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ANA 1-2

INTELLIGENCE

March 2011

Contents
Preface............................................................................................................................................. 5
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 6
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 7
The Intelligence Cycle ................................................................................................................ 7
The Levels of Intelligence ........................................................................................................... 8
Measuring the Effectiveness of Intelligence: .............................................................................. 9
Chapter 1: THE ANA INTELLIGENCE ORGANIZATION ..................................................... 11
Overview of the Chapter ........................................................................................................... 11
1.1: The Assistant Minister of Defense for Intelligence (AMOD Intelligence)....................... 11
1.2: ANA G2 Intelligence Assets ............................................................................................. 12
1.2.1: Analysis and Production ................................................................................................ 12
1.2.1.1: Intelligence Watch Center Department ................................................................... 12
1.2.1.2: Current Intelligence Department ............................................................................. 12
1.2.1.3: Estimates Department .............................................................................................. 12
1.2.1.4: Order of Battle Department ..................................................................................... 12
1.2.1.5: Open Source Intelligence Department..................................................................... 13
1.2.2: Collection Operations Directorate.................................................................................. 13
1.2.2.1: Combined Collection and Reporting Center ........................................................... 13
1.2.2.1.1: Operational and Strategic Human Intelligence Operations .................................. 13
1.2.2.1.2: Counterintelligence Control ................................................................................. 13
1.2.2.2: Ciphers and Communications.................................................................................. 13
1.2.2.3: Technical and Signals Intelligence .......................................................................... 14
1.2.3: Counterintelligence ........................................................................................................ 14
1.2.3.1: Counterintelligence Special Operations .................................................................. 14
1.2.3.2: Counterintelligence Analysis................................................................................... 14
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1.2.3.3: Counterintelligence Personnel Security .................................................................. 14


1.2.4: Intelligence Plans and Integration .................................................................................. 14
1.2.4.1: Intelligence Architecture ......................................................................................... 14
1.2.4.2: Intelligence Training Center .................................................................................... 14
1.2.4.3: Intelligence Systems ................................................................................................ 14
1.2.5: Programs and Budget ..................................................................................................... 15
1.2.5.1: Budget and Finance ................................................................................................. 15
1.2.5.2: Logistics and Resources .......................................................................................... 15
1.2.5.3: Dining Facility Management ................................................................................... 15
1.2.6: Topography, Geospatial Imagery, and Mapping............................................................ 15
1.2.6.1: Geospatial Liaison Officers ..................................................................................... 15
1.2.6.2: Map Supply and Distribution .................................................................................. 15
1.2.6.3: Map Quality Control................................................................................................ 15
1.2.6.4: Data Management and Geospatial Training ............................................................ 15
1.2.6.5: Geospatial Intelligence ............................................................................................ 16
1.3: Ground Forces Command ..................................................................................................... 16
1.4: Corps Intelligence Assets: .................................................................................................... 16
1.4.1: Military Intelligence Companies .................................................................................... 17
1.5: Brigade Intelligence Assets .................................................................................................. 17
1.6: Kandak Intelligence Assets................................................................................................... 17
Chapter 2 ANA INTELLIGENCE FUNCTIONS ...................................................................... 18
Overview of the Chapter ........................................................................................................... 18
2.1: Human Intelligence ........................................................................................................... 18
2.2: Counterintelligence (CI).................................................................................................... 18
2.3: Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) ................................................................................... 20
2.4: Signals Intelligence ........................................................................................................... 20
2.5: Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) ................................................................................... 21
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Chapter 3: ANA INTELLIGENCE TOOLS AND PRODUCTS ................................................ 21


Overview of the Chapter ........................................................................................................... 21
3.1: The Intelligence Cycle ...................................................................................................... 21
3.2: Planning Process ............................................................................................................... 22
3.3: Intelligence Preparation of Battlefield .............................................................................. 23
3.4: Commanders Critical Information Requirements ........................................................... 24
3.5: Collection Management .................................................................................................... 27
3.6: Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance.................................................................. 28
3.7: The Intelligence Annex (Annex B) to OPLANs and OPORDs ........................................ 28
3.8: Intelligence Estimate ......................................................................................................... 28
3.9: Intelligence Summary (INTSUM) .................................................................................... 29
APPENDIX A: THE INTELLIGENCE ANNEX ANNEX B TO OPORDS AND OPLANS
................................................................................................................................................... 30
APPENDIX B (INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATE) ...................................................................... 32
APPENDIX C (INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY) ..................................................................... 34
APPENDIX D REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 35
APPENDIX E - ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS ........................................................ 37
GLOSSARY .............................................................................................................................. 38
REFERENCES: .............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.

Preface
The purpose of this manual is to provide an overview of the intelligence organization,
functions, and some of the tools currently available in the Afghanistan National Army (ANA).
Additional doctrine manuals and other texts will provide more detailed doctrine on specific
organizations, functions, and tools of the ANA. This doctrine applies to all elements of and
members of the Afghan National Army. Changes and modifications to this document are to be
submitted through the document change process described in ANA 0, The Doctrine
Development System. (See REFERENCES)

Executive Summary
Intelligence is critical for commanders to be able to successfully accomplish their
mission. Understanding the Intelligence Cycle which manages intelligence as well as the assets
that are available and their functions is most important to be able to effectively use them to
produce the necessary intelligence for successful mission accomplishment. The Intelligence
Cycle is used by the ANA to manage the intelligence assets and the information gathered by
them. The Intelligence Cycle includes: planning and direction, collection, processing,
production, dissemination, and evaluation and feedback. One of the tools used in the
Intelligence Cycle to develop intelligence products for the commander and staff is Intelligence
Preparation of the Battlefield which is a major part of the Planning Process. (Deleted info)
The Introduction provides a brief description of some of the concepts useful in
understanding how intelligence is developed, used, and updated by the ANA Intelligence
Elements. It provides a brief description of the Intelligence Cycle, a discussion of the Levels of
Intelligence, and a method to measure the Effectiveness of Intelligence.
Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Intelligence elements in the MOD/ANA from the
newly formed Assistant Minister of Defense Intelligence which is the highest level down to the
Kandak which is the lowest level that has Intelligence personnel assigned by the Tashkil. This is
the big picture of the organization. There is a short section on the Ground Forces Command
structure that was being implemented when this document was written.
Chapter 2 discusses the overall functions of the Intelligence elements in the ANA:
Human Intelligence, Counterintelligence, Open Source Intelligence, Signals Intelligence, and
Geospatial Intelligence. The discussions of the functions are more in depth to provide a better
understanding of what a commander and staff can expect from their Intelligence personnel.
Chapter 3 describes and discusses some of the tools used by Intelligence personnel in
support of their commanders and staffs. This chapter and the first two chapters are all written
from the highest or largest to the lowest levels. This ensures the most common and most used
items are close to the beginning of each chapter making them easy to find. More detailed
manuals will be prepared for each of the function areas and will include the tools used in and by
each of them.
The Appendices include examples of an Annex B Intelligence format for an OPORD or
OPLAN, an Intelligence Estimate format, and an Intelligence Summary format. These are the
formats in ANA 1-3 Operations and other current ANA manuals. The next appendix is the
glossary and lists some of the common Intelligence related terms and has been prepared in
coordinated with other ANA manuals. The major sources of the terms are: ANA 1-2.5 The
Commanders Intelligence Handbook and ANA 1-3.1 Operational Terms and Graphics. The
Glossary is followed by references from current ANA doctrine and other publications.

Introduction
This manual is the top level manual and provides the strategic level view of the
Intelligence structure, functions, and tools of the ANA. It is organized into three chapters and is
written to make it easy to understand the ANA Intelligence structure, how it operates, and what
can be expected from it. This is intended to be an overview and not a detailed description of
organizations, functions, or tools and intelligence products in the ANA; the detailed descriptions
have been developed and are provided in other manuals and publications.
Intelligence is the product resulting from the collection, processing, integration,
evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign nations,
hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential operations. The
term is also applied to the activity which results in the product and to the organizations engaged
in such activity. Intelligence provides commanders and their staffs with predictive and tailored
information supporting the commanders decision making requirements.
Understanding the Intelligence Cycle will greatly assist the commander and staff in using
their intelligence assets more effectively thus ensuring a greater probability of success for their
missions. The Intelligence Cycle provides accurate intelligence which is necessary for
successful mission accomplishment and that is provided through Intelligence Preparation of the
Battlefield (which is a basic part of the Planning Process) and is continually updated through the
Intelligence Cycle.
The Intelligence Cycle
The Intelligence Cycle consists of these activities: planning and direction, collection,
processing, production, dissemination, and evaluation and feedback. These activities overlap
and repeat as the mission demands and occur uninterruptedly throughout the process, all of
which is guided by the commanders input.
The Intelligence Cycle generates information about the Threat, the Area of Interest, and
the Situation, which allows the commander and staff to develop a plan, seize and retain the
initiative, build and maintain momentum, and exploit success. The intelligence officer and staff
conduct continuous assessment and dissemination of intelligence based on updates of the enemy
situation and other elements of the mission in accordance with the commanders guidance and
input. The Intelligence Cycle incorporates Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield which is
used to assist the commander and staff in mission planning and decision making to ensure the
commander gets the most current and updated intelligence during mission planning and
execution.
The accuracy and detail of every intelligence product has a direct effect on how well the
unit plans and prepares for operations. The Intelligence Officer and Staff need intelligence that
answers the commanders intelligence requirements; it may not be as detailed or refined as
possible but must answer the Commanders Critical Intelligence Requirements - an adequate
answer that is on time is better than a more refined answer that is too late to be of use. The
Intelligence Officer and Staff may employ analysis that takes advantage of intelligence
production of higher and subordinate echelons to meet these requirements. The Intelligence
Officer and Staff produce intelligence products that enable the commander to:

