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Basic Theories of Electric

1.1 Electric units


Chart 1.1-1 shows the electric units of the
electric/electronic circuits that are explained in this
training text.
Chart 1.1-1 Description, units and names of founding scientists

Description

Unit

Code

Voltage

Volt

Alessandro Volta: Italian physicist

Current

Ampere

Andre Marie Ampere: French physicist

Resistance

Ohm

Georg Simon Ohm: German physicist

Condenser capacity

Farad

Michael Faraday: British physicist/chemist

Coil inductance

Henry

Joseph Henry: American physicist

Coulomb

Charles Augustin Coulomb: French electrical engineer

Joule

James Prescott Joule: British physicist

Capacitance
Energy

Names of founding scientists

As apparent from the above chart, the electric units


are all named after the discovering scientists.
Pipe

1.2 Voltage and current


Water flow

As shown in Fig. 1.2-1, water flows into the pipe,


pushed by a constant water pressure between A and
B produced by the pump.

Load

Pump
B

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Based on a similar concept, when a conductor is


connected as shown in Fig. 1.2-2 from A (+) to B (-)
the current flows from terminal A to terminal B.
This current flow is based on the electric potential
difference (voltage) between terminals A and B of the
battery, and is similar to the water pressure of the
pump. In a battery, this is called electromotive force
that lets the current flow.
Volt (code: V) is used as the unit for electromotive
force, voltage and electric potential difference.
The current amplitude is expressed by the electricity
quantity rate (Ampere) that passes through the crosssection of the conductor in one second. The current
uses the (Ampere) unit (code: A).

Fig. 1.2-1 Pump circuit

Current flow

+ A
Power
supply

Electromotive
force
-

Load

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Fig. 1.2-2 Electric circuit

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Basic Theories of Electric


1.3 Ohm's rule
It was Ohm who discovered that the "current that is
applied across the conductor is proportional to the
voltage." This is called Ohm's rule and is described in
Fig. 1.3-1.
Let's hypothesize current I (A) flow between a-b in a
single conductor when voltage V (V) is applied.
According to Ohm's law, the voltage is as expressed
in (equation 1.3-1).
Resistance (R) varies according to the type of
conductor, temperature, measurements and such. The
bigger the value, the smaller is the current even with
the application of the same amount of voltage. Thus,
the electric conductor is perceived to possess a
particular characteristic that resists current. This
resistance (R) is called electrical resistance or
resistance. The resistance value is expressed in
Ohms (code: ).

1.4 Resistance combinations and


combined resistance
1.4-1 Series circuit
When voltage (V) is applied between terminals a-b
in Fig. 1.4-1, the same amount of current I (A) flows
in each resistance.

(Equation 1.4-1) shows the voltages along both


terminals of R1 and R2, according to Ohm's rule.

The total V is the total of all voltages and can be


expressed by (equation 1.4-2).

When (equation 1.4-2) is used to express the


current (I), the denominator on the right side
expresses the combined resistance of the series
circuit as in (equation 1.4-3).

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Basic Theories of Electric


R

V
a

b
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Fig. 1.3-1 Explanatory fig. of Ohm's rule

Voltage(V) = resistance(R) current(I)


Voltage (V)
Current
(I) =
Resistance
(R)
Voltage (V)
Resistance Current
(R) = (I)
Equation: 1.3-1

R1

R2

V1

V2
V

I
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Fig. 1.4-1 Series circuit

Voltages of both R1 terminals: V1 = R1 I


Voltages of both R2 terminals: V2 = R2 I
Equation 1.4-1

V = V1 + V2
= (R1 I) + (R2 I)
= I (R1 + R2)
Equation 1.4-2

V
I
=
(R1+R2)

V
=
R
Equation 1.4-3

FOE-1-3

Basic Theories of Electric


1.4-2 Parallel circuit
The connection of R1 and R2 as shown on Fig. 1.42 is called parallel connection. What is the
combined resistance here?
When voltage (V) is applied between terminals and,
the same amount of voltage is applied to all
resistances.
Thus, currents I1 and I2 (A) flowing in each
resistance are calculated by (equation 1.4-5).

I1

R1

I2

R2
I

Fig. 1.4-2 Parallel circuit

I1 =

R1
V

I2 =

R2

Equation 1.4-5

The total current I is the total of all currents (I1 and


I2), based on (equation 1.4-6).
V
V
R1
1

R1

R2

R2

R2

R1

R1R2

R1R2

I = I1 + I2 =

+
+

V
R1R2
=

R1 + R2

Equation 1.4-6

FOE-1-4

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Basic Theories of Electric


1.4-3 Examples of calculating the combined
resistance of series-parallel circuit

R3 = 5

(1) Calculating the series resistance


R1 = 2

Ra = R1 + R2 = 2 + 5 = 7

R2 = 5

R4 = 10

(2) Calculating the parallel resistance


Rb =

1
R3

1
1
R4

R5 = 30

Ra

R5

Rb
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1
5

1
1
10

1
30
Ra = 7

1
1
= 6 + 3 + 1 = 10
30

30
10

Rb = 3

b
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30
Ra + Rb = 10

= 3

b
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The above shows that the resistance between


terminals a and b can be calculated as follows:

Fig. 1.4-3 Series-parallel circuit

Ra + Rb = 7 + 3 = 10

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Basic Theories of Electric


1.5 Coil and inductance
1.5-1 Coil appearance and code display
Coil is a spiral-form copper wiring and such.
Its appearance is as shown in Fig. 1.5-1 and Fig.
1.5-2.It functions as a resistance in AC circuit and
its value is shown in inductance.
Some coils are large. The coil types shown below
are examples of electronic-circuit use coil.

