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# 1

4.X.1 Were given aluminums density of 2.7 g/cm3 , and lets assume a cubic shape for an aluminum atom. First, get the
mass of one aluminum atom.

mAl

27 g/mol
6.022 1023 mol1

mAl

4.5 10

23

## Now use aluminums (micro)density (represented by ) to get an atoms approximate diameter.

d3

d
d

mAl
d3
mAl

r
mAl
3

s
23
g
3 4.5 10
2.7 g/cm3
8

d 2.6 10

10

cm 2.6 10

4.X.2 Were given leads density of 11.4 g/cm3 , and lets assume a cubic shape for an lead atom. First, get the mass of one

mPb

207 g/mol
6.022 1023 mol1

mPb

3.4 10

22

## Now use leads (micro)density (represented by ) to get an atoms approximate diameter.

d3

d
d

mPb
d3
mPb

r
mPb
3

s
22
g
3 3.4 10
3
11.4 g/cm
8

d 3.1 10

10

cm 3.1 10

4.X.3 A reasonable guess would be that one short springs stiffness would be twenty times the chains effective stiffness, or
800 N/m. Each spring contributes one twentieth of the total stretch (neglecting an individual springs mass). If each spring
stretches by only one twentieth of the total stretch for the same applied force, then each spring must have twenty times the
chains stiffness.

4.X.4 A reasonable guess would be that one springs stiffness would be one ninth the combinations effective stiffness, or
300 N/m. Each spring supports one ninth of the rocks weight. Each spring stretches the same amount. Since each spring
supports one ninth of the total weight for the same amount of stretch, each spring must have a stiffness that is one ninth the
combinations effective stiffness, or 300 N/m.

4.X.5 Shortening the wire by a factor of ten means a factor of ten fewer lengthwise interatomic bonds in the wire. So the
wire should be ten times stiffer than before. Therefore, it will only stretch one tenth of the original stretch, or 0.151 mm.

4.X.6 From the graph, a unit stress produces a strain of about 1.8 units. So Youngs modulus would be approximately
8

110 N/m2
1.8103 m/m

6 10

10

N/m2 .

L =

L =

~
F /A
L/L

~
F /A
Y /L

~
F /(r2 )
Y /L
3

## (10 kg)(9.8 N/kg)/((1.5 10

(2 1011 N/m2 )/(3 m)

2.1 10

m)2 )

m 0.21 mm

4.X.8
(a) The block will not move.
(b) Since the block isnt moving (static), the forward force on the block by you must be nulled out by the force on the
block by the floor. Thus, the floor exerts a horizontal force of magnitude 60 N.
(c) 100 N is more than necessary to overcome friction, so the block will accelerate.
(d) Anything over 80 N causes the block to accelerate, so the maximum horizontal force the floor can exert on the block
must be 80 N.

4.X.9

3
(a) Apply the momentum principle to the system consisting of the block. Assume non-relativistic speeds.
px
mblock vx
mblock vx
mblock
vx


Fnet,x t

Fnet,x t

k ~FN t
k 
mgt
 v block

x

g


4 m/s
0.7 s


9.8

N
kg

 0.58

(b) Since the net force on the system (block) is constant, we can approximate the blocks average velocity as the arithmetic
mean of the initial and final velocities and then solve for the blocks change in position.

1

(4 m/s + 0 m/s) 2 m/s
~vavg
2
x (2 m/s) (0.7 s) 1.4 m
(c) Assume the upper (3 kg) box doesnt slide on the other box. Youve effectively increased the systems mass, and thus
also increased the normal force on the system, by a factor of 1.6. As you saw in part (a), the systems mass divides out
for the purposes of calculating k . Therefore, the same change in velocity will take place during the same time interval.
Therefore, the new box will stop in 0.7 s. This seems counterintuitive, but in this problem, t is algebraically and
physically independent of mblock .

4.X.10 The rate of change of the objects momentum is precisely what we mean by net force on the object. Thus, the z
component of the net force on the object will be 4 N.
4.X.11 Constant momentum automatically implies that

d~
p
dt

## is zero. Therefore, ~Fnet is also zero.

4.X.12
~a

~a

~a

~vf ~vi
t
h5.02, 3.04, 0i m/s h5, 3, 0i m/s
0.01 s
h0.02, 0.04, 0i m/s
h2, 4, 0i m/s/s
0.01 s

Note that the unit of acceleration is m/s/s, which is usually abbreviated to m/s2 .
The rate of change of the balls momentum and the net force on the ball are the same physical entity, which is approximately

4.X.13

mball ~a



3
80 10 kg (h2, 4, 0i m/s/s)

mball ~a

h0.16, 0.32, 0i N

4
(a) First, calculate the stiffness.

(0.33 kg) 9.8

ks

ks

N
kg

mg

s
(5.5 102 m)
58.8 N/m

(b) Second, calculate the oscillation frequency, which tells how many oscillations per second the system will carry out.
r
ks
1
f =
2 m
s
1
58.8 N/m
f =
2.12 Hz
2
0.33 kg
(c) Now calculate how many oscillations will happen during a 5 s interval.
N

= f t

## (2.13 Hz)(5 s) 10.6 oscillations

4.X.14
(a) Oscillation period is independent of amplitude, so one complete oscillation would still take 2 s.
(b) Oscillation period is proportional to
the square root of mass. Tripling the mass increases the period by a factor of
Therefore, the new period would be 3(2 s) 3.46 s.

4.X.15

s
|~v| =
s

ks
d
matom
10
40 N/m
2.1 10
m
25
3.3 10
kg

2970 m/s

4.X.16

4.X.17

L
|~v|

3m
2970 m/s

1 10

3.

5
The buoyant force on the iron is the weight of the blocks volume of air.

~
Fb

(1.3 10

kg/cm3 )

1 kg
8 103 kg/cm3



N
(125 cm3 ) 9.8
kg

1.6 10 N


N
The blocks weight is (1 kg) 9.8 kg
= 9.8 N.
4.X.18
At the top of Earths atmosphere, P = 0. At Earths surface, P = 1 105

N
m2 .

gh
P
g

h =

## The density of air at 20 C and at atmospheric pressure is approximately 1.2

h =
h =

kg
m3 .

N
m2
kg
N
m3 )(9.8 kg )

1 105
(1.2

8500 m

4.X.19
Draw a sketch of the region.

Volume of air
0.01 mm

## Figure 1: A sketch of the region

Assume that the area is approximately 0.2 m 0.2 m = 0.04 m2

## Assuming uniform density,

(0.01 mm)(0.04 m2 )

(1 105 m)(0.04 m2 )

4 107 m3

6
air = 1.2
Air is mostly nitrogen N2 with molar mass 14 2 = 28
Avogadros Number is NA = 6.02 1023

g
mol

kg
m3

= 0.028

kg
mol .

molecules
.
mol

Use unit cancelation to find the number of molecules of air between the book and table.


6.02 1023

molecules

mol





1
mol
0.028 kg




kg 
3
= 1 1019 molecules
m
4 107 
1.2 3

m


4.X.20
Assume the oscillation is along the x-axis.
px

Fx t

0
> = Fx t

pf x pix

pf x = Fx t
mv0
Then, v0 =

Ft
m

Ft

## Assume that x during the strike is negligible. Then, since x0 = 0,

0 m
x
+ v02
0
ks
2

m Ft
ks
m
A
A

= A2
= A2
m Ft
ks m
r
m
=
v
ks 0
=

4.X.21
At t0 = 0, x0 = 0 and v0 =
2.

Ft
m .

## Note that the slope of x vs t, which is the x-velocity, is positive at t = 0.

Substitute t0 = 0 into

0
r
k 

s
= A cos
t 0 +
m

= A cos

= A cos

cos

Figure 2: Graph of x vs t

r
v0

r
=

0
r
k 

ks

s
A sin
t 0 +
m
m

ks
A sin
m

## Since v0 is positive, sin must be negative. Since = 90 or 270 then

sin

= 1
=

270 or

3
2

Note: we chose v0 to be positive. If, however, v0 is negative, then sin is positive and
sin

+1

90 or

4.X.22
(a) Neglect the mass of the rope and assume that tension is uniform throughout the rope.
Apply the momentum principle to the climber. Sketch a free-body diagram. Define the system to be the climber.
~F = ~p
net
t
The climbers momentum is constant (since the climber is "motionless"), so
~F = 0
net

FT on climber by rope

## Sum the forces from the free-body diagram.

~F
+ ~Fgrav by Earth
T by rope
~F
T by rope

= ~Fgrav by Earth
= < 0, mg, 0 >
= < 0, mg, 0 >
= < 0, (55 kg)(9.8

N
), 0 >
kg

= h0, 539, 0i N

~
FT by rope =

539 N

(b)
m
~F
T by rope

88 kg

## = < 0, mg, 0 >

= < 0, (88 kg)(9.8

N
), 0 >
kg

= h0, 862, 0i N

(c) Both (2) and (3) are true. Model the rope as balls connected by springs in one dimension. Tension (i.e. a force applied
to the rope) causes the interatomic springs (i.e. bonds) to stretch. As a result the atoms in the one-dimensional
model get further apart.

