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Q1. What are three types of LAN traffic?

Ans. Unicasts - intended for one host.


Broadcasts - intended for everyone.
Multicasts - intended for a only a subset or group within an entire network.
Q2. What are unicast frames?
Ans. Unicast frames are the most common type of network traffic. A unicast
frame is a frame intended for only one host. The only station that processes
this frame is one station that has its own MAC address in the destination
portion of packet.
Q3. How do you enable IGRP on a Cisco router?
Ans. The way you enable IGRP on a Cisco router is similar to the way you
enable RIP, except you specify IGRP as the protocol and add an autonomous
system number. For example:
RouterA(config)# router igrp 10 (10 is the AS number)
RouterA(config-router)# network 192.168.0.0
RouterA(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0
RouterA(config-router)# network 192.168.2.0
Q4. What is Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)?
Ans. IGRP is a Cisco proprietary distance vector routing protocol. IGRP has a
default hop count of 100 hops, with a maximum hop count of 255. IGRP uses
bandwidth and line delay as its default metric, but it can also use reliability,
load, and MTU.
Q5. What is the destination address of broadcast frames?
Ans. The destination address of broadcast frames (Layer 2 broadcast
addresses) is FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF, or all 1s in binary.
Q6. What is the difference between bridges and switches?

Ans. Bridges and switches function the same way; the only difference is in
how they are implemented. Bridges are implemented by software and
usually have a couple of network ports. Switches are implemented in
hardware by ASIC chips and have many ports.
Q7. What is the Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)?
Ans. STP is a loop-prevention bridge-to-bridge protocol. Its main purpose is to
dynamically maintain a loop-free network. It does this by sending out Bridge
Protocol Data Units (BPDUs), discovering any loops in the topology, and
blocking one or more redundant links.
Q8. In spanning tree, what is a Bridge ID (BID)?
Ans. A BID is an 8-byte field that is composed of the bridge's 6-byte MAC
address and a 2-byte bridge priority.
Q9. What is the default bridge priority in a Bridge ID for all Cisco switches?
32,768
Q10. In.In spanning tree, what is path cost?
Ans. Path cost is a calculation to determine the link's bandwidth. It is a value
assigned to each port that is based on the port's speed.
Q11. How do bridges pass spanning tree information between themselves?
Ans. Bridges pass STP information using special frame called Bridge Protocol
Data Units (BPDUs).
Q12. How often do bridges send BPDUs out active ports?
The default time that bridges send BPDUs out active ports is 2 seconds.
Note: All ports on a switch listen for BPDUs in case there is a topology

change.
Q13. What is the STP blocking state?
Ans. When a switch starts, all ports are in the blocking state. This is to
prevent any loops in the network. If there is a better path to the root bridge,
the port remains in the blocked state. Ports in the blocked state cannot send
or receive traffic, but they can receive BPDUs.
Q14. What is the STP listening state?
Ans. Ports transition from a blocked state to a listening state. In this state, no
user data is passed. The port only listens for BPDUs. After listening for 15
seconds (if the bridge does not find a better path), the port moves to the
next state, the learning state.
Q15. What is the STP learning state?
Ans. In the STP learning state, no user data is being passed. The port quietly
builds its bridging table. The default time in the learning state is 15 seconds.
Q16. What is the STP forwarding state?
Ans. After the default time in the learning state is up, the port moves to the
forwarding state. In the forwarding state, the port sends and receives data.
Q17. What is STP forward delay?
Ans. The forward delay is the time it takes for a port to move from the
listening state to the learning state or from the learning state to the
forwarding state. The default time is 30 seconds.
Q18. What is the hello time in STP timers?
Ans. The hello time is the time interval between the sending of BPDUs. The
default time is 2 seconds.

Q19. What is the Max Age timer?