20 50mm

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Fig. 1.5-1
Appearance of a hollow coil

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Fig. 1.5-2
Appearance of a coil with iron core

Fig. 1.5-3
Coil code display

1.5-2 Basics of coil (inductor)


(1) Measurement unit of inductance
Henry (H) is used as the unit to express the coil
characteristic-level. The larger number of turns, the
stronger are the coil characteristics and
subsequently, a larger Henry value.
The Henry value of a coil wound around an iron
core is larger than a hollow coil.
The coil is referred to as an inductor.
Definition of Henry
1H is defined as the self-inductance at the time of
development of 1V electromotive force when the
current changes every second 1A (1A/s) for a
particular coil.
(Equation 1.5-1) expresses this definition.

Electromotive force = (self-inductance)


Equation 1.5-1

FOE-1-6

I
T

Basic Theories of Electric


(2) Self-inductance (L)
Self-inductance refers to self-inductance tendency
as calculated by the electromotive force in
(equation 1.5-1). The coil's self-inductance is
calculated by using (equation 1.5-2). The electrical
meaning of (equation 1.5-2) is as follows:
The number of turns needs to be increased to
obtain a larger inductance.

Self-inductance (L) = N

N: Number of turns
: Magnetic flux of the coil
Equation 1.5-2

(3) Impedance (inductive reactance)


What happens when AC voltage is added to a coil
whose resistance is zero and self-inductance is
1H? According to Ohm's rule, current continues to
flow infinitely because the resistance is zero.
Next, what really happens if AC voltage is added to
the coil? The current does not flow infinitely but
stops at a certain cerrent value.
The coil resistance (inductive reactance: expressed
by Z) of AC voltage can be calculated by using
(equation 1.5-3).

Inductive reactance Z = L
: Angular velocity (2f)
f : Frequency
L: Inductance (H: Henry)
Equation 1.5-3

For example, if L=1H, frequency=50Hz, then Z


would be as follows:
Z = 2 50 1
= 2 3.14 50
= 314
If AC100V were applied, the current flowing at the
time would be:
Voltage (V)
100
Current (I) = Resistance (R) = 314 = 0.32A

FOE-1-7

Basic Theories of Electric


(4) Reconsideration of the definition of "Henry"
(Equation
di 1.5-4) is a different expression of
(equation
dt 1.5-1).

V = -L
V: electromotive force in coil
L: inductance of coil

Let's consider the electrical significance of this


equation. di
Use 1.5-4 todtseek back electromotive force V1. V2.
i:
V:
I:
L:
t1:
t3:

current that flows into the coil


back electromotive force across the coil
1 ampere (A)
2 Henry (H)
1 sec. (S)
0.5 sec (S)

: variation in current
Equation 1.5-4

t1

Variation in current at t1 is:


di
+1 (A)
Current = dt = 1 (S) = 1 (A/S)

t2

t3

V2

Thus, V1 is
V1 = -2 (H) 1 (A/S) = -2 (V)
V

V1

Variation in current at t3 is:


di
-1 (A)
Current (I) = dt = 0.5 (S) = -2 (A/S)

Fig. 1.5-4
Relationship of the coil-flowing current
and electromotive force in the coil

Thus, V2 is
V2 = -2 (H) {-2 (A/S)} = 4 (V)
The t2 current is 1A constant and the variation rate
is zero. Therefore, back electromotive force is zero
(not generated). t3 exemplifies the situation in
which the current flowing in the coil is cut off. For
example, if the 1A current is switched off in the kind
of circuit shown in Fig. 1.5-5, theoretically, the
current momentarily drops to zero. Therefore, the
variation rate is as follows:
di
-1 (A)
Currrent (I) = dt = 0 (S) = - (A/S)
Thus, amount of back electromotive force is
generated in the V2 direction. (In actuality, the coil
resistance forms a time constant, and the current
variation rate increase is not infinite.
If an attempt is then made to turn off (or reduce) the
current that is flowing in the inductance by using
this back electromotive force, an attempt is then
made for the original current quantity (1A) to
continue flowing. Voltage is generated across the
coil, thus making continued current flow possible.
(Current can flow by applying voltage.)
In general, the back electromotive force along both
coil terminals is called surge voltage.

FOE-1-8

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a
Switch
b

Coil

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Fig.1.5-5
Circuit in which the coil current is shut by using a switch

Basic Theories of Electric


(5) What is the problem with surge voltage?
Fig. 1.5-6 shows the development of surge voltage
and infiltration of this surge voltage to other
electronic circuits.
As shown in the figure, the surge voltage infiltrates
other electronic circuits as indicated by an arrow.
It can cause the malfunction of an electronic circuit
or damage of an electronic part. Thus, the surge
voltage of current blocking circuits should be
suppressed.
(6) Fundamentals of suppressing the surge voltage
To control the surge voltage, if the coil current is
gradually made to zero, the di/dt becomes small.
Thus making it possible to suppress the surge
voltage. In other words, after switching OFF,
create a path that allows the coil current to
continue flowing. This allows the current to
gradually drop to zero.

