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Basics of Electric Parts

2.1 Resistor
2.1-1 Main ratings of the resistors
Shown in Chart 2.1-1 is an example.
Chart 2.1-1 Main resistor ratings

Resistance value

Electric resistance value () between several m


and several M range

Rated electric power

The rated electric power is mandated from 1/16 (W)


to several 100 (W) range as the resistor emits heat
by consuming electric power.

Allowable resistance

Deviation tolerance relative to rated resistance


The common range is 0.01 (%) to 20 (%).

2.1-2 Types of resistors


There are several types of resistors according to
form, function and construction.
(1) Chip resistor
A resistor without lead line is called a surface
mounted resistor. The part that substitute for the
lead wire is the solder electrode. It is an example
of a mini resistor for printed board packages.
The number of rated watts is normally 0.1-0.5W.
The resistor consists of vacuum-evaporated
nickel-chrome film on ceramic board.

(2) Axial-lead resistor


The rated watts are normally 1 - 10W. The
majority of these resistors are for printed circuit
board mounting purposes. The resistor is
available in vacuum-evaporated metal film,
vacuum-evaporated carbon and resistance line
coil-type.

2mm

Solder electrode

Fig. 2.1-1 Chip resistor

25mm

Fig. 2.1-2 Axial-lead resistor

FOE-2-1

TTLB-0086-064

TTLB-0086-065

Basics of Electric Parts


(3) Hollow resistor
It is a resistor whose surface is protected by
enamel.
The number of watts is commonly 30-100W.
Nickel-chrome wire is wound around ceramic or
porcelain in this resistor.

50-100mm
TTLB-0086-066

Fig. 2.1-3 Hollow resistor

(4) Grid resistor


It either uses cast iron or steel resistor, The
maximum number of rated watts is several 10
kW, and due to resistance to temperature rise
and mechanical vibrations, it is mounted onto a
moving machine and is commonly used for the
electric brake circuit of a motor.

500mm

Fig. 2.1-4 Grid resistor

TTLB-0086-067

Fig. 2.1-5 Printed board mounted-type

TTLB-0086-068

(5) Variable resistor (VR)


(5)-1 Printed board mounting type VR. It is the
printed board type VR. The resistor is
commonly available in vacuum-evaporated
metal film or carbon. 0.5W is the most
common number of rated watts.

(5)-2 VR for various operation uses


The resistor is available in either metal film or
carbon. The number of rated watts is 2-3W.

30mm

TTLB-0086-069

Fig. 2.1-6 For various operation circuit uses

(5)-3 Large hollow VR


The resistor is winding-type that uses nickelchrome wire. The number of rated watts is 50100W.

100-150mm

Fig. 2.1-7 Large hollow VR

FOE-2-2

TTLB-0086-070

Basics of Electric Parts


(5)-4 Specialized VR (potentiometer)
In (5)-1 to 3, the rotation angle of the sliding
area is about 300 degrees. However, in a
potentiometer, the rotation is 1080 (triple
rotation) - 3600 degrees (ten rotations),
making precise setup possible. This
characteristic is commonly taken advantage to
detect the rotation position.

50mm

55mm

Fig. 2.1-1 Potentiometer

FOE-2-3

TTLB-0086-071

Basics of Electric Parts


2.2 Circuit breaker
2.2-1 Appearance, product name and functions
(1) Appearance
In the photo, the breaker is in the ON state (the
lever is facing upward).
The symbol (code fig.) shows the OFF-state.

(2) Product name


True to its name, the circuit breaker breaks the
circuit, so it is also referred to as a disconnecting
switch.
However, it is called by three common names
depending on the manufacturer:
-

TTLB-0086-072

TTLB-0086-073

Circuit Breaker (CB)


Fuse Free Breaker (FFB)
No Fuse Breaker (NFB)

(3) Functions
Its basic function is to protect against heat
generation and starting of fire. When an
abnormal current (excessive current) passes
through for a length of time longer than the
mandated, the circuit is automatically broken.
It has the same circuit breaking function as the
fuse, but a fuse is self destructive. This means
that a fuse requires a new fuse after the causes
of over-current has been resolved. After
opening, the breaker can be reset by pushing
the reset button. The time between the abnormal
current and breaking varies greatly depending
on the breaker capacity.

TTLB-0086-074

Single phase-use or
bipolar

FOE-2-4

TTLB-0086-075

Three phase-use or
tripolar

Fig. 2.2-1 Appearance of a circuit breaker (example)

Basics of Electric Parts


2.2-2 Rating
The purpose of the circuit breaker is to break the
circuit. However, its precondition is to conduct
(supply) electricity to the circuit.
Taking the above points into account, a simple
explanation is provided here on the ratings that are
featured in catalogs of breaker manufacturers.