Plan operations and employ maneuver forces effectively

Recognize potential courses of action

Employ effective tactics and techniques

Take appropriate security measures


Focus Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

The Levels of Intelligence


To be useful the Intelligence Cycle needs to be focused at the level needed by the
commander to accomplish his mission. There are three levels of Intelligence which correspond
to the levels of warfare in ANA 1-3, Operations, Oct 2005. Each level is defined by the outcome
intended and not by the level of command or the size of the unit. Therefore the levels of
intelligence must be taken into account to ensure successful mission accomplishment. There are
three levels of war: strategic, operational, and tactical. The levels are a doctrinal construct that
explains the links between strategic objectives and tactical actions. The levels of war assist
commanders in visualizing a logical flow of operations, allocating resources, and assigning tasks.
The levels of intelligence mirror the levels of war.
The Assistant Minister of Defense Intelligence will have the Strategic Intelligence role
which is currently being done in the ANA G2. The ANA G2 currently works across all three
levels of intelligence. The Corps (and when the Ground Forces Command is operational) is/will
be generally concerned with Operational Intelligence due to their war fighting missions. The
Brigades will be concerned with both Operational and Tactical Intelligence due to their missions
being both Operational and Tactical. The Kandaks will primarily be concerned with Tactical
Intelligence because they conduct Tactical missions. A brief explanation of each level with
some of their associated major tasks follows:
Strategic Intelligence
Strategic Intelligence is produced for the Afghan Government, MOD/GS, and senior
military leaders. It is used by senior leaders to develop national strategy and policy, monitor the
international situation, prepare military plans, determine major weapon systems and force
structure requirements, and conduct strategic operations.
Intelligence requirements include activities and situations that could impact Afghan
national security interests and objectives, multinational and regional relations, or Afghan and
allied military forces. Of particular importance is information relating to adversary or potential
adversarys strategic vulnerabilities, intentions, strategic forces, strategic centers of gravity, and
any capabilities relating to the development and employment of weapons of mass destruction.
Information is collected on strategic targets to enable the detection, identification, and
location of the adversarys strategic centers of gravity and high-payoff targets. This task
includes collecting information relating to weapons of mass destruction and their production and
storage sites. This is currently being done by the ANA G2 but is expected to move to the AMoD
Intelligence.
Operational Intelligence

Operational Intelligence is primarily used by combatant force commanders and their


component commanders to keep the MOD/GS abreast of events and to inform the MOD/GS of
where adversary will conduct campaigns and operations.
Information is gathered on operational and tactical threat forces and their centers of
gravity. Locating and reporting captured or isolated personnel falls under this task. This task
applies across the range of military operations. Information is collected to support the detection,
identification, and location of the adversarys operational centers of gravity and high-payoff
targets. Of particular interest are those targets which, if destroyed, would lead directly or
indirectly to the rapid collapse of the adversary. Of particular interest are the production,
infrastructure, and delivery systems associated with weapons of mass destruction.
Tactical Intelligence
It is used by tactical level commanders for planning and conducting battles and
engagements through the locating of enemy forces and weapon systems to enhance the
commanders ability to shape the battle space.
Tactical Intelligence tasks support the execution of battles and engagements. In addition
to information from strategic and operational sources, it includes information gathered from
tactical sources, such as combat reporting. Locating, reporting, and field interrogation of
captured or isolated personnel is an integral part of this process. Tactical Intelligence provides
the tactical commander with the Intelligence needed to employ combat forces against adversary
forces and achieve the objectives of the operational commander. Information is gathered on
operational and tactical adversary forces and their centers of gravity, current activity, disposition,
order of battle, weaknesses, vulnerabilities, strengths, doctrine, and other essential information as
may be directed by the commander. Additionally, information is gathered on the nature and
characteristics of the battle space, such as terrain, weather, and local population. Tactical
Intelligence tasks are distinguished from those at other levels by their perishability and ability to
immediately influence the outcome of the Tactical commanders mission. Once Information is
collected it must be processed and then exploited to be of any use to commanders and leaders.

Measuring the Effectiveness of Intelligence:


Commanders and Staffs need to know how to evaluate intelligence products they are
given by Intelligence Officers and Staffs. The following traits of good intelligence can be used
to evaluate intelligence products. They are also very useful for the Intelligence Officer and his
Staff to rate their performance in supporting the commander and staff.

Timely. Intelligence must be provided very early in the mission planning process to
support operations and prevent being surprised by the enemy. It must also be
provided and updated continuously to the commander and staff before, during, and
after a mission. Intelligence organizations, databases, and products must be available
continuously to develop estimates, to assist in the Planning Process, in planning and
the execution of actions of the battlefield.

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Relevant. Intelligence must support the commanders concept of operations and be


of importance in determining the capabilities of the unit, answering the CCIRs, and
the commanders Other Information Requirements.

Accurate. Intelligence must provide an accurate, balanced, complete, and objective


picture of the enemy and other aspects of the Area of Operation. To the extent
possible, intelligence accurately identifies threat intentions, capabilities, limitations,
and dispositions. It is derived from multiple sources and disciplines to minimize the
possibility of deception or misinterpretation. Intelligence is presented in alternative
or contradictory assessments, when necessary, to ensure balance and bias-free
intelligence.

Predictive. Intelligence informs the commander about what the threat can do - threat
capabilities and emphasizing the most dangerous threat Course of Action and is most
likely to do - the most likely threat Course of Action. The intelligence staff
anticipates the commanders intelligence needs.

Usable. Intelligence must be presented in a form that is easily understood and


displayed in a format that immediately conveys the meaning to the user.

Complete. Intelligence briefings and products must be as complete as possible.


Completeness is frequently driven by time constraints - the 60 percent answer now
may be more useful than the 90 percent answer that comes too late; this ties into the
first evaluation factor Timeliness.

Precise. Intelligence briefings and products must provide the required level of detail
and complexity to answer the requirements.

Reliable. Intelligence is evaluated to determine the extent to which the collected


information being used in intelligence briefings and products is trustworthy,
uncorrupted, and undistorted. Any concerns with these qualities of the information
must be stated.

Tailored. Intelligence must be presented based on the needs of the commanders,


subordinate commanders, and staff in a format that is clear and concise so they can
understand it, believe it, and act on it. It must support and satisfy the commanders
Information Requirements.

Chapter 1: THE ANA INTELLIGENCE ORGANIZATION


Overview of the Chapter
This chapter describes the Intelligence assets in the ANA from the highest level to the
lowest level where there are Intelligence assets available to the commander. It also discusses
some of the duties and capabilities of the ANA Intelligence assets.
ANA intelligence personnel and organizations accomplish their missions through six
primary tasks which generate intelligence synchronized to support the commanders mission and
intelligence requirements; these assist the commander in focusing and protecting his combat
power.
The six intelligence tasks are:

Provide Indications and Warnings

Perform Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

Perform Situation Development

Perform Target Development and Support to Targeting

Support Force Protection

Perform Battle Damage Assessment


ANA Intelligence elements are organized and designed to accomplish these tasks using
the intelligence functions listed in this document. The tools used by the Intelligence Officers and
Staffs provide their commanders and staffs the answers to the questions that arise during the
planning and execution of their missions, they also keep the command updated on the enemy
situation.
1.1: The Assistant Minister of Defense for Intelligence (AMOD Intelligence)
This is a Strategic level organization designed to support the Ministry of Defense as well
as the ANA. Under the direction of the Defense Minister and First Deputy, the AMOD
Intelligence office develops Intelligence Policy and provides direction for the development of the
MOD/GS/ANA Intelligence capability, conducts the strategic intelligence collection effort, and
develops national threat estimates.
The AMoD Intelligence section will perform the following:

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Develop Intelligence capacity strategy through the development of Intelligence


policies and plans for Afghan MOD/GS/ANA Intelligence capacity building.

Conduct investigations of MOD/GS/ANA personnel for entrance into the ANA and
access to classified information.