Other
electronic
circuits

Development of
surge voltage

FOE-1-9

Infiltration of
surge voltage

Fig. 1.5-6 Development of surge voltage


and infiltration into other
electronic circuits

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Basic Theories of Electric


(7) Example of suppressing the surge voltage with
diode
As shown in FOE-3-1, Fig. 1.5-7, when the circuit is
completed by using a switch:

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Fig. 1.5-7 Coil current path


when the switch is ON

As shown in Fig. 1.5-8, back electromotive force


(equation 1.5-3) is induced in the coil in an attempt
by the current to continue to flowing. Due to this
back electromotive force, the current returns to the
coil via forward direction path of the diode. This is
the current path indicated in A.
Without diode, the coil current is momentarily
broken, resulting in the induction of mass back
electromotive force (surge voltage).
Fig. 1.5-9 shows the waveform of the above
situation.
Vs is clamped to the forward drop voltage (about
0.6V).
Even when the surge voltage attempts to increase
sharply, it can be short-circuited by the diode.
Let's find the time t in which current flows through
the diode.
Vs = -L

di
dt

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Fig. 1.5-8 Coil current path


after switch OFF

Turn OFF switch here

Vs: Surge voltage, but as shown in Fig. 1.5-9, the


diode conducting in the forward direction has a
drop (0.6V).
L: Coil inductance (as 1mH)
I: Coil current right before switch off (as 0.1A)
0.6 (V) = -1 (mH)

Electromotive force
A

-0.1(A)
t

= 0.001 (H)

When there is
diode
When there is
no diode
Coil current
Back
electromotive
force
Back
electromotive
force (Vs)

0.1(A)
t

t = 0.000167sec = 0.167mS = 167S

Diode current
t
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Fig. 1.5-9 Waveforms when diode is


connected to the coil

FOE-1-10

Basic Theories of Electric


1.6 Basics of the capacitors
Insulator

1.6-1 Structure of the capacitor


As shown in Fig. 1.6-1, the capacitor is structured
that the electrode plates sandwich the insulator
which can charge amount of electricity.

Electrode plate
(Both faces)

Electrode lead (B)

Electrode lead
(A)

1.6-2 Types of insulators


- Aluminum electrolytic
- Tantalum
- Mica
- Ceramic
- Plastic film
and others. Selection of the correct material is
determined by the application such as large
capacity, high frequency and high voltage
resistance.

Fig. 1.6-1 Exemplary fig. of a capacitor

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Fig. 1.6-2 Capacitor code display

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1.6-3 Appearances of major capacitors


20 - 70mm

Fig. 1.6-3 to Fig. 1.6-5 show the major capacitors


being used for electronic devices, power electronic
devices and such.

Fig. 1.6-3
Aluminum electrolytic capacitor

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10 - 20mm

Fig. 1.6-4 Plastic film capacitor

TTLB-0086-021

600mm

Fig. 1.6-5 High-voltage power capacitor

FOE-1-11

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Basic Theories of Electric


1.6-4 Capacitor measurement unit
Farad is used as the unit to measure capacitor.
The definition of the measurement unit is as stated
to the right.

Definition
When 1(V) volt is applied to the capacitors,
the electrostatic capacity of the capacitors to
store the electric charge is 1(F).

It can
Q be expressed by (equation 1.6-1).
Thus, the condenser operates to store the voltage
V
(to as electrical charge).

C=
C: capacity (Farad)
Q: electric charge that is stored in a
capacitor (Coulomb)
V: voltage that is applied to the capacitor
(being charged) (Volt)
Equation 1.6-1

1.6-5 Capacitor impedance (capacity reactance)


Capacity reactance Z ()

The capacity reactance is expressed in equation


1.6-2.

1
1
= Angular velocity Capacity = C

Let's seek the capacity reactance and current


(Example)
Capacity : 10 (F)
Frequency: 50 (Hz)
Voltage : 100 (V)

: angular velocity (2f)


f : frequency (Hz)
C: capacity (F)
Equation 1.6-2

Capacity reactance
Z =

1
2 50 10 10-6
106
103
=
1000 3.14
3.14

= 318
1F = 1 10-6 (F)
Current (I) =

Voltage (V)
Reactance ()

100 (V)
= 318 () = 0.314 (A)

FOE-1-12

Basic Theories of Electric


1.6-6 Capacitor combination and combined
capacity
(1) Parallel connection
Fig. 1.6-6 shows that when three capacitors are
parallel-connected and voltage V is applied
between the terminals, electric charges Q1, Q2 and
Q3 (C) that can be stored are as follows:
Q1 = C1V
Q2 = C2V
Q3 = C3V
Thus, the total electric charge Q (C) as seen from
the terminal is as follows:
Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= C1V + C2V + C3V
= (C1 + C2 + C3) V

Q1
V

Q2

C1

Q3

C2

C3

Fig. 1.6-6 Parallel connection

TTLB-0086-023

The combined capacity C (F) is as follows:


C=

Q
V

= C1 + C2 + C3

(2) Series connection


The voltage added to each condenser in Fig. 1.6-7
is as follows:
V1 =

Q
C1

V2 =

Q
C2

V3 =

Q
C3

Furthermore, since V = V1 + V2 + V3, the combined


capacity C (F) is as follows:
Q
C= Q =
Q
Q
Q
V
C1 + C2 + C3

C1

V1

C2

V2

C3

V3

1
=

Fig. 1.6-7 Series connection

1
1
1
+
+
C1
C2
C3

This is based on the same concept as the parallel


onnection in resistance and combined resistance
values. As the voltage of each condenser is V =
Q/C, the proportional relationship is as follows:
V1 : V2 : V3 =

1
1
1
:
:
C1
C2
C3

FOE-1-13

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Basic Theories of Electric


1.6-7 Charge-discharge operation of capacitor
Fig. 1.6-7 shows the voltage waves of the capacitor
when the switch (S) is turned ON (1-2 conduction)
and turned OFF (2-3 conduction).
When (S) is ON, line voltage (Vi) is charged on the
path shown by the solid line.
When (S) is turned OFF, the voltage that was
charged on the capacitor (C) is discharged along
the dotted path via resistance (R).
The following is an explanation of the charge/
discharge operations.
When (S) is ON and the capacitor is fully charged,
voltage (Vc) of the capacitor becomes the same as
input voltage (Vi). On the other hand, voltage (Vc)
becomes zero when the capacity is fully
discharged.
Assuming that the capacitor voltage that reaches
62-63% of Vi is V, then the time up to Vis .
When (S) is OFF, the capacitor voltage drops. The
time that the capacitor voltage drops by 62-63%
(V) is determined by.
= CR (seconds)
Example in which a constant has been given
In the event of Vi=10V, R=10kand C=100F, is
as follows:
= 10 103 () 100 10-6 (F)
= 1 sec
The here is referred to as time constant.

Switch
S
1

Charging

R
2
Vi

VC

Discharging

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Fig. 1.6-8 R-C charge-discharge circuit

ON
Switch
(S)

OFF

V
Vi
V
Vc (V)

Even for R=100kand C=10F, is 1 second.


Here, it is important to understand the meaning of
time constant and concept of the charge-discharge
operation time of a capacitor.
As stated above, a capacitor is often used to delay
an electrical operation.

FOE-1-14

Time

Fig. 1.6-9
TTLB-0086-026
Charge-discharge waveforms of the condenser

Basic Theories of Electric


1.7 Measurement unit
Below is an explanation on units and their prefixes.
Milli

Time

Resis
tance

Standar
d
Sec.
Sec

Capacitor
capacity

Farad
F

Milli Farad
mF
10-3F

Micro Farad Nano Farad


F
nF
10-6F
10-9F

Pico Farad
pF
10-12F

Inductance

Henry
H

Milli Henry
mH
10-3H

Micro Henry Nano Henry


H
nH
10-6H
10-9H

Pico Henry
pH
10-12H

Kilo

Giga Ohm

Mega Ohm

Kilo Ohm

Ohm

Milli Ohm

G
109

M
106

k
103

m
10-3

Voltage

Mega volt
MV
106V

Kilo volt
kV
103V

Volt
V

Milli volt
mV
10-3V

Mega watt
MW
106W

Pico

Micro Sec.
Nano Sec.
Pico Sec.
Sec
nSec
pSec
1-1000mSec 1-1000Sec 1-1000nSec
10-6Sec
10-9Sec
10-12Sec

Mega

Electric power

Nano

Milli Sec.
mSec
1/1000Sec
10-3Sec

Giga

Current

Micro

Micro volt
V
10-6V

Kilo ampere Ampere Milli ampere Micro ampere Nano ampere Pico ampere
kA
A
mA
A
nA
pA
103A
10-3A
10-6A
10-9A
10-12A
Kilo watt
kW
103W

Watt
W

Milli watt
mW
10-3W

FOE-1-15

Micro watt
W
10-6W

Basic Theories of Electric


1.8 Sine wave alternating current
Most of the electricity that is being used in everyday
life or in general industries is alternating current.
This chapter gives an explanation on the
characteristics of alternating current and its difference
with direct current.
1.8-1 Sine waveform
1

0.866

0.5

(3/2)
0
0
(0)

210
30

45

90
(/2)

120

150

240

270

(2)
300

330

360

180
()

-0.5

-0.866

-1
TTLB-0086-027

Fig. 1.8-1 Sine waveform

Sine wave refers to the waveform that can be


expressed by the sine function.
The following equation expresses the y-axis value
when the x-axis is expressed by an angular degree (:
Greek).
y = sin
Let's try substituting 0. 30, 60, 90 as the value for
. To seek the value of sinis the same as seeking the
value of y and in short, it expresses the value of the yaxis.
It can be sought by using the trigonometric
function chart.
The above is a mathematical interpretation of the sine
function. In the electric circuit, the angle is not
expressed in degree (), but in Radian.