Chart 2.2-1Examples of circuit breaker ratings

Item

Rating

Ratings (example)

Number of poles

Generally, bipolar or tripolar

Rated current

510203050100.

Rated voltage

460V690V.

Rated breaking current

2.5AAC460V5AAC220V
.

Open-shut
operation longevity

Remarks
It does not break within rated
current

Mechanical

10000 times

Breaker is in non-conductive
state.

Electrical

2000 times

Breaking of rated current/voltage


closing

FOE-2-5

Basics of Electric Parts


2.2-3 Breaking operation characteristics
The kinds of operating characteristics (breaking
time characteristics) given in Fig. 2.2-2 are always
seen in a catalo. In the graph, the minimum
breaking time (operating time) for a discharge of 10
Q- axis (10 times the rated current) is 0.03 sec. and
the maximum is 5 sec. In other words, it shows a
discrepancy of 0.03-5 sec. in operating time.

Max. value

Min. value

TTLB-0086-076(E)

Fig. 2.2-2 Example of operating characteristic curve of a 3-30A breaker

2.3 Relay
FOE-2-6

Basics of Electric Parts


2.3-1 Appearance
Electrical specifications of relays vary greatly
according to the relay manufacturers.
If functions operation ON / OFF.

Fig. 2.3-1 G2R relay for printed board mounting purpose


TTLB-0086-077

2.3-2 Basic structure

Fig. 2.3-2 Control board-installation use MY relay


TTLB-0086-078

(1) Structure
-

When the coil is in an unexcited state The


moving iron is pushed by the spring, and contact
c comes in contact with contact b.
When the coil is an excited state When voltage
is applied to the coil, magnetic flux develops in
the stator core.
As a result of this magnetic flux, the stator core
and moving iron are magnetized and just like a
magnet, the moving iron type is attracted
towards the stator core.
The coil are designed so that the attraction
exceeds the force of the spring.
When voltage is applied to the coil, the moving
iron is attracted towards the stator core. As a
result, contact c moves from contact b to come
in contact with contact a.

FOE-2-7

Contact a

Contact c

b
a

Contact b

c
Phosphor
bronze spring
Insulating
board

Coil

Moving iron
Fixed iron
core
Spring

Fig. 2.3-3 Basic structure of the relay


(When the coil is in an unexcited state)

TTLB-0086-079

Basics of Electric Parts


-

Symbol display
Fig. 2.3-4 is an example of the symbol display of
the relay in Fig. 2.3-3. The contact-state of the
contacts shows that the coil is unexcited (the
state in which voltage has not been applied).

How the contacts are called


Contact a: MAKE contact
Contact b: BREAK contact
Contact c: COMMON contact
1a contact-form relay: circuit a-c has only one
circuit
1b contact-form relay: circuit b-c has only one
circuit
1c contact-form relay: a-c-b circuit has only one
circuit

2.3-3 Relay types


Chart 2.3-1 shows the relay categories according to
coil voltage, contact structure, mounted state (on
printed board, control board), contact capacity and
such.

FOE-2-8

Basics of Electric Parts


TTLB-0086-080

Contact a
Contact b

coil

Contact c

Chart 2.3-1 General relay categories


Fig. 2.3-4 1c Contact - form relay

Category
Coil voltage

Contact structure
Mounting state

Contents

Specific examples

AC operation form

Voltage: 12V. 24V, 100V, 200V, etc.

DC operation form

Voltage: 12V, 24V, 48V, 100V, etc.

1c - 4c types
Printed board mounting-form

Coil voltage: DC6 - 24V Contact structure 2c, 4c in general

Control board rail mounting-form

Coil voltage: AC/DC Contact structure: 2c in general

Rail: metal on which relay, etc. are mounted

FOE-2-9

Basics of Electric Parts


2.3-4 Contact ratings
(1) Rating examples
Shown in Chart 2.3-2 are examples of rated
contacts.
- A maximum current at the rated load is a value
that can flow through the contact repeating ON
and OFF before damage occurs.
- Rated conductive current can pass through the
contact when the contact is ON. However, this
contact cannot be broken (OFF).
Be particularly careful as the current value of an
inductive load is different from the resistance
load value.
The rated load current of an inductive load is
small because when the current is broken, an
arc develops between the contacts, thus making
it difficult to break the current.
- Silver is used for the contact to increase contactreliability.
Chart 2.3-2 Examples of contact ratings

Load

Resistance load

Item
Rated load

Inductive load
(cos=0.4L/R=7ms)

