Summed-up notes from books and webs on ANOVA

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Summed-up notes from books and webs on ANOVA

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Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Inferential Statistics.docx
- 09 Analysis of Variance- Part1
- Three Things Statistics Books Don't Tell You by Seth Roberts
- Gage R&R Form
- Balding 2006
- Journal.pone.0017059
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- BSDA
- ENME 392 - Homework 13 - Fa13_Solutions
- Perceptions of Cooperation
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
- Customer’s Criteria for Selecting an Islamic Bank Evidence From Pakistan
- 80-330-
- Lecture Chp10
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- COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BETWEEN THE COMPANIES WITH FOREIGN AND LOCAL OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE
- research assignment 1
- 7.3 Fractiona Factorial
- Example of Journal Critique

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Week 11

Parametric technique

One-way between groups ANOVA

One-way repeated measures ANOVA

Two-way between groups ANOVA

Mixed between-within group ANOVA

Non-parametric technique

Kruskal-Wallis Test

Friedman Test

None

None

Analysis of variance is used when you have two or more groups or time points.

Paired-sample/ repeated measures/ within-group techniques are used when you test the same

people on more than one occasion, or you have matched pairs.

Independent/ between-group techniques are used when the participants in each group are different

people (independent of one another).

One-way ANOVA one categorical independent variable (e.g.: gender) and one continuous

dependent variable (e.g.: scores)

Two-way ANOVA two independent variables (e.g.: gender, age group) and one continuous

dependent variable (e.g: scores)

A manager wants to raise the productivity at his company by increasing the speed at which his

employees can use a particular spreadsheet program. As he does not have the skills in-house, he

employs an external agency which provides training in this spreadsheet program. They offer 3

courses: a beginner, intermediate and advanced course. He is unsure which course is needed for the

type of work they do at his company, so he sends 10 employees on the beginner course, 10 on the

intermediate and 10 on the advanced course. When they all return from the training, he gives them

a problem to solve using the spreadsheet program, and times how long it takes them to complete

the problem. He then compares the three courses (beginner, intermediate, advanced) to see if there

are any differences in the average time it took to complete the problem.

One-way between-group ANOVA

Heart disease is one of the largest causes of premature death and it is now known that chronic, lowlevel inflammation is a cause of heart disease. Exercise is known to have many benefits, including

protection against heart disease. A researcher wants to know whether this protection against heart

disease might be due to exercise reducing inflammation. The researcher was also curious as to

whether this protection might be gained over a short period of time or whether it took longer. In

order to investigate this idea, the researcher recruited 20 participants who underwent a 6-month

exercise training program. In order to determine whether inflammation had been reduced, the

researcher measured the inflammatory marker called CRP at pre-training, 2 weeks into training and

after 6 months of training.

One-way repeated measures ANOVA/ One-way within-group ANOVA

2

Assumptions for one-way between-group/within-group ANOVA:

Before running any parametric test, we always need to make sure that the data we want to analyse

can actually be analysed using a one-way ANOVA.

Between-group

Within-group

Assumption #1: The dependent variable should be measured at the interval or ratio

level (i.e., continuous scale rather than discrete scale).

For example: Revision time (measured in hours), intelligence (measured using IQ score), exam

performance (measured from 0 to 100), weight (measured in kg).

Assumption #2: The independent

variable should consist of two or more

categorical, independent groups. When you

have only two groups (e.g.: gender: male and

female), an independent-samples t-test is

commonly used, although one-way ANOVA will

generate the same results.

For example: Ethnicity (e.g., 3 groups:

Caucasian, African American and Hispanic),

physical activity level (e.g., 4 groups: sedentary,

low, moderate and high), profession (e.g., 5

groups: surgeon, doctor, nurse, dentist,

therapist).

variable should consist of at least two

categorical, "related groups" or "matched

pairs". "Related groups" indicates that the

same subjects are present in both groups. The

reason that it is possible to have the same

subjects in each group is because each subject

has been measured on two occasions on the

same dependent variable.

For example, individuals' performance in a

spelling test (the dependent variable) before

and after they underwent a new form of

computerized teaching method to improve

spelling. The repeated measures ANOVA can

also be used to compare different subjects, but

this does not happen very often.