FOE-1-16

Basic Theories of Electric


1.8-2 Frequency
Frequency refers to the number of waves shown in
Fig. 1.8-1 (0-360or 0-2 Radian) that is repeated
in one second.
The unit used is Hertz (in German, means "heart,"
the code is Hz).
In short, frequency 50Hz means that the waveforms
in Fig. 1.8-1 are repeated 50 times in one second.
Thus, the time of a single frequency is 1/50 of a
single cycle or 0.02 sec. (20 milli sec: 20mSec).

f=

1
T

T=

1
f
f Frequency
T Time of single frequency

1.8-3 Three-phase alternating current


Fig. 1.8-1 shows single phase sine waves.
Fig. 1.8-2 shows three-phase sine waves.
These waves are shown in vector graphics in Fig.
1.8-3.
Phase U

Phase V

Phase W

Phase V
1 cycle
120

Lag
120

120

120
Phase U

120
120

Standard
TTLB-0086-028

Rotation
direction of
vector

Fig. 1.8-2 3-phase AC waves and the phase relationship

The three phases (phase U, V, W) are in a phase


relationship in which the 360 degrees are equally
divided (120).

Phase W

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Fig. 1.8-3 3-phases of three-phase AC circuit and vector


that expresses peak values

If assuming that the base phase is phase V, phase


U leads by 120. This means that in a phase
relationship, the phases are either in a lead or lag
relationship relative to the base phase.
The electricity that is supplied from the power
station to each household is the three-phase AC
explained in this section and then, conducted as
voltage. Each household uses two single phases
out of the three. The industrial sectors use threephase AC.

FOE-1-17

Basic Theories of Electric


1.9 Difference between AC and DC
1.9-1 AC waveform
With the passage of time, the value of AC waveform
changes. Thus, the waves go through symmetrical
changes between positive and negative values from
point zero.
Fig, 1.9-1 illustrates a sine wave (sine wave without
distortion). In general, it is called an alternating
current. Even when the waveform is distorted as in
Fig. 1.9-2, if the positive-side waves and negativeside waves are the same form, they are considered
to be AC.

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Fig. 1.9-1 Alternation of true sine wave

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Fig. 1.9-2 Alternation of distorted waveform

1.9-2 DC waveform
Figs. 1.9-3 to 1.9-5 show examples of an DC
waveform.
Their relationship with the major circuits are as
shown below.
Fig. 1.9-3 Battery voltage, DC generator output
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Fig. 1.9-3 DC waveform

Fig. 1.9-4 Rectified wave output


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Fig. 1.9-4 Rippled DC waveform

Fig. 1.9-5 Chopper-like switching circuit output


As shown in the Figs. to the right, DC is a waveform
of only positive (or negative) element.

FOE-1-18

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Fig. 1.9-5 Rippled DC waveform

Basic Theories of Electric


1.10 Transformer
This is an explanation on transformers which are a
typical electric device utilizing AC theory and change
voltage.
1-10-1 Theory of transformer
(1) Operation concept
When AC voltage (E1) is applied to the primary
winding, magnetic flux () develops inside the
iron core as a result of the current that passes
through the winding (n1) . As shown in Fig. 10-1,
this magnetic flux flows through the iron core.
Primary winding (n1)

Magnetic flux (

Iron core

Secondary winding (n2)

I1

I2

E1

E2

Load
resistance

TTLB-0086-035

Fig. 1.10-1 Explanatory fig. of transformer theory

As the magnetic flux passes through the


winding (n2) and its time quantity
secondary
t voltage is induced in the secondary
changes,
winding as expressed in (equation 10-1).

E2 = n2
n2: Secondary winding
: Magnetic flux
change
t: Time change
Equation 1.10-1

For the voltage to be induced into the secondary


winding as shown in (equation 1.10-1), the
magnetic flux must change.
In AC voltage, the magnetic flux time changes
and E2 is thus induced. However, in DC voltage,
the magnetic flux does not change.
Thus, secondary voltage is not induced (zero
voltage). This is the conclusive difference
between alternating and direct currents.
A conductive core is needed for the magnetic
flux in the primary winding to cross over to the
secondary winding.
If there is no conductive core and the quantity of
magnetic flux in the air is small, the voltage
cannot be induced in secondary winding.

FOE-1-19

E1

Magnetic flux ()

E2
TTLB-0086-036

Fig. 1.10-2 E1, , E2 operating waveform

Basic Theories of Electric


(2) Relationship of the number of turns and voltage.
Thevoltage
ratio of theSecondary
primary winding
Primary
voltagevoltage to the
secondary
voltage
is proportional to the
Primary
winding winding
Secondary winding
respective turns. It can be expressed in the
1.10-2).
E1 (equation
E2
n1

n2

Equation 1.10-2

(Example)
n1 = 100 turns
n2
E1
E2 turns
n2 = 300
n1 to a transformer.
n1
n2 applying E1 = 200V
Let's try
The voltage E2 generated in n2 can be found as
200
shownE2in (equation 1.10-2).
100 300
A device that is used to transform AC voltage is
200a
300
called
transformer.
100

E2 =

E1

=
E2 =

FOE-1-20

= 600V

Basic Theories of Electric


1.10-2 Transformer capacity
Capacity refers to electric power.
As shown in Fig. 1.10-1, the following (equation
1.10-1) defines the capacity.

