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UNIT SPECIFIC MANUAL


OF
R & D CENTRE FOR IRON & STEEL
& SAIL SAFETY ORGANIZATION
FOR
SELECTION OF JUNIOR OFFICERS

Steel Authority of India Limited


Ranchi-834002
June 2008

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Unit Specific Manual of


Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel
and SAIL Safety Organization
For selection of Junior Officers
Contents
Page No
1.0

Overview of RDCIS

2.0

Organization Structure, Areas, Divisions, Groups and ISSD

3.0

Project Management at RDCIS

3.1

Types of R&D Project

3.2

Project Planning Procedure

3.3

Project Monitoring & Evaluation

Major Research Facilities

13

State of the art research facilities at RDCIS for scientific work

14

Research Areas

15

5.1

Basic Research

16

5.2

Major process related achievements

16

5.3

Product Development achievements

19

Major on going Research Projects

19

6.1

Coal Carbonization

19

6.2

Mineral beneficiation and agglomeration

20

6.3

Iron making

20

6.4

Steel making and casting

20

6.5

Refractory

21

6.6

Rolling Mills

21

6.7

Product development

22

6.8

Energy and Environment

22

6.9

Automation & Engineering

23

6.10

Information Technology

23

Collaborative Research Work

23

7.1

Research work pursued and completed with foreign institute

23

7.2

Research work carried out with Ministry of Defence

24

7.3

Major on going collaborative research work with foreign and Indian


research institutes

24

4.0
4.1
5.0

6.0

7.0

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8.0

Expenditure on R&D Efforts

24

9.0

Impact of R&D Efforts

25

9.1

Paper Publication

25

9.2

Paper Presentation

25

9.3

Patent

25

9.4

Copyright

26

9.5

Technology Dissemination

26

9.6

Technology marketing

26

9.7

Books Published by RDCIS

26

9.8

Conference organized by RDCIS

27

SAIL Safety Organization

27

10.0
Abbreviation

30

Annexure-1 : Generic Organization Structure

33

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1.0

Overview of RDCIS

The Research & Development Centre for Iron & Steel (RDCIS) is corporate R&D unit of
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL). It is Indias premier research organization in the
field of ferrous metallurgy. The main Centre, located at Ranchi, was established in 1972
and its modern Laboratory Complex started functioning from 1986.
The main objectives are to pursue basic research programs to innovate new processes
and develop new products. RDCIS also facilitate SAIL plants to improve key
performance indices related to quality, productivity, yield through diagnostic and
research approach.
Equipped with more than 350 advanced diagnostic equipment and 5 pilot facilities under
15 major laboratories, RDCIS undertakes research projects encompassing the entire
spectrum of iron and steel - starting from raw materials to finished products. The Centre
is continuously engaged in improving the process parameters, development of value
added products, energy conservation, improvement in product quality, up-gradation of
existing technologies and introduction of new technologies in the plants and units of
SAIL. The Centre has acquired several patents and copyrights during the last few years.
The technical accomplishments of the Centre are regularly published in prestigious
journals in India and abroad.
While making significant contributions to the overall performance of SAIL, RDCIS has
developed and introduced innovative systems and procedures which have enabled
quantification of inputs, outputs and measurement of the performance. Highest priority
and attention is accorded to the customer needs and the Centre delivers the
technological services to the full satisfaction of the customers.
RDCIS enters into collaboration agreements with leading research and academic
institutes, from time to time, both from India and abroad. Some of the leading
collaborating institutes from abroad have been TSNIICHERMET from Russia, National
Science Foundation of USA etc. The Centre collaborates with the IITs, IISc, CSIR
laboratories and other reputed organizations of India.
While catering primarily to the needs of the SAIL plants and units, RDCIS has opened its
doors for other public and private sector organizations in India and abroad. RDCIS can
transfer some of its proven technologies to other organizations, provide technical
consultancy, render specialized testing services, undertake contract research and
conduct training program.

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RDCIS has consistently enhanced its capabilities over the years. This has been possible
due to the highly dedicated team of technical and scientific personnel, possessing high
level of expertise and wealth of experience matching the best available elsewhere.
RDCIS has developed a broad spectrum of expertise which can readily be utilized for
solving complex problems in numerous technological disciplines. Major activities of the
Centre extend from developing new products processes to guiding contract research
program for specific needs of the steel industry. In addition, the Centre also imparts
training on multifaceted technology of iron and steel production.
RDCIS is accredited with ISO 9001 : 2000 Certification which was awarded by M/s.
Lloyds Register of Quality Assurance ( LRQA ), UK. To obtain ISO 9001 certification,
RDCIS had to resolve the innate conflict between standardization and creativity. These
two aspects have been stimulating and reinforcing each other to propel RDCIS to
achieve new peaks of excellence in its performance. RDCIS takes customer as a partner
in its innovations and is prepared to meet the challenges ahead.

2.0

Organization Structure, Areas, Divisions, Groups and ISSD


RDCIS has 3-tier structure consisting of AREAS, DIVISIONS & GROUPS in technical
disciplines. In addition there is Infrastructure & Support Services Department (ISSD) to
support the research activities. The areas are supported by 12 divisions, 6 Plant Centers
and 2 City Offices, one at Kolkata and one at Delhi.
The six technical areas are as given below;
i)

Coal

ii)

Iron

iii)

Steel

iv)

Rolling Technology

v)

Product

vi)

Automation and Engineering.

Total manpower distribution as on 31.05.08 are as follows;


Technical

Non Technical

Executive

288

122

Non-Executive

145

154

Total

433

276

Total employee

709

The centre is enriched with 50 Ph.Ds and 84 Post Graduates

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A generic organization structure is given in Annexure-1

3.0

Project Management at RDCIS

3.1

Types of R&D Project


RDCIS pursues mainly following five different types of research programmes:

3.2

Plant Performance Improvement (PPI);


Product Development (PD);
Scientific Investigation & Development (SID);
Basic Research (BR); and
Technical Services (TS)

Project Planning Procedure


Project-based technological services to SAIL plants are the main stay of RDCIS, SAIL;
focus lies on the following:

Improvement in Yield, Productivity, Quality and Equipment Performance & Effectiveness