4.X.23
(a) is true. Also, as atoms get closer than their equilibrium distance, they repel. In this way, the bond acts like a spring.
(c) is partially, but not completely, true. It is only true for small amplitude oscillations about the equilibrium distance
between atoms.

9
4.X.24
m = 5 kg of gallium.
molar mass, M = 70

g
mol

= 0.07

kg
mol

## Avogadros Number, NA = 6.02 1023

atoms
mol

kg
Use unit cancelation to find the mass of one atom in atom
.




kg
1
kg
mol
0.07 
= 1.2 1025
23
6.02 10 atoms
atom
mol


4.X.25
The radius of a hydrogen atom is called the Bohr radius and is about 0.5 1010 m. A copper atom is bigger than hydrogen,
so its radius is about 1 1010 , rounded to one significant figure.
4.X.26
(a) molar mass, M = 64

g
mol

kg
mol
1023 atoms
mol

= 0.064

## So the mass of 1 atom of copper is





mol
1
kg
kg
= 1.06 1025
.
0.064 
6.02 1023 atoms
atom
mol

(b) Assume a simple cubic array as shown in Figure 4.

## Figure 4: One side of the cubic array

L =
=
L =
N

=
=
=

4.6 cm
0.046 m
Nd
L
d
0.046 m
2.28 1010 m
2.02 108 atoms

10
(c) A cubic block with each side of length 0.046 m has a volume
= L3

(0.046 m)3

9.73 105 m

The total number of atoms is the number of atoms along each side cubed.
Ntotal

= N3

side

## Multiply the number of atoms times the mass of each atom.

m

(1.06 1025

0.870 kg

kg
)(8.21 1024 atoms)
atom

4.X.27
molar mass: M = 184
density: = 19.3
1.93 104

g
cm2

kg
= 0.184 mol
  1 kg   (100 cm)3 

g
mol

1000 g

1 m3

kg
m3

Find the volume of a cube of the block that is taken by one atom.

1 m3
1.93 104 kg





mol
1
kg
m3
0.184 
= 1.58 1029
23
6.02 10 atoms
atom
mol


## Figure 5: Cube filled by atom

11
This is the volume of a cube that is filled as much as possible by a spherical atom. The volume of the cube is d3 where d is
the diameter of the atom.
d3

d =
=

1.58 1029 m3
1

(1.58 1029 m3 ) 3
2.51 1010 m

4.X.28
A sketch of the situation is shown in Figure 6.

One wire

Two wires

FT by wire

FT by wire 1

m=10 kg

FT by wire 2
m=10 kg

Fgrav

Fgrav

## Figure 6: A sketch of the situation with one and two wires.

With two wires, the tension in each wire is half the tension in the case of one wire. (This is a result of the momentum
principle.) Since the tension in the wire is proportional to the distance stretched, each wire, in the case of two wires, will
stretch half as much as one wire alone. The correct answer is (A), each wire stretches 4 mm.
4.X.29
FT
A

L =
L

L
L
FT L
A Y
1
A

Half the area results in twice the distance stretched. The correct answer is (C), the second wire stretches 16 mm.
4.X.30
FT
A

= Y

L
L

FT
L
AY
L L
L =

12
If the wire is twice as long as the original wire, then it will stretch twice as far. Thus, the correct answer is (C), the second
wire stretches 16 mm.
4.X.31
The upward force of the spring on M is ks s1 . When you cut the spring in half, the resulting spring has a stiffness twice as
large as the original spring. (See solution to 4.X.32.) Since the upward force of the spring on M is the same, the distance
s
stretched must be half as much as the original spring. So, the answer is (C) 21 .
4.X.32
For springs in series, the effective stiffness is
1
1
1
=
+
ks,eff
ks,1
ks,2
For 2 identical springs,
2
1
=
ks,eff
ks
Thus, the stiffness of one spring is
ks

2ks,eff

Cutting the spring in half results in a spring that has twice the stiffness. The correct answer is (C) 2ks,eff .
4.X.33
Springs in series have an effective stiffness
1
1
1
=
+
+ ...
ks,eff
ks,1
ks,2
For N identical springs,
1
1
=N
ks,eff
ks
Each individual spring has a stiffness
ks

= N ks,eff
=
=

N
)
m
N
1.35 104
m
(50)(270

4.X.34
For identical springs in series,
1
ks,eff

=N

1
ks

13
Each individual spring has a stiffness,
ks

N ks,eff

(2)(190

380

N
)
m

N
m

4.X.35
For springs in parallel, the effective stiffness is
ks,eff = ks,1 + ks,2 + ...
For N identical springs,
ks,eff = N ks
Each individual spring has a stiffness
ks

=
=
=

ks,eff
N
N
20250 m
45
N
450
m

4.X.36
For identical springs in series,
1
ks,eff

ks

N ks,eff

2(140

280

1
ks
N
)
m

N
m

4.X.37
For identical springs in parallel,
ks,eff

= N ks
=
=

N
)
m
N
1950
m
5(390

14

4.X.38
How far a material stretches when a certain force is applied depends on the interatomic bond stiffness. Thus the correct
4.X.39
(b) YA = YB because both wires are made of pure copper.
4.X.40
No, it is not a violation of the momentum principle. Before picking up the object, it is at rest. Thus, it must be sitting on
the ground or on the floor or on a table, for example. Or perhaps it is hanging by a chain or rope. Lets assume its sitting
on a table, as in Figure 7. Then,

## Figure 7: The object is at rest on a table

Draw a free-body diagram (see Figure 8).

## Figure 8: A free-body diagram of the forces on the object

If you also lift the box and it remains at rest, then the free-body diagram looks like the one in Figure 9.
The net force on the object is still zero, according the the momentum principle. By you applying an upward force on the
object, the force by the floor on the object diminished, but the net force (i.e. the sum of all forces) on the object is still zero.

15

## Figure 9: A free-body diagram with the lifting force added

4.X.41
(a) Its cross-sectional area is the area of a circle, r2 .
= r2

= (4 103 m)2
=

5 105 m2

A =

wd

7.2 105 m2

A =

wd

## (6 103 m)(6 103 m)

3.6 105 m2

4.X.42
Since both wires are made of the same material, then they will have the same Youngs Modulus, Y. Youngs Modulus only
depends on the material of the wire. Thus, (1) YB = YA is true.
4.X.43
(a) First, sketch a picture (see Figure 10).
Define the system as the load. Apply the momentum principle. Draw a free-body diagram of the system (see Figure
11).

16

Steel

~F
net

~F
+ ~Fsteel
grav

~p
t
0

~F
steel

~Fgrav

~F
steel

h0, 833, 0i N

N
), 0 >
kg

17
(b)
FT
A

L
L
FT L
L =
A Y


833 N
=
(0.28 m)(0.28 m)
= Y

0.28 m
2 1011 mN2

1.5 108 m

## Note: this is approximately 100 times the diameter of an atom.

4.P.44
For Aluminum:
Y

Molar mass M = 27

g
mol

= 0.027

N
6.2 1010 2
m




(100 cm)3
g 
1 kg
=
2.7
cm3
1000 g
1 m3
kg
= 2700 3
m

kg
mol

## Assume a simple cubic array. Find the diameter of the Al atom.


V

d =
=

1 m3
2700 kg



0.027 kg

mol
1




mol
1
6.02 1023 atoms

= 1.66 1029

d3
V

1
3

2.55 1010 m

Write Youngs modulus in terms of atomic quantities and solve for the bond stiffness.
ks,bond

Yd

(6.2 1010

16

N
m

N
)(2.55 1010 m)
m2

m3
atom

18

1.6 1010

11.4

g
cm3

1.14 104

207

N
m2

g
mol
kg
0.207
mol

kg
m3





1 m3
1
0.207 kg
mol
V =

6.02 1023 atoms
1
mol
1.14 104 kg
3
m
V = 3.02 1029
atom
1
d = V3


3.11 1010 m

## Use Y and d to calculate the bond stiffness.

ks

= Yd
=

(1.6 1010

5.0

N
)(3.11 1010 m)
m2

N
m

4.P.45
(a) A: To analyze the interatomic compression at A, define the system to be the entire rod except the layer of atoms on
the left edge of the rod. Sketch the bonds between this layer of atoms and the rod as shown in Figure 12.
Apply the Momentum Principle to this system of the rod.
~F = ~p
net
t
Sketch a free-body diagram for the rod (see Figure 13).