Capacity = electric power (VA) =


voltage(V) x current(A)
Primary circuit demand = secondary circuit
demand
Primary circuit demand = primary voltage
x primary current
Secondary circuit demand = secondary
voltage x secondary current
In codes, they can be expressed as:
E1 I1 = E2 I2
Equation 1.10-1

(Example 1)
The example to the right shows what the rated
primary500VA
current will be like when E1 is 200V in a
500VA capacity
transformer.
200V

500VA = 200V I1
I1 =

(Example 2)
Let's seek the primary current by using secondary
circuit demand.
E2
The example to the right shows theRway in seeking
the primary current when E1 = 200V, E2 = 300V
and the secondary circuit load resistance
300 = 100
100

= 2.5A

Secondary circuit demand

= E2 I2
= E2
= 300
= 900VA

E1 I1 = E2 I2
200 I1 = 300 3
900
200

I1 =

FOE-1-21

= 4.5A

Basic Theories of Electric


1.10-3 Transformer types
(1) Types by insulation method
(1)-1 Dry-type transformer
The insulation between the transformer winding
coated with enamel and iron core is provided with
oil paper and such. This type is commonly used in
small- capacity and low-voltage transformers.

200 mm

Fig. 1.10-3 Dry-type single phase transformer

(1)-2 Mold Gap transformer


It is a medium capacity transformer. It is commonly
installed in environments where there are relatively
freguent vibrations and such.

(1)-3 Oil-immersed transformer


The insulation method is commonly seen in high
voltage transformers. The winding is immersed in
oil. It is often installed outdoors.

1000 mm

Fig. 1.10-4 Three-phase mold transformer

TTLB-0086-038

2000 mm

Fig. 1.10-5 Three-phase oil-cooled transformer

FOE-1-22

TTLB-0086-037

TTLB-0086-039

Basic Theories of Electric


(2) Connection categories
(2)-1 Single phase transformer
A single phase transformer is connected in the way
shown in Fig. 1.10-6.
U

Primary

Single phase transformer

Secondary

TTLB-0086-040

Fig. 1.10-6 Single phase transformer

(2)-2 Three-phase transformer


On the other hand, the three-phase transformer can
be connected in four ways.
U
- delta/star
u
Primary
Secondary
- star/delta
N
- delta/delta
V
w
- star/star.
W

Three-phase transformer

v
TTLB-0086-041

(Delta) (Star)
Fig. 1.10-7 Three-phase transformer

FOE-1-23

Basic Theories of Electric


1.10-4 Voltages of the three-phase transformer
u

(1) Line voltage


Primary winding: voltage between U-V, V-W, WU
Secondary winding: voltage between u-v, v-w, wu
(2) Phase voltage
Primary winding: voltage between U-V, V-W, WU
Secondary winding: voltage between N-v, N-w,
N-u
(3) Relationship of line voltage and phase voltage
Fig. 1.10-8 shows the voltage of the secondary
winding. The relationship of phase voltage (N-v,
N-w) and line voltage (v-w) is 30isosceles
triangle as shown. Thus, if setting the phase
voltage size as "1," the line voltage becomes
3(1.73).
If N-v = 100V,

Phase voltage
Line voltage
120

120
N
120

Fig. 1.10-8 Phase voltage and line voltage

TTLB-0086-042

v-w = 173V.
Chart 1.10-1 Selecting the transformer connection method

1.10-5 Selecting connection method for a threephase transformer

Connection
method

Fig. 1.10-4 shows the case in which the voltage is


taken into account to decide the selection of star or
delta connection. Chart 1.10-1 shows the case in
which the current is taken into account (transformer
capacity taken into account).

Star
connection

FOE-1-24

Delta
connection

Objective
The voltage output of
transformer is 3 times the
winding voltage, so it is applied
to seek a higher voltage.
The output current of
transformer is 3 times the
winding current, so it is applied
to seek a higher rated current.

Basic Theories of Electric


1.11 Comparison of characteristics in
R/L/C DC and AC circuits
Resistance (R)

Inductor (L)

Condenser (C)

Circuit

Applied voltage (DC)

L
C
R(H)
(F)
()

E
EE(V)
(V)
(V)

TTLB-0086-043

E (V)
L1()
()
E (V)
L ()
Current
=
R ()

TTLB-0086-044

TTLB-0086-045

Current

Current =

TTLB-0086-046

f = 0, so = 0=
Current = 0

L (H)

C (F)

Circuit

R ()

f = 0, so = 0
Current =

TTLB-0086-047

E (V)

TTLB-0086-048

E (V)

TTLB-0086-049

Voltage waveform
Current waveform

Applied voltage (AC)

E (V)

TTLB-0086-050, TTLB-0086-051

(1) The current is in phase with


the voltage (no phase
difference).
E
(V)
E (V)
(V)
E
(2) Current =
L
()
R1
()
()
C

TTLB-0086-052, TTLB-0086-053

(1) The current lags the


voltage by 90

TTLB-0086-054, TTLB-0086-055

(1) The current leads the


voltage by 90

If there is phase difference between voltage and current, it creates power loss in ( VI).

FOE-1-25

Basic Theories of Electric


1.12 Electric power and electric energy
1.12-1 Electric power
Electric power refers to the power of electricity.
It is expressed in watts, but VA (volt ampere) is
used to express the power (Watt) in the electric
circuit.