Reduction in Material usage and Energy Consumption
Development/ Marketing of Bye Products/ Refractories etc.
New value added Product Development and Commercialisation
Plant investigation
Feasibility studies
Environmental Studies
Specialised Testing
Process Investigation
Mathematical Modeling
Instrument and Equipment Development
Software Development
Flow sheet Development
New Knowledge Generation
Existing Knowledge Up-gradation
In general, the plant-based projects are selected based on the requirements of
customers, determined through interaction with customers, both formally and informally.
It covers the requirements specified by the customer as well as the requirements
deemed necessary, though not specified by the customer, and the associated statutory
and regulatory requirements. Before committing to plants, requirements and
expectations are identified and documented. If necessary, more relevant data are
collected from plants and other sources (published literature etc.) to assess the technical
requirements for formulation of scope of the project. Then, the initial project proposal,
termed as Project Profile (Preliminary) is prepared. It comprises of the followings:

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Project Title

Benefits (Technological and Monetary)

Category
Background & Justification
Objective
Approach
Resources
Duration ( Date of Start, Date of Completion)
Engineerdays Required (Group-wise, Year-wise)
Capital Cost ( with equipment details), Direct Revenue Cost (Year-wise)
Task-force Members

The project of multi-assignment in nature i.e. when a particular project entails


involvement of more than one technical discipline, is divided into various assignments for
better management of the project. The overall responsibility of the project is assigned to
a Co-ordinator. The Co-ordinator manages the interface amongst the concerned groups
judiciously for successful implementation of the project. For a project, other than multiassignment project, a Spokesperson takes the lead role.
The Project Profile (Preliminary) prepared by the technological group/ plant centre is
submitted to Project Co-ordination Division. The preliminary list of proposed projects is
compiled in the PC Division, who organizes a preliminary presentation for the proposed
projects. The Chief Executive along with Heads of Areas, Head of Finance, and Head of
Material Management participate in this meeting. The concerned spokesperson of the
project makes a presentation on the details of project. Based on the discussion in the
meeting, the list of projects is finalized. If required, Spokespersons make necessary
changes in the Project Profile (Preliminary). The List of projects along with the Project
Profiles (Preliminary) is sent by Chief Executive, RDCIS to Chief Executives and Heads
of Works of SAIL Plants and Units.
For Laboratory based projects, similar presentation is made by Spokesperson and the
list of laboratory based project is finalized.
After the concurrence is received from SAIL Plants/ Units, the concerned technology
groups are requested to prepare Project Microplan Document, which comprises the
following:
A. PROJECT PROFILE
B. QUALITY PLAN & RESPOBSIBILITY
C. PROJECT OUTLAY

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D. MAJOR RESOURCES AND CONSTRAINTS


E. ESTIMATED ANNUAL BENEFIT
The Project Microplan Document (PMD) is submitted to Project Co-ordination Division,
which initiated the process for approval. The PMDs are put up for discussion in meetings
of Project Approval Committee (PAC). There are seven PAC : PAC(Coal), PAC(Iron),
PAC(Steel), PAC(Rolling Technology), PAC (Product), PAC (Automation and
Engineering), PAC(RDCIS). Plant based projects having capital cost requirement more
than Rs 25 Lakh as well as all laboratory based projects are discussed in the meeting of
PAC(RDCIS). Rest plant based projects of different Areas are discussed in the meetings
of respective PACs. Based on the recommendation of PAC, Chief Executive approves
the project. The approval is obtained on A Project Approval sheet which comprises the
following:

Project Title
Category
Project Number
Project Duration
Engineerdays Required ( Group wise Year-wise)
Budget (Year-wise)

Capital

Direct Revenue

Engineerdays Cost
Funding Classification

Once the project is approved, Project Sanction Order is issued for each individual
project. This comprises the following:

Sanction Order Number with date


Project Title
Project Number
Spokesperson, Group
Date of Start
Date of Completion
Engineer-days ( Year-wise) (Group-wise)
Sanctioned Cost

Capital ( Year-wise) (with Foreign Exchange, if any)

Revenue

Engineer-days
Sanctioning Authority
Details of Capital

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Details of Equipment
Details of Revenue

For monitoring the activities of the project, the project activities are broken into numbers
of milestones; every milestone bears a unique Milestone Number in a particular
Financial Year and a Milestone Sheet is prepared for each individual project (for a
financial year only). This comprises the following:

3.3

Project Title
Category
Project Number
Participating Groups
Plant/ Unit
Spokesperson
Starting Month
Completion Month
Activities

Project Monitoring & Evaluation


It is universally known that the project monitoring is an essential tool for project
management; starts right after launching a project; helps in systematic analysis of
project performance; and answers: whether on / ahead/ behind schedule; where & how
the delay occurred; and the trend of performance.
So the basic purpose of project monitoring is: regular review of progress & timely
completion; optimum usage of scarce resources by scheduling/ rescheduling; their
utilisation as per the actual progress of the project; feedback to future plans for practical
estimation of activity duration, cost and vendor rating; and finally achieving the project
objectives & benefits.
Project monitoring / control involve:

A regular comparison of performance against targets


A search for the causes of deviation
A commitment to check adverse variances

The monitoring systems and procedures in operation at RDCIS are:

Monthly Monitoring & Review

Review at Plant

Quarterly Review of Performance (QRP) at RDCIS


 Monthly Monitoring & Review
The R&D projects are primarily monitored and reviewed regularly with respect to the
Book of Milestones (BOM). Steps are described below:

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HOGs/ HODs report the progress of projects as per Monthly Progress Report (MPR),
format to HOD (PC) by 25th of the month

HoPCs reports the progress of projects whose Spokespersons belong to the Plant
Centre and also report physical progress on all other projects related to the concerned
plant centre to HOD (PC) by 25th of the month

Monthly Progress Reports are checked at PM & U Group against Milestones (as
mentioned in BOM) & adequacy of reporting and discuss with concerned HOG/
Spokespersons, if required, to remove discrepancies and bring clarity

MIS report is prepared stating fulfillment of Milestones (monthly as well as cumulative)


Division wise & Plant/ Unit wise at PM & U Group

Performance is analyzed critically and Performance at a glance is prepared and it is


presented it in ED I/cs monthly review meeting and follow-up of the action points are
also prepared to overcome the constraints by PM & U Group

Monthly Highlights of performance are prepared for Director (Technical), SAIL / SAIL
Board

Monthly compliance report is prepared for the Projects included in MOU between SAIL &
MOS

 Plantlevel Review by ED (W) / MD


Steps:

The date for review meeting at plants is finalized with Head of Works/ Chief Executive.