~F
net
~F
A

~p
t

= mrod

~v
t

19

FA

## ~F is the force on the system due to interatomic compression at A.

A
C: At the right end of the rod at C, define the system to be a very thin layer of the rod of mass mC , as shown in Figure
14
Sketch a free-body diagram for the thin layer of the rod at C (see Figure 15).
Apply the Momentum Principle.

~F
net
~F
C

~p
t

= mC

~v
t

Note that the mass of the thin layer of the rod at C is much less than the mass of the rod. As a result, compare the
v
following equations. Note that ~
t is the same for all parts of the rod.

20

FC

## Figure 15: free-body diagram

~F
A

~F
C

~v
t
~v
mC
t

mrod

The interatomic force at C will be less than the interatomic force at A, since mC << mA . As a result, the bonds at C
will be less compressed than at A.
B: Since we showed that the bonds are most compressed at A and least compressed at C, then at B the bonds will be
compressed less than at A and more than at C.
From A to C, down the length of the rod, bonds will vary in compression from most compressed at A and least
compressed at C.
(b) When the force is removed, the rods momentum (and thus velocity) will be constant and to the right. The net force
on the rod is zero.
If you choose any piece of the rod to be the system, its momentum is constant; therefore, the net force on the system
is zero. In this case, the compression in the interatomic bonds is uniform (i.e. the same) throughout the rod. In fact,
all bonds (springs) will be at their equilibrium length.

21

4.P.46
(a) Define the system to be m1 ,m2 , and m3 together. Sketch a free-body diagram (see Figure 16).

Figure 16: Free-body diagram for the entire system of m1 ,m2 , and m3 .
Apply the Momentum Principle to the system.

~F
net

d~p
dt

dvx
dt

## Write the x-component of the Momentum Principle.

msystem

dvx
dt

F
msystem

dvx
dt

F
(m1 + m2 + m3 )

Note that the acceleration will be the same for all parts in the system as well. So m1 ,m2 , and m3 all have the same
acceleration.
For the left end, define the system to be m3 . Sketch a free-body diagram (see Figure 17).
~F is the compression force on the left end of m due to its pushing on m .
2
2
3
Apply the Momentum Principle to the system.

d~p
dt

~F
net

F2

= m3

dvx
dt

22

F2

## Figure 17: Free-body diagram for m3 .

F2

F2

!
F
m3
m1 + m2 + m3
!
m3
F
m1 + m2 + m3

Note that this is the compression force at the left end of m2 and is less than the compression force at the right end of
m2 . This is expected since m2 has an acceleration to the left.
(b) Define the system to be m2 and m3 together. Sketch a free-body diagram of the system (see Figure 18).

F1

## ~F is the compression force at the right end of m due to contact with m .

1
2
1
Apply the Momentum Principle to the system.

23

d~p
dt

~F
net

F1

= msystem

F1

dvx
dt

(m1 + m2 )

dvx
dt

## Substitute the x-acceleration from part (a).

F1

F1

(m1 + m2 )

F
m1 + m2 + m3
!

m1 + m2
m1 + m2 + m3

Note that this is less than the magnitude of the force F and greater than F2 , as expected.
(c) When sketching the free-body diagram in part (a), the direction of the force on the system is the same whether you
pull on block 3 or push on block 1. The only difference is that if you pull on block 3, interatomic bonds will stretch.
If you push on block 1, interatomic bonds will compress. But the magnitudes and directions of the forces will be the
same in the two cases.

4.P.47
This is an experimental question, and therefore precise results will vary. You should be able to obtain at least the correct
order of magnitude with even the simplest experimental setup.
4.P.48

kwire

Nbonds in 1 chain

Nchains

ks

(5 kg)(9.8

N
kg )
3

0.4035 10 m
1.214 N/m
23
48 g/mol
matom
g
23
1 8.0 10
6.022 10 mol
s
r
m
8
10
8.0 1023 g
d 3 atom 3
2.6 10 cm 2.6 10
m

4.51 g/c3 m
10
L
3m

2.6 10
10
d
2.6 10
m
Awire
13
4.6 10
Aatom
10

4.P.49

(1.214 N/m)(1.2 10 )
32 N/m
4.6 1013

24
(a)

(415 kg) 9.8
k

Nchains

1.26 10

N
kg

3.23 10 N/m

(b)
2

Awire
13
(0.15 10 m)2

3.57 10
10
2
Aatom
(2.51 10
m)

(c)
9
L
2.5 m

9.96 10
10
d
2.51 10
m

Nbonds in 1 chain

(d)
5

ks

(3.23 10 N/m)(9.96 10 )
90 N/m
(3.57 1013 )

4.P.50
(a)
Y

~
F /A
L/L
(14 kg)(9.8

7.9 10

N
kg )/()(1

10

m)2

(0.00139 m)/(2.5 m)
10

N/m

## (b) First, calculate the mass of one gold atom.

mAu

197 g/mol
6.022 1023 mol1

mAu

3.27 10

22

Now, use the density () and atoms mass to calculate an approximate interatomic spacing, assuming a cubical atom.
r
m
d 3 Au

s
8
10
3.27 1022 g
d 3
2.57 10 cm 2.57 10
m
3
19.3 g/cm
Finally, use the Youngs modulus and interatomic spacing to calculate the interatomic stiffness.
ks
ks

Yd



10
10

## 7.9 10 N/m 2.57 10

m 20.3 N/m

25

4.P.51 Start by calculating Youngs modulus for copper. It turns out that the data given in the question is not plausible.
In early printings of the textbook, the initial length was incorrectly given as 3.5 m, but it should be 0.95 m, as noted in the
textbook Errata found at matterandinteractions.org.

~
F /A
L/L
N
kg )/

(36 kg)(9.8
Y

1.90 10

()(0.7 10

m)2

(0.00183 m)/(0.95 m)
11

N/m2

## Next, calculate the mass of one copper atom.

mCu

63 g/mol
6.022 1023 mol1

mCu

1.05 10

22

Now, use the density () and atoms mass to calculate an approximate interatomic spacing, assuming a cubic atom.
r
m
d 3 Cu

s
8
10
1.05 1022 g
d 3
2.27 10 cm 2.27 10
m
9 g/cm3
Finally, use the Youngs modulus and interatomic spacing to calculate the interatomic stiffness.
ks

ks

Yd



11
10
1.2 10 N/m2 2.27 10
m 27 N/m

## 4.P.52 Start by calculating Youngs modulus for iron.

~
F /A
Y =
L/L
Y
Y

(52 kg)(9.8

N
kg )/()/(0.04

10

m)2

(0.0127 m)/(2.5 m)
11

2.0 10

N/m

## Next, calculate the mass of one iron atom.

mFe

56 g/mol
6.022 1023 mol1

mFe

9.30 10

22

Now, use the density () and atoms mass to calculate an approximate interatomic spacing, assuming a cubic atom.
r
m
d 3 Fe

s
8
10
9.30 1022 g
d 3
2.28 10 cm 2.28 10
m
7.87 g/cm3

26
Finally, use the Youngs modulus and interatomic spacing to calculate the interatomic stiffness.
Yd



11
10

## 2.0 10 N/m 2.28 10

m = 46 N/m

ks
ks

4.P.53
(a) Assume a simple cubic lattice for iron. Find the volume of a cube that surrounds a spherical atom.

g 
=
7.87
cm2
kg
= 7870 3
m


=
=

1 kg
1000 g



(100 cm)3
1 m3

g
mol
kg
0.056
mol
56





1 m3
0.056 kg
1
mol

6.02 1023 atoms
mol
1
7870 kg
29
3
1.18 10
m


V

=
=

= d3

d = V
=

1
3

2.28 1010 m

(b) Determine Youngs Modulus. Begin by applying the Momentum Principle to the hanging mass. Draw a free-body
diagram, as shown in Figure 19.
The hanging mass is in equilibrium.

~F
net

~F + ~F
grav
T

d~p
dt
0

~F
T

~Fgrav

h0, 637, 0i N

N
), 0 >
kg

27

T on massby wire
F

F

FT
A

=
=

Ft
R

637 N
0.09 cm
=
2
= 0.045 cm
=

L =
L =
Y

L
Y
 L 

FT
L
A
L



FT
L
R2
L

4.5 104 m
2.0 m
0.01
 m

637 N
=
(4.5 104 m)2
N
= 2.0 1011 2
m



2m
0.01 m

## The interatomic bond stiffness is

k

4.P.54

= Yd
=

(2.0 1011

46

N
m

N
)(2.28 1010 m)
m2

28
(a) Begin by applying the Momentum Principle to the hanging mass. Draw a free-body diagram, as shown in Figure 20.

