Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Bearings, expansion joints and hydraulic

equipments for bridges

Autor(en):

Ramberger, Gnter

Objekttyp:

Article

Zeitschrift:

IABSE congress report = Rapport du congrs AIPC = IVBH


Kongressbericht

Band (Jahr): 15 (1996)

PDF erstellt am:

23.04.2015

Persistenter Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.5169/seals-816

Nutzungsbedingungen
Mit dem Zugriff auf den vorliegenden Inhalt gelten die Nutzungsbedingungen als akzeptiert.
Die ETH-Bibliothek ist Anbieterin der digitalisierten Zeitschriften. Sie besitzt keine Urheberrechte an
den Inhalten der Zeitschriften. Die Rechte liegen in der Regel bei den Herausgebern.
Die angebotenen Dokumente stehen fr nicht-kommerzielle Zwecke in Lehre und Forschung sowie fr
die private Nutzung frei zur Verfgung. Einzelne Dateien oder Ausdrucke aus diesem Angebot knnen
zusammen mit diesen Nutzungshinweisen und unter deren Einhaltung weitergegeben werden.
Das Verffentlichen von Bildern in Print- und Online-Publikationen ist nur mit vorheriger Genehmigung
der Rechteinhaber erlaubt. Die Speicherung von Teilen des elektronischen Angebots auf anderen
Servern bedarf ebenfalls des schriftlichen Einverstndnisses der Rechteinhaber.
Haftungsausschluss
Alle Angaben erfolgen ohne Gewhr fr Vollstndigkeit oder Richtigkeit. Es wird keine Haftung
bernommen fr Schden durch die Verwendung von Informationen aus diesem Online-Angebot oder
durch das Fehlen von Informationen. Dies gilt auch fr Inhalte Dritter, die ber dieses Angebot
zugnglich sind.

Ein Dienst der ETH-Bibliothek


ETH Zrich, Rmistrasse 101, 8092 Zrich, Schweiz, www.library.ethz.ch
http://retro.seals.ch

507

Gnter RAMBERGER
o.Univ.-Prof.
Institute for Steel Structures
Technical University Vienna
Vienna, Austria

Gnter Ramberger, born 1942, got his master degree


in civil engineering 1966 and his doctor degree 1970
from the Technical University Vienna. After 12 years
as a designer for bridges at a steel construction firm at
Dsseldorf, Germany, he returned 1981 as Fll Professor
to the Technical University Vienna.

Bearings, expansion joints and hydraulic equipments for bridges


1.

Introduction

The target of this paper is to give a very short state-of-the-art-report on bearings, expansion
joints and hydraulic equipments for bridges as an introductory report for the following papers.

2.

Bearings

The task of bearings is to transfer the bearing reactions from the superstructure to the
substructure flfilling the design requirements due to displacement and rotation. According to
force transmission, displacement and rotation we distinguish between the following types of
bearings (table 1). In table 1 the forces and the adjacent displacements are dual values.
The force can be transmitted theoretically through a contact point, a contact line or a contact
area. In the first two cases the theoretical stresses are infinite, so we need steel parts to take
over the Hertz-compression, in the third case in addition to steel, elastomeric parts are
possible.

To allow rotation with only small resistance we know the rolling ofa plate on a sphere in all
directions or on a cylindrical body in one direction or the rotation by different compressions of
an elastomeric body.
For displacements with no or only small resisting forces we can use the elastic deformation of
an elastomeric body or the sliding between two elements, mostly polytetrafluorethylen (PTFE)
and stainless steel or polyamide. In combining these elements we get all different types of
bearings (fig. 1).

Bearings, especially bearings with plastic parts are wearing parts ofa bridge. The exchange of
bearings in the lifetime ofa bridge is to be taken into aecount. this exchange is to be made
under traffic or not, depends on the individual Situation, on the intervals between traffic events
(for railway bridges) and in the duration ofthe exchange works. In recent times in the most
cases an exchange ofthe bearings under (partly) traffic loads should be considered for the
design ofa bridge. For the exchange ofa bearing the bridge must be lifted by hydraulic jacks at
foreseen points. There must be enough space to adjust the necessary jacks and stiffeners and
reinforced areas to transfer the forces in sub- and superstructure. The connection ofthe
bearings with sub- and superstructure should be simply to release. Bolted connections fulfil this