Assumption #3: You should have independence of observations, which means that there is no

relationship between the observations in each group or between the groups themselves. For

example, when using between-group techniques, there must be different participants in each

group with no participant being in more than one group. This is more of a study design issue than

something you can test for, but it is an important assumption of the one-way ANOVA. If your

study fails this assumption, you will need to use another statistical test instead of the one-way

ANOVA (e.g., a repeated measures design).

N/A for within-group techniques

Assumption #4: There should be no significant outliers. Outliers are simply single data points

within your data that do not follow the usual pattern (e.g., in a study of 100 students' IQ scores,

where the mean score was 108 with only a small variation between students, one student had a

score of 156, which is very unusual, and may even put her in the top 1% of IQ scores globally). The

problem with outliers is that they can have a negative effect on the one-way ANOVA, reducing the

validity and accuracy of your results.

Assumption #5: Your dependent variable should be approximately normally distributed for each

category of the independent variable. We talk about the one-way ANOVA only

requiring approximately normal data because it is quite "robust" to violations of normality,

meaning that assumption can be a little violated and still provide valid results, provided that the

experiment design is balanced. You can test for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test of

normality, which is easily tested for using SPSS Statistics.

3

Assumption #6: There needs to

be homogeneity of variances. You can test this

assumption in SPSS Statistics using Levene's

test for homogeneity of variances. If your data

fails this assumption, you will need to carry out

a Welch ANOVA instead of a one-way ANOVA,

which you can do using SPSS Statistics, and also

use a different post-hoc test.

variances of the differences between all

combinations of related groups must be equal.

Unfortunately, repeated measures ANOVAs are

particularly susceptible to violating the

assumption of sphericity, which causes the test

to become too liberal (i.e., leads to an increase

in the Type I error rate; that is, the likelihood of

detecting a statistically significant result when

there isn't one). Fortunately, SPSS Statistics

makes it easy to test whether your data has

met or failed this assumption.

Example:

Research question: Is there a statistically significant difference in undergraduate students grade

points for a Statistics class based on the type of lecture medium (online conference class, traditional

lecture, and traditional lecture supplemented by online conference class).

: There is no statistically significant difference in undergraduate students grade points for a

Statistics class based on the type of lecture (online conference class, traditional lecture, and

traditional lecture supplemented by online conference class).

Null hypothesis: No difference between population means (1 = 2 = 3 ).

=

Research hypothesis: Population means are different (1 2 3 ).

>

One-Way ANOVA

Control

Control

Outcome

(Dependent

variable)

Treatment

1

Treatment

Treatment

2

Outcome

(Dependent

variable)

4

Example #1 (post hoc):

We have three teaching program (online conference class, traditional lecture, and traditional lecture

supplemented by online conference class) and we are interested in the effectiveness of each

program on increasing undergraduate students grade points for a Statistics class. Below is the data

for analysis.

MEAN, X

Online conference

class

12

15

9

12.00

Traditional lecture

20

19

23

20.67

by online conference class

40

35

42

39.00

Table Summary:

SS

Between

Within

Total

df

k-1

MS

SS (B)

k-1

N-k

SS (W)

N-k

)

n (X X

)2

(X X

(X

X)2

N-1

j refers to the specific group.

k refers to the number of conditions/ treatments/ groups.

n is the observations in each group (level of factor A).

N refers to the total number of participants for the entire study.

F-ratio

MS (B)

MS (W)

5

Computation of ANOVA:

Sum of squares between-groups examines the differences among the group means by calculating

) around the grand mean (X

). This is variation in scores that is due to

the variation of each mean (X

the treatment (or independent variable).

SSA = n (X

X)2

= 12.00+20.67+39.00

X

X=

3

12+15+9+20+19+23+40+35+42

9

= .

= 1140.21

Sum of squares within-group examines error variation or variation of individual scores around each

group mean. This is variation in scores that is not due to the treatment (or independent variable) but

due to variation in individuals.

)2

SSS/A = (X X

=0+9+9

= 18.00

SSTraditional = (20-20.67)2 + (19 20.67)2 + (23 20.67)2

= 0.44 + 2.78 + 5.44

= 8.67

SSOnline and traditional combination = (40-39)2 + (35 39)2 + (42 39)2

= 1 + 16 + 9

= 26.00

SSS/A = 18 + 8.67 + 26

= 52.67

6

Total sum of squares can be computed by adding SSA and SSS/A , but also by simply subtracting each

score from the grand mean, squaring, and then summing across all cases.