Conduct liaison with foreign militaries and strategic Human Intelligence collection
operations on external threats to Afghanistan.

Provide support to Human Intelligence operations at all levels of command within the
Afghan military.

Conduct Counterintelligence and Security operations against threats to the MOD and
external threats to Afghanistan.

Conduct Strategic Analysis and develop strategic threat estimates that are input to the
Strategic Defense Planning Process to support the achievement of national level
objectives.

Provide Oversight of MOD, GS, and ANA Intelligence operations and procedures.

1.2: ANA G2 Intelligence Assets


The ANA G2 has elements that perform the following functions: Analysis and
Production, Collection Operations, Counterintelligence, Plans and Integration, Programs and
Budget; Geospatial, Topography, Imagery, and Mapping. The ANA Intelligence system can be
tasked by subordinate elements to get the information and intelligence products they need,
critical information can also be pushed down to assist commanders in their planning and
execution of missions.
1.2.1: Analysis and Production
The Analysis and Production Directorate provides intelligence products reflecting
information from many sources. This Directorate has a larger analysis staff than the Corps thus
more capability to provide detailed intelligence products to commanders that are not available
from the Corps Intelligence Staff. This Directorate has five Departments that provide a variety
of specialized functions to the ANA G2.
Departments of the ANA G2 Analysis and Production Directorate:
1.2.1.1: Intelligence Watch Center Department
This Department provides personnel for Intelligence Watch Center operation. The Watch
Center provides continuous monitoring of information on threats to Afghanistan providing the
Indications and Warning function for the ANA General Staff, MOD, MOI, ISAF, IJC, and other
Coalition Forces partners.
1.2.1.2: Current Intelligence Department
This Department is designed to monitor Strategic Political events and provides Current
Analysis of those events as to how they pertain to or may affect Afghanistan. The Department
also provides Current Intelligence Analysis and Reporting of enemy events, tactics, and
techniques, as well as enemy command and control. Products are disseminated to the MOD,
Coalition Partner Forces, ISAF, IJC, and other recipients.
1.2.1.3: Estimates Department
This Department provides future estimates and reporting of potential enemy tactics,
techniques and procedures as well as new combat developments. This Department also provides
special topics analysis and reporting on other assigned projects and tasks from the MOD.
1.2.1.4: Order of Battle Department
This Department provides analysis of threats to Afghanistan as well as analysis and
maintenance of regional order of battle files and data.

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1.2.1.5: Open Source Intelligence Department


This Department provides analysis of information from resources that are available to
those with access to information that is not classified or restricted. This includes newspapers,
radio broadcasts, television programs, press releases, the internet, and other sources open to
everyone. Not only does this Department provide analysis but they also conduct research to
assist other sections in the ANA G2.
1.2.2: Collection Operations Directorate
The Collection Operations Directorate conducts collection efforts for the missions of the
ANA G2 which should align with the missions of the Corps. Collection Operations Directorate
is composed of subordinate Departments that provide a collection capability for the ANA G2
mission. These Departments provide information and intelligence to combatant commanders
through their Intelligence Officers and staffs.
Departments of the ANA G2 Collection Operations Directorate:
1.2.2.1: Combined Collection and Reporting Center
The Combined Collection and Reporting Center provide a coordination element for the
collection efforts of the ANA G2.
1.2.2.1.1: Operational and Strategic Human Intelligence Operations
This CCRC section includes Strategic and Operational Human Intelligence operations to
include mission management functions, Human Intelligence operations inside and outside of
Afghanistan, the generation of Human Intelligence reports, and the management of Human
Intelligence operational funds.
1.2.2.1.2: Counterintelligence Control
The CCRC Counterintelligence Control section is responsible for Mission Management,
Counterintelligence Strategic and Operational Analysis, Counterintelligence reporting, the
coordination of Investigations, and Counterintelligence Collection Management. The
Counterintelligence Collection Management sub-section is responsible for Counterintelligence
Requirement reporting and dissemination.
1.2.2.1.3: Collection Management
The CCRC Collection Management section directs collection requirements and manages
collection efforts for the ANA G2.
1.2.2.1.4: Reporting and Dissemination
The CCRC Reporting and Dissemination section manages reporting from subordinate
elements and disseminates information collected.
1.2.2.2: Ciphers and Communications
This section is responsible for the maintenance of the communication equipment for the
ANA G2 and well as technical support for that equipment. This section also provides a
document custodian section to receive, store and maintain documents.
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1.2.2.3: Technical and Signals Intelligence


This section provides technical collection capabilities to the ANA G2 and SIGINT
Management.
1.2.3: Counterintelligence
This Directorate provides Counterintelligence supervision of Special Operations, CI
Analysis and Personnel Security. Subordinate Departments provide more in-depth capabilities to
the ANA G2.
Departments of the ANA G2 Counterintelligence Directorate:
1.2.3.1: Counterintelligence Special Operations
This Department includes Counterespionage, Surveillance, Leadership Protection, as well
as Regional Oversight of those missions.
1.2.3.2: Counterintelligence Analysis
This Department provides Counterintelligence Analysis, Counterterrorism Analysis,
Counter Foreign Security Officer Operations, and Strategic Analysis.
1.2.3.3: Counterintelligence Personnel Security
This Department conducts personnel security operations for the ANA G2 and other
elements of the ANA as directed.
1.2.4: Intelligence Plans and Integration
This Directorate provides planning and integration of plans and other operations inside
and outside of the ANA G2, this is to ensure the Intelligence Systems all are coordinated and
integrated to provide maximum effectiveness to ANA operations.
Departments of the ANA G2 Plans and Integration Directorate:
1.2.4.1: Intelligence Architecture
This Department provides the high level view as well as component views of the whole
Intelligence structure and organization. This Department also provides the development of
communication networks as well as other systems.
1.2.4.2: Intelligence Training Center
The Intelligence Training Center provides training for all ANA Intelligence Officers and
NCOs to include a Basic Course, Advance Course, Specialized Courses, and other training as
required.
1.2.4.3: Intelligence Systems
This Department provides System Integration within and outside of the ANA G2.

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1.2.5: Programs and Budget


This Directorate provides the Budgeting and Finance operations for the ANA G2 as well
as the Resources, Logistics, and Supply functions. This includes technical material control,
construction, all classes of supply, and support operations not specifically provided for in other
Directorates or Departments of ANA G2. This is an internal support element for the ANA G2.
Departments of the ANA G2 Programs and Budget Directorate:
1.2.5.1: Budget and Finance
This Department provides program budget planning, analysis and execution and financial
management for all Directorates, Departments, and other subordinate elements of ANA G2. This
Department controls all funds, disbursement of program funds, budget proposals, forecasts of
budgets and the Intelligence Operational Funds (IOF) program.
1.2.5.2: Logistics and Resources
This Department provides resource management, materiel ordering, and supply receiving
and distribution for all Directorates, Departments, and other subordinate elements of ANA G2.
They also oversee facility management contracts operating in support of the ANA G2 compound.
1.2.5.3: Dining Facility Management
This Department provides dining facility support to the ANA G2 compound.
1.2.6: Topography, Geospatial Imagery, and Mapping
This Directorate provides the Topological and Geospatial support and is composed of
five Departments.
Departments of the ANA G2 Geographical and Topography Section:
1.2.6.1: Geospatial Liaison Officers
This Department provides Liaison officers for mapping, geospatial data, and the NMCC
as well as a requirements Officer.
1.2.6.2: Map Supply and Distribution
This Department includes the functions of Map Accountability as well as Map Supply
and Finance.
1.2.6.3: Map Quality Control
This Department ensures the most current information is used to build and publish maps
used by the ANA.
1.2.6.4: Data Management and Geospatial Training
This Department is responsible for the training of Geospatial technicians and Geospatial
data management personnel.

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1.2.6.5: Geospatial Intelligence


This Department is responsible for developing the Geospatial data needed to build and
print accurate maps for the ANA.
1.2.6.6: Cartography
This Department is responsible for designing, collecting data for, and printing maps.
1.3: Ground Forces Command
Ground Forces Command is designed to be a war fighting command that would provide
coordination between Corps and other elements fighting the enemies of Afghanistan. The
Intelligence assets assigned to the Ground Forces Commander provide Tactical Command Post
and Rear Command Post intelligence capabilities. The focus of this headquarters is mainly at the
Operational level. The Intel staff of the Ground Forces Command will provide coordination of
the intelligence required in the conduct of multiple Corps missions as well as missions that cross
Corps and other internal ANA boundaries. The Intelligence staff is responsible for passing
intelligence products to all the elements in the fight to provide a common picture of the
battlefield.
1.4: Corps Intelligence Assets:
Staffs at the Corps are much larger than those in the Brigade or Kandak. The Corps G-2 directs
and coordinates all the intelligence operations for the Corps. The Corps G-2 is responsible for
disseminating intelligence information down to Brigade, which then passes the intelligence information
down to their Kandaks. The Corps G-2 coordinates all the intelligence to present a clear picture of the
current situation usually in a briefing to the Corps Commander and staff. The initial briefing in the
mission planning process is presented using graphics and is designed to provide information to the Corps
commander on the factors that will affect his mission in his Area of Responsibility (AOR). It also
provides information on the current enemy situation, the environment, what the enemy is doing now, and
what the enemys future courses of action may be. The Corps G-2 is responsible for the completion of all
Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield graphics, down to Kandak level.
These include:

Event template

Situational template (SITEMP) of the enemy

Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) plan with collection matrix

Intelligence portion in the decision support template (DST).