T on massby wire
F

F

## Figure 20: A free-body diagram of the system.

The hanging mass is in equilibrium.

~F
net

~F + ~F
grav
T

d~p
dt
0

~F
T

~Fgrav

h0, 647, 0i N

N
), 0 >
kg

## The tension applied to the wire is 637 N.

FT
A
Y

L
= Y
 L 

FT
L
=
A
L



FT
L
=
R2
L



647 N
2.2 m
=
(4.5 104 m)2
0.0112 m
N
= 2.0 1011 2
m

(b) Assume a simple cubic lattice for iron. Find the volume of a cube that surrounds a spherical atom.

29

g 
7.87
cm2
kg
7870 3
m

=
=

56

1 kg
1000 g



(100 cm)3
1 m3

g
kg
= 0.056
mol
mol





1 m3
0.056 kg
1
mol

6.02 1023 atoms
1
mol
7870 kg
29
3
1.18 10
m


V

=
=

= d3

d = V
=

1
3

2.28 1010 m

## The interatomic bond stiffness is

= Yd
=

(2.0 1011

46

N
)(2.28 1010 m)
m2

N
m

4.P.55
Spring force is F = bs3
(a) Define the system as the hanging mass. Draw a free-body diagram.
Apply the Momentum Principle. The system remains at rest (i.e. in equilibrium).

~F
net

~F
+ ~Fgrav
spring

~F
spring
< 0, bs3 , 0 >

d~p
dt
0

= ~Fgrav
= < 0, mg, 0 >

30

on massby spring
F

F

## Figure 21: A free-body diagram of the situation

bs3
b

= mg
mg
=
s3

Where s = L L0 = 29 cm 25 cm = 4 cm = 0.04 m.

b =
=

(0.018 kg)(9.8

N
kg )

(0.04 m3 )3
N
2760 3
m

(b) The following ideas were used in the analysis for part (a).
The Momentum Principle
The fact that the gravitational force acting on an object near Earths surface is approximately mg.
The rate of change of momentum of the system is zero.

4.X.56
Spring force is F = bs3
(a) For Bob, there is clearly a frictional force of the floor on the box that has a magnitude of 20 N and is in the opposite
direction as the force of Bob on the box, since the net force on the box is zero. Assuming that the frictional force is not
dependent on speed (which is generally the case) then the force by Alice on the box must also be 20 N. Though she
pushes the box such that it has a greater speed, its velocity is constant and so the net force on the box is zero. Since
there is a frictional force of magnitude 20 N, she must be pushing with an oppositely directed force of magnitude 20 N.
(b) Initially, to make the box speed up, both Alice and Bob had to push with a force of magnitude greater than 20 N. When
the box reached a speed of 20 m/s, Bob reduced his force to 20 N and the box moved with constant speed of 1 m/s.
When the box reached a speed of 2 m/s, Alice reduced her force to 20 N and then her box moved with a constant speed
of 2 m/s.

31

4.X.57
It also must be pulled by 3 N. The frictional force does not generally depend on the area of the surfaces in contact, but only
on the materials in contact and the normal (perpendicular) contact force.
4.X.58
(a) To start the box moving, you must apply a force parallel to the surfaces in contact that is greater than the maximum
static force. Thus,

fs,max

s FN

Apply the Momentum Principle. Define the system to be the box. Draw a free-body diagram for the box (see Figure
22).

F N by table onbox

## f sby table on box

F by personon box

~F
net

d~p
dt

## At the instant just before it starts to move,

~F
net

In the y-direction,

32

Fnet,y

FN + mg

FN

= mg
=

(3 kg)(9.8

29.4 N

N
)
kg

In the x-direction,

Fby

person on box

Fby

+ fs,max

person on box

= fs,max
= s FN
=

(0.3)(29.4 N)

8.82 N

(b) To move at constant speed, the box is in equilibrium with ~Fnet = 0, but the frictional force is kinetic friction. Define
the system to be the box, and apply the Momentum Principle.

Fby

~F
net

FN

29.4 N

fk

person on box

k FN

(0.2)(29.4 N)

5.9 N

4.X.59
Assume a horizontal floor.
Define the system to be the box. Draw a free-body diagram (see Figure 23).
Apply the Momentum Principle

~F
net

## Write it in component form, starting with the y-direction.

d~p
dt

33

F N by floor on box

f k bytable on box
F by personon box

## Figure 23: A free-body diagram of the system.

Fnet,y
FN

py

t
0

+ Fgrav,y

FN + mg

by f loor on box,y

FN

= mg
=

(20 kg)(9.8

196 N

In the x-direction,

Solve for vf x .

Fnet,x

Fperson + fk,x

Fperson + k FN

90 N (0.25)(196 N)

90 N 49 N

41 N

px
t
px
t
px
t
pf x pix
t
pf x pix
t
pf x pix
t

N
)
kg

34

41 N

41 N

vf x

mvf x mvix
t
(20 kg)(vf x 3 m/s)

0.6
 s 
41 N
= 3 m/s +
(0.6)
20 kg
= 3 m/s + 1.23 m/s
=

4.23 m/s

## To get xf , use vavg,x .

vavg,x

=
=
=

xf

vix + vf x
2
3 m/s + 4.23 m/s
2
3.62 m/s

xi + vavg,x t

8 m + (3.62 m/s)(0.6 s)

10.2 m

4.X.60
The magnitude of momentum is largest when the oscillating mass-spring system is at equilibrium. At this instant, the net
force on the mass is smallest it is zero.
4.X.61

(a) and (e) are true. At the lowest point, the spring is stretched more than it is at equilibrium. Thus ~Fspring > mg at the
lowest point in the oscillation.
4.X.62

T
T

r
m
2
k

m
=

2(1 s) = 1.4 s

35
4.X.63

r
T

of 0.71 s.

1 .
2

m
k

## Thus, if T = 1 s, then doubling the stiffness results in a period

4.X.64
For identical springs in series,

1
keff
k

= N

1
k

= N keff
=

2keff

1
2

## = 0.71. Thus, a period of 1 s becomes a period of (0.71)(1 s) = 0.71 s.

4.X.65
Period is independent of amplitude. Therefore, the period will remain 1 s.

4.X.66
Period is independent of g. Therefore, the period will remain 1 s.

4.X.67
Define the system to be the mass. Sketch a free-body diagram when x = +s (see Figure 25).
Apply the Momentum Principle in the x-direction.

36

x=s

x=0

x=s

## Figure 24: A sketch of the system

by spring on mass
F

## Figure 25: A free-body diagram of the system.

Substitute vx =

Fnet,x

Fspring,x

ks x

ks x

ks
x
m

dpx
dt
dpx
dt
dpx
dt
dv
m x
dt
dvx
dt

dx
dt .

ks
x
m
d2 x ks
+ x
dt2
m

d2 x
dt2

37
A solution for this differential equation is

x =

ks
t+
m

ks
m

A cos

## A and are constants that depend on initial conditions.

4.X.68
Angular frequency is

## Since = 2f , then frequency is

1
2

ks
m

m
ks

m
ks

Since T = f1 , then

## Amplitude is independent of ks and m.

4.X.69

Period is independent of amplitude. Therefore, doubling the amplitude does not affect the period.

## Doubling the mass changes the period by a factor of

2.

1
p
ks

38
Doubling the stiffness changes the period by a factor of

1 .
2

4.X.70
For x = A cos t, the systems velocity should be zero at t = 0, and the systems position is most positive at x = A.
For x = A sin t, the systems velocity should be a maximum and positive at t = 0; thus the system should be moving in the
+x direction at t = 0.
4.X.71
An oscillating diatomic moleciule is not a harmonic oscillator (except for very small amplitude oscillations).
A pendulum with a large initial angle from vertical is not a harmonic oscillator.
4.X.72
(a)
r

ks
m

=
=

N
4m
1.14 kg
1.69
s

(b)

2f

=
2
s
=
2
= 0.269 s1

(c)
T

=
=
=

1
f
1
0.269 s1
3.72 s

(d) The period does not depend on g. Therefore, the period of this system would be the same on Moon as it is on Earth,
3.72 s.

4.X.73

39

ks
m

N
8m
2.2 kg
1.91
s

=
=

= A cos (t + )

= A cos t
=

)(1.15 s))
s

= 0.105 m

4.X.74

ks,A

mA
dA

= 3mB
dB

3ks,B

= d
s
ks,i
=
d
ma

## 3 times the interatomic stiffness changes the speed by a factor of

These effects cancel out so that (b) vA = vB .

## 3. 3 times the mass changes the speed by a factor

1 .
3

4.X.75
The speed of sound only depends on the material (the interatomic bond stiffness, atomic mass, and atomic diameter). Since
both rods are made of titanium and since their lengths are the same, then the time for the disturbance to travel to the end
of the rod is the same. The answer is (c).

