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1-6

Example 1-1

Composite Beam Design

Given:
A series of 45-ft. span composite beams at 10 ft. o/c are carrying the loads shown below. The beams are ASTM
A992 and are unshored. The concrete has / c ^ 4 ksi. Design a typical floor beam w i t l ( 3 ^ ^ ^ 8 gage composite deck,
and 4!/2 in. normal weight concrete above the deck, for fire protection and mass. Selep? an appropriate beam and
determine the required number of shear studs.

10'-0 to next beam


5'-0 N.T.S.
f.

10'-0 to next beam


5'-0 N.T.S.
JCO

Solution:
Material Properties:
Concrete
f[ = 4 ksi
Beam

Manual
Table 2-3

Fu = 65 ksi

Fy = 50 ksi

Loads:
Dead load:
Slab
= 0.075 kip/ft^
Beam weight = 0.008 kip/ft^
Miscellaneous = 0.010 kip/ft^

(assumed)
(ceiling etc.)

Live load:
Non-reduced-0.10 kips/ft^ '
Since each beam is spaced at 10 ft. o.c.
Total dead load
Total live load

= 0.093 kip/tf (10 ft.) = 0.93 kips/ft.


= 0.10 kip/ft^( 1 Oft.) = 1.00 kips/ft..

Construction dead load (unshored) = 0.083 kip/ft^dO ft) = 0.83 kips/ft


Construction live load (unshored) - 0.020 kip/ft^(10 ft) = 0.20 kips/ft

=
^

0,0OS^lF(\oFt

0.

0<t<> ^ f^^ d^^^)

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LRFD
Wu = 1.2(0.93 kip/ft) + 1.6(1.0 kip/ft)
= 2.72 kip/fl
2.72kip/ft(45ft)^ ^687kip-ft.
8
^

ASD
w = 0.93 kip/ft+1.0 kip/ft
= 1.93 kip/ft
^^1.93kip/fl(45ft)^43^^.p_^^
8
Use Tables 3-19, 3-20 and 3-21 from the Manual to select an appropriate member
Determine bejf
The effective width of the concrete slab is the sum of the effective widths for each side of the
beam centerline, which shall not exceed:
(1) one-eighth of the beam span, center to center of supports
11.3 ft.

^0)=

(2) one-half the distance to center-line of the adjacent beam


1 ^ ( 2 ) = 10.0ft. C ^ t r ^
^ ^ ^ . ^ y^:^

Section
1.3.1.1a

(3) the distance to the edge of the slab


Not applicable
Calculate the moment arm for the concrete force measured from the top of the steel shape, Yl.
Assume a = 1.0 in. (Some assumption must be made to start the design process. An assumption
of 1.0 in. has proven to be a reasonable starting point in many design problems.)
Y2 = tsiab-al2

1.5-V2

Enter Manual Table 3-19 with the required strength and 72=7.0 in. Select a beam and neutral
axis location that indicates
sufficient available
available strength.
strength. ^J[^
^J[^ ^2.l, ^2*
Ltes sufficient

uI^^T J T ^ W

Select a W21x50 as a trial


ial beam.
LRFD
ct)z,M= 770 kip-ft > 687 kip-ft

o.k.

ASD
MJQ.b = 512 kip-ft > 489 kip-ft

^
o.k.

load ratio in this example is not equal to 3. Thus, the PNA location requiring the most shear
transfer is selected to be acceptable for ASD. It will be conservative for LRFD.

Manual Table
3-19
^'^^

"^^'"^ ^
Manual
Table 3-19

^OK

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Check the beam deflections and available strength


Check the deflection o f the beam under construction, considering only the weight of concrete as
contributing to the construction dead load.
Limit deflection to a maximum o f 2.5 in. to facilitate concrete placement.
5 ^

/4

5(0.83 kip/ft){45 ft) (1728 in.VfT)

384 E ^

384(29,000 ksi)(2.5 in.)

From Manual Table 3-20, a W21x50 has f = 984 in.^, therefore this member does not satisfy the
deflection criteria under construction.
^ ^
Using Manual Table 3-20, revise the trial member selection to a W21x55,
which has = 1140 in."^, as noted in parenthesis below the shape designation.
Check selected member strength as an un-shored beam under construction

ASD

LRFD
Calculate the required
IADL

loads assuming

Calculate the required

strength

= IA (0.83 kips/ft) =1.16 kips/ft

DL+LL

strength

= 0.83 + 0.20 = 1.03 kips.ft

= 1.2 (0.83) + 1.6(0.20)


= 1.32klf

\2DL^\.6LL

1.03kips/ft(45ft)^

1.31kip/ft(45ft)^
^w(unshored)

=331kip-ft

MJT (unshored)

= 260 kip-ft

The design strength for a


W21x55 is 473 kip-ft > 331 kip-ft

The allowable strength for a


W 2 1 X 5 5 is 314 kip-ft > 260 kip-ft

o.k.

o.k.

For a W21x55 with 72=7.0 i n , the member has sufficient available strength when the PNA is at
location 6 and|Zg^= 292 k i p s j

Y|

7. ^7 \
ASD

LRFD
^bMr,=161 kip-ft > 687 kip-ft

Check a
^_

^eC^h^B

i g
0.85 fb

(T

Manual
Table 3-19

o.k.

u/A$

MfQt

= 510 kip-ft > 489 kip-ft

o.k.

Manual
Table 3-19

292kips

7
A

<

0.85(4 ksi)(10 ft.)(12 in./ft.)

0.716 in. < 1.0 in. assumed

o.k.

Check live load deflection


^LL < 1/360 = ((45 ft.)(12 in./ft))/360 = 1.5 i n . ^

.
A

A lower bound moment of inertia for composite beams is tabulated in


Manual Table 3-20.

0 > C s^Auu^ !
0
0 0

Manual Table
3-20

For a W Z l x55 with Y2=1S) and the PNA at location 6, IIB = 2440 in.''

w,f

5(1.0 kip/ft)(45 ft)' (l728 in.Vft')


= 1.30 in.

384 EI^j, ~
1.30 in. < 1.5 in.

384(29,000 ksi)(2440 in.')

o.k.

4uAi5> ^HFA/t /ae5tsr. l4B^C^^TSP


ASD

LRFD

Manual
Table 3-3

U , - ' ^ ^ ^ ^ ( l . 9 3 k i p / f t ) - 4 3 . 4 kips

F = ^ ( 2 . 7 2 k i p / f t ) = 61.2 kips
(t)F;,= 234 kips > 61.2 kips

o.k.

VJQL = 156 kips > 43.4 kips

o.k.

Determine the required number of shear stud connectors


Using perpendicular deck with one
concrete. g = 17.2 kips/stud
292 kips
=
a

17.2 kips

y4-in.

Manual Table

diameter weak stud per rib in normal weight 4 ksi

"X"

3-21

^p^^O<0?

u
^.u u
= 17, on each side o f the beam.

Section 3.2d(5)

Section 3.2d(6)

Total number o f shear connectors; use 2 ( 1 7 ) = 34 shear connectors.

Check the spacing of shear connectors


Since each flute is 12 in., use one stud every flute, starting at each support, and proceed for 17
studs on each end o f the span.
^dstud<

Section
T^r(b)

12 in. < Ztsiab, therefore, the shear stud spacing requirements are met.-

Th^ studs are to be 5 in. long, so that they w i l l extend a minimum o f 1 l ^ i n . into slab.
Of.

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