AC220V 5A

AC220V 2A

DC24V

DC24V 2A

5A

Rated conductive current

5A

Max. contact voltage

AC250V DC125V

Max. contact current

5A

Contact structure

2c

Contact mechanism

Single

Contact material

Ag/Cu

FOE-2-10

Basics of Electric Parts


2.3-5 Introduction to an actual relay (G2R relay)
Chart 2.3-3 Types of 2C contact-form G2R relays

No

Use

Catalog symbols

characteristics

Coil

DC-use

TTLB-0086-081

Coil

DC-use

- Polarity can be used in either direction for coil


between terminal (1-8).
- Due to the absence of a diode parallel to the
coil, surge voltage develops when the coil
voltage goes OFF. As a result of this surge,
when there's no surge resistance on the coildriving side, the driving circuit may break down.

- A diode is inserted parallel to the coil for


countermeasure.
- Ignorance of polarity can damage the diode.

TTLB-0086-082

LED

DC-use

Resistance

- The operation is the same as for No. 1 but the


light emitting diode (LED) is connected parallel
to the coil. Voltage application to coil can be
confirmed as the LED lights up (red or green)

TTLB-0086-083

- The function is the same as for No. 2 + No. 3.


1

DC-use

TTLB-0086-084

AC-use

TTLB-0086-085

FOE-2-11

- Type of relay that is operated by applying AC


voltage between terminals (1-8). The LED
display function is the same as for No. 3 and 4.
- When reverse voltage (+ to anode) is applied,
the LED breaks down as its dielectric strength
is low. To prevent this, a diode is provided.

Basics of Electric Parts


2.4 Magnet contactor
Hitachi H & HK series

2.4-1 Appearance and symbol display


As same as the relays, there are many types of
contactors with various ratings (voltage, current,
polarity, etc.) and they function switching
operations.

TTLB-0086-086

Coil

Main

Auxiliary
TTLB-0086-087

Fig. 2.4-1 Contactor appearance and symbol display examples

2.4-2 Differences with relay


The electric circuit turn ON-OFF operation is exactly
the same, but the rating of the switched contact is
bigger. For example, the relay is used to turn
ON/OFF a signal but the contactor is used to turn
ON/OFF a main circuit such as a motor and blower.
The differences are easily understood if the coil
voltage and contact rating are compared with those
in the relay column.

FOE-2-12

Basics of Electric Parts


2.4-3 Types of coil voltages
Shown in Chart 2.4-1 are examples of coil voltages.
In general, the coil voltage of the contactor is in the
following relationships:
- Large coil turns
- Large magnetic attraction power
- Large spring force (refer to FOE-2-7, Fig.2.3-3)
- Large breaking capacity
- Large coil voltage

Chart 2.4-1 Examples of coil voltages

Coil voltage
AC

24V

DC

24V

100V

100V

110V

110V

200V

200V

220V

220V

380V
415V
2.4-4 Ratings of main contacts
The load capacity in Chart 2.4-2 expresses the
breaking capacity of the contactor.
Conductive current refers to the maximum current
that can pass through the main contact.
This current cannot be broken.
To break it, it must be utilized more than the load
capacity range.

Chart 2.4-2 Examples of ratings of main contacts

Load capacity
2.2kW

11A

20A

2.7kW

13A

20A

3.7kW

18A

25A

4kW

20A

32A

5.5kW

26A

50A

55kW

FOE-2-13

Conductive current

220A

260A

Basics of Electric Parts


2.5 Thermocouple
2.5-1 Thermocouple
This measures temperature.
When two metal lines of different materials are
connected to form a single circuit (thermocouple)
with two contacts of different temperatures, voltage
develops on the circuit. This is called See beck
effect because it was discovered by a German
physicist called Thomas See beck in 1821.
Fig. 2.5-1 illustrates the theory of short-circuiting of
the low temperature ends. Due to temperature
differences, the thermo electromotive force passes
through as current.

Metal A
Low
temperatu
re

High
temperat
ure

Electric

Metal B
TTLB-0086-088

Fig. 2.5-1 When low temperature end is short-circuited

As shown in Fig. 2.5-2, when one end is open, the


thermo electromotive force can be detected as
electric potential difference.
If the same metal type is used, voltage does
not develop even when there is a
temperature difference.

Metal A
High
temperatu
re

Voltmeter

Low temperature

Thermo electromotive force is dependent on the


metal types it's combined with and the temperature
difference of the two contacts. However, it is not
related to the form and size of the two structural
metals. This is the reason for the development of
many temperature elements that use this
phenomenon. In general, a temperature detection
element that uses this phenomenon is called
thermocouple.