Other Intelligence Preparation of Battlefield graphics as required

Intelligence portion of Annex B

The Corps G-2 uses his staff to assist in developing all products and ensuring that they are complete
and disseminated to lower headquarters staffs. The Corps G-2 plans the Intelligence Surveillance and
Reconnaissance (ISR) missions, but the Corps G-3 does the actual tasking of the units. The Corps G-2
participates in all decision making and planning to synchronize intelligence with operations. The Corps
G2 and staff also develops detailed intelligence plans, collection plans to use operational forces to collect

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information needed to define the battlefield, ensures unity of intelligence effort, is designed for
continuous operations, and integrates strategic, operational and tactical intelligence for the commander.

1.4.1: Military Intelligence Companies


During initial fielding of the Military Intelligence Companies it is possible that general
support MICOs may be tasked by the Corps Commanders to directly support Brigade and
Kandak missions.
The Military Intelligence Company Mission and responsibilities include:

Employing Human Intelligence, Low Level Voice Intercept, and Counterintelligence


techniques to conduct tactical intelligence support

Conducting analysis and manage intelligence operations focused on answering the


Commanders Priority Intelligence Requirements

Providing General Support to an ANA Corps

1.5: Brigade Intelligence Assets


The Brigade Intelligence Officer receives updated intelligence and graphics from the Corps
Intelligence Officer. The Brigade S-2 usually has more detailed graphics at his level. The
Brigade Intelligence Officer passes his intelligence and graphics down to Kandak level Battalion
Intelligence Officer. The Brigade Intelligence Officer briefs all the Kandak Intelligence Officers
of the brigade providing his analysis and results; he is available for any intelligence related
questions and information requests the Kandak Intelligence Officers may have.
The Brigade Intelligence Officer provides each of the Kandaks in the Brigade the following
products.
Intelligence Preparation of Battlefield Graphics
Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance plan and collection matrix
Situational Templates
Event Template
Corp OPORD/OPLAN Annex B, Intelligence
Decision Support Template
1.6: Kandak Intelligence Assets
The Kandak Intelligence Officer briefs his commander and staff and the company
commanders on the information he received from the Brigade Intelligence Officer. He
synchronizes the collection matrix with the Brigade and Corps intelligence. The Kandak
Intelligence Officer provides intelligence related advice and assistance to the commander, staff,
and company commanders.
Usually the Kandak S-2 provides the company commanders with the following:
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Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance plan

Information on enemy composition and disposition based on situational template, recent


enemy activities, and updates to include enemy courses of action

Any additional information the company commander may request

Chapter 2 ANA INTELLIGENCE FUNCTIONS


Overview of the Chapter
This chapter describes the current major functions of ANA Intelligence elements. The
descriptions of these functions are from the training provided to the ANA Intelligence Officers at
the Intelligence Training Center. This chapter is meant only to familiarize the commanders and
staff with the expertise their Intelligence officers and Intelligence staff members can provide.
2.1: Human Intelligence
Human Intelligence is the collection of information by trained collectors using sources to
identify the composition/disposition, strength, equipment/materiel, tactics,
capabilities/limitations, and intentions of enemy entities. It uses a variety of collection methods,
both passive and active, to gather information to satisfy commanders intelligence requirements.
Human Intelligence tasks include (but are not limited to): Source operations; Liaison with
civilian and military counterparts; Eliciting information from select sources; Screening, tactical
questioning, and interrogation of captured enemy personnel; Debriefing of friendly forces,
refugees, displaced persons, third-country nationals, and local inhabitants.
2.2.1 Human Intelligence Collection Operations
Human Intelligence collection operations within the ANA conducted at the strategic,
operational, and tactical levels in support of command requirements from the Ministry/National
level to Corps-and-below levels. At the strategic level, Human Intelligence collectors co-located
at the Military Intelligence Province Offices focus collection efforts against Ministry of Defense
requirements. At the operational level, Human Intelligence collectors assigned to the Military
Intelligence Province Offices focus collection efforts against ANA General Staff requirements
across seven Regions/Zones and 34 Provinces. At tactical levels (Corps and below), Human
Intelligence collectors in General Support and General/Direct Support Military Intelligence
Companies focus collection efforts against Corps/Division, Brigade, and subordinate Kandak
intelligence requirements. Human Intelligence tasking and reporting efforts at the strategic and
operational levels are managed by the Human Intelligence Operations Section of the ANA G2
Combined Collection and Reporting Center.
2.2: Counterintelligence (CI)
CI supports ANA operations by providing a clear picture of the threat to commands at all
levels and actions required to protect the force from exploitation by foreign intelligence, terrorist
groups, insurgent forces and other security- and intelligence-related threats. CI activities include
conducting CI investigations, CI operations, security and vulnerability analyses, and CI

18

collection focusing on adversary intelligence efforts. CI provides commanders the enemy


intelligence collection situation and targeting information in order to counter these activities.
2.2.1 CI is a multidiscipline effort that includes counter-human intelligence and countersignals intelligence designed to identify, locate and neutralize or influence foreign all-source
collection targeted against friendly forces. The CI force, in conjunction with other intelligence
assets has the capability to detect intelligence collection and related activities that pose a threat to
the security of ANA operations, personnel, and materiel. The CI analytical capability provides
analysis of these activities and recommendations to deny the enemy access to friendly
information.
2.2.2 CI Mission. Threat intelligence elements have the capability to conduct
continuous collection against the ANA. The intelligence that results from these operations could
provide a significant advantage to enemy forces and easily result in increased ANA casualties on
the battlefield. Some of the actions that can be taken to counter threat intelligence efforts and to
provide force protection to all ANA units include routine security procedures which provide
crucial support to overall force protection.
These procedures include but are not limited to:

Personnel security, to include background investigations, ensuring all personnel who


have access to sensitive or classified information are trustworthy.

Information security, particularly in regard to handling classified and compartmented


information; this will be a challenging field in the future considering the ease with which
information can be copied and transmitted in an increasingly automated military.

Physical security measures safeguard personnel; prevent unauthorized access to


equipment, installations, materiel and documents safeguarding them from espionage,
sabotage, damage, and theft.

Operations security ensures that all Essential Elements of Friendly Information are
reasonably concealed from enemy collection assets.

2.2.3 CI analysis is used to identify the general capabilities and specific operations
and/or intentions of enemy Human Intelligence, Signals Intelligence, and Imagery Intelligence
collection. CI analysis also includes the development of profiles that identify friendly
vulnerabilities to enemy collection and possible countermeasures. These actions provide a force
protection program that is difficult for Foreign Intelligence Services to penetrate. A
comprehensive CI program significantly degrades the adversarys ability to target and conduct
intelligence, combat or terrorist operations against the ANA.
CI supports the commanders requirements to preserve and to protect the force as part of
the commanders force protection program.
CI support can include:

19

Mobilization security, airfield security, and safeguarding records and documents

Combating terrorism

Rear operations

OPSEC

Friendly Communications-Electronics security

2.2.4 CI Structure. Counterintelligence structure includes assignment of CI personnel


at the GS G2 level for overall management, direction and control of CI activities, down
through Corps, MIRO, MIPO, MICO and certain maneuver element levels to ensure a
comprehensive CI program focused on all levels of ANA effort. Furthermore, CI personnel
are assigned to Afghan Air Force, Special Operations and Military Police units as well as to
supporting establishment organizations. CI collection, intelligence reporting and general
investigative reporting is managed by the CI Control Office of the ANA G2 Combined
Collection and Reporting Center. Sensitive operational and investigative activity is managed
and directed by the Special Operations Directorate of the Deputy for Counterintelligence,
ANA G2.
2.3: Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)
Open-source Intelligence is the discipline that pertains to intelligence produced from
publicly available information that is collected, exploited, and disseminated in a timely manner
to an appropriate audience for the purpose of addressing a specific intelligence requirement.
Open Source Intelligence is derived from the systematic collection, processing, and analysis of
publicly available, relevant information in response to intelligence requirements. Two important
related terms are open source and publicly available information:
An open source is: any person or group that provides information without the
expectation of privacy; the information, the relationship, or both are not protected against
public disclosure.
Publicly available information is: data, facts, instructions, or other material published or
broadcast for general public consumption; available on request to a member of the
general public; lawfully seen or heard by any casual observer; or made available at a
meeting open to the general public.
2.3.1 Open Source Intelligence operations are integral to intelligence operations. The
availability, depth, and range of publicly available information enable intelligence organizations
to satisfy many intelligence requirements without the use of specialized human or technical
means of collection. Open Source Intelligence operations support other Intelligence Surveillance
and Reconnaissance efforts by providing general initial information that supports the generation
of intelligence knowledge, the continuing activity of the Intelligence Cycle, and enhances
collection and production. As part of a single-source and all-source intelligence effort, the use
and integration of Open Source Intelligence ensures commanders have the benefit of all available
information.
2.4: Signals Intelligence
Signals Intelligence is derived from communications and electronic signals; it provides
intelligence on threat composition, disposition, strength, capabilities/vulnerabilities, and
intentions. In addition, Signals Intelligence provides targeting information. Signals Intelligence
20