SST = SSA + SSS/A

SST = (X

X)2

SST = (12 23.89)2 + (15 23.89)2 + (9 23.89)2 + (20 23.89)2 + (19 23.89)2 +

(23 23.89)2 + (40 23.89)2 + (35 23.89)2 + (42 23.89)2

= 141.35 + 79.01 + 221.68 + 15.12 + 23.90 + 0.79 + 259.57 + 123.46 + 328.01

= 1192.89

Between

Within

Total

SS

1140.21

df

3 1 =2

MS

570.105

52.67

9 -3 = 6

8.779

1192.89

91=8

F-ratio

64.94

7

Test procedures in SPSS Statistics

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Dependent List: Dependent Variable

Factor: Independent Variable

Post hoc: Tukey

Options: Descriptive, Homogeneity of variance test, Means Plot

Missing Values: Exclude cases by analysis by analysis

Data Outcome:

Levenes Test tests the homogeneity of variance (HOV)/ whether the variances of the groups are the

same.

***If Levenes test is significant, (i.e.: the p-value is less than .05), then we can say that the

variances are significantly different and we have violated the assumption of homogeneity. We

always want the p-value for Levenet test to be more than .05, and not violate the assumption of

HOV.

When we found that we have violated the HOV assumption, we will need to refer to the table

Robust Tests of Equality of Means.

Solution: Adjust the F-test to correct the problem using Brown-Forsythe (1974) F-ratio or Welchs F.

Effect size:

One can estimate the magnitude of the effect of the independent variable by computing 2 or 2 .

SSA

2 =

SST

2 =

1140.222

1192.9

= 0.95 or 95%

2 =

2 =

1140.222(21)(8.778)

1192.9+ 8.778

SSA ( 1)(MSS/A )

SST + MSS/A

= 0.94 or 94%

Reporting of results:

There was a statistically significant difference between groups as determined by one-way ANOVA

(F(2,6) = 64.949, p < .001). A Tukey HSD post-hoc test revealed that the effectiveness of the

treatment is significant for all treatments: online class (M = 12.00, SD = 3.00); traditional class (M =

20.67, SD = 2.08) and traditional class with online class (M = 39.00, SD = 3.61). Traditional class is

more statistically significant with both Treatment A and B at p < .001. The proportion of variance in

undergraduates grade accounted by the type of teaching program was approximately 95% (2 =

0.95).

8

Pairwise comparison

(i)

Planned comparisons are more sensitive in detecting the differences.

However, they do not control for the increased risks of Type 1 errors (rejecting the

null hypothesis when it is true). Post hoc set a more stringent significance levels to

reduce the risk of a Type 1 error, given the larger number of comparison tests

performed.

One way to control for Type 1 error is to apply Bonferroni adjustment to the alpha

level that you will use to judge statistical significance. This involves setting a more

stringent alpha level for each comparison, to keep the alpha across all the tests at a

reasonable level.

To achieve this, you divide the alpha level (usually .05) by the number of

comparisons that you intend to make.

Test procedures in SPSS Statistics

Same procedure as one-way ANOVA but just that instead of clicking on the

post-hoc button, we click on the contrasts button.

Coefficients: Put in the pre-determined coefficients

Make sure that the coefficient total comes up to 0.

(ii)

Post-hoc comparison: Conducted if the F-ratio is significant and are exploratory. The

common ones are Fishers LSD, Tukeys and Scheffe tests.

Post hoc comparisons are designed to guard against the possibility of an increased

Type 1 error due to the large number of different comparisons being made. This is

done by setting more stringent criteria for significance, and therefore it is often

harder to achieve significance. With small samples, this can be a problem, as it can

be very hard to find a significance result even when the apparent difference in

scores between the groups is quite large.

Same procedure as one-way ANOVA and click on the post-hoc button.

** It is not appropriate to try both and see which results you prefer!

9

Example # 1 (Planned comparison):

We have three teaching program (online conference class, traditional lecture, and traditional lecture

supplemented by online conference class) and we are interested in the effectiveness of each

program on increasing undergraduate students grade points for a Statistics class. Below is the data

for analysis.

Online conference

Traditional lecture

Traditional lecture supplemented

class

by online conference class

12

20

40

15

19

35

9

23

42

MEAN

12.00

20.67

39.00

Research question 1: Is combination of traditional lecture and online conference class is superior to

online conference class and traditional stand-alone?