FOE-2-14

Metal B

Fig. 2.5-2 When low temperature end is open

TTLB-0086-089

Basics of Electric Parts


2.5-2 Types of thermocouple-use metals
combination and temperature
measurement range
Chart 5.2-1 Examples of thermocouple-use metal combination and temperature measurement range

+leg metal

-leg metal

Temp. measure's range

Chromel (alloy primarily of nickel and chrome) Alumel (alloy primarily of nickel)

-200 - 1000

Copper

Constantan (alloy primarily of copper and nickel)

0 - 600

Platinum-rhodium alloy

Platinum

0 - 1400

In addition to the above, there are some ten more types.

(V)
2.0

2.5-3 Thermo electromotive force of


thermocouple
Fig. 3-1 shows an example of thermo electromotive
force characteristics that vary according to the
metal combination.

Thermo electromotive
Force

1.5

1.0

0.5

100

200

300

400

Temperature difference between high


temperature side and low temperature
side

500

()
TTLB-0086-090

Fig. 5.3-1 Example of temperature-thermo electromotive

FOE-2-15

Basics of Electric Parts


2.5-4 Construction

FOE-2-16

Basics of Electric Parts

TTLB-0086-092

TTLB-0086-091

Fig. 5.4-2 Example 2 of the end of a general thermocouple

Fig. 5.4-1 Example 1 of the end of a general thermocouple

ICF34

6-45
P.C.D.27

Sleeve (SUS)

Fiber-glass braided SUS external


shield compensating lead wire

34

35

M4 terminal
Red :
White:

(60)
2000
TTLB-0086-093

TTLB-0086-094

Fig. 5.4-3 Example of an assembled thermocouple product

FOE-2-17

Basics of Electric Parts


2.5-5 Compensating lead wire
The temperature measuring construction of the
thermocouple is as shown in Fig.
5.5-1. In short, these parts co-shoulder the
functions shown in Table 5.5-1.
Here, an explanation on compensating lead wire is
provided.

Measuring point
contact

Connection
contact

Compensating
lead wire
C

Thermo couple
Thermometer
TTLB-0086-095

TTLB-0086-096

Thermocouple

Compensating lead wire

TTLB-0086-097

TTLB-0086-098

Thermometer

Fig. 5.5-1 Temperature measuring construction of the thermocouple

(1) Compensating lead wire


It is an exclusive lead line between the
thermocouple and temperature display.
Chart 5.5-1 Temperature measuring parts of the thermocouple and their functions

Component name

Functions

Thermocouple

Part that directly touches temperature measuring parts

Compensating lead wire

When there is distance between the thermocouple and


thermometer, connection extension line (exclusive wiring)

Thermometer

Displays the thermocouple output (mV) in temperature ()

FOE-2-18

Basics of Electric Parts


(2) Calibration of measurement disparity due to
temperature change of connection contact
Since the temperature of the connection contact
is not constant, even when the temperature of
the temperature-measuring parts has not
changed, measurement disparity may still
develop. To calibrate this disparity, it will be
needed to combine the lines (compensating lead
wires) that have similar thermoelectric
characteristics to create a temperature
measurement circuit.
Thus, as shown in Chart 5.5-2, a lead line
compatible with the thermocouple will have to be
used.
Specifically, it is best to inquire with the
manufacturers of the product concerning details
before deciding the thermocouple compensating
lead wire combinations.

Chart 5.5-2 Types of thermocouples and handling


of compensating lead wires (examples)

Thermocouple Compensating lead wire types Contact temperature


B
R
S
K
E

BX-G

0 - 100

RX-G

0 - 100

RX-H

0 - 200

SX-G

0 - 100

SX-H

0 - 200

KX-GS

-25 - 100

KX-HS

-25 - 200

EX-GS

-25 - 100

EX-HS

-25 - 200

FOE-2-19

Basics of Electric Parts


2.6 Thermistor (thermo-sensitive device)
2.6-1 Thermistor
When the resistance value of a substance changes
due to temperature, the resistance value drops
(becomes smaller).
Temperature can be measured with a thermistor by
using the characteristics of the change.
Refer to Fig. 2.6-1.

Resistance
Thermistor temperature characteristics (PT-51F)
Coefficient B = 3992K79K
Resistance value R = 3.3k at 100

Where, the temperature unit used in


this equation is K (Kelvin).