If

508

BEARINGS, EXPANSION JOINTS AND HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT FOR BRIDGES

,,M,

/ 's//

/Mv

yAr

Mx

/ / /./
%

tc

<Px

A.
Nr

Symbol

-~
3

-f
4

I
5

Function
All translation fixed
Rotation all round

Horizontal movement
in one direction
Rotation all round

Horizontal movement
in all direction
Rotation all round

Construction
Point rocker bearing
Pot bearing
Fixed elastomeric bearing
Spherical bearing
Constrained point rocker sliding
bearing
Constrained pot sliding bearing
Constrained elastomeric bearing
Constrained spherical sliding
bearing
Free point rocker bearing
Free pot sliding bearing
Free elastomeric bearing
Free spherical sliding bearing
Link bearing with universal joints
(tension and compression)

All translation fixed


Rotation about one axis Line rocker bearing
Leaf bearing (tension and
compression)
Roller bearing
Horizontal movement
in one direction
Constant line rocker sliding bearing
Rotation about one axis Link bearing (tension and
compression)
Horizontal movement in Free rocker sliding bearing
all direction
Free roller bearing
Rotation about one axis Free link bearing
All translation fixed
Horizontal force bearing
Rotation all around
Honzontal movement in
Guide bearing
one direction
Rotation all around

H,

Hy

e.

e,

M,

My

M,

<f>.

<?.

(0)

0
X

(0)
X

(x)

(x)

Table 1: Bearings: Forces-Displacements, Moments-Rotations


requirement, if they are in a good condition. But, to unscrew a rusty bolt is sometimes more
difficult than to grind off a fillet weld. During the exchange ofa bearing it is important that ajl
forces transferred by the bearing must be transferred by the jacks or additional devices, not
only the vertical forces.

Bearings must be evenly supported over their entire area. To level out unavoidable differences
there should be a gap between the lower surface ofthe bearing and the upper surface ofthe
substructure which has to be densely filled with bedding material, that is mostly grout or epoxy
resin. The inclination ofthe lower and upper plate (horizontal or inclined) must be exactly
adjusted before grouting.

509

G. RAMBERGER

Combinations

Standard type

Elastomeric bearing

Reinforced
elastomeric bearing

with fixing device.


all translations fixed movement in one dir.

Anehored elast. bearing

illinmn n r i ss

v/ ,'///r/7//////yy//y/.
r^\\ys^\\\\\\\\\\\\\*VZ&

<z////Ay/p^
o

ex

C/S

l?K>K

K\\K

Free spherical bearing


w

Lt I '.'

"\" ' ' ' fV/l

V|^

^Z7777f77777^
rv\

v'Otl

Vite

v\\ vv\ v\i


\v\\\u
f532?
Guide rail

Constr. spherical bearing

Fixed spherical bearing


_J_tLJ ' > > > ' I / / /J, /,/
>

V/s^y-A
| Polishel stainless steel

"""Guide

VChrome plated surface

Point rocker bearing

Free point rocker bearing

Constr. point rocker bearing


EP

t-E
J-E

Polished
stainless steel

50 C

K\^\\^^^>TFE

S'o
v-, fl-,
CD

<u

1-1
<L>

Line rocker bearing

m
\

Guide rails

CO

^~
M
o

rails

XPTFE

VS

Ypol'ished stainless steel

^Elastomere pd
"
Sealing ring

PTFE'

.K\\KK\K\\\\\;\..\\y.rsr

Constr. pot sliding bearing

Free pot sliding bearing

Pot bearing

rr7

Elastomeric pd
Reinforcing plates
Anchor plate
Dowels

.2

Roller beanng

y////444/M
$44444444444

Link bearing with


Link beanng
^4

Leaf bearing

universal (cardan) joints

P,

c3

-eHorizontal force bearing

&
o
Fig. 1: Types

of bearings

$,
Guide bearing

Y/////////a
K\\\^k\\\\\N K\\\\^s\\\\\\\\l

510

BEARINGS, EXPANSION JOINTS AND HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT FOR BRIDGES

3.

Expansion joints

Expansion joints in bridges are used to bridge the necessary gap between bridge and abutment
for the movement due to temperature and various other causes. They should be constructed
such that they satisfy the following conditions:
- allow the movements ofthe bridge in horizontal and vertical direction,
- withstand the loading, that means that the serviceability limit State, the ultimate limit State
and the fatigue limit State are not exceeded during the life time ofthe joint,
- are silent and have a good riding quality for all types of road users,
- resist corrosion, also under gritting sand and de-icing agents,
- are easy to inspect, to maintain and to repair,
- are of long durability (desirable: the life time ofthe expansion joint is that ofthe bridge).

