

= 0.042 m

=

4.2 cm

Note that this is less than the height of the block, 6 cm, as expected. Also, note that about

block is submerged.

4.2 cm

6 cm

= .7 = 70% of the

56

B by air on blimp

F

F

(b) Define the system to be the blimp. Apply the Momentum Principle to the system. Assume the system is at rest. Draw

a free-body diagram, a shown in Figure 32.

~p

t

py

~F

net

Fnet,y

FB,y + Fgrav,y

t

0

FB,y

Fgrav,y

(mg)

mg

FB,y

2.77 104 N

~

FB

2.77 104 N

57

~

FB

g

2.77 104 N

N

9.8 kg

=

=

2827 kg

2830 kg

mHe

=

=

4 g

22.4

L

421 kg

1000

L

3

m

1

1 kg

1000 g

3

(2356

m

)

The mass of the material of the blimp including the gondola must be

2827 kg 421 kg

2406 kg 2410 kg

To get FB,y , use the fact that it is equal to the weight of air displaced by the blimp. The volume of the (cylindrical)

blimp is approximately

= R2 h

V

=

=

kg

m3 .

2

(30 m)

2356 m3

mair

=

=

10 m

2

kg

)(2356 m3 )

m3

2827 kg

(1.2

58

mg

(2827 kg)(9.8

27700 N

N

)

kg

4.P.89

(a) Begin with a sketch of the system, as shown in Figure 33.

s=L

Figure 33: A sketch of the system.

Define the system to be the mass m. Apply the Momentum Principle. Sketch a free-body diagram as shown in Figure

34.

T on massby string

F

F

Define a coordinate system with the radial axis perpendicular to the objects path and directed toward the pivot and

the tangential axis tangent to the path, as shown in Figure 35

With this coordinate system, write ~Fgrav using the right triangle shown in Figure 36.

59

rad

tan

T

F

grav

F

grav ,rad

F

grav

F

grav ,tan

F

Fgrav,tan

Fgrav,rad

~Fgrav sin

~Fgrav cos

~F

net

= ~Fgrav + ~FT

= < ~Fgrav sin , ~Fgrav cos , 0 >

Where the first component is the tangential component and the second

component is the radial component. Thus, the

~

only component of the net force in the tangential direction is Fgrav sin .

60

Write the Momentum Principle

~F

net

d~p

dt

Fnet,tan

~Fgrav sin

=

=

dptan

dt

dptan

dt

Thus, since ~Fgrav = mg,

Substitute =

s

L

dptan

dt

dptan

dt

= mg sin

mg sin

s

L

dptan

dt

mg

s

L

dptan

dt

d ds

m

dt dt

d2 s

m 2

dt

d2 s

g

+ s

2

dt

L

ds

dt .

dvtan

s

= mg

dt

L

s

= mg

L

s

=

mg

L

= m

(c) Compare this to the Momentum Principle applied to a mass-spring system where

d2 x ks

+ x =

dt2

m

61

and

r

ks

m

The equations for the pendulum and the mass-spring system have the same form. Thus, for the pendulum

r

g

L

=

=

2

T

2

s

2

L

g

(d) A simple experiment can be constructed with a mass and string. Use a stopwatch to measure the time for 10 oscillations

(or whatever number

you choose). Measure t for N oscillations. Then T = t/N . Calculate the period from the

q

theory, T = 2

L

g,

(e) 3-D graphics are not required for this simulation. The goal is to graph s vs. t and ptan vs. t. It is useful to review the

simulation for an oscillating mass-spring system, such as the simulation for problem 2.P.72 for example. If you have

not written a simulation like the one in 2.P.72, then you may wish to write that one first.

This simulation is similar except it will not include 3-D graphics. Begin by defining importing necessary libraries and

defining important constants.

1

2

3

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg

g = 9.8

t h e t a = 20 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s

t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s

L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s

s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h

v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12

13

14

15

p_tan = mv_tan

t = 0

dt = 0 . 0 1

Now, create the graph window and the curve to be plotted.

1

2

3

4

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

62

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg

g = 9.8

t h e t a = 20 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s

t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s

L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s

s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h

v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12

13

14

15

p_tan = mv_tan

t = 0

dt = 0 . 0 1

16

17

18

y t i t l e= ' s (m) ' )

s P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

Now, create a while loop. Inside this loop, calculate the tangential component of the net force on the pendulum, update

its tangential momentum, and update the arclength s. For each data point, add (s, t) it to the curve being plotted.