Temperature ()

TTLB-0086-099

Fig. 2.6-1 Temperature characteristics of a thermistor


(temperature resistance characteristics)

2.6-2 Appearance

8 - 12mm
5 - 25mm

TTLB-0086-100

Fig. 2.6-2 Power thermistor

FOE-2-20

TTLB-0086-101

Fig. 2.6-3 Small capacity thermistor

Basics of Electric Parts


2.6-3 Basic temperature measuring circuit

Reference
(Vs)

Current passes from the reference voltage to the


thermistor and precision standard resistance. The
voltage across the precision standard resistance is
measured with a voltmeter.
As voltage (Vs) has been applied to the resistance
value (Rth) of the thermistor and series circuit of
Rs, the current can be expressed in (equation 2.61). Furthermore, the voltage across Rs can be
expressed in (equation 2.6-2).
The Rth changes appear as changes in VRs, so by
measuring the VRs voltage, it will be possible to
indirectly measure the temperature of the area
surrounding the mounted thermistor.

voltage

Current (I)

Thermistor
(Rth)

Precision standard
Resistance (Rs)

Voltmeter

Voltage (VRs)
TTLB-0086-102

Fig. 2.6-4 Example of thermistor-applied circuit

I=

Vs
Rth+Rs

Equation 2.6-1

Voltage across Rs (VRs) = I x Rs


Vs
x Rs
=
Rth+Rs

Equation 2.6-2

2.6-4 Ratings and characteristics of the thermistor


Item
Rating

Characteristics

Contents

Description

Rated current

Several mA-A is generally the maximum current that can pass


through a thermistor

Nominal no-load resistance

Resistance value when thermistor is not heated

Nominal B constant

Constant value expressed by absolute temperature (K)

Residual resistance

Resistance value that remains even at maximum thermistor


temperature (0.xx

Maximum capacitor capacity

Value of thermistor's capacitor elements (several F)

FOE-2-21

Basics of Electric Parts


2.7 Measuring-use potential transformer
2.7-1 Measuring high voltage, large current

R2

(1) Concept of high voltage measurement In


accordance with Ohms Rule, the voltage Vh that
is displayed on a voltmeter, or in short, the
relationship of voltage (Vm) across R1 and high
voltage (Vh) can be sought by using (equation
2.7-1). using (equation 2.7-1).
The Vh / (R1+R2) in (equation 2.7-1) is
equivalent to the current flowing in R1 and R2
When R1 is multiplied with this current, (current)
(resistance) = voltage.
It is the voltage across R1 or in short, Vm.
(Equation 2.7-1) shows a different interpretation
of (equation 2.7-2).

High voltage
circuit (Vh)
R1

Voltmeter
(Vm)

TTLB-0086-103

Fig. 2.7-1 High voltage measuring circuit according to


resistance voltage division

Vm=

Vh

R1

(R1+R2)

Equation 2.7-1

Vm=

R1
(R1+R2)

Vh

Equation 2.7-2

(1)-1 Specific examples of volt divider circuit


In Fig. 2.7-2
R1 = 10
R2 = 990
Vh = 1000 V
The reading displayed on the voltmeter is 10V.

R2 (990)
Vh = 1000V
R1 (10)

Voltmeter
(Vm=10V)

TTLB-0086-104

Fig. 2.7-2 Specific example of voltage circuit

So, as described above, the R1 : R2 ratio makes


it possible to divide the high voltage (Vh) into low
voltage, thus enabling measurement of high
voltage by using a low voltage meter.
In general, the R1+R2 parts are called a voltage
divider.

FOE-2-22

Vm =

R1
(R1+R2)

10
(10+990)

Vh
1000=10V

Basics of Electric Parts


(2) Large current measurement
As shown in Fig. 2.7-3, when current (I) flows in
the load, the voltage Vr across R is as shown in
(equation 2.7-3).

Current (I)

Voltmeter
(Vr)

Load

TTLB-0086-105

Fig. 2.7-3 Current measurement by using resistor

Vr = I R
Equation 2.7-3

If resistance R of the circuit (Fig. 2.7-4) is 0.001 (=


1m), the relationship (characteristic) of the current
(I) and Vr is as shown in Fig. 2.7-5.
The 1000A voltage can be measured by using a 1V
voltmeter. The low resistor R here is called a shunt.

R = 0.001

Current (I)

Voltmeter
(Vr)

Load

TTLB-0086-105

Fig. 2.7-4 Example of current measurement when R=0.001

1.00

Vr

0.60

Voltage (V)

0.80

0.40
0.20
0.00

200

400

600

800

1000

Current I (A)

(3) Problems on the abovementioned (1) and (2)


In the method using a resistance voltage division
or a shunt, a large loss (power loss) develops on
the resistor.
The power loss that develops on R in (2) is as
follows:
Watts = (voltage) x (current) = 1V x 1000A =
1000W
To decrease the loss, it is necessary to reduce
the resistance value, but 0.001 (1m) is the
limit.