4.X.76
The time it takes for a ball to fall from rest at an initial height h is given by

40

*+0 1 Fnet,y t2


v0,y
t


2 m
1
2
h =
(g)t
2
1
gt2
h =
2
s

t =

2h
g

## The time to rise to the same height after it bounces is also

s
t =

2h
g

Thus the period of a bouncing ball that returns to its same height is
s
t =

Since t
doubles.

2h
g

4.X.77

T = 2

m
ks

(a)
T

## If you double m, T changes by a factor

2.

(b)
1
T p
ks
If you double ks , T changes by a factor of

1 .
2

(c) If you double both m and ks , the effects cancel each other out and T remains the same.
(d) T is independent of A, so if you double A, T remains the same.

41

T by rod on ball
F

F

## Figure 26: A free-body diagram of the system.

4.P.78
Apply the Momentum Principle to the ball. Define the system to be the ball. Draw a free-body diagram, as shown in Figure
26.
Since the body is in equilibrium,

~F
net
~F + ~F
grav
T
~F
T

~p
t
0

= ~Fgrav
= < 0, mg, 0 >
=

= h0, 402, 0i N

~
FT = 402 N

FT
A
Y

L
L
FT L
A L

= Y
=

N
), 0 >
kg

42

## (1.5 103 m)(3.1 103 m)

4.65 106 m2



2.6 m
402 N
=
4.65 106 m2
0.002898 m
N
= 7.8 1010 2
m
=

Calculate the diameter of a silver atom. Assume a simple cubic lattice. Find the volume of a cube taken up by a spherical
atom.

=
M




1 kg
kg
g 
(100 cm)3
= 1.05 104 3
3
3
cm
1000 g
1m
m
g
kg
108
= 0.108
mol
mol

10.5

1 m3
1.05 104 kg

1.71 1029 m3


V

d =
=



0.108 kg
1 mol



1 mol
6.02 1023 atoms

1
3

2.56 1010 m

ks

= Yd
=

(7.8 1010

20.0

N
)(2.56 1010 m)
m2

N
m

s
v

ks
d
ms

## The mass of an atom is

ma

=
=




kg
1 mol
0.108
mol
6.02 1023 atoms
kg
1.79 1025
atom

43

s
v

=
=

N
20 m
(2.56 1010 m)
1.79 1025 kg

2710 m/s

4.P.79

r
T

m
k

The period does not depend on amplitude or g. Increasing m by a factor of 6 increses the period by a factor of
the stiffness by a factor of 10 changes the period by a factor of
Thus,

1 .
10

6. q
Increasing

## Thus, the period on the other planet will be

6
10 TEarth .

r
Tplanet

=
=

6
(2.1 s)
10
1.6 s

4.P.80
(a) To do this experiment, measure the initial unstretched length of the spring L0 with no mass on the spring. Add mass
to the end of the spring and measure the length L of the spring. Record both the total mass and length of the spring.
Continue adding mass to the end of the spring. Each time, you should record both the total mass and length of the
spring. Fill out Table 1 with approximately 8 - 10 data points. Calculate the distance stretched s and the magnitude
of the force on the spring by the hanging mass for each data point.

Graph ~Fon spring by mass m vs. s. Though the y-intercept may not be zero, as expected from Hookes law, the graph will
be linear as shown in Figure 27.
(b) To measure the period of oscillation, you can use a sonic ranger and computer data acquisition system such as a LabPro
by Vernier. However, you can also use a stopwatch. If you use a stopwatch, place a reasonable mass on the spring that
will give a reasonable period to measure. You dont want the mass to be too small, or the period will be small and
harder to measure. You dont want the mass to be too large, or the spring may stretch too far and become deformed.
Choose a mass somewhere in the middle of the range that you used in part (a) of this experiment.
Pull the hanging mass downward a known, measured distance A and release it from rest. When the object later reaches
its lowest point, start the stop watch. Count 10 complete oscillations and stop the stopwatch when the object reaches
its starting point after its tenth oscillation.
Measure the total time for 10 oscillations and divide by 10 to get the time for one oscillation, which is the period. Note
that you can use any number of oscillations. You want to use enough oscillations that the small reaction time to start
and stop the stopwatch is small compared to the total. However, if you use too many oscillations, then the oscillator
loses energy and the period may not be constant (i.e. in this case you are not controlling the variable of amplitude).
10 oscillations is probably a reasonable number that is neither too small nor too large.

44
m (kg)

L (m)

~
Fon spring by mass m (N)
0

s (m)

## Table 1: Data for spring experiment.

force on the spring vs. distance stretched
7

|F| (N)

0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2
s (m)

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Figure 27: A sample graph of ~Fon spring by mass m vs. s.

Its a good idea to repeat this measurement of the period about 5 more times so can report the average and standard
deviation. This gives you an idea about how repeatable the experiment is and how precise your measurements are.
Even if you use a LabPro, graph x vs. t, and determine the period from the graph, its a good idea to repeat the

45
experiment numerous times and report the average period and standard deviation.
(c) Double the amplitude and repeat your measurement of the period in part (b). Again, make multiple measurements
of the period and calculate the average and standard deviation. Note whether the periods are the same or different,
within the uncertainty of your measurement of the period.

4.P.81
Sketch a picture of the system, as shown in Figure 28.

m
x

## Figure 28: A sketch of the system.

The distance of mass m from the center of the Earth is r. The position of mass m is x. The gravitational force on the mass
is

Fgrav,x
~F

mg
x
R
mg
= <
x, 0, 0 >
R

Define the system to be the mass m. Apply the Momentum Principle to the mass m. The only force on m is the gravitational
force defined above. Write it in component form.

~F
net
Fnet,x

## The instantaneous velocity of mass m is vx =

dx
dt .

mg
x
R

Thus,

d~p
dt
dpx
=
dt
dv
= m x
dt
=

46

mg
d dx
x = m
R
dt dt
mg
d2 x


x = 
m 2
R
dt
d2 x
g
+ x = 0
dt2
R

This looks like the equation of motion for an oscillating mass-spring system which is

k
d2 x
+ x =
dt2
m

q
k
Where = m
. By comparing the equations, you can see that they are the same. Thus, the mass m will oscillate back and
forth through Earth with an angular frequency given by

r
=

1
2

g
R

2f
2
T
2
s
2

R
g

4.P.82

1
T
2
s
1
R
=
(2
)
2
g
s
R
=
g

47
(a)
T

spring, is

=
=

m
ks

2(1.2 s)

1.7 s

## (b) The effective stiffness of identical springs in parallel is

ks,eff

N ks

Thus, two springs in parallel have twice the stiffness of one spring. Since
1
T
k
The period will be
1
(1.2 s)
2

0.849 s

1
keff

1
ks

ks

= N keff

ks

## Doubling the stiffness results in the period

2keff

48

1
(1.2 s)
2
0.849 s

=
=

(d) Period is independent of g; therefore, the period of the oscillator on the Moon is the same as on Earth.

4.P.83
(a) Assume that ks 10

N
m.

## The mass of a hydrogen atom is

g 
1
mol

1 mol
6.02 1023 atoms

1.66 1024 g

1.66 1027 kg

k
m

N
10 m
1.66 1027 kg

1
2

1
2

1 1013 Hz

Note that this does not take into account the fact that both H atoms in the diatomic molecule are oscillating.
(b) The mass of an oxygen atom is

g 
16
mol

1 mol
6.02 1023 atoms

2.66 1024 g

2.66 1026 kg

k
m

N
10 m
2.66 1026 kg

1
2

1
2

3 1012 Hz

49
(c) Deuterium has twice the mass of hydrogen. Thus, since f
1
fhydrogen
2

1 ,
m

## its frequency will be

1
(1 1013 Hz)
2
0.7(1 1013 Hz)

7 1012 Hz

(d) The ratios of the frequencies is proportional to the inverse of the square root of the ratio of their masses, if their bond
stiffnesses are the same. In this case, since both hydrogen and deuterium have the same charge in their nucleus, they
have the same bond stiffness.

4.P.84

g
kg
59
= 0.059
mol
mol 



g 
(100 cm)3
1 kg
=
8.9
cm3
1000 g
1 m3
kg
= 8900 3
m
=

(2 mm)(2 mm)

=
=

## (2 103 m)(2 103 m)

4 106 m2

To determine the time for a disturbance to travel down the rod, we need the speed of sound in nickel. To get the speed of
sound in nickel, we need to know its bond stiffness, the mass of a nickel atom, and the diameter of a nickel atom. Atomic
mass and diameter are easy to calculate from the given properties of nickel, but the bond stiffness must be calculated from
Youngs Modulus which must also be determined from the given data.
The diameter of an atom is found from the volume of a cube taken up by the spherical atom. Assume a simple cubic lattice
for nickel.