The date of internal meeting at RDCIS is finalized.

Briefs are prepared taking into consideration the minutes of the previous meeting, for
internal review.

Internal review meeting at RDCIS is conducted with the participation of concerned


project Spokespersons/ HOGs/ HODs/HOPCs/HOAs.

Co-ordination is done along with HoPC for holding the review meeting at plant with
participation of plant personnel and engineers from RDCIS.

Action Points are prepared and distributed to all concerned

Record Notes/ Minutes of the review meeting are prepared from plant and distributed
to all concerned within a weeks time.

Follow up done with the technology groups for accomplishment of the action points.

Quarterly Review of Performance


This review is a unique review for adding quality to the R&D pursuits; performance
assessment of the Centre at the end of every quarter; and effecting communication of
R&D outputs within RDCIS by providing a forum for joint exploration through critical
questions and stimulating Spokespersons/Taskforce to bring forth new ideas /approach

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Review Mechanism
The Reviewees tasks:

Earmarks the stage for review at the beginning of the project or as per need

Provides project details in project assessment sheet

Prepares posters highlighting progress

Answers the questions at poster site

Explores the possible means jointly to improve the quality of project


The Reviewers tasks:
ED I/C/ HOA/ HoPC/ HOD/ HOG depending on the category and cost of the project:
 Critical examination of project details provided in the project assessment sheet & the
displayed poster
 Interaction between reviewers & reviewees at poster site
 Assessment of projects outcomes against the factors of review sheet &
 Handing over the review sheet to the reviewees
Review Result:
 Specific observation / explanation / suggestion of reviewers for qualitative improvements
in project content
 Necessary modification/ corrective action by HOD in consultation with HOA as per
suggestions of the reviewers
 Prepare QRP Record Notes enlisting the key observations & the suggested action points
by the reviewers
Project Evaluation
On implementation, an R&D project may produce scientific, technological, social and
monetary benefits. The benefits other than monetary are expressed in terms of
publications, patents and copyrights, however, the latter may be quantified based upon
an improvement in plant operating parameters such as productivity, quality, energy
consumption etc. R&D innovations initiated and subsequently implemented in steel
plants generate monetary benefit, which is quantified and its impact on the overall
economy of the organisation is evaluated.
The basic reasons for the evaluation of R&D projects in terms of monetary benefit are:
It provides the justification for the expenditure incurred on the project;
Based on the feedback, it enables RDCIS to select projects with high returns;
It ensures that RDCIS would follow up the utilisation of the innovations after they are
transferred and implemented;

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It sensitises the plant about the benefit derived from an innovation, and which if
substantial, in turn, can induce the plant to make a continued utilisation of the innovation;
and
It develops a clear insight as to how an innovation impacts on the economics of cost
reduction, quality improvement and the value addition of new products.

Sources of Monetary Benefit

As mentioned above main sources of monetary benefit are:


Improvement in productivity, yield, quality, machine availability, equipment life, etc.

Reduction in rejection, material consumption, energy consumption; and


Value addition through new product development
Quantification of Monetary Benefit:
An improvement made due to the innovation in the plant operating parameters may be
transformed into monetary benefit using the following guideline:
Monetary Benefit
(Rupees)

i.
ii.
iii.

iv.

Improvement made X Volume of Utilisation


(Rs. per ton)
(Tons)

Based upon the above, parameter sensitive standard procedures are designed for each
category of innovation.
In order to assess the impact of the implemented innovations benefit is calculated at the
four stages:
Estimated Annual Benefit (EAB) is calculated at the selection stage based on
assumed values of plant operating data (PODs)
Anticipated Annual Benefit (AAB) is calculated at the project completion stage using
demonstrated values of PODs
Certified Annual Benefit (CAB) is calculated based upon actual values of PODs for a
utilization of 12 months just after completion of the project and it is termed as
Incremental CAB (ICAB). At this stage the benefit is certified by a Standing Committee
(SC) headed by ED(W) of Plant
Recurring Benefit (RCAB) : In order to assess the sustenance of the innovation, benefit
is further computed for additional 24 months and it is certified by internal standing
committee headed by ED I/c, RDCIS.

Procedure of Benefit Certification


Incremental Benefit (ICAB) and Recurring Benefit (RCAB) are certified by plant and
RDCIS, respectively, in the following manners:

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Incremental CAB:

Actual PODs are collected and authenticated by shop heads

Benefit is calculated using parameter sensitive standard procedure


Calculated benefit along with shop signed data and a brief technical summary of
project are put up to Plant finance routed through RDCIS Plant Centre I/c and
Chief of R&Q of respective plants
Plant Finance examines the calculations and modifies, if requires

The benefits are discussed in the Standing Committee Meeting and on


finalisation, recommended for approval of ED (W) of plant.
Recurring CAB:

4.0

Actual PODs are collected and authenticated by RDCIS Plant Centre In-Charge.
Based upon the PODs and corresponding price/cost figures, benefit is calculated
using the same procedure as recommended by plants Standing Committees
during ICAB certification
Benefits are put up to an internal Standing Committee constituted by ED I/c,
RDCIS
Committee examines the calculations and modifies, if requires
The benefits are finalised by the committee and recommended for approval of
ED I/c, RDCIS

Major Research Facilities


The research facilities comprise of 15 major laboratories encompassing 6 pilot facilities
and 350 equipment and advanced diagnostic facilities. The pilot facilities and major
laboratories are listed below;
Pilot Plants & Simulation facilities
 Pilot Coke Oven
 Pot Sintering
 Experimental Hot / Cold Rolling Mill
 Combustion Research Unit for design & testing of burners
 Thermo-mechanical simulator (Gleeble system)
 Hot dip process simulator for coated products
Major Laboratories
 Coal Carbonization Laboratory
 Mineral Beneficiation
 Sintering and Agglomeration
 High temperature reduction
 Melting and Solidification
 PLC and Software development
 Physical metallurgy

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4.1

Mechanical Testing
Chemical analysis and corrosion engineering
Refractory
Tribology
Environment
Computational laboratory
Computer Centre with state-of-art development tools