Ans.The Max Age timer is how long a bridge stores a BPDU before discarding
it. The default time is 20 seconds (ten missed hello intervals).
Q20. What is the default time a port takes to transition from the blocking
state to the forwarding state?
Ans.The default time a port takes to transition from the blocking state to the
forwarding state is 50 seconds: 20 seconds for Max Age, 15 seconds for
listening, and 15 seconds for learning.
Q21. What does STP do when it detects a topology change in the network
due to a bridge or link failure?
Ans. If spanning tree detects a change in the network due to a bridge or link
failure, at least one bridge interface changes from the blocking state to the
forwarding state, or vice versa.
Q22. Describe the central office (CO)?
Ans. The CO is the telco switching facility that connects the customer to the
provider's switching network. The CO is sometimes referred to as a point of
presence. It is the point where the local loop gains access to the service
provider's access lines.
Q23. What is the toll network?
Ans. All the telco switches, COs, and trunk lines inside the WAN provider's
network are the toll network.
Q24. What are synchronous links?
Ans. Synchronous links have identical frequencies and contain individual
characters encapsulated in control bits, called start/stop bits that designate

the beginning and end of each character. Synchronous links try to use the
same speed as the other end of a serial link.
Q25. What are Asynchronous links?
Ans. Asynchronous links send digital signals without timing. Asynchronous
links agree on the same speed, but there is no check or adjustment of the
rates if they are slightly different. Only 1 byte per transfer is sent.
Q26. What are the three layers of the Cisco Hierarchical Model?
Ans. The three layers of the Cisco Hierarchical Model are: 1
the access layer
The distribution layer
The core layer
Q27. How do you enable IGRP on a Cisco router?
Ans. The way you enable IGRP on a Cisco router is similar to the way you
enable RIP, except you specify IGRP as the protocol and add an autonomous
system number. For example:
RouterA(config)# router igrp 10 (10 is the AS number)
RouterA(config-router)# network 192.168.0.0
RouterA(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0
RouterA(config-router)# network 192.168.2.0
Q28. What is flow control, and what are the three methods of implementing
it?
Ans. Flow control is the method of controlling the rate at which a computer
sends data, thus preventing network congestion. The three methods of
implementing flow control are
Buffering
Congestion avoidance
Windowing
Almost certain to be on the exam.

Q29. The IEEE defines what two sublayers of the data link layer?
Ans.The two sublayers of the data link layer are
The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer
The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer
These two sublayers provide physical media independence.
Q30. What are some network devices that operate at the data link layer?
Ans. Bridges and switches are network devices that operate at the data link
layer. Both devices filter traffic by MAC addresses.
Q31. The Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards define what three physical
wiring standards that operate at 10 Mbps?
Ans. These physical wiring standards operate at 10 Mbps:
10Base2
10Base5
10BaseT
Q32. What are broadcast domains?
Ans. A broadcast domain defines a group of devices that receive each others'
broadcast messages. As with collisions, the more broadcasts that occur on
the network, the slower your network will be. This is because every device
that receives a broadcast must process it to see if the broadcast is intended
for it.
Q33. What is the difference between a routing protocol and a routed
protocol?
Ans. Routing protocols determine how to route traffic to the best location of a
routed protocol. Examples of routing protocols are RIP, EIGRP, OSFP, and
BGP. Examples of routed protocols are IP and IPX.

Q34. What 3 devices are used to segment a LAN?


Ans. Router
Switch
Bridge
Q35. Besides named access lists, what are the two types of IP access lists?