V

=
=

d =
=

1 m3
8900 kg



8.509 kg
1 mol

1.10 1029 m3
V 1/3
2.2 1010 m



1 mol
6.02 1023 atoms

50




kg
1 mol
0.059
mol
6.02 1023 atoms

9.80 1026 kg

## Youngs Modulus is given by

FT
A
Y

L
L
FT L
A L

= Y
=

The tension in the rod is equal in this case to the weight of the mass hanging from the rod, according to the Momentum
Principle applied to the hanging mass. Thus,

FT

mg

(40 kg)(9.8

392 N

N
)
kg



392 N
2.5 m
=
4 106 m2
1.2 103 m
N
= 2.04 1011 2
m

ks

Yd

(2.04 1011

45.3

N
)(2.22 1010 m)
m2

N
m

## The speed of sound in nickel is

ks
d
matom atom

N
45.3 m
(2.22 1010 m)
9.8 1026 kg

=
=

4770 m/s

51
Speed is defined as

|~r|
t

## The time interval to travel a distance 2.5 m down the rod is

|~r|
v
2.5 m
4770 m/s

t =
=

5.2 104 s

4.P.85
Approximate each atom in the bar to be a simple harmonic oscillator that oscillates with an angular frequency

ks
m

where ks is the bond stiffness in the material and m is the mass of an atom.
Since U238 and U235 have the same number of protons and electrons (for a neutral atom), their bond stiffnesses are the same.
However, U238 atoms have more mass and therefore will vibrate with less frequency.
The speed of sound in the material is

r
v

ks
d
m

Thus, the speed of sound in U238 will be less since U238 has more mass than U235 .
4.X.86
Calculate the volume of 1 kg of lead. Convert kg to grams.

1000 g
g
11 cm
3

90.9 cm3

The buoyant force of air on the lead is equal to the weight of an equal volume of air. The density of air is approximately (at
kg
3
20 C and atmospheric pressure) 1.2 m
of air is (be sure to pay attention to units)
3 . Thus, the weight of 90.9 cm

52

wair

= mg






1 m3
N
kg
3
90.9 cm
9.8
=
1.2 3
m
(100 cm)3
kg
= 0.0011 N
=

1.1 103 N

The buoyant force on the lead is a paltry 1.1 103 N. The weight of the lead object is 9.8 N. The ratio of the buoyant
force on the object to the weight of the object is approximately
103 N
10 N

104

Thus the buoyant force is about one ten-thousandth the weight of the object. The buoyant force in thie case is clearly
negligible.
4.X.87

Area A

Depth h

## Figure 29: A sketch of the region

The pressure at depth h is the pressure at the top plus the weight of the volume of water divided by its area.

pbottom

= ptop +

mg
A

pbottom

= ptop +

mgh
Ah

h
h

53

kg
m3 .

mgh
V
+ water gh

pbottom

ptop +

pbottom

ptop

Solve for h.

h =
=
=

pbottom ptop
water g
N
5 N
m2 1 10 m2
kg
N
(1000 m
3 )(9.8 kg )

3 105
20.4 m

## Saltwater has a greater density than freshwater. It is 1030

h =
=
=

kg
m3 .

Thus in seawater,

pbottom ptop
seawater g
N
5 N
m2 1 10 m2
kg
N
(1030 m
3 )(9.8 kg )

3 105
19.8 m

4.P.88
(a) Begin by sketching a picture of the floating block of wood (see Figure 30).

Area A

Depth y
Height h

## (20 102 m)(20 102 m)

2 102 m2

h =

6 cm = 0.06 m

54

wood

water




1 kg
g 
(100 cm)3
=
0.7
cm3
1000 g
1 m3
kg
= 700 3
m
kg
g
= 1000 3
= 1.0
cm3
m


Define the system to be the block. Apply the Momentum Principle to the block. Draw a free-body diagram for the
system, as shown in Figure 31.

B onblock by water
F

F

## Figure 31: A free-body diagram of the system.

~F
net

~p
t

The block remains at rest, so ~p = 0. Write the Momentum Principle in the y-direction.

Fnet,y

FB,y + Fgrav,y

FB,y

= Fgrav,y
= (mg)
= mg

## The mass of the block is

m =
=

Thus,

kg
)(2 102 m2 )(0.06 m)
m3
0.84 kg
(700

55

FB,y

(0.84 kg)(9.8

8.23 N

N
)
kg

The buoyant force is also equal to the weight of water displaced by the wood. The volume of water displaced by the
wood is

= Ay
=

(2 102 m2 )y

m =
=
=

V
kg
)(2 102 m2 )y
m3
kg
(20
)y
m

(1000

## The weight of this volume of water is

= mg
=
=

N
kg
)y(9.8
)
m
kg
N
(196 )y
m
(20

Thus,

FB

= wwater

displaced

N
8.23 N = (196 )y
m
8.23 N
y =
N
196 m
= 0.042 m
=

4.2 cm

Note that this is less than the height of the block, 6 cm, as expected. Also, note that about
block is submerged.

4.2 cm
6 cm

= .7 = 70% of the

56

B by air on blimp
F

F

## Figure 32: A free-body diagram of the system.

(b) Define the system to be the blimp. Apply the Momentum Principle to the system. Assume the system is at rest. Draw
a free-body diagram, a shown in Figure 32.

~p
t
py

~F
net

Fnet,y

FB,y + Fgrav,y

t
0

FB,y

Fgrav,y

(mg)

mg

FB,y

2.77 104 N

~
FB

2.77 104 N

57

~
FB

g
2.77 104 N
N
9.8 kg

=
=

2827 kg

2830 kg

## This should be greater than the mass of helium, which is


mHe

=
=

4 g
22.4 
L
421 kg



1000 
L
3

m
1



1 kg
1000 g

3
(2356 
m
)

The mass of the material of the blimp including the gondola must be

2827 kg 421 kg

2406 kg 2410 kg

To get FB,y , use the fact that it is equal to the weight of air displaced by the blimp. The volume of the (cylindrical)
blimp is approximately

= R2 h


V

=
=

kg
m3 .

2
(30 m)

2356 m3

mair

=
=

## The weight of this volume of air is

10 m
2

kg
)(2356 m3 )
m3
2827 kg

(1.2

58

mg

(2827 kg)(9.8

27700 N

N
)
kg

4.P.89
(a) Begin with a sketch of the system, as shown in Figure 33.

s=L
Figure 33: A sketch of the system.
Define the system to be the mass m. Apply the Momentum Principle. Sketch a free-body diagram as shown in Figure
34.

T on massby string
F

F

## Figure 34: A free-body diagram of the system.

Define a coordinate system with the radial axis perpendicular to the objects path and directed toward the pivot and
the tangential axis tangent to the path, as shown in Figure 35
With this coordinate system, write ~Fgrav using the right triangle shown in Figure 36.

59

tan

T
F

grav
F

F

grav
F
grav ,tan
F

Fgrav,tan

~Fgrav sin

~Fgrav cos

## The net force on the mass m is

~F
net

= ~Fgrav + ~FT

= < ~Fgrav sin , ~Fgrav cos , 0 >

Where the first component is the tangential component and the second
component is the radial component. Thus, the
~

only component of the net force in the tangential direction is Fgrav sin .

60
Write the Momentum Principle

~F
net

d~p
dt

## Express this in the tangential direction and substitute for Fnet,tan .

Fnet,tan

~Fgrav sin

=
=

dptan
dt
dptan
dt

Thus, since ~Fgrav = mg,

Substitute =

s
L

dptan
dt

dptan
dt

= mg sin

mg sin

s
L

dptan
dt

mg

s
L

dptan
dt
d ds
m
dt dt
d2 s
m 2

dt
d2 s
g
+ s
2
dt
L

ds
dt .

## Thus the Momentum Principle gives

dvtan
s
= mg
dt
L
s
= mg
L
s
= 
mg
L
= m

(c) Compare this to the Momentum Principle applied to a mass-spring system where
d2 x ks
+ x =
dt2
m

61
and
r

ks
m

The equations for the pendulum and the mass-spring system have the same form. Thus, for the pendulum
r

g
L

## The period of the pendulum for small amplitude oscillations is given by

=
=

2
T
2
s
2

L
g

(d) A simple experiment can be constructed with a mass and string. Use a stopwatch to measure the time for 10 oscillations
(or whatever number
you choose). Measure t for N oscillations. Then T = t/N . Calculate the period from the
q
theory, T = 2

L
g,

## and compare your experimental and theoretical results.

(e) 3-D graphics are not required for this simulation. The goal is to graph s vs. t and ptan vs. t. It is useful to review the
simulation for an oscillating mass-spring system, such as the simulation for problem 2.P.72 for example. If you have
not written a simulation like the one in 2.P.72, then you may wish to write that one first.
This simulation is similar except it will not include 3-D graphics. Begin by defining importing necessary libraries and
defining important constants.
1
2
3

## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg
g = 9.8
t h e t a = 20 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s
L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s
s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h
v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12
13
14
15

p_tan = mv_tan
t = 0
dt = 0 . 0 1
Now, create the graph window and the curve to be plotted.