Watt (W) = voltage (V) x current (A)


1 HP = 746 W

The equation to the right expresses the commonly


known electric power-horsepower(HP) relationship.
Thus, the size of electric appliances (size of
capable power) is referred to as capacity.
The capacities of both transformer and motor are
electric power-based.
HP =
=
= 67
(For example)
Let's try expressing 50kW capacity in horsepower:

1.12-2 Electric energy


The watt-meter that is seen in general households
shows the amount of electric power (in watts)
used/hour. It is also called an integrating watt meter.
The energy refers to the amount of electric power
as shown to the right.
Energy is measured by a unit called the Joule. The
rule was formulated by the British physicist, James
Prescott Joule (equation 1.12-1). It can be
expressed in watts by the equation as shown to the
right.

FOE-1-26

W
746

50 1000
746

Electric energy = electric power (Watt)


time (Hour)

Joule = watt seconds


Equation 1.12-1

Watt (W) = Joule/Second (J/S)

Basic Theories of Electric


1.13 Insulation
The operation of the eletrical circuit with safe is purely
dependable to insulation performance. Here, an
explanation on insulation is provided with a sample a
toggle switch structure.

Lever

Fig. 1.13-1 shows the appearance.


A plastic cover on the lever is to improve operation
ability but it is not an insulator.

TTLB-0086-056

Contact output terminals

Fig. 1.13-1 Toggle switch appearance

Fig. 1.13-2 shows a cross-sectional illustration of the


switch.
Parts
Description
Lever
Contact with human (metal: conductor)
Insulating rod that touches the
Sliding rod
movable contact (electric circuit) and
directly moves the movable contact.
Movable contact Turns ON and OFF as electric circuit
and provides electrical connection to
Fixed contact external devices

Lever

Bushing
Case

Converter
Sliding rod

Movable
contact

Fixed
contact

Terminal

The sliding rod serves as an insulating body to


prevent electric shock.
Thus, it prevents electrocution when a human being
comes in contact with the lever.

The electrical circuit of the toggle switch is shown to


the right.

TTLB-0086-057

Fig. 1.13-2 Cross-section of toggle switch

TTLB-0086-058

Fig. 1.13-3 Toggle switch symbol display

Main performance of toggle switch It is as shown in


Chart 1.13-1.
The mechanical open-closed longevity indicated in the
Chart refers to the wear longevity of the sliding rod.
Insulation resistance is the value of resistance
between the electric circuit and other materials.

Chart 1.13-1 Main specification of toggle switch

Contact resistance 10 mor below


Insulation
1Gor more
resistance
Dielectric strength AC2.0 kv 1 min. or more
Mechanical
50000 times or more
ON/OFF longevity

FOE-1-27

Basic Theories of Electric


1.13-1 Insulation distance
(1) Creeping distance
When electric conductors (A) and (B) are
assembled into the insulating material (for
example, baked plate) as shown in Fig. 1.13-4
and furthermore, if voltage has been applied
between (A) and (B), leakage current passes
through the insulating material. Also, leakage
current develops on the insulating surface
between (A) and (B). Most of the passing current
can be ignored, but the value of the leakage
current that flows along the surface changes
according to the creeping distance. As shown in
Chart 1.13-2, the minimum creeping distance is
mandated. All electric products are designed to
conform to the mandated creeping distance.
Voltage does not need to be applied to both (A)
and (B). As long as they are metal (conductors),
the distance is handled as creeping distance.
The mandated values of the voltages and
creeping distances between (A) and (B) are
stated in Chart 1.13-2.

Insulating
material

Front
view

Creeping
distance

Nut

Side
view

(2) Spatial distance


Insulation distance refers to the spatial distance
between (A) and (B).
Voltage does not have to be applied to both (A)
and (B) and as long as they are metal
(conductor), the distance is handled as spatial
distance. Just like creeping distance, spatial
distance is regulated as shown in Chart 1.13-2.

(A)

(B)
Conductor

Fig. 1.13-4 Creeping distance

Insulation
distance

(A)

(B)
Conductor

Fig. 1.13-5 Insulation distance

FOE-1-28

TTLB-0086-059

TTLB-0086-060

Basic Theories of Electric


Chart 1.13-2 Mandated values of the rated voltage and creeping distance and spatial distance (from JEM)

Rated insulation voltage (V)


DC
AC
12 or below
Exceeds 12, below 60
Exceeds 60, below 250
Exceeds 250, below 380
Exceeds 380, below 500
Exceeds 500, below 660
Exceeds 660, Exceeds 660,
below 800
below 750
Exceeds 800, Exceeds 750,
below 1500 below 1000
Exceeds 1500, Exceeds 1000,
below 1800 below 1500
Exceeds 1500,
below 2000
Exceeds 2000,
below 3000
Exceeds 3000,
below 7200
*

Creeping distance (mm)


Exceeds
Below 15A
15A63A
63A
(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)
2
3
2
3
3
4
2
3
2
3
3
4
3
4
3
4
5
8
4
6
4
6
6
10
6
10
6
10
8
12
8
12
8
12
10
14

Spatial distance (mm)


Exceeds
Below 15A
15A63A
63A
L- L(1) L- A(2) L- L(1) L- A(2) L- L(1) L- A(2)
2
3
2
3
3
5
2
3
2
3
3
5
3
5
3
5
5
6
4
6
4
6
6
8
6
8
6
8
8
10
6
8
6
8
8
10

10

14

10

14

14

20

10

14

10

14

10

14

14

20

14

20

20

28

14

20

14

20

14

20

28

20

36

28

50

30

90

60

: High voltage areas of AC drive system

Insulation distance: refers to the distance of the


phases that should be coinsulated. Consists of creeping
distance and space distance.