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Quick Notes - LAN


What is carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD)?
CSMA/CD describes the Ethernet access method. In CSMA/CD, many stations can transmit on
the same cable, and no station has priority over any other. Before a station transmits, it listens
on the wire to make sure no other station is transmitting. If no other station is transmitting, the
station transmits across the wire. CSMA/CD is all about devices taking turns using the wire.
What are MAC addresses?
For computers to identify each other on the data link layer, they need a MAC address (hardware
address). All devices on a LAN must have a unique MAC address. A MAC address is a 48-bit
(six octet) address burned into a network interface card. The first three octets (24 bits) of the
MAC address indicate the vendor that manufactured the card. This is called the Organization
Unique Identifier (OUI). The last three octets of the MAC address are the unique host address.
An example of a MAC address is 00-80-C6-E7-9C-EF.
What are the three types of LAN traffic?
The three types of LAN traffic are:
Unicasts
Broadcasts
Multicasts
What are unicast frames?
Unicast frames are the most common type of LAN traffic. A unicast frame is a frame intended for
only one host. In unicast frames, the only station that processes the frame is the station that has
its own MAC address in the destination portion of the packet.
What are broadcast frames?
Broadcast frames are frames intended for everyone. Stations view broadcast frames as public
service announcements. All stations receive and process broadcast frames. In large networks,
broadcasts can bring the network to a crawl, because every computer must process them.

What is the destination address of broadcast frames?


The destination address of broadcast frames (Layer 2 broadcast addresses) is FF-FF-FF-FFFF-FF, or all 1s in binary.
What are multicast frames?
Multicast frames address a group of devices that have a common interest. These frames allow
the source to send only one copy of the frame on the network even though it is intended for
several stations. Only stations that have a card that is configured to receive multicast frames
process them. All other stations discard multicast frames.

What devices can you use to segment a LAN at Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3?
Three devices you can use to segment a LAN are:
Hubs/repeaters (Layer 1)
Bridges/switches (Layer 2) - physical addresses
Routers (Layer 3) - logical addresses
What happens when you segment the network with hubs/repeaters?
Because hubs and repeaters operate at the physical layer of the OSI model, segmenting a
network with these devices appears as an extension to the physical cable. Hubs and repeaters
are transparent to devices. They are unintelligent devices. All devices that connect to a
hub/repeater share the same bandwidth. Hubs/repeaters create a single broadcast and collision
domain.
What is the advantage of segmenting a network with bridges/switches?
Bridges/switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model and filter by MAC address. Each port on a
bridge/switch provides full-dedicated bandwidth and creates a single collision domain. Because
bridges/switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model, they cannot filter broadcasts, and they
create a single broadcast domain. For the CCNA test, remember that switches create more
collision domains and fewer collisions.
What is the difference between bridges and switches?
Bridges and switches function the same way; the only difference is in how they are
implemented. Bridges are implemented by software and usually have a couple of network ports.
Switches are implemented in hardware by ASIC chips and have many ports.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of segmenting the LAN with routers?
An advantage of segmenting the LAN with routers is that each interface on a router creates a
single broadcast and collision domain. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model and do not
propagate broadcasts. Some disadvantages are that routers are not transparent and are
implemented in software, thus introducing latency in the network.
What is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for an Ethernet frame?

1500 bytes is the MTU for an Ethernet frame. You will notice that some publications state that
the MTU for Ethernet is 1518 bytes. This is correct also. But what is the true answer? The MTU
for Ethernet, including the header, source and destination address, data, and CRC is 1518
bytes. The MTU for the data portion of the frame is 1500 bytes.
What three major functions do Layer 2 switches provide?
The three major functions that Layer 2 switches provide are
Address learning
Packet forwarding/filtering
Loop avoidance by spanning tree
What are some advantages of switches?
Some advantages of switches are as follows:
They increase available network bandwidth.
They reduce the number of users per segment.
They provide dedicated bandwidth to each segment.
Transparent bridging (switching) provides five bridging functions to determine what to do when it
receives a frame.
What are these five processes?
The five processes are:
Learning
Flooding
Filtering
Forwarding
Aging
In transparent bridging, what is the learning process?
The first process a bridge goes through when it is powered on is the learning process. The MAC
address table on the bridge contains no entries, and the bridge goes through the learning
process to record all workstations on every interface. In the learning process, the bridge records
the source MAC address and source port number in the MAC address table every time it sees a
frame.
In transparent bridging, what is the flooding process?
When a bridge is first turned on, it has no MAC address in its table. When a switch receives a
unicast frame, it knows the source address and port from which the unicast frame came, but no
entry exists in its table for the destination address. This is called an unknown unicast frame.
When a switch receives an unknown unicast frame, it sends the frame out all forwarding
interfaces on the bridge except the interface that received the frame. This process is the
flooding process.
In transparent bridging, what is the filtering process?
The filtering process occurs when the source and destination addresses reside on the same
interface on the bridge. Because the bridge does not need to forward a frame in which the