FOE-2-23

Fig. 2.7-5 Current and voltage

TTLB-0086-106

Basics of Electric Parts


2.7-2 Voltage divider and shunt
(1) Voltage divider
The example is as shown in Fig. 2.7-4

TTLB-0086-107

Fig. 2.7-4 Voltage divider


Several 100A class

(2) Shunt
The example is as shown in Fig. 2.7-5.

Screws for
voltmeter
terminals

TTLB-0086-108

Fig. 2.7-5 Shunt

FOE-2-24

Basics of Electric Parts


2.7-3 Potential transformer as measuring
device
(1) Measuring AC voltage
APT (Potential Transformer)
As shown in Fig. 2.7-6.
Connect the primary winding to the high voltage
side and the secondary winding to AC voltmeter
measuring the high AC voltage.
Assuming that N1=100 turns and N2=10 turns in
Fig. 2.7-7, the voltage is 100V in N2 when
1000V are applied to N1.
TTLB-0086-109

Fig. 2.7-6 Example of PT appearance

U
Primary

u
N1

N2

Secondary
v

TTLB-0086-110

Fig. 2.7-7 PT illustration

FOE-2-25

Basics of Electric Parts


(2) Measuring AC current
AC-CT (Current Transformer)
The appearance of a CT is shown in Fig. 2.7-8.
An illustration of its symbols is shown in Fig. 2.79.

Primary line

Secondary
current terminal

TTLB-0086-111

Fig. 2.7-8 CT appearance

U
Primary

u
N1

N2

Secondary
v

TTLB-0086-112

Fig. 2.7-9 CT illustration

CT operates according to the equation shown to


the right.

I1 N1 = I2 N2
I1:
N1:
I2:
N2:

(For example)
N1=1 turn,
I1=100A
N2=100 turns.

Primary current
Number of primary winding turns
Secondary current
Number of secondary winding turns
Equation 2.7-4

100A current can be measured by connecting a


1A ammeter to the N2 terminals

I1 =

I1 N1 = 100 (A) 1 (turn)


N2
100(turn)

= 1 (A)

FOE-2-26

Basics of Electric Parts


(3) Measuring DC
DC-CT (Hall CT)
Alternating current is in its sine wave-state and
the voltage changes with the passage of time.
The measurement method uses the
phenomenon whereby changes in the magnetic
flux inside the iron core of CT induce voltage in
the secondary winding. However, in the DC
voltage standard, the theory of voltage induction
by changes in the magnetic flux cannot be used.
Fig. 2.7-10 shows the DCCT that uses the
theory of Hall effect (note 1).
An example of DCCT characteristics is shown in
Fig. 2.7-11.

Conductive line
(copper bar) with
primary current

TTLB-0086-113

Fig. 2.7-10 Example of DCCT appearance

[Note1] Hall effect


It is a phenomenon that was discovered by E. H.
Hall.
If current flows into the Hall element generally,
gallium or arsenic shown in Fig. 2.7-11,
Magnetic flux develops in the core of the
magnetic substance due to current being
measured
Magnetic flux intersects the Hall element at right
angles
Electromotive force develops in the Hall element

(V)
CT output

Power source + CT
output terminal

Primary current I (A)

TTLB-0086-114

Fig. 2.7-11 Example of DCCT characteristics

DCCT is an electrical part that measures current


by insulating the direct current
Magnetic
substance core
Magnetic flux that
intersects Hall element

Magnetic flux
developed by current
to be measured

Hall element

Current to be
measured

DCV
Hall element
output voltage
to be measured

Hall element
driving current

TTLB-0086-115

Fig. 2.7-11 Explanatory fig. of Hall CT operation theory

FOE-2-27

Basics of Electric Parts


2.8 Regulated DC power supply

Vo

2.8-1 Outline of regulated DC power supply

Io

A regulated power supply refers to a power unit as


shown in Fig.2.8-1.
It maintains constant voltage output (Vo)
respectively even if input voltage (Vi) varies, for
example, 100V10% or load current (Io) varies, for
example, 0 to 5A.

+5V

Common
Regulated
power supply

Input voltage (Vi)

+15V

-15V

+24V

Load resistance

TTLB-0086-116

Voltage definition is based on


common voltage.
Fig. 2.8-1 Outline of characteristics of regulated power supply

Chart 2.8-1 Examples of product specifications

2.8-2 Product specifications

Item

Chart 2.8-1 shows specifications of a power unit


that maintains the output of 5V3% even if the input
voltage, load current and ambient temperature
change, This kind of power unit is used for
electronic circuit (IC circuit) which needs a constant
voltage output.