provides unique intelligence that complements intelligence derived from other sources and is
often used for cueing of these other intelligence assets against potential targets of interest.
2.4.1 Communications Intelligence is a sub-function of Signals Intelligence and is
technical information and intelligence derived from foreign communications by other than the
intended recipients.
2.5: Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT)
Geospatial Intelligence consists of the exploitation and analysis of imagery and
geospatial information to describe, assess, and visually depict physical features and
geographically referenced activities on the Earth. Geospatial intelligence consists of imagery,
imagery intelligence, and geospatial information

Chapter 3: ANA INTELLIGENCE TOOLS AND PRODUCTS


Overview of the Chapter
The Introduction described the overall process that manages and directs Intelligence as
well as the three levels of intelligence and a method to evaluate intelligence that is produced. In
the two previous chapters the ANA Intelligence Organization and their associated Functions
were discussed. In this chapter is a discussion of the Intelligence Cycle as well as the Planning
Process and how it uses the products of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield. As part of the
Planning Process this chapter describes the Collection Management process from the generation
of the Commanders Critical Information Requirements by the Planning Process and Intelligence
Preparation of the Battlefield through the tasking of Intelligence Surveillance and
Reconnaissance assets to answer the information needs of the commander. This is followed by
examples of an Intelligence Annex to Operations Orders and Operations Plans, a basic
Intelligence Estimate and a basic Intelligence Summary all of which are produced by ANA
Intelligence.
3.1: The Intelligence Cycle
The Intelligence Cycle is a method used by Intelligence Officers and their staffs to
develop and update the information required to do their mission; it does not stop but continues to
provide updates and develop new information needed for the successful accomplishment of the
mission. The Intelligence cycle is used to acquire information, convert it into intelligence, and
disseminate it to the command. Evaluation and feedback occur continuously during the cycle
thus providing immediate notice to the Intelligence Officer and staff that information needs to be
relooked or recollected.
The steps of the Intelligence Cycle:

21

Planning and Direction includes: Determining intelligence requirements, preparing a


Collection Plan, issuing orders and requests for information, and checking on the
productivity of collection efforts

Collection is: The gathering of information to meet the requirements of the commander
and staff

Processing is: The conversion of collected information into a form more suitable for the
production of intelligence

Production is: The conversion of information into finished intelligence through


integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of all available data resulting in the
preparation of intelligence products

Dissemination is: The distribution of intelligence to those who have a need to know

Evaluation and Feedback is: Reviewing and confirming the intelligence. This is
continuously occurring at every step to ensure the best possible intelligence is given to
the Commander and Staff.

3.2: Planning Process


The steps of the Planning Process are listed below and following them are the
responsibilities of the Intelligence Officer and his Staff along with how intelligence supports
each step of the Planning Process. ANA 1-2.5, The Commanders Intelligence Handbook,
provides an enhanced checklist to use during the Planning Process.
The Planning Process:
Step 1. Receipt of the Mission:
The Intel Officer and Intelligence Staff begin preparing to do Intelligence Preparation of
the Battlefield as soon as the commander gets the mission.
Step 2. Mission Analysis:
The Intel Officer does an initial analysis and begins Intelligence Preparation of the
Battlefield. Everyone, not only the Intel Officer, does Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield.
The staff prepares a briefing that uses: a modified combined obstacle overlay, weather and light
analysis, situation templates, enemy courses of action, initial event template, and an initial
Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance plan.
Step 3. Courses of Action Development:
3.2.1 The Staff provides a thorough analysis of the enemy stating their combat
organization using: composition and disposition followed by possible enemy courses of action.
The Intelligence Officer, in conjunction with the entire staff, provides their opinion of the
enemys main effort using the information they currently have and how they will employ their
combat multipliers (fires, engineers, command and control, intelligence, combat service support,
and chemical) to support the friendly courses of action. Key indicators are developed and
briefed that are used to confirm or deny enemy courses of action, critical decision points, as well
as friendly and enemy vulnerabilities. The Intel Officer updates and provides updated
intelligence products.
Step 4. Courses of Action Analysis (Wargaming):
During the wargame each staff member is responsible for his area of expertise. The Intel
Officer will play the role of the enemy commander due to his greater knowledge and
understanding of the enemy.
Step 5. Courses of Action Comparison:
22

The Intel Officer plays the uncooperative enemy commander and continues to provide
intelligence products to the commander and staff to meet their mission requirements.
Step 6. Courses of Action Approval:
The commander refines the intent statement and designates the Commanders Critical
Information Requirements to support the selected course of action. The staff refines their
products in anticipation of orders production.
Step 7. Orders Production:
The commander issues final guidance and then the order is prepared and sent to
subordinate units.
3.3: Intelligence Preparation of Battlefield
To provide the information needed by the commander and staff during their use of the
Planning Process the Intelligence Officer and his Staff use a process called Intelligence
Preparation of the Battlefield. This process with the Planning Process, generate the
Commanders Critical Information Requirements which drive the collection effort.
3.3.1 Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield is both systemic and continuous. The
process never stops as intelligence is constantly being updated with new information. There are
4 major steps in Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield. Each step builds upon the previous
step to present the commander an overall picture of the battlefield and what he can expect during
the operation. It also provides him with information to assist in providing his guidance, his
intent to his staff, and to prepare a vision on how he will fight the battle to defeat the enemy.
The Intelligence Officer, Operations Officer, and the Fire Support Officer all work together to
ensure success.
There are 4 major steps:
1. Define the Battlefield Environment

Geographic Boundaries: What are the boundaries of the Area of Operation and the
Area of Interest?

Complete understanding of the civilian population and the people within the Area
of Operation

2. Describe the Battlefield Effects

Terrain:
o How does the terrain affect friendly and enemy forces, suburban and urban
terrain, key infrastructure and lines of communication.
o Conduct an Ethnic and Population analysis and study the cultural
characteristics of the population in the Area of Operation and Area of
Interest.

23

Weather:

o Temperature
o Precipitation
o Wind
o Visibility
o How will the weather affect friendly and enemy forces on their weapons
systems to include soldiers and wheeled vehicles?
o What effect does the weather have on the civilian populations daily life
and activities, such as agriculture, enemy threat activity, smuggling and
illegal activities, trade routes, and commerce?
3. Evaluate the Threat

What are the enemy capabilities?

What Tactics, Techniques and Procedures, weapons, training, possible locations


of enemy supplies / resources, enemy leaders, communications, transportation,
reinforcements, specialized training (IEDs, Sniper, Suicide Attacks w/vests), safe
houses will the enemy use?

4. Determine Threat Courses of Action

How and where the enemy will fight and with what available enemy forces will
he fight?

Based on your analysis of the information and your knowledge of the enemy,
what would you do if you were in the position of the enemy commander?

What would the enemy commander do if the primary plan was compromised and
an alternate plan had to be used?

Think like the enemy commander and know your enemy.