: A traditional lecture supplemented by online conference class is NOT superior to online

conference class and traditional alone.

: No difference between population means for online class vs. combination of lecture and online

class (1 = 3 ) and traditional lecture vs. combination of lecture and online class (2 = 3 ).

class and traditional alone.

1 : There is a difference between population means for online class vs. combination of lecture and

online class (1 < 3 ) and traditional lecture vs. combination of lecture and online class (2 < 3 ).

Type of lecture

Online conference class

Traditional lecture

Traditional lecture supplemented by online

conference class

Coded as

A

B

C

Coefficients

-1

-1

2

online conference class alone? (Ignoring the traditional lecture).

: No difference between population means for online class vs. combination of lecture and online

class (1 = 3 ).

1 : There is a difference between population means for online class vs. combination of lecture and

online class (1 < 3 ).

Type of lecture

Online conference class

Traditional lecture

Traditional lecture supplemented by online

conference class

Coded as

A

B

C

Coefficients

-1

0

1

10

Example #2 (Planned comparison):

A researcher wants to test the effectiveness of Drug X on preventing seasonal allergy and she

administered the drugs to the patients in her research clinic. She randomly grouped them into 3

conditions: placebo (sugar pill), low dose and high dose. The dependant variable is an objective

measure of the effectiveness of the drug.

s

2

Placebo

3

2

1

1

4

2.20

1.30

1.70

Low Dose

5

2

4

2

3

3.20

1.30

1.70

Grand Mean= 3.467

Grand SD= 1.767

Grand Variance= 3.124

High Dose

7

4

5

3

6

5.00

1.58

2.50

One-Way ANOVA

= Means for the three groups are the same = = =

1 = Means for the three groups are different=

Planned comparisons

Research question 1: Is Drug X superior to placebo? Is Drug X effective in preventing seasonal

allergy?

Conditions

Placebo

Low dose

High dose

Coded as

A

B

C

Coefficients

-2

1

1

Research question 2: What is the amount of dose that is needed to prevent seasonal allergy?

Conditions

Placebo

Low dose

High dose

Coded as

A

B

C

Coefficients

0

-1

1

11

Figure 1: Overview of the general procedure for one-way ANOVA

Explore data

homogeneity, etc.

Boxplots, histograms,

descriptive statistics

Correct outliers/normality

problems

Levene's test

significant

Follow-up tests

Specific hypotheses

Planned comparisons

No hypotheses

Post-hoc tests

12

One-way Repeated Measures ANOVA/ Within-subjects ANOVA/ ANOVA for correlated samples

It is equivalent of the one-way ANOVA, but for related and not-independent groups. You can also

think of it as an extension of the dependent t-test.

There is one categorical (e.g.: nominal or ordinal) independent variable and one continuous (e.g.:

interval or ratio) dependent variable.

We use a repeated measures of ANOVA when:

(1) It is a study that investigates changes in mean scores over three or more time points.

For example, you might be investigating the effect of a 6-month exercise training

programme on blood pressure and want to measure blood pressure at 3 separate time

points (pre-, midway and post-exercise intervention), which would allow you to develop a

time-course for any exercise effect.

In repeated measures ANOVA, the independent variable has categories

called levels or related groups. Where measurements are repeated over time, such as when

measuring changes in blood pressure due to an exercise-training programme, the

independent variable is time. Each level (or related group) is a specific time point. Hence,

for the exercise-training study, there would be three time points and each time-point is a

level of the independent variable (a schematic of a time-course repeated measures design is

shown below):

13

(2) It is a study that investigates differences in mean scores under three or more different

conditions.

For example, you might get the same subjects to eat different types of cake (chocolate,

caramel and lemon) and rate each one for taste, rather than having different people flavour

each different cake.

Where measurements are made under different conditions, the conditions are the levels (or

related groups) of the independent variable (e.g., type of cake is the independent variable

with chocolate, caramel, and lemon cake as the levels of the independent variable). A

schematic of a different-conditions repeated measures design is shown below. It should be

noted that often the levels of the independent variable are not referred to as conditions,

but treatments. Which one you want to use is up to you. There is no right or wrong naming

convention. You will also see the independent variable more commonly referred to as

the within-subjects factor.