1

2

3

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg

g = 9.8

t h e t a = 20 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s

t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s

L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s

s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h

v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12

13

14

15

p_tan = mv_tan

t = 0

dt = 0 . 0 1

16

17

18

y t i t l e= ' s (m) ' )

s P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

19

20

21

22

23

while 1 :

rate (1000)

Fnet_tan = mg s i n ( s /L)

24

25

26

27

v_tan = p_tan/m

s = s + v_tan dt

28

29

t = t+dt

30

31

s P l o t . p l o t ( pos=(t , s ) )

In the example simulation above, the initial angle is 20 , and the graph appears sinusoidal. You can change this angle

to larger angles to see that the resulting graph is no longer a sine or cosine function. Its especially obvious for an

angle such as 179 . Though the function is periodic, it will be much more rounded at the maxima and minima, when

63

compared with a sine or cosine curve. A screen capture is shown in Figure 37.

Figure 37: A graph of s vs. t for a pendulum with an initial angle of 179 from the y direction.

You can use the angle and length to calculate the position of the pendulum and add 3-D animation to the simulation.

In the example below, the sphere and the string (or massless rigid rod) are defined after the constants so that the angle

and length of the pendulum can be used to calculate the position of the pendulum. In the while loop, the position of

the pendulum and the axis of the rod must be updated after s is updated and after is calculated . The angle is

necessary for calculating the position of the pendulum.

1

2

3

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg

g = 9.8

t h e t a = 179 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s

t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s

L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s

s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h

v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12

13

14

15

p_tan = mv_tan

t = 0

dt = 0 . 0 1

16

17

18

b a l l = s p h e r e ( pos=(L s i n ( t h e t a ) , L c o s ( t h e t a ) , 0 ) , r a d i u s = L/ 1 0 , c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

rod = c y l i n d e r ( pos = ( 0 , 0 , 0 ) , a x i s=b a l l . pos , r a d i u s = L/ 1 0 0 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )

19

20

21

y t i t l e= ' s (m) ' )

s P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

22

23

24

25

26

while t <30:

rate (100)

Fnet_tan = mg s i n ( s /L)

27

28

29

30

v_tan = p_tan/m

s = s + v_tan dt

64

31

t h e t a = s /L

b a l l . pos=(L s i n ( t h e t a ) , L c o s ( t h e t a ) , 0 )

rod . a x i s = b a l l . pos

32

33

34

35

t = t+dt

36

37

s P l o t . p l o t ( pos=(t , s ) )

38

Adjust the initial angle to view the resulting motion and graph for both small angle oscillations and large angle

oscillations.

4.P.90

When starting a simulation like this, it helps to define some useful constants such as:

N

m

L0

k

= the equilibrium length of each bond

= bond stiffness

All quantities in the simulation should be based on the constants defined above. As a result, you can change the number of

atoms, N, for example, and see how it affects the measured speed of sound.

Begin your program by importing libraries and defining your constants. Also, you can print the theoretical value for the

speed of sound. Note that:

r

vsound

ks

d

ma

where ks is the bond stiffness, ma is the mass of an atom, and d is the diameter of an atom. We are assuming that the atoms

are closely packed as shown in Figure 38.

If the rod is made one atom, then the atomic diameter is d = L. If the rod is made of two atoms, then the atomic diameter

is d = L/2. Thus, in general, d = L/N . This the diameter that should be used in calculating the theoretical value of the

speed of sound in the rod.

So, the first part of our program looks like the example shown below. If you run it, it will print the theoretical value for

the speed of sound in the rod. You can increase the value of N which presumably improves the accuracy of the value of the

speed of sound. Note that the constant d that is calculated in the constants will be the diameter used to draw the atom. Its

used for display purposes to make the simulation look good but it not physical, meaning that its the actual diameter used

in the calculation, which is d = L/N .

65

1

2

3

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

M= 1

N = 10

L = 1

d = 0 . 5 L/N

m = M/N

L0 = L/ (N1)

k = 10

12

13

14

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor

Now, because we are creating N number of atoms and N-1 number of bonds in our simulation, we will need to store them

in a list, which is Pythons construct for an array. So, initialize the lists for the atoms and springs (i.e. bonds) and use for

loops to create the atoms and springs used in the simulation. Spread the atoms out evenly along the rod with the left end

at x = L/2 and the right end at x = +L/2. Also, initialize the net force, velocity and momentum vectors for each atom in

the list. Run the example simulation below to see a 3-D picture of the rod, with atoms and springs.