3.4: Commanders Critical Information Requirements


The Commanders Critical Information Requirements are used to define what
information must be collected to answer the critical questions that are identified during the
Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield and the Planning Process. The Commanders Critical
Information Requirements drive the Collection Management process which directs the
Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Plan. The Intelligence, Surveillance, and
Reconnaissance Plan is used to collect information that can answer the Commanders Critical
Information Requirements. All ANA Intelligence and other ANA assets and functions may be
tasked by the Collection Management process to provide information in response to the
Commanders Critical Information Requirements.
3.4.1 The commander generates three types of information requirements during the
Planning Process and Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield; the first two are The
Commanders Critical Information Requirements (CCIR):
24

Priority Intelligence Requirements - what he must know about the enemy or the
environment (CCIR)

Friendly Forces Information Requirements - what he must know about the friendly
forces (CCIR)

Essential Elements of Friendly Information - what friendly information must be


protected and concealed from the enemy (may become a CCIR)

3.4.2 A commander may need to know whether one or more Essential Elements of
Friendly Information have been compromised or if the enemy is collecting against his Essential
Elements of Friendly Information. In those cases, the commander may designate that question as
one of his Critical Commanders Information Requirements.
3.4.3 Commanders Critical Information requirements include enemy and friendly
information needed by the Commander which will affect his decision making and the successful
accomplishment of his mission. The chart below provides a graphical description of the CCIRs
and their sub-elements.
CCIR
Information required by the
Commander that directly
affects his decisions and
ensures a successful
operation

PIR
What the commander needs
to know about the enemy or
the environment
Provided by
the G2

EEFI
What friendly information
must be protected and
concealed from the enemy

FFIR
What the commander needs
to know about the friendly
Forces

Commanders
discretion

Provided by
the G3

3.4.4 Information Requirements are the answers to questions that are required by the
commander and his staff for the successful planning and execution of operations including the
factors of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and
civilian considerations. The commander designates information requirements tied directly to his
decisions as Commanders Critical Information Requirements. An Information Request
becomes a Priority Information Request when designated by the commander.
25

3.4.5 Priority Information Requests are those information requirements for which a
commander has a stated priority and that support his planning and decision making. Priority
Information Requests are associated with a decision based on action or inaction by the enemy or
the battle space that will affect the overall success of the mission. Answers to the Priority
Information Requests help produce intelligence essential to the commanders situational
understanding and decision making. Priority Intelligence Requirements focus on a specific fact
or activity and are linked to: locations (Named Areas of Interest), time, and events in the
commanders plan.
3.4.6 Named Areas of Interest are listed in rank order from most to least important
within the Area of Operation and the Area of Interest. The Named Areas of Interest provide the
linkage to a person, place, or thing the staff expects to see if a specific event is to happen.
3.4.7 Friendly Forces Information Requirements is information the commander and
his staff need about the friendly forces that are available for the mission. This includes, but is
not limited to: the status of personnel, maintenance, supply, ammunition, and gas, oil, as well as
experience and leadership capabilities of friendly forces.
3.4.8 Essential Elements of Friendly Information help protect the friendly force and
the mission. They are critical aspects of a friendly operation that, if known by the enemy, would
subsequently compromise, lead to failure, or limit success of the operation. Therefore, they must
be protected from detection. Essential Elements of Friendly Information help commanders
understand what enemy commanders want to know about friendly forces and why. Essential
Elements of Friendly Information provide the basis for indirectly assessing the quality of the
enemys situational understanding: the lack of knowledge of Essential Elements of Friendly
Information degrades the enemy commanders situational understanding.
Other Information Requirements
3.4.9 Other Information Requirements are additional requirements that should be
collected on to assist the commander and staff in their planning when assets are available to
collect them. They are of lower importance than any Priority Information Request but are still an
important part of the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance plan.
They include:
Information Requests are those items of information regarding the threat and the
environment which need to be collected and processed. These requirements are
necessary to perform situation development, support to targeting, Intelligence
Preparation of the Battlefield, and support to force protection.

26

Indicators are threat actions, activities, or signatures whose absence or presence


shows evidence of threat intentions, capabilities, and vulnerabilities, which help to
confirm or deny a threat Courses of Action. A thorough knowledge of when and
where activity is likely to occur on the battlefield helps an analyst develop indicators.
The indicators help the analyst build Specific Information Requests.

Specific Information Requirements completely describe the information required,


the location where the required information can be collected, and the time during
which it can be collected. Generally, each Priority Information Request or
Information Request generates several Specific Information Requirements. These
may partially or fully answer a Priority Information Request or Information Request
and provide the analyst the information necessary to confirm or deny threat Courses
of Action.

Specific Orders and Requests are the specific tasking orders approved by the G3 or
a request for support from higher or lateral units that generates planning and
execution of a collection mission or analysis. Specific Orders direct subordinate
commands; Requests are sent to other commands or higher echelons.

3.5: Collection Management


The Collection Management process identifies units or agencies that can collect
information needed by the commander and staff. This process manages all of the Intelligence
assets in the ANA to provide the information needed to answer the commanders intelligence
requirements for the planning and execution of the mission. The Commanders Critical
Information Requirements help determine the Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Plan. The Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance plan identifies what assets will be
tasked to collect the information and how they will accomplish the mission.
Collection Management steps:

27

Develop Requirements
The requirements used in Information Collection Management are developed through
the Planning Process and Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield conducted by the
commander and staff and includes: the Commanders Critical Information
requirements and other Information Requirements.

Develop the Collection Plan


The collection plan includes determining what assets are available to collect the
information, can these collection assets answer the questions, what is the enemys
ability to interdict the collection assets, what is the past performance of the collection
assets, can more than one collection asset be used to collect the information, and takes
into account that collection assets are usually limited. The Collection plan is focused
on the Named Areas of Interest identified in the planning of the mission.

Task and Re-task Collection


The tasking of collection assets is designed to provide the answers to the
requirements of the commander and staff in their planning and execution of their
mission. When a collection requirement is not met or fully answered by a tasked
asset it is re-tasked and may include other assets as well.

Disseminate
This is how the users get usable intelligence and occurs after the information
collected has been analyzed, turned into intelligence, and then confirmed.

Evaluate Reporting
The Operations Officer and the Intelligence Officer assess the information reported
from the different collection assets and re-task or refine the specific orders and
requests to fill the information collection requirements.

Update the Collection Plan


During the execution of the collection plan some adjustments may have to be made
due to changes in the situation.

3.6: Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance


Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance is the key to finding information about the
enemy. The Intelligence Officer, Operations Officer, and the staff work together to plan how to
best use the collection assets to answer and support the Commanders Critical Information
Requirements. The Operations Officer tasks the collection asset(s) to perform the mission. The
Intelligence Officer develops and recommends to the Operations Officer the Intelligence
Surveillance and Reconnaissance plan. The overall intent is to answer as many as possible of the
Commanders Critical Information Requirements.
3.6.1 The Mission Statement, Commanders Guidance, Commanders Intent, and
Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield, which are all part of the Planning Process used by the
Commander in planning and executing his mission, all work together in identifying the elements
that are the basis of the Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Plan which answers:
What: to collect.
Where: to collect.
When: to collect
Who: will collect it for you.
Why: you must collect it.
3.7: The Intelligence Annex (Annex B) to OPLANs and OPORDs
Annex B (Intelligence), to the Operations Order or Operations Plan is written by the
Intelligence Officer and provides the most current intelligence pertaining to the mission. Annex
B is issued with the Operations Order or Operations Plan to subordinate units. Additional
updated intelligence is provided through the Intelligence Estimate and the Intelligence Summary.
The format for Annex B follows the basic format of a 5 paragraph order. See Appendix A for an
example of the format and content of an Operations Order/Operations Plan Annex B.
3.8: Intelligence Estimate
The Intelligence Estimate supports the Commander and staff by providing available
intelligence pertaining to the enemy and enemy courses of action. The Commander uses the
Intelligence Estimate to disseminate intelligence to subordinate commanders as well as to his
staff. The sample format for the Intelligence Estimate is based on the 5 paragraph operations
order. See Appendix B for an example of the format and content of an Intelligence Estimate.
28

3.9: Intelligence Summary (INTSUM)

The intelligence summary reviews enemy activities for a specific of period of time. The
intent of an intelligence summary is to inform and update the commander and staff on recent
significant enemy activities or changes that may affect the mission. The Intelligence Summary
does not replace the Intelligence Estimate; it is designed to provide updated information that was
not in the Intelligence Estimate. The Intelligence Summary is done each day and begins before
the mission, continues during the mission, and ends after the mission is completed. The
Intelligence Summary may be presented in any manner that best transmits the information to the
Commander and Staff. See Appendix C for an example of the format and content of an
Intelligence Summary.

29

APPENDIX A: THE INTELLIGENCE ANNEX ANNEX B TO OPORDS AND


OPLANS
The format and content of Annex B (Intelligence) to an Operations Plan or Operations
Order:
Annex B (Intelligence) to OPORD XXX
1. Situation
a. Enemy Situation: Refers to Intelligence Estimate
b. Friendly Situation: Refers to basic operations order and operations overlay
c. Environment:
i.

Refers to Intelligence Estimate, Terrain, Weather, Civil Considerations

ii.

Attachments and Detachments: Refers to organic units, attached units

2. MISSION
State the mission for the operation
3. EXECUTION
a. Scheme of Intelligence: Describe the concept of the intelligence operations to support
the Commanders intent and the maneuver plan. Ensure the critical intelligence tasks
to focus Intelligence by different phases. Ensure Intelligence Surveillance and
Reconnaissance plan is completed for collection requirements.
b. Tasks to subordinate units: ISR. List intelligence production tasks that Military
Intelligence sections supporting maneuver elements are to be accomplished only as
necessary to ensure unity of effort.
c. Counterintelligence:
d. Coordinating Instructions:
i.

Requirements: List each requirement by priority in separate sub-paragraphs.