State of the art research facilities at RDCIS for scientific work


The state of the art research facilities available at RDCIS are being used to generate
reliable data as input to the plant based projects and scientific investigation. The
diagnostic capabilities of major laboratories are described as under;
Pilot Coke oven
This is an electrically heated and PLC controlled moving wall pilot coke oven with a
capacity to carbonize about 250 kg of coal and is the only one of its kind in India. It is
capable of operating under wide range of carbonization conditions and can simulate
industrial coke oven conditions. Coke mass temperature, oven wall pressure, vertical
shrinkage etc. can be measured. These are being extensively used for pilot coke oven
carbonization studies for coal preparation, coal selection / evaluation and blend
formulation / optimization.
Pilot sintering unit
This unit can simulate the commercial sintering process and has a capacity of 100 kg
per batch. It is used extensively for evaluation of impact of sinter chemistry, bed height,
sinter granulometry etc. on sinter quality such as Tumbler Index (TI), Reducibility Index
(RI) and Reduction Degradation Index (RDI).
Experimental rolling mill
It is a 2 Hi / 4 Hi experimental rolling mill capable to roll in hot and cold rolling condition
and is equipped to measure and record all rolling parameters. It is used for simulation of
rolling condition, product characterization, mathematical modelling, development of
products and cold rolling oils.
Air and vacuum Induction furnace
This equipment is used for simulation studies for steel making process in the laboratory
condition using 50 to 300 kg furnaces. It is also used for development of special and
alloy steels in air / vacuum environment.

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Thermo mechanical simulator (Gleeble 3500C)


The Gleeble 3500C system is only of its kind available in India. It is capable to simulate
various metallurgical processes namely Continuous casting, Hot rolling and Annealing
etc and also used for material testing. Presently, this is used for development of
optimised hot rolling parameters for a number of special steel products.
Hot dip process simulator (HDPS)
This unique National facility is a vital tool for development of coated products like
galvanised, gavanneal, galvalum, etc. This system is capable of simulating all vital
process parameters (e.g. line speed, bath chemistry, strip entry temperature etc.) to
control the coating thickness. This system is currently being used for developing a
working model for coating mass control.
Electron beam wide area analyser (EBWA)
This is an indispensable research tool for analyzing chemical composition of steel
inclusion, second phase particle, precipitates and elemental analysis of segregation.
This is being used extensively for material characterization, failure investigation and
product development.
Optical emission spectrometer (OES)
The OES system is being used for accurate determination of major, minor / trace
constituents in analyte material such as low alloy, high alloy steel etc. It is equipped with
latest software to overcome inter element effect and back ground correction.
Particle Image velocity meter (PIV)
This system finds its application in determining flow characteristics including velocity
profile of fluid in a water model system. Presently, this is being used for cold / water
model simulation studies of different metallurgical system namely tundish and mould in
continuous casting.
Image Processing unit for analytical ferrography
This vital equipment is extensively being used for monitoring the health of machineries
working in the shop floor. The principle behind operation of such predictive system lies
with the analysis of oils and lubricants, contaminated with wear debris / particle
generated during the service of equipment. Microscopic analysis of such particles (size,
shape and colour) provides information on health of running equipment.

5.0

Research areas
The basic research activities provide scientific insight into processes and products for
enabling utilization of advancing science and technology for steel plants applications.
The main areas of basic research at RDCIS include the following;

Page 16 of 34

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)

Coal Carbonization
Mineral Processing and agglomeration
Iron making
Steel making
Continuous casting
Refractory
Rolling Mills
Tribology
Energy conservation and environment management

5.1

Basic Research
The major basic research activities pursued in the recent times are:

5.2

Studies on coke texture to correlate coal blend properties and coke qualities
Mathematical simulation of solidification and fluid flow in continuous casting.
Measurement of heat transfer property for mould powder during continuous casting
Microstructure modeling to enhance the properties of coils and plates
Influence of critical process parameters in hot rolling and annealing for development of
high performance steels namely low carbon Extra Deep Drawing (EDD) steel, line pipe
steel, high strength rail with superior corrosion resistance property, Earth Quake
Resistance Steel (EQR) etc.
Major process related achievements
A glimpse of major achievements of the centre in different areas is outlined below;

(i)

(ii)

Coal Carbonization

Enhancement of supply base of imported coking coals through formulation of


specifications, evaluation of imported and indigenous coals. Evaluation is done
through laboratory characterization, pilot oven tests and industrial scale trials.

Coke oven performance evaluation and process improvements.


Introduction of in-house developed Integrated coking control system for reduction in
specific heat consumption by 5 % at BSP and DSP.

Mineral processing and agglomeration


Improvement in productivity, quality and reduction in specific energy consumption in
sinter plants at RSP and BSP.
Iron making
Increase in Blast Furnace productivity (0.80 to 1.30 t/m3/day at RSP, 1.35 to 1. 78
t/m3/day at BSP), through optimization of burden distribution, control of blowing
parameters, etc.
Decrease in BF coke rate (600 to 563 kg/thm in BF#3 at BSL, 633 to 607 kg/thm at
RSP) through improved gas utilization, heat flux control, etc.

(iii)

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(iv)

Steel making

Enhancement of BOF converter lining life through development of slag splashing


technology and improvement in lining design and brick quality at RSP.

Reduction of Aluminum consumption by approximately 1 kg / ton of liquid steel


through improved deoxidation practice at BSP, RSP and BSL.
Reduced residuals (P & Si) for low carbon extra deep drawing (BSL) and sulphur in
rail (BSP) steel through refining technique.
Optimization of porus plugs location and purging regime in ladle at SMS-II, BSL for
reduction of LF hood jamming and increase in ladle lining life.

(v)

Continuous Casting

(vi)

Campaign life of BF enhanced through hearth protection measures in the form of


charging titaniferrous ore and injection of ilmenite. Campaign life in BF 4, DSP was,
increased by 6 months recently.
Stabilization of pulverized coal and tar injection at BSP and BSL.

Casting technology for CRNO grade leading to 100 % continuous casting route at
RSP resulting yield improvement from 48 to 75%.
Introduction of Electro Magnetic Stirring (EMS) at DSP and ASP for quality
improvement, enabling switching over to CC route for difficult to cast grades (crank
shaft quality etc.)
Development and Installation of automatic secondary cooling system in billet caster
at DSP.
Development of a system for aligning tundish and mould in billet caster at DSP.
Quality improvement of cast slabs e.g. reduction of centre cracks from 7.2 to 1.6 %
at BSL and reduced steel defects in high strength grade by 4% at BSP.
Development of 880 MPA grades rails through BOF-CC route, which improved the
yield of rails from 77 to 88 %.