Various types of expansion joints have been developed for small and large movements. Figure
2 shows some examples for movements between 100 and 200 mm. Most of these joints
can also be used for small movements (~ 20 mm), especially the seal joints, which need in this
case no rails and no control device for the spacing. Comparing these types we can say that all
types with plastic elements allow movements in all directions, but these elements must be
exchanged after a relatively short period. It is very important that the time for repair and
maintenance is short to shorten up the time for traffic interruption. Expansion joints with only
steel elements are normally robust, but are in the rule not watertight and allow no movements
across the axis ofthe bridge. Due to the displacements caused by traffic loads the singular
plates of rolling leaf joints are not fll in contact, so that chatter is nearly unavoidable.

According to the condition mentioned above the steel elements ofan expansion joint should
have the same durability as the bridge itself. Failures and cracks due to fatigue can often be
found in different parts of expansion joints. To improve the durability fll scale fatigue tests on
expansion joints had been carried out during the last years. The first problem is the testing with
realistic loads. The load models for the design ofa bridge are not applicable because they do
not contain the realistic wheel loads combined with horizontal forces which depend not only on
breaking or acceleration forces but also on the geometry ofthe expansion joint and which
induce sometime stresses ofthe same rnge as the vertical forces. On the other hand it is
impossible to simulate the realistic elasticity ofthe bridge's end. In spite of all imponderabilities
the fatigue-tests showed the weakest points and how to construct expansion joints with a
higher durability.
Beside the Joint itself the connection to the bridge and to the abutment is ofthe same
importance. Only a good construction combined with good workmanship will bring the
desired success and avoid defects. It is recommended that the manufacturer ofthe expansion
joint installs it or at least surveys the work and confirms that it is in order.

511

G. RAMBERGER

1.
1.1

Multiple seal expansion joints

1.2 Rails supported by beams,

Rails supported by beams,


spacing controlled by Springs

spacing controlled by
horizontal parallel linkages
KSE

SB

gviiiiwwi
HH

h-M

')

.^

l%\44.rr,^,

2S**

liil

^y:^
n^n
1nid^ir1
_j_L
ll'^KIf.

HHl

o X

LjU-

ij

rOQ

fecjj

ij_

'l

I1

Li jlL

1.3 Rails supported by

r1^^

TT

II II II

e^tt

Lt=Bi

5cU

"
iL

rpoi

ga

folding trellis linkages

fflilfflltt
2. Cantilever toothed joint

orfinger joint

!HS

*p

^5=

l,

3.

:lI

Rolling leaf Joint

4. Elastic cushion joint

Tl

sa

*=

F/'g. 2: Types qfescpansion joints

=5=

512

BEARINGS, EXPANSION JOINTS AND HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT FOR BRIDGES

4.

Hydraulic equipments

Hydraulic equipments for bridges are only used for special cases but gain more importance in
recent times. They are used to control the movement ofa bridge and to distribute (horizontal)
forces on several piers and abutments. They work like fixed bearings for short time forces
(breaking forces, impact forces) and like moveable bearings for long time effects (temperature,
creeping and shrinking). The function ofa hydraulic equipment in principle is given in figure 3.
Hydraulic jack cylinder
Hydraulic liquid

V44C444P

v\\\

XSSx

Piston

Throttle valve

Fig. 3: Hydraulic equipment

Normally the piston is in the middle ofthe cylinder. Under slow motion the equalization of
pressure takes place over the throttle valve nearly without resistance. At movements with high
speed the throttle valve blocks the transportation ofthe liquid and the piston is fixed. Hydraulic
equipments are used for railway bridges to transfer the breaking forces on both abutments and
for Symmetrie cable stayed bridges to keep the main girder in a Symmetrie position.

5.

References

[1]

Lee, DJ.: Bridge Bearings and Expansion Joints, E & FN SPON, 2nd edition,
London 1994

[2]

Eggert H, Grote J., Kauschke W.: Lager im Bauwesen, Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst &
Sohn, Band 1, Berlin 1974

[3]

Eggert H.: Vorlesungen ber Lager im Bauwesen, Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst
Berlin 1980

[4]

Descriptive literature published by several producers of bearings and expansion joints

& Sohn,