List the latest time intelligence of value for each requirement and tie each to
an operational decision or action. Requirements will be provided to higher,
adjacent, and Co-operating units.
a. Priority Intelligence Requirements
b. Intelligence Requirements

30

c. Friendly Forces Information Requirements


d.

Requests for Information

e. Essential Elements of Friendly Information


ii.

Measures for Handling personnel, documents, and material.


a. Prisoners of war, deserters, repatriate inhabitants and other persons: State
special handling segregation instructions and locations of the
commanders and next higher headquarters Enemy Prisoner of War
(EPW) collection point.
b. Captured Documents: List instructions for handling processing captured
documents.
c. Captured Materials: Designate items or categories of enemy material
required for examination. Include any specific instructions for their
processing and disposition. Note: Medical supplies and equipment
materials cannot be destroyed intentionally. Provide locations of the unit
and next higher headquarters captured material collection points.
d. Documents or equipment required: List in each category the conditions
under which units can obtain or request certain documents or equipment.

iii. Distribution of intelligence products: State the date and number of copies of the
issues of the intelligence report and products to the originating command for the
whole operation. The paragraph can cover any or part of:
a. Periods that routine reports and distribution address
b. Updates to threat and environment
c. Distribution of overlays
e. Other Instructions
4. SERVICE SUPPORT: List any intelligence service support requirements and issues not
addressed in the basic order or any other annex
5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL:
a. Identify intelligence coordination requirements
b. Identify intelligence liaison requirements

31

APPENDIX B (INTELLIGENCE ESTIMATE)


The content and format of an Intelligence Estimate:
Listed below are the areas that are required in the Intelligence Estimate:
1. MISSION: State the mission of the unit
2. AREA OF OPERATION
a. Weather of the Area of Operation
i.

Current and Predicted Weather Situation for Area of Operation

ii.

Effects on enemy courses of action

iii.

Effects on friendly courses of action

b.

Terrain of the Area of Operation


i.

Overview of terrain in Area of Operation

ii.

Effects on enemy courses of action

iii.

Effects on own courses of action

c. Transportation and Avenues of Approach Considerations


d. Political Considerations that would impact the mission
e. Population Demographics (the characteristics of a population or part of it,
especially its size, growth, density, distribution, and statistics regarding birth,
marriage, disease, and death)
3. ENEMY SITUATION
a. Disposition and current locations of enemy forces
b. Composition of enemy forces
c. Strength of enemy forces
i.

Committed Forces (enemy forces in contact or supporting those in


contact)

ii.

Reinforcements (enemy forces held in reserve)

iii.

Recent Significant Activities of Enemy Forces

d. Vulnerabilities, Peculiarities and Weaknesses of Enemy Forces


32

4. ENEMY CAPABILITIES
a. List of Enemy Capabilities
i.

Personnel

ii.

Intelligence

iii.

Operations

iv.

Logistics

v.

Communications

vi.

Civil Considerations

vii.

Personalities

b. Analysis and Discussion of Enemy Forces Capabilities


5. CONCLUSIONS
a. Effects of Intelligence Considerations on Operations
b. Effects of Area of Operation on Own Courses of Action
c. Probable Enemy Courses of Action

33

i.

Most Likely Enemy Courses of Action

ii.

Most Dangerous Enemy Course of Action

APPENDIX C (INTELLIGENCE SUMMARY)


The format and content of an Intelligence Summary:
The intelligence summary provides the following information:
a. Date and Time - This is the time period of the INTSUM using a from: date time, to:
date time format. This is usually a 24 hour period but may be longer or shorter
depending on the requirements of the commander and staff.
b. Weather and Terrain Updates - These updates cover the period of the operation and
how both can impact friendly and enemy: soldiers, equipment, communications, fixed
and rotary wing aircraft and any other considerations that may affect the operation.
c. Enemy Courses of Action - This describes what the enemy may be planning to do.
The Intelligence Officer and Staff analyze trends and patterns of the enemy to predict
what the enemy may do. They also provide predictive analysis indicating what they
think the enemy activity for the next 24-48 hours may be.
d. Update High Value Targets - This is info on High Value Targets that have been
identified as well as new High Value Targets that can degrade the capabilities of the
enemy.
e. Update Priority Intelligence Requirements - This provides information on what has
been answered and new Information Requirements that are developed.
f. Update Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Activities - This provides
updates to the Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance plan and collection
efforts as well as counter-reconnaissance efforts.
g. Battle Damage - This provides information on the enemy strength, track and wheeled
vehicles, logistics, communications, artillery, or reconnaissance. This information
will paint a picture for the commander and staff to understand what enemy has left to
oppose them.

34

APPENDIX D REFERENCES
ANA 1-2.5 Commanders Intelligence Handbook
ANA 1-2.6 MI Company Handbook
ANA 1-3 Operations
ANA 1-3.1 Terms and Graphics
ANA 1-3.51 The Orders Process
ANA 2.0 Corps Operations
ANA 3-0 Brigade Operations
ANA 3-05.40 Civil Affairs Operations
ANA 3-06 Urban Operations
ANA 3-07 SASO
ANA 3-13 Information Operations
ANA 3-19.15 Civil Disturbance Operations
ANA 3-19.50 Military Police Intelligence Operations
ANA 3-20.971 Reconnaissance Company
ANA 3-24 Counterinsurgency
ANA 3-24.1 Company Commanders COIN Handbook
ANA 3-24.2 Kandak COIN Handbook
ANA 3-24.3 Co Cdrs COIN Pocket Guide
ANA 3-24.4 Kandak COIN Checklist
ANA 3-24.5 ANA Brigade COIN Workbook
ANA 3-25.26 Map Reading
ANA 6-22 Leadership
ANA 6-22.1 Battlestaff HB
ANA 7-10.3 Offensive Operations
ANA 7-10.4 Defensive Operations

35

ANA 7-10.5 Other Tactical Operations


ANA 7-20.5 Executive Officers Handbook
ANA 7-22.7 Bridmals Guide
ANA 7-85.1 Commando
ANA 12.5.1 Soldier Common Task Pamphlet Chg 1
ANA 12.5.1 Soldier Common Task Pamphlet E5-7
ANA 34-8.1 Company Commanders Intelligence Handbook

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APPENDIX E - ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS


1. User comments and recommendations for change. Users in the field are highly encouraged
to submit comments and recommendations for changes. These comments and
recommendations should address content (accuracy, usefulness, consistency and
organization), writing and appearance. Address comments and recommendations on this
publication to:
Commander, ANA Training Command
Chief of Doctrine and Concepts
Address: Line 1 (To be provided in by ANATC)
Address: Line 2 (To be provided in by ANATC)
Phone Number: (To be provided in by ANATC)
Electronic Address: (If Available) (To be provided in by ANATC)
When a General Staff principal staff element (G1 - G6) or corps or intermediate command
submits a proposal that would change original information reflected in this publication, that
staff element or command will include a recommended change to this publication as an
enclosure to its proposal. ANA organizations must notify the Chief of Doctrine and
Concepts when changes to source documents reflected in this publication are initiated.

2. Authorship. The Lead Agent for this publication (ANA 1-2 INTELLIGENCE) is assigned to
the Chief of Doctrine and Concepts. The Doctrine Sponsor is nominated by the Office of the
G3 and approved by the Chief of the General Staff.
3. Distribution. Additional copies of this publication may be obtained through the Chief of
Doctrine and Concepts publication distribution system.