Refractory

Development of wide varieties of castables for application in steel ladles, caster


tundish and mill reheating furnaces. Know how transferred to several suppliers; 5
patent sealed.
Development of MgO-C bricks and in-house manufacturing for converters and steel
ladles at RSP, BSP and BSL.
Improvement of steel ladle life in SAIL plants (RSP: 49 to 80 heats, BSP: 38 to 62
heats and ASP: 30-150 heats).
Introduction of low thermal mass (Ceramic fiber lining) in heat treatment and
reheating furnaces for energy saving at BSP, RSP, ASP and DSP

Page 18 of 34

(vii)

Rolling Mills
Flat rolling

Productivity improved by 10% at Hot Strip Mill of RSP by introduction of longer slabs
(7.7 m to 8.6 m). Yield improved from 96.2% to 97%

Modification of process parameters of CRNO coils at Silicon Mill, RSP, improved mill
productivity from 5400 to 7000 tons per month.

Next generation cold rolling oils developed for tandem mills of BSL and RSP
facilitated in rate by 10 % and surface reflectance to 85 % .

Accelerated cooling of plates at BSP eliminated normalizing treatment of plates of


thickness 14-28 mm for all grades of steel.

Shape rolling

(viii)

Tribology

(ix)

Development of Micro alloyed (Nb/V) rails to withstand higher axle load.


Development of corrosion resistant rail for coastal area.
Improvement in production of loco wheel at DSP (from 43000 to 65000 nos per year)
Introduction of hot charging and round ingot technology to increase yield of superior
quality wheels.

Condition Based Monitoring System (CBMS) introduced in all plants helped in


preventing major break down of critical equipments.
Developed plasma spray coating technology for reclamation of PBCC rolls at BSP.
Superior wear resistance plates for sinter plants exhauster housing of BSL increased
working life to 4 years.

Energy Conservation and Environment Management

Introduction of high capacity BF gas burner in Boiler 6, BSP to eliminate use of


pulverized coal (saving of Rs. 11 crore per annum).
Dual fuel burner for rotary kiln of BSP for replacing Pitch Creosote Mixture (PCM) by
coke oven gas.
Gaseous fuel burner for reheating furnaces of BSP and DSP for reduction in heat
consumption by 5-10 %.
Introduction of multislit burner for sintering at BSL, BSP and RSP.
Regular monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in Coke Oven
emissions in all SAIL plants as a statutory requirement.
Simulation study and process optimization of biological treatment plant at BSP.

Page 19 of 34

(x)

Automation and Engineering

Integrated monitoring and display system for fault indication and centralized electrical
fault indication reduced mill delays.
Level-II automation in reheat furnaces of Rolling mills at BSP, RSP and DSP

Computerized Human Resource Information System (BSP, DSP and RDCIS)


Computerized Refractory Management System (BSL, BSP)
On line Financial Accounting System at BSP & RDCIS

Air humidification and steam injection system for sinter plants


On line argon purging system at steel ladles at RSP
Oil water emulsion system for coal charged at DSP, BSP and BSL

5.3

Automation of Looper and Entry guide control systems introduced in hot strip Mill,
RSP, resulted in finishing mill yield improvement by reducing number of cobbles from
42 to 10 per annum.
New loop sensor for wire rod mill, BSP, reduced rejection by 15%.

Product Development achievements


Product development is one of the core activities, which entail development of market
oriented value added products and their commercialization. The major contributions
made are:
Introduction of micro alloying concept for development of high tensile long and flat
products, marketed as SAILMA variety steels.
Adaptation of thermo mechanical controlled processing for production of high
performance steels with respect to combination of high strength and toughness
properties.
Evolution of optimized chemistry and process parameters for contemporary / new
special quality steels, processed through continuous casting route.
Commercialized more than 20 special grades during last four years and marketed
around 6 lakhs ones.

Introduced Early Vendor Involvement concept (EVI) / Application engineering for


promotion of new products in the market place through continuous collaboration with
major customers (Maruti, Tata motors vendors) i.e. Original Equipment
Manufacturers (OEM).

Different products developed for Defence, Automotive, Construction, Earth moving


equipment, Electrical steels, Power and Oil & Gas sectors.

6.0

Major on going Research projects

6.1

Coal Carbonization

Rationalization of coal preparation scheme to improve coke quality


Improvement in coke quality w r t moisture and M40

Page 20 of 34

6.2

Study on the effect of chemical/ mechanical treatment on tar quality


Improvement in the performance of Ammonia stripping unit
Coking process management and control system in COB #4
Mineral beneficiation and agglomeration

6.3

Upgradation of slime beneficiation system to decrease silica content in iron ore fines at
Dalli Mines
Stabilisation of productivity of Sinter Plants
Utilisation of lime fines in sinter mix for improving productivity of sinter plant at BSL.
Automatic control of dampers of exhausters in Sinter PlantII for lowering energy
consumption at DSP.
Development of system for air humidification on sinter bed for improvement in
productivity and quality in Sinter Plant
Incorporation of Burn Rise Point (BRP) and heat pattern control systems at SP-II, RSP.
Incorporation of design modification to improve crushing index and to decrease fines in
crushed coke at RMHP
Iron making

6.4

Laboratory simulation of reduction behavior and microstructure analysis of ferrous


burden material under simulated BF condition
Improvement in performance of BF #3 & 4, ISP
Status monitoring of charging conveyer of BF, BSL
Stabilisation of coal dust injection in BF # 1, BSP
Improvement in quality of hot metal and reduction in coke rate in BF shop at RSP
Reduction in undersize fraction of skip sinter of BF of BSL
Steel making and casting

Increase in BOF lining life at DSP, Durgapur


Improvement in steel making practices to achieve lower rejection level at HSM, ISP,
Burnpur
Optimization of hot metal desulphurization parameters for achieving low sulphur at BSP,
Bhilai
Stabilisation of steelmaking process parameters for commercial production of API X-60
and production of extra low carbon CRNO steel
Indigenous development of BOF process automation system at RSP Rourkela (SDF
funded project)
Production of low sulphur (< 0.010% S) Al-killed steel like CRNO, API, EDD grades by
using fluxes like lime, calcined bauxite and synthetic flux.
Production of low sulphur (< 0.025% S) Si-killed steel like rails and wheels using lime
and synthetic slag.
Production of low nitrogen (<40 ppm), low sulphur (<0.005% S) and low total oxygen (<
40 ppm) clean special steels like CRNO, API, EDD etc.
Application of heat transfer model of continuous caster strand for optimization of casting
parameters in SAIL Plants.