destination and source addresses reside on the same interface, it filters the frame and discards
it.
In transparent bridging, what is the forwarding process?
The forwarding process occurs when a switch receives a unicast frame and has an entry of the
destination address in its MAC table. The switch then forwards the frame to the interface where
that destination address resides.
In transparent bridging, what occurs during the aging process?
Every time a bridge learns a source address, it time-stamps the entry. When the bridge sees a
frame from this source, it updates the time stamp. If the bridge does not hear from the source
for a specific amount of time (called the aging timer), the bridge deletes the entry from its MAC
address table. This process is the aging process.
What is the default aging time in transparent bridges?
The default aging timer is 5 minutes.
What is the Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)?
STP is a loop-prevention bridge-to-bridge protocol. Its main purpose is to dynamically maintain
a loop-free network. It does this by sending out Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs),
discovering any loops in the topology, and blocking one or more redundant links.
How does STP maintain a loop-free network?
STP maintains a loop-free network by
Electing a root bridge
Electing a root port on each nonroot bridge
Electing designated ports
Putting in the blocking state any port that is not a root port or designated port
In spanning tree, what is a Bridge ID (BID)?
A BID is an 8-byte field that is composed of the bridge's 6-byte MAC address and a 2-byte
bridge priority.
What is the default bridge priority in a Bridge ID for all Cisco switches?
32,768
In spanning tree, what is path cost?
Path cost is a calculation to determine the link's bandwidth. It is a value assigned to each port
that is based on the port's speed.
What is the spanning tree path cost for each of the following?
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
1 Gbps
The path costs are as follows:

10 Mbps - 100
100 Mbps - 19
1 Gbps - 4
When calculating a loop-free environment, what four-step decision sequence does spanning
tree use to determine what will be the root bridge and which ports will forward or block?
The four-step decision sequence that spanning tree uses to determine the root bridge and which
port will forward is as follows:
Step 1. The lowest root BID
Step 2. The lowest path cost to the root bridge
Step 3. The lowest sender BID
Step 4. The lowest port ID
How do bridges pass spanning tree information between themselves?
Bridges pass STP information using special frame called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs).
How often do bridges send BPDUs out active ports?
The default time that bridges send BPDUs out active ports is 2 seconds.
Note: All ports on a switch listen for BPDUs in case there is a topology change.
In STP, how is a root bridge elected?
In STP, the bridge with the lowest BID is elected the root bridge. All ports on the root bridge are
placed in the forwarding state and are called designated ports.
Note: The BID is a 6-byte field that is composed of a default priority (32,768) and a MAC
address. Because all Cisco switches use the default priority, the switch with the lowest MAC
address is elected the root bridge. As a rule of thumb, lower will always win in spanning tree.
After bridges elect the root bridge, what do they do next?
After electing the root bridge, switches elect root ports. A root port is the port on nonroot bridges
that is closest to the root bridge. Every nonroot bridge must select one root port.
How do nonroot bridges decide which port they will elect as a root port?
Nonroot bridges use root path cost to determine which port will be the root port. Root path cost
is the cumulative cost of all links to the root bridge. The port with the lowest root path cost is
elected the bridge's root port and is placed in the forwarding state.
What is the difference between path cost and root path cost?
Path cost is the value assigned to each port. It is added to BPDUs received on that port to
calculate the root path cost. Root path cost is defined as the cumulative cost to the root bridge.
In a BPDU, this is the value transmitted in the cost field. In a bridge, this value is calculated by
adding the receiving port's path cost to the value contained in the BPDU.
If a nonroot bridge has two redundant ports with the same root path cost, how does the bridge
choose which port will be the root port?
If a nonroot bridge has redundant ports with the same root path cost, the deciding factor is the

port with the lowest port ID (port number).