***It is important to note that for these two studies mentioned above, the same people are being

measured more than once on the same dependent variable. This is also why it is called repeated

measures design.

Hypothesis for Repeated Measures ANOVA

The repeated measures ANOVA tests for whether there are any differences between related

population means. The null hypothesis (H0) states that the means are equal:

H0: 1 = 2 = 3 = = k

where = population mean and k = number of related groups. The alternative hypothesis (HA) states

that the related population means are not equal (at least one mean is different to another mean):

14

F-Ratio:

One-way ANOVA

In one-way ANOVA, we partition the variability attributable to the differences between groups

(SSconditions) and variability within groups (SSw).

However, with a repeated measures ANOVA, as we are using the same subjects in each group, we

can remove the variability due to the individual differences between subjects, referred to as

SSsubjects, from the within-groups variability (SSw). Each subject becomes a level of a factor

called subjects. And, with the ability to subtract SSsubjects it will leave us with a smaller

SSerror term.

The between-subjects variability, our new SSerror only reflects individual variability to each

condition. You might recognise this as the interaction effect of subject by conditions; that is, how

subjects react to the different conditions.

15

Example # 3

You are interested to investigate the effect of a 6-month exercise training programme on blood

pressure and want to measure blood pressure at 3 separate time points (pre-, midway and postexercise intervention), which would allow you to develop a time-course for any exercise effect.

Subjects

Pre

Exercise intervention

3 months

6 months

1

2

3

4

5

6

Mean, X

45

42

36

39

51

44

42.83

50

42

41

35

55

49

45.33

55

45

43

40

59

56

49.67

Subject Means, X

50

43

40

38

55

49.67

Table Summary:

SS

df

k-1

MS

SS (B)

k-1

F-ratio

MS (B)

MS (e)

)2

(X X

n-1

SS (W)

N-k

MS (W)

MS (e)

SS = SS + SS

(k-1)(n-1)

SS (e)

(k-1)(n-1)

Between

(Treatments)

)

n (X X

Within

(Subjects)

Error

SS = SS SS

)2

SS =k (X X

Total

(X

X)2

j refers to the specific group.

k refers to the number of levels in a factor

n is the subjects in each group (level of factor A)

N is the total number of subjects in the whole study.

N-1

16

Computation of ANOVA:

Sum of squares between-groups examines the differences between related group means by

) around the grand mean (X

). This is variation in scores that

calculating the variation of each mean (X

is due to the treatment (or independent variable).

SSBetween = n (X

X)2

= 6 [9.61 + 0.36 + 14.44]

=

143.44

Sum of squares within-group examines error variation or variation of individual scores around each

group mean. This is variation in scores that is not due to the treatment (or independent variable) but

due to variation caused by other factors.

SSwithin = (X

X )2

SSpre = (45 42.8)2 + (42 42.8)2 + (36 42.8)2 + (39 42.8)2 + (51 42.8)2 + (44 42.8)2

= 134.83

SS3months = (50 45.3)2 + (42 45.3)2 + (41 45.3)2 + (35 45.3)2 + (55 45.3)2 + (49 45.3)2

= 265.33

SS6months = (55 49.7)2 + (45 49.7)2 + (43 49.7)2 + (40 49.7)2 + (59 49.7)2 + (56 49.7)2

= 315.33

= 715.5

Sum of squares error examines error variation or variation of individual scores around each group

mean. This is variation in scores that is not due to the treatment (or independent variable) but due

to variation caused by other factors.

SSSubjects = 3 [(50 45.9)2 + (43 45.9)2 + (40 45.9)2 + (38 45.9)2 + (55 45.9)2 + (49.7 45.9)2 ]

= 658.3

17

SS = SS + SS

SS = SS SS

SS = 715.5 658.3

= .

Total sum of squares can be computed by adding SSA and SSS/A , but also by simply subtracting each

score from the grand mean, squaring, and then summing across all cases.

SST = SSbetween + SSwithin + SSerror

SST = (X

X)2

SST = (12 23.89)2 + (15 23.89)2 + (9 23.89)2 + (20 23.89)2 + (19 23.89)2 +

(23 23.89)2 + (40 23.89)2 + (35 23.89)2 + (42 23.89)2

= 141.35 + 79.01 + 221.68 + 15.12 + 23.90 + 0.79 + 259.57 + 123.46 + 328.01

= 1192.89

Between

SS

143.44

df

3 1 =2

MS

71.72

Within

715.5

6-1 =5

143.1

Error

57.2

(3-1)(6-1) =10

5.72

Total

858.94

18 1 = 17

F-ratio

12.53

There was a statistically significant effect of time on exercise-induced fitness, F (2, 10) = 12.53, p =

.002.