(a): Applies to ceramics and other insulation


materials that possess ribs or perpendicular
surfaces and show particular stability to current
leakage and ceramics that are considered to have
been used experimentally.

Creeping distance: the shortest distance along the


surface of the insulation materials
that are connected to two bare live
parts
Spatial distance : the shortest distance between the
two insulated bare live parts

(b): Applies to materials other than (a).


Sometimes values that are 1.1-1.2 times more than
the values stated in Chart 1.13-2 is applied when
electric products are used under poor conditions.

L-L: To be applied between the bare live parts.


L-A: In the spatial distance to the ground, to be
applied between the insulation metals that begin
to charge electricity as a result of deteriorated
insulation of the live part. It also applies to the
live part and ground metal bodies.

FOE-1-29

Chart 1.13-2 is for referential purpose as the


standards may differ according to the country
or company. Here, it is being provided to
simply understand the concepts of creeping
distance and spatial distance.

Basic Theories of Electric


1.13-2 Insulation resistance
Chart 1.13-3 Insulation resistance values (from JEM)

Insulation resistance refers to the resistance


between the electric circuit and ground (metal body
of uncharged part) and is mandated as shown on
Chart 1.13-3. The figures are strictly for referential
purpose as the values differ by manufacturers and
by countries.

Electric circuit
Control circuit
Main circuit

Insulation
resistance
1M/1 surface or
more
1M/1 surface or more

To measure the value, a handy type insulation


resistance tester as shown in Fig. 1.13-6 is usually
used.
The insulation resistance can be measured at three
voltage levels: 1000V, 500V and 250V.
Referring to Chart 1.13-4, switch over to the voltage
of the circuit that needs to be measured and then
take readings.
Measurement

Switchover to
voltage levels to
be measured

code
connection

Analog insulation resistance tester


(Example: made by SANWA)

TTLB-0086-061

Digital insulation resistance tester


(Example: made by FLUKE)

TTLB-0086-062

Fig. 1.13-6 Examples of handy type insulation resistance tester

Chart 1.13-4
Applied voltage of the insulation resistance tester to be used

Voltage of
measuring current
60V or below
660V or below
660V or more

FOE-1-30

Applied voltage
250VDC
500VDC
1000VDC

Basic Theories of Electric


1.13-3 Dielectric strength test
For the test, apply high AC voltage for one minute
(as a basic rule, 60 Hz) to the measured part as
defined in chart 1.13-3. The test purpose is to
ensure that the product will not suffer dielectric
breakdown.
Applied voltages (dielectric strength) corresponding
to Chart 1.13-4 are as shown in Chart 1.13-5.
Chart 1.13-5 Withstand voltage test (from JEM - example)

Circuit
Main control circuit and
control circuit that
directly receives
electric potential of
main circuit

Category
Rated insulation voltage of the circuit (E)
AC
DC
60 or below
60 or below
Exceeds 60, below 250 Exceeds 60, below 250

Test voltage (AC effective value)


1000
1500

Exceeds 250, below 1000 Exceeds 250, below 1200 2E+1000 Minimum 2000
60 or below
1000
Exceeds 60, below 250 1000
Exceeds 250, below 1200 2E+1000 Minimum 2000

Applied semiconductor circuits

60 or below
Control circuit insulated
Exceeds 60, below 250
from the main circuit
Exceeds 250, below 1000
Main control circuit
and control circuit
that directly receives 1000 or below
electric potential of
main circuit
Control circuit
60 or below
insulated from the
More than 60
main circuit

1200 or below

1.5Ep1+1000
(If 1.5Ep12Ed1Minimum 2000
2Ed1+1000
(If 1.5Ep12Ed1)

60 or below
More than 60

10E
Minimum 250
2E+1000 Minimum 1500

E: Rated insulation voltage of the circuit to which it is


applied
Ep1: Maximum value of rated reverse AC voltage that
appears between the thyristor stack terminals
built in the thyristor rectifier
Ed1: Rated DC operating current
Follow the product standard in the event of 1000V
excess AC, 1200V excess DC.

The standard values found on Chart 1.13-4


may differ according to the companies or
countries. They are strictly for referential
purposes.
The important thing to understand is the
types of dielectric strength test and voltage
application methods.
Dielectric strength test is an accelerated test
to guarantee that the electric product does
not suffer dielectric breakdown in the long
run.

FOE-1-31

Basic Theories of Electric


1.13-4 Dielectric strength tester
Just because the dielectric strength meets the
mandated value, it does not mean that it will pass
the dielectric strength test.
Dielectric strength test results guarantee the
dielectric performance.
Fig. 1.13-7 shows an example of a dielectric tester.
It is sold by many specialized manufacturers.

Earth terminal

High voltage terminal

TTLB-0086-063

Fig. 1.13-7 Dielectric strength tester (made by HIOKI)

FOE-1-32

V
(R1+R2)

Basic Theories of Electric


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FOE-1-33