1

2

3

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

M= 1

N = 10

L = 1

d = 0 . 5 L/N

m = M/N

L0 = L/ (N1)

k = 10

12

13

14

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor

15

16

17

atoms = [ ]

springs =[]

18

19

20

21

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :

atom = s p h e r e ( pos=(L/2+ i L/ (N1) , 0 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 2 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )

atoms . append ( atom )

22

23

24

25

26

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :

atom=atoms [ i ]

bond = h e l i x ( pos=atom . pos , a x i s =(L0 , 0 , 0 ) , c o l o r = ( 1 , 0 . 5 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 4 )

s p r i n g s . append ( bond )

27

28

29

30

31

32

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :

atom=atoms [ i ]

atom . Fnet = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )

atom . v = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )

atom . p = matom . v

Disturb the left end by displacing the atom on the left side of the rod to the left about half a bond length. This is the

66

initial disturbance that will propagate down the rod. Also, define the time step and initialize the graph. I prefer to use the

command scene.mouse.getclick()" to make the simulation pause at this part of the program. Then, Ill have to click on the

simulation window to make it start. This gives me a chance to zoom in, rotate, move the graph window, etc. before the

simulation starts. In the example below, I also define a boolean (i.e. true/false) variable disturbenceReachedEnd that I will

use to mark the instant that the disturbance reaches the right end of the rod. See the example below.

1

2

3

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

M= 1

N = 10

L = 1

d = 0 . 5 L/N

m = M/N

L0 = L/ (N1)

k = 10

12

13

14

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor

15

16

17

atoms = [ ]

springs =[]

18

19

20

21

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :

atom = s p h e r e ( pos=(L/2+ i L/ (N1) , 0 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 2 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )

atoms . append ( atom )

22

23

24

25

26

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :

atom=atoms [ i ]

bond = h e l i x ( pos=atom . pos , a x i s =(L0 , 0 , 0 ) , c o l o r = ( 1 , 0 . 5 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 4 )

s p r i n g s . append ( bond )

27

28

29

30

31

32

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :

atom=atoms [ i ]

atom . Fnet = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )

atom . v = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )

atom . p = matom . v

33

34

35

36

dt = 0 . 0 0 1

t = 0

37

38

39

o f t h e rod ' , x t i t l e= ' t ( s ) ' , y t i t l e= ' x (m) ' )

x P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

40

41

s c e n e . mouse . g e t c l i c k ( )

42

43

disturbenceReachedEnd = f a l s e

Now, were ready for the while loop. In the first part of the loop, calculate the force on the atom on the left side of the

~ to point parallel to the spring and

rod. Assume that the spring is attached to the centers of the atoms. Define the vector L

toward the atom that is our system, as shown in Figure 39.

The force by the spring on this atom is

67

Atom 0

Figure 39: Calculating the force on the atom on the left end of the rod.

~F

by spring on left atom

= ks sL

where s = ~L L0 and is the distance the spring is stretched or compressed. If the spring is stretched s is positive. If it is

compressed, s is negative. So, if the spring is stretched, ~Fby spring is opposite ~L, and if the spring is compressed, ~Fby spring is

in the same direction as ~L.

Note that the first atom is atom[0] in the list and the second atom is atom[1] in the list and so on. Heres the while loop

and its first part that calculates the force on the left atom. The vector ~L is called L01 in the program, meaning the vector

from atom 1 to atom 0.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

while 1 :

# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r

L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos

L01_mag = mag( L01 )

L01_hat = L01/L01_mag

s = L01_mag L0

atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat

For the atom on the right end of the bar, the spring is toward the left as shown in Figure 40.

Atom 9

Figure 40: Calculating the force on the atom on the right end of the rod.

Thus, the vector ~L points to the right, again toward the atom that is the system. This atom is atom[9] if N=10. But in

general, this atom is atom[N-1] and its nearest neighbor is atom[N-2]. The code to calculate the force on this atom is shown

below.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

while 1 :

# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r

L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos

L01_mag = mag( L01 )

L01_hat = L01/L01_mag

s = L01_mag L0

atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat

8

9

10

11

12

# l a s t atom on r i g h t end o f b a r

L l a s t = atoms [ N 1 ] . pos atoms [ N 2 ] . pos

Llast_mag = mag( L l a s t )

Lla st_hat = L l a s t / Llast_mag

68

13

14

s = Llast_mag L0

atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet = k s Lla st_hat

Now that we know how to calculate the force on an atom due to a spring on its right side and the force on an atom due to a

spring on its left side, we can calculate the forces on the middle atoms in the rod. See the while loop below. You will notice

that the force due to the spring on the left and the force due to the spring on the right are added together to get the net

force on the atom.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

while 1 :

# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r

L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos

L01_mag = mag( L01 )

L01_hat = L01/L01_mag

s = L01_mag L0

atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat

8

9

#atoms i n t h e m i d d l e

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

f o r i in r a n g e ( 1 ,N1) :

L r i g h t = atoms [ i ] . pos atoms [ i + 1 ] . pos

Lright_mag = mag( L r i g h t )

Lright_hat = L r i g h t / Lright_mag

s = Lright_mag L0

F r i g h t = k s Lright_hat

17

18

19

20

21

22

Lleft_mag = mag( L l e f t )