2

SS

SS + SS

18

1. Click Analyze > General Linear Model > Repeated Measures

2. Within Subject Factor Name: Put in meaningful name for your Independent Variable (e.g.:

Time or Condition)

3. Number of Levels: No. of levels in the factor

4. Measure Name: Put in meaningful name for your Dependent Variable

5. Define

6. Within-subjects variables: Drag the related levels for IV into this box in order (e.g.: Time 1,

Time 2, Time 3).

7. Plots: Move factors into Horizontal Axis, then Add and Continue

8. Options: Transfer IV from Factor(s) and Factor Interaction to the Display Means for.

9. Tick Compare Main Effects

10. Select Bonferroni for Confidence interval adjustment.

11. Display: Descriptive statistics, Estimates of effect size and Homogeneity tests.

12. Continue and OK.

19

Increased Power in a Repeated Measures ANOVA

The major advantage with running a repeated measures ANOVA over an independent

ANOVA is that the test is generally much more powerful. This particular advantage is achieved by the

reduction in MSerror (the denominator of the F-statistic) that comes from the partitioning of

variability due to differences between subjects (SSsubjects) from the original error term in an

independent ANOVA (SSw): i.e. SSerror = SSw - SSsubjects.

We achieved a result of F(2, 10) = 12.53, p = .002, for our example repeated measures

ANOVA. How does this compare to if we had run an independent ANOVA instead? Well, if we ran

through the calculations, we would have ended up with a result ofF(2, 15) = 1.504, p = .254, for the

independent ANOVA. We can clearly see the advantage of using the same subjects in a repeated

measures ANOVA as opposed to different subjects.

For our exercise-training example, the illustration below shows that after taking away

SSsubjectsfrom SSw we are left with an error term (SSerror) that is only 8% as large as the

independent ANOVA error term.

This does not lead to an automatic increase in the F-statistic as there are a greater number

of degrees of freedom for SSw than SSerror. However, it is usual for SSsubjects to account for such a

large percentage of the within-groups variability that the reduction in the error term is large enough

to more than compensate for the loss in the degrees of freedom (as used in selecting an Fdistribution).

Underlying Assumptions: Sphericity

ANOVAs with repeated measures (within-subject factors) are particularly susceptible to the

violation of the assumption of sphericity. Sphericity is the condition where the variances of the

differences between all combinations of related groups (levels) are equal. Violation of sphericity is

when the variances of the differences between all combinations of related groups are not equal.

Sphericity can be likened to homogeneity of variances in a between-subjects ANOVA.

The violation of sphericity is serious for the repeated measures ANOVA, with violation

causing the test to become too liberal (i.e., an increase in the Type I error rate). Therefore,

determining whether sphericity has been violated is very important. Luckily, if violations of sphericity

do occur, corrections have been developed to produce a more valid critical F-value (i.e., reduce the

increase in Type I error rate). This is achieved by estimating the degree to which sphericity has been

violated and applying a correction factor to the degrees of freedom of the F-distribution.

Testing for sphericity is an option in SPSS using Mauchly's Test for Sphericity as part of the

GLM Repeated Measures procedure. Mauchly's Test of Sphericity tests the null hypothesis that the

variances of the differences are equal. Thus, if Mauchly's Test of Sphericity is statistically significant

(p < .05), we can reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that the variances

of the differences are not equal (i.e., sphericity has been violated).

20

Measure: CBR

Within Subjects

Mauchly's

Approx. Chi-

Square

Effect

time

.434

df

3.343

Epsilonb

Sig.

Greenhouse-

Huynh-

Lower-

Geisser

Feldt

bound

.188

.638

.760

.500

Tests the null hypothesis that the error covariance matrix of the orthonormalized transformed dependent

variables is proportional to an identity matrix.

a. Design: Intercept

Within Subjects Design: time

b. May be used to adjust the degrees of freedom for the averaged tests of significance. Corrected tests are

displayed in the Tests of Within-Subjects Effects table.