Page 21 of 34

6.5

External earnings through consultancy assignments for different refractory


manufacturers.
Development and application of CFD model for decision of tundish furnitures e.g. turbo
stopper and other flow control devices.
Improvement in ladle lining life at SMS-II, BSL through optimization of LF operating
parameter
Improvement in tundish flow in six strand billet caster of DSP, Durgapur
Development of heat transfer and fluid flow model for determination of melting time of
different ferro-alloys in ladle
Refractory

6.6

Development and application of spinel castable.


Development and application of purer grade mag-carbon brick for better performance.
Development of basic castables.
Introduction of improved lining practice with better quality bricks for hot metal and steel
ladles for better performance.
Development of better design for sinter hood for introduction of curtain flame ignition
system.
Improvement in the lining life of BOF to 10,000 heats and above for better BOF
availability.
Rolling Mills

Microstructure modeling of hot rolled strips at BSL


Development of models of plate rolling for closer gauge control at BSP
Introduction and stabilization of roll bite lubrication in hot strip mill of BSL
Model based control of hot strip rolling at RSP
Improvement in Quality of Cold rolled coils at RSP
Control of bare spot and zinc peel-off defects in galvanized strips at BSL
Improvement in quality of plate at RSP
Advancement in emulsion application system at TCM1, BSL
Improvement in surface cleanliness of CR products at TCM2, BSL
Measurement of residual stress of Rails
Microstructure modeling of bars
Development of simulated models of Locomotive wheel processing
Wear characteristics of different grades of rails
Increase in mill utilization of Light Structural Mill, ISP
Improvement in productivity of Section Mill, DSP
Improvement in hot saw life of Rail & Structural Mill, BSP
Qualifying criteria tests of Rails
Improvement in productivity of 16mm TMT in Merchant Mill, ISP
Application of Portable UST & ECT systems for inspection of Hot Strip Mill Rolls
Improvement in roll performance of CRM & SSM mills with NDT assisted roll grinding

Page 22 of 34

6.7

Improvement in equipment availability and enhancement of lubricant life through oil


condition monitoring techniques
Optimization of back up babbit bush bearing performance to reduce failures in TCM#2
Development of system for monitoring of slow speed running equipment
Product development

6.8

Development of micro alloyed high strength cost effective steels using nitrogen enriched
vanadium
Development of SUP 9 grade billets for leaf spring
Commercialization and market promotion of earth quake resistance TMT rebars.
Development and commercialization of identified special steel products
Development of low carbon formable and cold reducible HR / CR grades
Characterisation of corrosion behavior of low nickel austenitic stainless steels.
Energy and Environment

Curtain Slit burners for sinter ignition hoods: at all Sinter machines of BSL, RSP, BSP
(Sp-II two Machines)
Variable flame length dual fuel burners were introduced in the Rotary Kilns of the
Refractory material plant at BSP and BSL
Dual fuel burners have been introduced in new boiler house at ASP. Burners using BF
gas and oil have been developed for the heat treatment furnaces and have been
introduced in the heat treatment furnaces of VISL
Tube-in-Tube type burner for ladle heating: This design of burner is being used in all the
ladle repair and heating stations in SAIL plants.
High Capacity BF gas burner: Introduced in boiler house no-6 in Power & Blowing
Station at BSP
Retrofitting/Revamping of Reheating Furnaces at almost all SAIL plants through
investigation, up-gradation of combustion and flue system, insulation and through
improved operating practices
Energy Audit: It is being carried out in different shops of plants to identify energy
conservation projects to reduce specific energy consumption. Monitoring of energy
performance indices at intra plant level is also being done.
Development of Integrated process for treatment of coke oven effluent
Statutory Monitoring of PAH in coke oven of steel plants (BSP, RSP, DSP, BSL and ISP)
Investigations into non-invasive techniques for water pollution control
Development of integrated enrichment process for re-cycling of mill sludges
Improvement in quality of water in BOF
Development of fine particulate monitoring system for BOF gas pipe lines
Development of analytical methods for determination of trace elements such as Hg, As,
Sb etc in ores, metals, wear debris and process based waste material through ICP
technique

Page 23 of 34

6.9

Automation & Engineering

Development of on-line Surface Inspection for hot rolled flat products.

Development of improved lance control system at SMS#1, BSL.

Improved speed control system at Skelp Mill, DSP.


Automation of BF charging conveyors at BSL.
Measurement system for Mould Width control at Concast, BSL.

Tail end cutting system at Hot Strip Mill, RSP


Modification of hydraulic circuit for edge guide system at DCR mill, BSL
Introduction of edge guide system at PL#2, BSL
Improvement of productivity of SP#1, RSP by suction improvement

Cooling of turret ladle weighing system

Improved monitoring system for machine cooling water circuit at CCM#2, RSP.

6.10

Information Technology
On-line storage, update and retrieval system for employee base data at IISCO Steel
Plant, Burnpur
Integrated refractory information system at Rourkela Steel Plant, Rourkela
Integrated on-line information system for blast furnace operation at Bhilai Steel Plant,
Bhilai
Enhancement of office automation facilities
Modeling and control of microstructure and mechanical properties during Hot Strip
Rolling at HSM, BSL (SDF)
Indigenous development of BOF process automation system at RSP
Improvement in the performance of sinter machines at BSL by optimizing sinter mix
permeability in three sinter machines
Installation of permeability measurement system in both sinter machines of SP-I, RSP

7.0

Collaborative research work

7.1

Research work pursued and completed with foreign institute


Indo-USSR program: Two types of collaborative programs ware pursued by RDCIS; (i)
Bhilai Modernization Program and (ii) Specific research project activities. A few bilateral
symposiums were also organized.
Indo-US NSF program: To improve upon the expertise of the R&D engineer and
exposed them to the latest Research and Development trend, a major program was
initiated with National Science Foundation, USA. Six products development activities
were pursued.
NKK, Japan: Agreement was made for know how transfer in the area of Computerized
combustion control system for coke ovens and Blast furnace revamping.
International Flame Research Foundation, Netherlands:

Page 24 of 34

7.2

Research work carried out with Ministry of Defence


RDCIS in association with various defence agencies like CQA (Met), Ichhapur, DMRL,
Hyderabad, CVRDE, Avadi, DQA (Amm), Ordinance factory, Ambajhari, developed a
range of special steel products namely ME 10 grade (for manufacture of ammunition),
SAIL Kavach (for production of bullet safety jacket and personal carrier vehicles), HSLA
80 and DMR 249 Grade A&B (for manufacture of warship and submarine). RDCIS also
developed process technology for production of thicker spade quality plates (up to 85
mm) through concast route, resulted in yield 38 to 67%. This product is found suitable for
Arjun MBT.