L l e f t _ h a t = L l e f t / Lleft_mag

s = Lleft_mag L0

F l e f t = k s L l e f t _ h a t

23

24

atoms [ i ] . Fnet = F r i g h t + F l e f t

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

# l a s t atom on r i g h t end o f b a r

L l a s t = atoms [ N 1 ] . pos atoms [ N 2 ] . pos

Llast_mag = mag( L l a s t )

Lla st_hat = L l a s t / Llast_mag

s = Llast_mag L0

atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet = k s Lla st_hat

After computing the net force on each atoms, then you need to update their momenta and positions and you need to update

the springs positions and axes, just for display purposes. The rest of the while statement updates the graph and calculates

and prints the measured speed of sound when the disturbance reaches the last atom. The entire program is shown below.

1

2

3

from v i s u a l import

from v i s u a l . graph import

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

M= 1

N = 10

L = 1

d = 0 . 5 L/N

m = M/N

L0 = L/ (N1)

k = 10

69

13

14

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor

15

16

17

atoms = [ ]

springs =[]

18

19

20

21

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :

atom = s p h e r e ( pos=(L/2+ i L/ (N1) , 0 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 2 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )

atoms . append ( atom )

22

23

24

25

26

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :

atom=atoms [ i ]

bond = h e l i x ( pos=atom . pos , a x i s =(L0 , 0 , 0 ) , c o l o r = ( 1 , 0 . 5 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 4 )

s p r i n g s . append ( bond )

27

28

29

30

31

32

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :

atom=atoms [ i ]

atom . Fnet = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )

atom . v = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )

atom . p = matom . v

33

34

35

36

dt = 0 . 0 0 1

t = 0

37

38

39

o f t h e rod ' , x t i t l e= ' t ( s ) ' , y t i t l e= ' x (m) ' )

x P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

40

41

s c e n e . mouse . g e t c l i c k ( )

42

43

disturbenceReachedEnd = f a l s e

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

while 1 :

# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r

L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos

L01_mag = mag( L01 )

L01_hat = L01/L01_mag

s = L01_mag L0

atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat

52

53

#atoms i n t h e m i d d l e

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

for i in r a n g e ( 1 ,N1) :

L r i g h t = atoms [ i ] . pos atoms [ i + 1 ] . pos

Lright_mag = mag( L r i g h t )

Lright_hat = L r i g h t / Lright_mag

s = Lright_mag L0

F r i g h t = k s Lright_hat

61

62

63

64

65

Lleft_mag = mag( L l e f t )

L l e f t _ h a t = L l e f t / Lleft_mag

s = Lleft_mag L0

70

66

F l e f t = k s L l e f t _ h a t

67

68

atoms [ i ] . Fnet = F r i g h t + F l e f t

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

# l a s t atom on r i g h t end o f b a r

L l a s t = atoms [ N 1 ] . pos atoms [ N 2 ] . pos

Llast_mag = mag( L l a s t )

Lla st_hat = L l a s t / Llast_mag

s = Llast_mag L0

atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet = k s Lla st_hat

77

78

79

80

81

82

f o r i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :

atoms [ i ] . p = atoms [ i ] . p + atoms [ i ] . Fnet dt

atoms [ i ] . v = atoms [ i ] . p/m

atoms [ i ] . pos = atoms [ i ] . pos + atoms [ i ] . v dt

83

84

85

86

87

88

# u p d a t e each s p r i n g

f o r i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :

spring = springs [ i ]

s p r i n g . pos = atoms [ i ] . pos

s p r i n g . a x i s = atoms [ i + 1 ] . pos atoms [ i ] . pos

89

90

t = t+dt

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

# c h e c k i f t h e d i s t u r b e n c e r e a c h e d t h e r i g h t end o f t h e rod

i f mag( atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet ) > 0 . 0 0 1 :

# c a l c u l a t e and p r i n t t h e s p e e d

i f ( disturbenceReachedEnd ==f a l s e ) :

v_meas = L/ t

print " measured s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_meas

disturbenceReachedEnd = t r u e

You can increase the number of atoms N to improve the accuracy of the simulation. Some theoretical and measured values

for the speed of sound in this rod for various values of N are shown in Table 2. (In this case, L = 1 m, m = 1 kg, k = 10 N/m.

You will notice that the accuracy improves with greater N .

N (# of atoms)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

vtheoretical (m/s)

1.0

0.707

0.577

0.500

0.447

0.408

0.378

0.354

0.333

0.316

vmeasured (m/s)

1.832

0.923

0.679

0.557

0.482

0.428

0.375

0.350

0.329

0.312

71

You will notice that the best accuracy actually occurs at about 70 atoms. This is because the measured speed for low N is

greater than the theoretical value. For N > 70, the measured speed is less than the theoretical value. Somewhere around

N = 70 is the transition.