Specification

Input voltage

AC85V - AC110V

Output voltage

DC5V34.85V - 5.15V)

Load current

0 - 5A

Output capacity

25W5V x 5A25W)

Ambient temperature

-10 - +50

FOE-2-28

Basics of Electric Parts


2.8-3 Product types
(1) Specification

FOE-2-29

Basics of Electric Parts


Chart 2.8-2 Examples of power unit specifications

Input voltage spec.

Output voltage, precision, rated current specifications

AC100V

DC5V3%10A1 channel

50W

AC200V

DC15V3%3A2 channels

90W

AC100AC200V

DC24V5%10A1 channel

240W

DC100V

DC5V5A15V3A24V5A4 channels

235W

DC100AC200V

DC5V5A15V3A24V5A4 channels

235W

*Input specification and output specification can be combined freely according to various conditions.

Io

(2) Illustrated example

AC100V

Vi

Regulated power supply

Vo

Viinput voltage
Vooutput voltage
Ioload current
Rload resistance

TTLB-0086-117

FOE-2-30

Basics of Electric Parts


(3) I Examples of appearances
No
1

Main characteristics

Appearance

(1) In general, one channel output


(2) To be mounted on one part of cabinet
(3) Small output-watt type

TTLB-0086-118

(1) Generally, one to two-channel output


(2) Aluminum case serves as a cooler and
prevents electrocution
(3) Small output-watt type

TTLB-0086-119

(1) Printed board type


(2) Generally, used as power source of
microcomputer control printed board.
(3) Generally, three channel output: 5V15V15V
(4) Small output-watt type
TTLB-0086-120

(1) Unit type


(2) 200-300W output
(3) Generally, 2-3 channel output

TTLB-0086-121

(1) Multi-channel type


(2) 500W output
(3) Microcomputer-applied digital control Loads
up to several tens of printed boards, etc.

TTLB-0086-122

FOE-2-31

Basics of Electric Parts


2.8-4 Remote sensor
To maintain output from a regulated power supply,
the voltage of the output terminal needs to be fed
back to the voltage control circuit, compared to the
reference voltage and subsequently, made
equivalent to this reference voltage.
In Fig. 2.8-2, the regulated voltage is obtained by
feeding back the voltage of Vo terminal from a RS
(remote sense) point. Thus, the Vo terminal voltage
is constant.
However, what the regulated voltage needs is an
electronic circuit that is supplied from the regulated
power supply. This means that voltage across R
(load circuit) has to be constant.
If the line (L) between Vo terminal and R is long, a
voltage drop develops (vo). (Equation 2.8-1)
expresses the vo when the line length (L)
resistance is expressed by r and the current that
passes through load R is expressed in i.
Thus, the voltage of terminal a in load R is as
shown in (equation 2.8-2).
If I = 10A, r = 0.05 and Vo = 5V, voltage V at point
a becomes V = 5 - (10 x 0.05) = 4.5V. This is 10%
lower than Vo (5V).
To improve this, the feedback point can be brought
back from point a to RS for regulated voltage
control. Then, the voltage of point a becomes 5V. If
the Vo is high, for example, 24V, then, the effects of
L are minimal. If the Vo is small (ex. 5V, 3.3V), a
remote sensor is necessary. Remote sensor is
being used for the actual AC-drive system.

RS
Regulated
power supply

Vo

a
R

COM

Fig. 2.8-2 Connection in the event remote sensing is not carried


out
TTLB-0086-123

RS
Vo
Regulated
power supply

a
R

COM

TTLB-0086-124

Fig. 2.8-3 Connection in the event remote sensing is carried out

Vo=resistance (r) x current (i)


Equation 2.8-1

oVo
Equation 2.8-2

FOE-2-32

Basics of Electric Parts


2.9 Speed sensor
There are two ways to detect the speed of a mobile
machine. With the indirect method, the motor rotation
speed is detected and calculated as the machine
speed. In the direct method, the rotation speed of the
wheel of the mobile machine is detected to then
calculated as the machine speed.
The location to place the detector depends on
whether the objective is to accurately detect the
rotation speed of the wheel or to detect the motor
rotation speed for the motor speed control.
If the objective is for truck speedometer the detector is
installed to detect the wheel rotation speed directly.
Here the main objective is motor speed control, so this
explanation focuses on the motor rotation speed
detection.
2.9.1 Sensor detection method and input-output characteristics
(1) Analog sensing
Detection theory
DC generator theory used

Characteristics

Reverse
rotation (min-1)

1000

Output

10V

1000

Forward
rotation (min-1)

TTLB-0086-125

-10V

TTLB-0086-126

Development of voltage proportional to rotating speed

(2) Digital sensing


Detection theory
Magnetic circuit application

Characteristics

TTLB-0086-129

Convey of gear

Metal gear
TTLB-0086-127
TTLB-0086-128

Concave of gear

Count the output pulse to detect rotation speed.