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GLOSSARY

AreaofOperation:
Usually defined by higher headquarters where a commander is assigned a specific
geographic area which he has responsibility and authority to conduct military operations is
normally defined by graphics of units from higher headquarters.
AreaofInterest(AI):
Is that area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, adjacent and
extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. This area also
includes areas occupied by enemy forces which could jeopardize the accomplishments of the
mission.
BattleSpace:
The commanders views of the environment and factors which must be understood to
successfully apply combat power, protect the force, and complete the mission. Battle space
encompasses the surface, subsurface, and atmosphere of a particular geographic area. The
dimensions of a commands battle space are dictated by its mission, its capabilities and the
capabilities of the enemy.
CombatIntelligence:
Knowledge of the enemy, weather, and geographical features required by the commander
in the planning and conduct of combat operations.
CommandersCriticalInformationRequirements(CCIRs):
A comprehensive list of information requirements identified by the commander as being
critical in the decision making process that affects successful mission accomplishment. Two
subcomponents are critical to the commander and his mission: Priority Intelligence
Requirements (PIRs) and Friendly Force Information Requirements (FFIRs).
Counterintelligence(CI):
Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other
intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign
governments, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities.
DecisionPoint(DP):
Where and when the commander or staff anticipates making a decision concerning a
specific friendly Course of Action, it is usually associated with a specific area of interest where
the commander can engage the enemy. Decision points may also be associated with the friendly
force and the status of ongoing operations.
DoctrinalTemplate:
A model based on known enemy doctrine is a Doctrinal template. They illustrate the
disposition and activity of enemy forces and assets conducting a particular operation
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unconstrained by the effects of the battle space and represent the application of enemy doctrine
under ideal conditions. Ideally, doctrinal templates depict the enemys normal organization for
combat, frontages, depths, boundaries and other control measures, assets available from other
commands, objectives depths, engagement areas, and battle positions.
EssentialElementsofFriendlyInformation(EEFI):
Friendly forces information that must be protected from the enemy which if known to and
acted upon by the enemy would seriously impact the mission
EnemyCapabilities:
Enemy capabilities are considered in the light of all known factors affecting military
operations including: weather, terrain, and the strength and disposition of forces and includes the
general courses of action open to the enemy, such as attack, defense, reinforcement, or
withdrawal.
EventTemplate:
An event template is guide for collection planning; it shows the Named Areas of Interest
where activity or lack of activity will indicate which course of action the enemy has adopted.
FriendlyForcesInformationRequirements(FFIRs):
Friendly Forces Information Requirements are information required by the Commander
to determine the capabilities of friendly units.
HighValueTargets(HVT):
A High Value Target is anything that the enemy commander requires for the successful
completion of his mission; the loss of high value targets are expected to seriously degrade
important enemy functions in the friendly commanders area of interest.
HighPayoffTarget(HPT):
A target whose loss to the enemy will significantly contribute to the success of the
friendly course of action; High-Payoff Targets are those High-Value Targets, identified through
war gaming, which must be acquired and successfully attacked for the success of the friendly
commander's mission.
Human Intelligence (HUMINT):
Human Intelligence is the collection of information by trained collectors to identify
elements, intentions, composition, strength, dispositions, tactics, equipment, personnel, and
capabilities.
Indications & Warning (I&W):
Those intelligence activities intended to detect and report time-sensitive information on
developments that could be a threat to Afghanistan or allied military, political, or economic
interests. This includes: warning of enemy actions or intentions, of impending hostilities,
insurgency, nuclear or non-nuclear attack on Afghanistan, its forces, or allied nations, hostile
reactions to Afghan activities, terrorist attacks, and other similar events.
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Indicator:
Indicators are threat actions, activities, or signatures whose absence or presence shows
evidence of threat intentions, capabilities, and vulnerabilities, which help to confirm or deny a
threat Course of Action. A thorough knowledge of when and where activity is likely to occur on
the battlefield helps an analyst develop indicators. The indicators in turn help the analyst build
Specific Information Requests which help generate the Intelligence Surveillance and
Reconnaissance plan.
Information:
Information is the collected facts and data about a specific subject. Information is
processed and analyzed to produce Intelligence.
Information Requirements (IR):
Information Requirements are all of the information elements required by the commander
and his staff for the successful planning and execution of operations including the factors of
mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civilian
considerations.
Intelligence:
Intelligence is the product resulting from the collection, processing, integration,
evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign nations,
hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential operations. The
term is also applied to the activity which results in the product and to the organizations engaged
in such activity. Intelligence provides commanders and their staffs with predictive and tailored
information supporting the commanders decision making.
Intelligence Cycle:
The Intelligence cycle is used to acquire information, convert it into intelligence, and
disseminate it to the command. Evaluation and feedback occur continuously during the cycle
thus provide immediate notice to the Intelligence Officer and staff that information needs to be
relooked or recollected. There are six actions in the cycle: Planning/Direction, Collection,
Processing, Production, Dissemination, and Evaluation/Feedback.
Intelligence Estimate (Intel Est):
The written or verbal assessment of available intelligence relating to a specific situation
or condition with a view to determining the Courses of Action open to the enemy or potential
enemy and the order of probability of their adoption.
Intelligence Operations:
Intelligence Operations include a variety of intelligence tasks that are carried out by
various intelligence organizations and activities and are generally referring to Collection or
Analysis. When used in the context of Collection activities, Intelligence Operations refers to
collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting of information. When used in the context of
Analysis, it refers to collation, integration, and interpretation, leading to the dissemination of a
finished product.

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Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB):


An analytical methodology employed to reduce uncertainties concerning the enemy,
environment, and terrain for all types of operations. Intelligence preparation of the battlefield
builds an extensive collection of information, then analyzes it in detail to determine the impact
the enemy, environment, and terrain will have on operations and then present that analysis in
graphic form. Intelligence preparation of the battlefield is a continuous process and is part of the
Planning Process.
Intelligence Requirement (IR):
Any subject, general or specific upon where there is a need for the collection of
information or the production of intelligence; a requirement for intelligence to fill a gap in the
commands knowledge or understanding of the battle space, or the enemy forces.
Low Level Voice Intercept (LLVI):
Teams with radios which provide real time intelligence to the commander on the ground
giving him the opportunity to be proactive rather than reactionary
Latest Time Information of Value (LTIOV):
The time by which information must be delivered to the requestor in order to provide
decision makers with timely intelligence; sometimes the LTIOV is the expected time of a
decision anticipated during staff war gaming and planning. If someone other than the decision
maker must first process the information, the LTIOV is earlier than the time associated with the
decision point. The time difference accounts for delays in processing and communicating the
final intelligence to the decision maker.
Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay (MCOO):
Combination of Terrain, Vegetation, Lines of Communication, Water, Demographics,
Logistics Sustainability, and Key Targets and Facilities Overlays to present a graphic
representation of the Area of Operation and Area of Interest.
Military Intelligence:
Intelligence concerning the military capabilities of foreign countries or organizations and
relating to the following subjects: armed forces capabilities, including order of battle,
organizations, training, tactics, doctrine, strategy, and other factors bearing on military strength
and effectiveness; area and terrain intelligence, including urban areas, coasts, and landing
beaches, and meteorological, and geological intelligence, transportation in all modes: military
material production and support industries, military and civilian computer systems, military
economics, including foreign military assistance, political intelligence, location, identification,
and description of military related installations, government control, escape and evasion, and
threats and forecasts.
Open Source Intelligence (OSINT):
Open-source intelligence is the discipline that pertains to intelligence produced from
publicly available information that is collected, exploited, and disseminated in a timely manner
to an appropriate audience for the purpose of addressing a specific intelligence requirement.
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OSINT is derived from the systematic collection, processing, and analysis of publicly available,
relevant information in response to intelligence requirements.
Operational Intelligence:
Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations.
Order of Battle (OB):
The identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the personnel, units,
and equipment of any military force.
Priority Intelligence Requirement (PIR):
Those intelligence requirements for which a commander has an anticipated and stated
priority in his task of planning and decision-making; they are part of the Commanders Critical
Information Requirements.
Reconnaissance:
A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods,
information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy or to secure data
concerning the geographic characteristics of a particular area
Situation Template (SIT TEMP):
A depiction of assumed enemy dispositions based on enemy doctrine and the effects of
the battle space if the enemy should adopt a particular course of action. Situation templates are
the doctrinal templates depicting a particular operation modified to account for the effects of the
battle space environment and the enemys current situation, Training, experience level, logistics
status, losses, and dispositions. The situation template depicts enemy units two levels of
command below the friendly force, as well as the expected location of high value targets.
Situation templates use time phase lines to indicate movement of forces and the expected flow of
the operation. Usually, the situation template depicts a critical point in the course of action.
Situation templates are one part of an adversary course of action model. Models may contain
more than one situation template.
Source:
The means or system that can be used to observe and record information relating to the
condition, situation, or activities of a target location, organization, or individual; a source can be
people, documents, equipment, or technical sensors.
Strategic Intelligence:
Intelligence that is required for the formulation of military strategy policy, and plans and
operations at national levels.
Specific Intelligence Requirements (SIRs):
Specific Information Requirements completely describe the information required, the
location where the required information can be collected, and the time during which it can be
collected. Generally, each PIR or Information Request generates several Specific Information
Requirements. These may partially or fully answer a PIR or Information Request and provide
the analyst the information necessary to confirm or deny threat COAs.
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Specific Orders and Requests (SORs):


Specific Orders and Requests are the specific tasking orders approved by the G3 or a
request for support from higher or lateral units that generates planning and execution of a
collection mission or analysis of database information. Specific orders are orders for subordinate
commands; requests are sent to other commands or higher echelons.
Surveillance:
The systemic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or
things, by visual, electronic, photographic, or other means
Tactical Intelligence:
Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting operations at a tactical level.
Targeting:
Is the process of selecting targets and matching the appropriate responses to them taking
into account operational requirements, capabilities, the analysis of the enemy situation relative to
the commanders mission, objectives, and capabilities at the commanders disposal, which is
used to identify and nominate specific vulnerabilities that if exploited will accomplish the
commanders purpose by delaying, disrupting, disabling or destroying enemy forces or resources
critical to the enemy.
Vulnerability:
Vulnerability in this context is the exposure of a nation or military force to any action
through which its potential or effectiveness may be reduced or its will to fight diminished.

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