1
2
3
4

## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

62
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg
g = 9.8
t h e t a = 20 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s
L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s
s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h
v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12
13
14
15

p_tan = mv_tan
t = 0
dt = 0 . 0 1

16
17

18

## sGraph = g d i s p l a y ( x=0,y=400 , width =400 , h e i g h t =300 , t i t l e = ' s vs . t ' , x t i t l e= ' t ( s ) ' ,

y t i t l e= ' s (m) ' )
s P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )
Now, create a while loop. Inside this loop, calculate the tangential component of the net force on the pendulum, update
its tangential momentum, and update the arclength s. For each data point, add (s, t) it to the curve being plotted.

1
2
3

## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg
g = 9.8
t h e t a = 20 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s
L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s
s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h
v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12
13
14
15

p_tan = mv_tan
t = 0
dt = 0 . 0 1

16
17

18

## sGraph = g d i s p l a y ( x=0,y=400 , width =400 , h e i g h t =300 , t i t l e = ' s vs . t ' , x t i t l e= ' t ( s ) ' ,

y t i t l e= ' s (m) ' )
s P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

19
20
21
22
23

while 1 :
rate (1000)
Fnet_tan = mg s i n ( s /L)

24
25
26
27

## p_tan = p_tan + Fnet_tan dt

v_tan = p_tan/m
s = s + v_tan dt

28
29

t = t+dt

30
31

s P l o t . p l o t ( pos=(t , s ) )
In the example simulation above, the initial angle is 20 , and the graph appears sinusoidal. You can change this angle
to larger angles to see that the resulting graph is no longer a sine or cosine function. Its especially obvious for an
angle such as 179 . Though the function is periodic, it will be much more rounded at the maxima and minima, when

63
compared with a sine or cosine curve. A screen capture is shown in Figure 37.

Figure 37: A graph of s vs. t for a pendulum with an initial angle of 179 from the y direction.
You can use the angle and length to calculate the position of the pendulum and add 3-D animation to the simulation.
In the example below, the sphere and the string (or massless rigid rod) are defined after the constants so that the angle
and length of the pendulum can be used to calculate the position of the pendulum. In the while loop, the position of
the pendulum and the axis of the rod must be updated after s is updated and after is calculated . The angle is
necessary for calculating the position of the pendulum.
1
2
3

## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

m = 1 . 0 #mass i n kg
g = 9.8
t h e t a = 179 #t h e i n i t i a l a n g l e i n d e g r e e s
t h e t a = t h e t a p i /180 #c o n v e r t t h e t a t o r a d i a n s
L = 1 . 0 #l e n g t h o f pendulum i n m e t e r s
s = L t h e t a #i n i t i a l a r c l e n g t h
v_tan = 0 #i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y

12
13
14
15

p_tan = mv_tan
t = 0
dt = 0 . 0 1

16
17
18

b a l l = s p h e r e ( pos=(L s i n ( t h e t a ) , L c o s ( t h e t a ) , 0 ) , r a d i u s = L/ 1 0 , c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )
rod = c y l i n d e r ( pos = ( 0 , 0 , 0 ) , a x i s=b a l l . pos , r a d i u s = L/ 1 0 0 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )

19
20

21

## sGraph = g d i s p l a y ( x=0,y=400 , width =400 , h e i g h t =300 , t i t l e = ' s vs . t ' , x t i t l e= ' t ( s ) ' ,

y t i t l e= ' s (m) ' )
s P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

22
23
24
25
26

while t <30:
rate (100)
Fnet_tan = mg s i n ( s /L)

27
28
29
30

## p_tan = p_tan + Fnet_tan dt

v_tan = p_tan/m
s = s + v_tan dt

64
31

t h e t a = s /L
b a l l . pos=(L s i n ( t h e t a ) , L c o s ( t h e t a ) , 0 )
rod . a x i s = b a l l . pos

32
33
34
35

t = t+dt

36
37

s P l o t . p l o t ( pos=(t , s ) )

38

Adjust the initial angle to view the resulting motion and graph for both small angle oscillations and large angle
oscillations.

4.P.90
When starting a simulation like this, it helps to define some useful constants such as:

N

m
L0
k

## = the mass of each atom

= the equilibrium length of each bond
= bond stiffness

All quantities in the simulation should be based on the constants defined above. As a result, you can change the number of
atoms, N, for example, and see how it affects the measured speed of sound.
Begin your program by importing libraries and defining your constants. Also, you can print the theoretical value for the
speed of sound. Note that:
r
vsound

ks
d
ma

where ks is the bond stiffness, ma is the mass of an atom, and d is the diameter of an atom. We are assuming that the atoms
are closely packed as shown in Figure 38.

## Figure 38: A model of a rod as a one-dimensional line of closely packed atoms.

If the rod is made one atom, then the atomic diameter is d = L. If the rod is made of two atoms, then the atomic diameter
is d = L/2. Thus, in general, d = L/N . This the diameter that should be used in calculating the theoretical value of the
speed of sound in the rod.
So, the first part of our program looks like the example shown below. If you run it, it will print the theoretical value for
the speed of sound in the rod. You can increase the value of N which presumably improves the accuracy of the value of the
speed of sound. Note that the constant d that is calculated in the constants will be the diameter used to draw the atom. Its
used for display purposes to make the simulation look good but it not physical, meaning that its the actual diameter used
in the calculation, which is d = L/N .

65
1
2
3

## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

M= 1
N = 10
L = 1
d = 0 . 5 L/N
m = M/N
L0 = L/ (N1)
k = 10

12
13
14

## v_theor = s q r t ( k/m) L/N

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor
Now, because we are creating N number of atoms and N-1 number of bonds in our simulation, we will need to store them
in a list, which is Pythons construct for an array. So, initialize the lists for the atoms and springs (i.e. bonds) and use for
loops to create the atoms and springs used in the simulation. Spread the atoms out evenly along the rod with the left end
at x = L/2 and the right end at x = +L/2. Also, initialize the net force, velocity and momentum vectors for each atom in
the list. Run the example simulation below to see a 3-D picture of the rod, with atoms and springs.

1
2
3

## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

M= 1
N = 10
L = 1
d = 0 . 5 L/N
m = M/N
L0 = L/ (N1)
k = 10

12
13
14

## v_theor = s q r t ( k/m) L/N

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor

15
16
17

atoms = [ ]
springs =[]

18
19
20
21

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :
atom = s p h e r e ( pos=(L/2+ i L/ (N1) , 0 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 2 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )
atoms . append ( atom )

22
23
24
25
26

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :
atom=atoms [ i ]
bond = h e l i x ( pos=atom . pos , a x i s =(L0 , 0 , 0 ) , c o l o r = ( 1 , 0 . 5 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 4 )
s p r i n g s . append ( bond )

27
28
29
30
31
32

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :
atom=atoms [ i ]
atom . Fnet = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )
atom . v = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )
atom . p = matom . v
Disturb the left end by displacing the atom on the left side of the rod to the left about half a bond length. This is the

66
initial disturbance that will propagate down the rod. Also, define the time step and initialize the graph. I prefer to use the
command scene.mouse.getclick()" to make the simulation pause at this part of the program. Then, Ill have to click on the
simulation window to make it start. This gives me a chance to zoom in, rotate, move the graph window, etc. before the
simulation starts. In the example below, I also define a boolean (i.e. true/false) variable disturbenceReachedEnd that I will
use to mark the instant that the disturbance reaches the right end of the rod. See the example below.
1
2
3

## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

M= 1
N = 10
L = 1
d = 0 . 5 L/N
m = M/N
L0 = L/ (N1)
k = 10

12
13
14

## v_theor = s q r t ( k/m) L/N

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor

15
16
17

atoms = [ ]
springs =[]

18
19
20
21

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :
atom = s p h e r e ( pos=(L/2+ i L/ (N1) , 0 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 2 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )
atoms . append ( atom )

22
23
24
25
26

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :
atom=atoms [ i ]
bond = h e l i x ( pos=atom . pos , a x i s =(L0 , 0 , 0 ) , c o l o r = ( 1 , 0 . 5 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 4 )
s p r i n g s . append ( bond )

27
28
29
30
31
32

for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :
atom=atoms [ i ]
atom . Fnet = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )
atom . v = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )
atom . p = matom . v

33
34
35
36

dt = 0 . 0 0 1
t = 0

37
38

39

## xGraph = g d i s p l a y ( x=0,y=400 , width =400 , h e i g h t =300 , t i t l e = ' x vs . t f o r atom a t r i g h t end

o f t h e rod ' , x t i t l e= ' t ( s ) ' , y t i t l e= ' x (m) ' )
x P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

40
41

s c e n e . mouse . g e t c l i c k ( )

42
43

disturbenceReachedEnd = f a l s e
Now, were ready for the while loop. In the first part of the loop, calculate the force on the atom on the left side of the
~ to point parallel to the spring and
rod. Assume that the spring is attached to the centers of the atoms. Define the vector L
toward the atom that is our system, as shown in Figure 39.
The force by the spring on this atom is

67
Atom 0

Figure 39: Calculating the force on the atom on the left end of the rod.