7.3

Major on going collaborative research work with foreign and Indian research
institutes.
CBMM, Brazil
RDCIS is having collaborative work on development high strength HT 750 and API X 70
grades Plates & HR coils at BSP and BSL.
IITs and IISc
Collaborative work in connection with different projects; (i) Model development for plate
rolling with IIT, Chennai, (ii) Model development for BOF process at RSP, (iii) Waste
utilization process with IIT, Mumbai.

8.0

Expenditure on R&D efforts


Expenditure (Capital and Revenue) on R&D efforts incurred by RDCIS in the last seven
years is given below;
Year

Expenditure, Rs Crore

2001-02

47.86

2002-03

52.22

2003-04

51.79

2004-05

58.39

2005-06

58.22

2006-07

71.51

The above expenditure does not include the cost incurred for carrying out plant trials
including cost of raw material & consumables, cost of testing at plants Research &
Control Laboratories (RCL).

Page 25 of 34

9.0

Impact of R&D efforts

9.1

Paper Publication
Average publication per year of RDCIS is 55. RDCIS had published around 360 original
papers in International journals since inception. Most of the papers have been published
in the following journals;

Metallurgical Transaction-USA,
Acta Metallurgica-USA,
Scripta Metallurgica-USA,
Solid State Ionics-UK,
Ironmaking and Steelmaking UK,
Transaction of Iron and Steel Institute of Japan,
ISIJ International-Japan,
IEEE Transaction on Magnetics-USA,
Journal of Material Science and Engineering-USA,
Scndanavian Journal of Metallurgy-Sweden,
Transaction of British Ceramic Society-UK,
Ceramic International-Italy,
American Ceramic Society Bulletin-USA,
Coke Making International,
Journal of Material Science and Performance-USA,
Metallurgical Plant and Technology-Germany,
South East Asia Iron and Steel Institute,
International Journal of Mineral Processing-USA.
Steel Times International-UK
RDCIS publishes Steel India journal, which is a biannual technical journal for the Iron
and Steel Industries. Its prime objective is to provide a technical forum for operating
personnel, engineers, managers, scientists and academicians to exchange ideas and
information that may eventually lead to technological breakthroughs and innovations.

9.2

Paper presentation
In last two years RDCIS has presented 228 papers in both National and International
conferences. On an average RDCIS presents 120 papers in conferences.

9.3

Patent
With over increasing competition in the global market, the importance of obtaining
Intellectual Property Rights for the innovations made by the company employees has
become increasingly more important from the point of view of building monopolies.

Page 26 of 34

Further in order to remain globally competitive it has become necessary for SAIL to align
business strategy with the prevailing IPR laws.
RDCIS has filed 473 patents out of which 240 have been sealed.
9.4

Copyright
RDCIS has filed 309 copyright since inception out of which 261 has been granted.

9.5

Technology Dissemination
In order to update the knowledge of SAIL executives with the latest development in Iron
and steel, making technology, RDCIS conducts several technological awareness
program in RDCIS Ranchi and plant. Such programs helped SAIL executives in
functioning in their respective filed more efficiently. RDCIS has conducted 197 such
programs

9.6

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

9.7

Technology marketing
RDCIS has a dedicated group for Technology marketing to interact with the customers
outside SAIL and facilitate the marketing of technological services. RDCIS offers
technological services to various organizations in the form of;
Know-how transfer of technologies developed by RDCIS
Consultancy services
Specialized testing services
Contract Research
Training

Books Published by RDCIS

The following are the list of books published by RDCIS


Title of the book

Authors / Editors

1.

Trends in beneficiation and


agglomeration of Iron ore

RDCIS

2001

2.

Sponge Iron Making in Rotary


Kiln

Krishna Kant Prasad & Asim Kumar


Ray

2002

3.

Steel Plant Technologies (A


compilation of Techno trends)

G I S Chauhan, K K Prasad, R K
Vijayavergia, B B Agarwal & Neeta
Chakravarty.

2004

4.

The metallurgy of Work Rolls for


Hot and Cold Strip Mills

Amitav Ray & Sudhakar Jha

2004

5.

Blast Furnace Design,


Operation, Maintenance and
Performance in Ferrous
Metallurgy (in Hindi)

Vijay Krishna Jha

2004

Sl.
No

Year of
Publication

Page 27 of 34

6.

Thermo Mechanical Simulation


and Processing of Steels

Sudhakar Jha, A K Dasgupta, S


Chakraborty, S K Chowdhury, R K
Vijayavergia & Ramen Datta.

2004

7.

Surface Quality of steel products

Dr Santanu Kumar Ray

2005

8.

Coking Coal and Coke making:


Challenges and opportunities

G I S Chauhan & R K Vijayavergia

2005

9.

Measurement and Control in Hot


Rolling of Steel

Asoke K Paul and N Neogi

2006

10. Sponge Iron An Introduction

M P Srivastava

2007

11. Flat Rolling Lubrication

P Pathak and S Jha

2008

12. Steel Plant Technologies An


overview

RDCIS

2008

9.8

Conference organized by RDCIS


In view of rich experience gained over last three decades in different disciplines of Iron
and Steel technology, RDCIS has organized around 38 National and International
conferences / seminars since inception.

10.0

SAIL Safety Organization


Iron and Steel production being a complex activity, Steel Authority of India Limited
(SAIL) gives adequate emphasis on safety & occupational health of human resources.
SAIL Safety Organization (SSO) formed in 1988 at Ranchi to co-ordinate, monitor,
promote and enhance the safety & fire services activities of plants / units of the company
at corporate level. SSO formulates & prepares appropriate Safety Policies, procedures,
systems, action plans, guidelines etc. and provides technical guidance, advice &
direction to the plants/units for enhancement of safety standards.
Periodic meetings are conducted with Heads of Safety, Fire Services and Project &
Construction departments where review of the status of the performances of all
plants/units are made and strategic action plans are developed for bringing in definite
improvement on identified issues which are closely followed up for timely
implementation.
To provide an accident free work environment, spot study of fatal accidents & serious
incidents occurred at plants/units are conducted and report prepared with
recommendations are disseminated amongst all plants & units for arresting recurrence.
Recommendations of expert committees constituted are followed up for implementation.
Investigation of accident cases / fire incidences as & when occurred at RDCIS complex
or MTI are being made and remedial measures are suggested for preventing recurrence.