The same type of speed sensing method is used


for the AC drive system

FOE-2-33

Basics of Electric Parts


Detection theory
Optical element application

Characteristics

Rotating disc
Concave disc

TTLB-0086-129

Face pores

Counts the number of output pulses to detect rotation speed


LED

Photo transistor
TTLB-0086-130

Hall element application

A
B

Permanent magnet
TTLB-0086-131

Reverse rotation
Output

Output

Forward rotation

TTLB-0086-132

A
B

TTLB-0086-133

Using 2-phase pulse, detects forward / reverse rotation direction and


detects rotation speed.

FOE-2-34

Basics of Electric Parts


2.10 Battery and charger
2.10-1 Battery
A device that converts chemical energy into electric
energy is commonly known as a battery.
2.10-2 Types of batteries
(1) Primary battery
Once the current is removed from this kind of
battery, part or all of the constituting substances
have to be replaced before the battery can be
discharged again (no current can be drawn).
A leading example is dry-cell battery (manganese
battery).
(2) Secondary battery
Refers to the battery that can be recharged over
and over by sending current that is in the opposite
flow to the discharge direction. A leading example is
a storage battery.
- Lead-Acid battery
- Nickel-Cadmium
- Lithium-ion

2.10-3 Battery structure


(+)

(-)
Lead

Lead (Lead isulfide)

Fig. 2.10-1 shows the structure of a lead-acid


battery.
2.1V is the average electromotive force (voltage)
per bath right after charging. Since the standard
voltage of battery is 12V, six baths are connected in
series. Then the total voltage is 12.6V
approximately.
In general, the specific gravity (density) of
electrolyte is between 1.20 and 1.30.

Dilute
sulfuric
acid

TTLB-0086-134

Fig. 2.10-1 Structure of a single battery bath

FOE-2-35

Basics of Electric Parts


2.10-4 Load-acid battery capacity
Battery capacity refers to the quantity of electricity
passing through from commencement to depletion.
Specifically, the capacity is shown with value that
discharge current (I) (consumed current) multifies
time (t) of which takes to reach specified voltage.
(W) is used as the quantity code while ampere hour
(Ah) is used as the unit.
Thus it is referred to as the discharge capacity and
is defined as stated to the right.
(For example, in case of 24Ah battery)
Voltage of each cell drops to 1.8V with 1A of
discharge current and 24 hours of duration

Discharge capacity is not value that a battery is


fully depleted, It is expressed by Ah when voltage
of each cell drops to 1.8V
Discharge capacity (Ah) = discharge current
(consumed current) x discharge time

2.10-5 Self -discharge characteristics


If a battery is left uncharged, its capacity drops. Fig.
2.10-2 shows an example of drop characteristics.
These characteristics also are effected by ambient
temperature around the battery, and high
temperature reduces the number of discharged
days.

120
5 C

80
25 C

60
40 C

40

Ambient temperature

(%)

Stored capacity rate

100

20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Uncharged days
TTLB-0086-135

Fig. 2.10-2 Example of self-discharge characteristics

FOE-2-36

Basics of Electric Parts


2.10-6 Cautionary points when charging
The battery product specification states the
mandated charging current value. When charging,
make sure not to exceed this current.
Marketed chargers limit the charging current.
An example of a charger is shown in Fig.2.10-3.

TTLB-0086-136

Fig. 2.10-3 Example of a marketed charger


Chart 2.10-1 Examples of charger specifications

Input (AC)
Phase
()

Outer dimensions
(approx. mm)

Output (DC)

Ordinary
Voltag Curre Freque Voltag
Cell starter
charged
e
nt
ncy
e
current
current
(V)
(A)
(Hz)
(V)
(A)
(A)

I/O code
Weight
(kg)

100

1.0

50/60

6/12

4.8

140

101

222

2.4

100

1.0

50/60

12

4.8

On-peak

140

101

222

2.3

100

1.6

50/60

12

On-peak

140

101

222

2.5

FOE-2-37

In
(A)

Out
(A)

1.7m
1.5m
With plug With grip
1.7m
1.5m
With plug With grip
1.7m
1.5m
With plug With grip

Max.
applicable
battery
capacity
(Ah)
48
56
80