~F
by spring on left atom

= ks sL

where s = ~L L0 and is the distance the spring is stretched or compressed. If the spring is stretched s is positive. If it is
compressed, s is negative. So, if the spring is stretched, ~Fby spring is opposite ~L, and if the spring is compressed, ~Fby spring is
in the same direction as ~L.
Note that the first atom is atom[0] in the list and the second atom is atom[1] in the list and so on. Heres the while loop
and its first part that calculates the force on the left atom. The vector ~L is called L01 in the program, meaning the vector
from atom 1 to atom 0.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

while 1 :
# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r
L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos
L01_mag = mag( L01 )
L01_hat = L01/L01_mag
s = L01_mag L0
atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat
For the atom on the right end of the bar, the spring is toward the left as shown in Figure 40.
Atom 9

Figure 40: Calculating the force on the atom on the right end of the rod.
Thus, the vector ~L points to the right, again toward the atom that is the system. This atom is atom[9] if N=10. But in
general, this atom is atom[N-1] and its nearest neighbor is atom[N-2]. The code to calculate the force on this atom is shown
below.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

while 1 :
# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r
L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos
L01_mag = mag( L01 )
L01_hat = L01/L01_mag
s = L01_mag L0
atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat

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# l a s t atom on r i g h t end o f b a r
L l a s t = atoms [ N 1 ] . pos atoms [ N 2 ] . pos
Llast_mag = mag( L l a s t )
Lla st_hat = L l a s t / Llast_mag

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s = Llast_mag L0
atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet = k s Lla st_hat
Now that we know how to calculate the force on an atom due to a spring on its right side and the force on an atom due to a
spring on its left side, we can calculate the forces on the middle atoms in the rod. See the while loop below. You will notice
that the force due to the spring on the left and the force due to the spring on the right are added together to get the net
force on the atom.

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while 1 :
# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r
L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos
L01_mag = mag( L01 )
L01_hat = L01/L01_mag
s = L01_mag L0
atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat

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#atoms i n t h e m i d d l e

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f o r i in r a n g e ( 1 ,N1) :
L r i g h t = atoms [ i ] . pos atoms [ i + 1 ] . pos
Lright_mag = mag( L r i g h t )
Lright_hat = L r i g h t / Lright_mag
s = Lright_mag L0
F r i g h t = k s Lright_hat

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## L l e f t = atoms [ i ] . pos atoms [ i 1 ] . pos

Lleft_mag = mag( L l e f t )
L l e f t _ h a t = L l e f t / Lleft_mag
s = Lleft_mag L0
F l e f t = k s L l e f t _ h a t

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atoms [ i ] . Fnet = F r i g h t + F l e f t

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# l a s t atom on r i g h t end o f b a r
L l a s t = atoms [ N 1 ] . pos atoms [ N 2 ] . pos
Llast_mag = mag( L l a s t )
Lla st_hat = L l a s t / Llast_mag
s = Llast_mag L0
atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet = k s Lla st_hat
After computing the net force on each atoms, then you need to update their momenta and positions and you need to update
the springs positions and axes, just for display purposes. The rest of the while statement updates the graph and calculates
and prints the measured speed of sound when the disturbance reaches the last atom. The entire program is shown below.

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## from __future__ import d i v i s i o n

from v i s u a l import
from v i s u a l . graph import

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M= 1
N = 10
L = 1
d = 0 . 5 L/N
m = M/N
L0 = L/ (N1)
k = 10

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## v_theor = s q r t ( k/m) L/N

print " t h e o r e t i c a l s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_theor

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atoms = [ ]
springs =[]

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for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :
atom = s p h e r e ( pos=(L/2+ i L/ (N1) , 0 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 2 , c o l o r=c o l o r . w h i t e )
atoms . append ( atom )

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for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :
atom=atoms [ i ]
bond = h e l i x ( pos=atom . pos , a x i s =(L0 , 0 , 0 ) , c o l o r = ( 1 , 0 . 5 , 0 ) , r a d i u s = d / 4 )
s p r i n g s . append ( bond )

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for i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :
atom=atoms [ i ]
atom . Fnet = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )
atom . v = v e c t o r ( 0 , 0 , 0 )
atom . p = matom . v

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dt = 0 . 0 0 1
t = 0

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## xGraph = g d i s p l a y ( x=0,y=400 , width =400 , h e i g h t =300 , t i t l e = ' x vs . t f o r atom a t r i g h t end

o f t h e rod ' , x t i t l e= ' t ( s ) ' , y t i t l e= ' x (m) ' )
x P l o t = g c u r v e ( c o l o r=c o l o r . y e l l o w )

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s c e n e . mouse . g e t c l i c k ( )

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disturbenceReachedEnd = f a l s e

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while 1 :
# f i r s t atom on l e f t end o f b a r
L01 = atoms [ 0 ] . pos atoms [ 1 ] . pos
L01_mag = mag( L01 )
L01_hat = L01/L01_mag
s = L01_mag L0
atoms [ 0 ] . Fnet = k s L01_hat

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#atoms i n t h e m i d d l e

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for i in r a n g e ( 1 ,N1) :
L r i g h t = atoms [ i ] . pos atoms [ i + 1 ] . pos
Lright_mag = mag( L r i g h t )
Lright_hat = L r i g h t / Lright_mag
s = Lright_mag L0
F r i g h t = k s Lright_hat

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## L l e f t = atoms [ i ] . pos atoms [ i 1 ] . pos

Lleft_mag = mag( L l e f t )
L l e f t _ h a t = L l e f t / Lleft_mag
s = Lleft_mag L0

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F l e f t = k s L l e f t _ h a t

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atoms [ i ] . Fnet = F r i g h t + F l e f t

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# l a s t atom on r i g h t end o f b a r
L l a s t = atoms [ N 1 ] . pos atoms [ N 2 ] . pos
Llast_mag = mag( L l a s t )
Lla st_hat = L l a s t / Llast_mag
s = Llast_mag L0
atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet = k s Lla st_hat

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## # u p d a t e momentum and p o s i t i o n o f each atom

f o r i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N) :
atoms [ i ] . p = atoms [ i ] . p + atoms [ i ] . Fnet dt
atoms [ i ] . v = atoms [ i ] . p/m
atoms [ i ] . pos = atoms [ i ] . pos + atoms [ i ] . v dt

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# u p d a t e each s p r i n g
f o r i in r a n g e ( 0 ,N1) :
spring = springs [ i ]
s p r i n g . pos = atoms [ i ] . pos
s p r i n g . a x i s = atoms [ i + 1 ] . pos atoms [ i ] . pos

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t = t+dt

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## x P l o t . p l o t ( pos=(t , atoms [ N 1 ] . pos . x ) )

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# c h e c k i f t h e d i s t u r b e n c e r e a c h e d t h e r i g h t end o f t h e rod
i f mag( atoms [ N 1 ] . Fnet ) > 0 . 0 0 1 :
# c a l c u l a t e and p r i n t t h e s p e e d
i f ( disturbenceReachedEnd ==f a l s e ) :
v_meas = L/ t
print " measured s p e e d o f sound i s " , v_meas
disturbenceReachedEnd = t r u e
You can increase the number of atoms N to improve the accuracy of the simulation. Some theoretical and measured values
for the speed of sound in this rod for various values of N are shown in Table 2. (In this case, L = 1 m, m = 1 kg, k = 10 N/m.
You will notice that the accuracy improves with greater N .
N (# of atoms)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

vtheoretical (m/s)
1.0
0.707
0.577
0.500
0.447
0.408
0.378
0.354
0.333
0.316

vmeasured (m/s)
1.832
0.923
0.679
0.557
0.482
0.428
0.375
0.350
0.329
0.312

## Table 2: Results of the speed of sound simulation for L = 1 m, m = 1 kg, k = 10 N/m.

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You will notice that the best accuracy actually occurs at about 70 atoms. This is because the measured speed for low N is
greater than the theoretical value. For N > 70, the measured speed is less than the theoretical value. Somewhere around
N = 70 is the transition.