Page 28 of 34

Safety Management systems like Risk Control Grading System introduced through
National Safety Council Australia at three major departments of BSL was subsequently
spread in other departments of BSL and in major departments BSP, DSP & RSP.
Emphasis is also being laid upon introduction of OHSAS-18001 in the plants/ units
where the system is yet to be implemented.
To assess the prevailing Occupational Safety & Health (OS & H) system, compliance to
regulatory requirements etc. and identify areas for improvement Safety audits are
conducted as per IS 14489:1998 at various departments of all plants/ units including
Mines and Ware Houses. Emphasis is laid to cover all the Major Accident Hazard units
of the plants.
To bring in continuous improvement in Safety performance, SSO organises area specific
workshops and disseminate recommendations for implementation of relevant learning as
an effective tool of loss control at respective work areas of the plants/units. Efforts are on
for adopting proactive measures coupled with laying more emphasis on behavior
aspects and attitude of employees at all levels to bring in cultural change at
organizational level.
Consistent efforts are made for competence building in the area of safety management
through HRD intervention. Training modules prepared & published for identified thrust
areas for imparting modular training. Safety Training programmes are organized at plant
premises or centrally at MTI/TDC for Heads of shops / Sr. Managers, Line Managers,
Safety Officers, Safety & Workmen Inspectors. Faculty support is rendered for Safety
sessions in various programmes held at MTI & different plants/ units. Safety training
program is also conducted by SSO at MTI for the executives of RDCIS, CET and MTI.
Due emphasis is being laid upon the safety aspects of project & construction sites in
view of deployment of large number of contractor workers during large scale
modernization & capacity expansion. Review meetings are conducted with HoDs / InCharges of Project & Construction departments of all plants/units periodically for
ensuring the safety standard.
Standards Committee on Personnel Safety Appliances and Procedures, IPSS 1:11
under the guidance of ED (Safety), SAIL formulates a documented solution to a
recurring problem by pulling knowledge and experience of concerned personnel
connected with that problem. Standards thus formulated through committee method is
printed and distributed by IPSS secretariat to all users for implementation.
The secretariat of Joint Committee on Safety, Health & Environment in the Steel Industry
(JCSSI) which addresses the problems related to these three crucial areas through an

Page 29 of 34

unique bi-partite forum at National level is continuing with SSO, Ranchi. Winning
member plants for achieving No Fatal Accident and individual winners of various Safety
competitions are awarded during the annual award function organized by SSO.
Safety awareness generation drives are undertaken for SAIL collectives at Ranchi.
National Safety Day is celebrated for all SAIL units at Ranchi. The winners of various
competitions organized by SSO are awarded in the National Safety Day function held at
RDCIS auditorium. Various competitions like Safety Essay & Extempore talk-for
employees, Sit & Draw- for children, Quiz -for housewives & lady employees, Extempore
talk- for students of various institutions are being organized. Programme on Home
Safety is also conducted for the Ladies of Shyamali & Satellite Township.
Various publications regularly made by SSO Ranchi are the Annual Performance Plan
on Safety & Fire Services, Monthly reports & Annual reports on Safety & Fire Services
activities undertaken by various plants/ units & SSO, Annual report of JCSSI, Quarterly
in-house magazine SCAN on Safety, Health & Environment, Annual publication on
Learning from fatal accidents etc.

Page 30 of 34

Abbreviations
Abbreviation

Description

5M

Men, Material, Machine, Money and Minute

AAB

Anticipated Annual Benefit

APP

Annual Performance Plan

ATM

Annual Technical Meeting

BR

Basic Research

BTSO

Branch Transport & Shipping Office

CE

Chief Executive

C&IT

Computer & Information Technology

CAB

Certified Annual Benefit

CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics

CMO

Central Marketing Organisation

CSI

Customer Satisfaction Index

DD

Design & Development

DE

Designated Executive

DP

Designated Person

E.D.

Engineer-Day

EAB

Estimated Annual Benefit

ED

Executive Director

ED(W)

Executive Director (Works)

F&A

Finance & Accounts

FE

Foreign Exchange

GM

General Manager

HOA

Head of Area

HOD

Head of Division

HOF

Head of Function

HOG

Head of Group

HOPC

Head of Plant Centre

HRD

Human Resource Development

ICAB

Incremental Certified Annual Benefit

IDC

Information & Documentation Centre

IPR

Intellectual Property Rights

Page 31 of 34

IPSS

Inter Plant Standardization for Steel Industry

IS

Indian Standards

ISSD

Infrastructure & Support Services Department

Lab.

Laboratory

LF

Ladle furnace

LS

Laboratory Service

MAP

Multi Assignment project

MIS

Management Information System

MM

Materials Management

MOS

Ministry of Steel

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

MR

Management Representative

MRC

Management Review Committee

NCR

Noncompliance Report

NMD

National Metallurgists Day

NSC

National Safety Council

PA

Patent Attorney

P&A

Personnel and Administration

PAC

Project Approval Committee

PAT

Preliminary Acceptance Test

PBG

Product Business Group

PC

Project Co-ordination

PCC

Plant Centre Co-ordinator

PD

Product Development

PM&U

Project Monitoring & Utilisation

PMD

Project Microplan Document

PO

Purchase Order

POD

Plant Operating Data

PP

Project Planning

PPI

Plant Performance Improvement

QMS

Quality Management System

QRP

Quarterly Review of Performance

Qtr

Quarter

Page 32 of 34

RCAB

Recurring Certified Annual Benefit

RDCIS

Research & Development Centre for Iron & Steel

SAIL

Steel Authority of India Limited

SCQD

Standing Committee on Quality Document

SOP

Standing Operating Practices

SID

Scientific Investigation & Development

SP

Steel Products

SRD

Software Requirement Document

SSO

SAIL Safety Organization

STA

Short Term Assignment

TA

Traveling Allowance

TAP

Technology Awareness Programme

TDC

Technology Dissemination Centre

TM

Technology Marketing

TMT

Thermo Mechanical Treatment

TQP

Total Quality Process

TS

Technical Specifications

Page 33 of 34

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