Mauchly's Test of Sphericity indicated that the assumption of sphericity had not been violated, 2 =

3.343, p = .188

Mauchly's Test of Sphericity indicated that the assumption of sphericity had been violated, 2(2) =

22.115, p < .0005, and therefore, a Greenhouse-Geisser correction was used. There was a significant

effect of time the DV, F(1.171, 38) = XXX, p < .0005.

Small: 0.01

Medium: 0.059

Large: 0.138

So if you end up with = 0.45, you can assume the effect size is very large. It also means that 45%

of the change in the DV can be accounted for by the IV.

21

Results:

Table 97

Descriptive statistics for effect of a 6-month exercise training at 3 time points: pre, mid and

post exercise.

Source

Pre

3 months

6 months

n

6

6

6

Mean

42.83

45.33

49.67

Standard deviation, SD

5.19

7.29

7.94

Table 98

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) summary

Source

Time

Error (Time)

SS

143.44

57.22

df

2

10

MS

71.72

5.72

F

12.53

p

.002

2

.715

Table 99

Bonferroni comparison for time: pre, 3 months, and 6 months.

Comparisons

Time

Pre vs. 6 months

3 months vs. 6 months

Mean

Difference

Std.

Error

6.83*

4.33*

1.70

.72

95% CI

Lower

Upper

Bound

Bound

.82

1.81

12.85

6.86

* p < 0.05

Reporting the result:

A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate the effect of a 6-month exercise training

programme on blood pressure at 3 separate time points (pre-, midway and post-exercise

intervention). The mean and standard deviations of word status are presented in Table 3. Mauchly's

Test of Sphericity indicated that the assumption of sphericity had not been violated, 2 = 3.343, p =

.188.

The repeated measures ANOVA determined that blood pressure due to exercise effect and time

differed statistically significantly (F(2, 10) = 12.53, P = 0.002). Partial eta squared is reported at .715

(large). Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that the mean difference in blood

pressure for pre and 6-month (MD = 6.83, SD = 1.70, CI = .821 to 12.846) and 3-month and 6-month

(MD = 4.33, SD = 4.33, CI= 1.81 to 6.86) were statistically significant. However, there is no significant

difference in blood pressure for pre and 3-month (MD = 2.50, SD = 1.52, CI = 2.88 to 7.88).

Therefore, we can conclude that a long-term exercise training programme (6-month) elicits a

significant reduction in blood pressure, but not after only 3 months of training.

22

Example # 4

Research conducted by: Pearson et al. (2003)

Case study prepared by: David Lane and Emily Zitek

Overview: This study investigated the cognitive effects of stimulant medication in children with

mental retardation and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. This case study shows the data for

the Delay of Gratification (DOG) task. Children were given various dosages of a drug,

methylphenidate (MPH) and then completed this task as part of a larger battery of tests. The order

of doses was counterbalanced so that each dose appeared equally often in each position. For

example, six children received the lowest dose first, six received it second, etc. The children were on

each dose one week before testing.

This task, adapted from the preschool delay task of the Gordon Diagnostic System (Gordon, 1983),

measures the ability to suppress or delay impulsive behavioral responses. Children were told that a

star would appear on the computer screen if they waited long enough to press a response key. If a

child responded sooner in less than four seconds after their previous response, they did not earn a

star, and the 4-second counter restarted. The DOG differentiates children with and without ADHD of

normal intelligence (e.g., Mayes et al., 2001), and is sensitive to MPH treatment in these children

(Hall & Kataria, 1992).

Questions to Answer

Does higher dosage lead to higher cognitive performance (measured by the number of correct

responses to the DOG task)?

Design Issues

This is a repeated-measures design because each participant performed the task after each dosage.

Descriptions of Variables

Variable

Description

d0

d15

d30

d60

Number of correct responses after taking .15 mg/kg of the drug

Number of correct responses after taking .30 mg/kg of the drug

Number of correct responses after taking .60 mg/kg of the drug

References:

Pearson, D.A., Santos, C.W., Jerger, S.W., Casat, C.D., Roache, J., Loveland, K.A., Lane, D.M., Lachar,

D., Faria, L.P., & Getchell, C. (2003) Treatment effects of methylphenidate on cognitive

functioning in children with mental retardation and ADHD. Journal of the American Academy

of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 677-685.

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