After the root bridge and root ports are selected, the last step in spanning tree is to elect
designated ports. How do bridges elect designated ports?
In spanning tree, each segment in a bridged network has one designated port. This port is a
single port that both sends and receives traffic to and from that segment and the root bridge. All
other ports are placed in a blocking state. This ensures that only one port on any segment can
send and receive traffic to and from the root bridge, ensuring a loop-free topology. The bridge
containing the designated port for a segment is called the designated bridge for that segment.
Designated ports are chosen based on cumulative root path cost to the root bridge.
Note: Every active port on the root bridge becomes a designated port.
If a bridge is faced with a tie in electing designated ports, how does it decide which port will be
the designated port?
In the event of a tie, STP uses the four-step decision process discussed in Question 30. It first
looks for the BPDU with the lowest BID; this is always the root bridge. If the switch is not the
root bridge, it moves to the next step: the BPDU with the lowest path cost to the root bridge. If
both paths are equal, STP looks for the BPDU with the lowest sender BID. If these are equal,
STP uses the link with the lowest port ID as the final tiebreaker.
What are the four spanning tree port states?
The four spanning tree port states are
Blocking
Listening
Learning
Forwarding
Remember that root and designated ports forward traffic and that nondesignated ports block
traffic but still listen for BPDUs.
Important note: There is another port state - Disabled - (No frames forwarded, no BPDUs
heard). If it shows up in the answer options - select it along with the others.
What is the STP blocking state?
When a switch starts, all ports are in the blocking state. This is to prevent any loops in the
network. If there is a better path to the root bridge, the port remains in the blocked state. Ports in
the blocked state cannot send or receive traffic, but they can receive BPDUs.
What is the STP listening state?
Ports transition from a blocked state to a listening state. In this state, no user data is passed.
The port only listens for BPDUs. After listening for 15 seconds (if the bridge does not find a
better path), the port moves to the next state, the learning state.
What is the STP learning state?
In the STP learning state, no user data is being passed. The port quietly builds its bridging table.
The default time in the learning state is 15 seconds.

What is the STP forwarding state?


After the default time in the learning state is up, the port moves to the forwarding state. In the
forwarding state, the port sends and receives data.
What is STP forward delay?
The forward delay is the time it takes for a port to move from the listening state to the learning
state or from the learning state to the forwarding state. The default time is 30 seconds.
What is the hello time in STP timers?
The hello time is the time interval between the sending of BPDUs. The default time is 2
seconds.
What is the Max Age timer?
The Max Age timer is how long a bridge stores a BPDU before discarding it. The default time is
20 seconds (ten missed hello intervals).
What is the default time a port takes to transition from the blocking state to the forwarding state?
The default time a port takes to transition from the blocking state to the forwarding state is 50
seconds: 20 seconds for Max Age, 15 seconds for listening, and 15 seconds for learning.
What does STP do when it detects a topology change in the network due to a bridge or link
failure?
If spanning tree detects a change in the network due to a bridge or link failure, at least one
bridge interface changes from the blocking state to the forwarding state, or vice versa.
WAN
The three WAN connection types available are leased lines, circuit-switched, and packetswitched. Define the differences between each connection type.
Leased lines are dedicated point-to-point lines that provide a single preestablished WAN
communication path from the customer's network to the remote network. Leased lines are
usually employed over synchronous connections. They are generally expensive and are always
up.
Circuit-switched connections are dedicated for only the duration of the call. The telephone
system and ISDN are examples of circuit-switched networks. Packet-switched connections use
virtual circuits (VCs) to provide end-to-end connectivity.
Packet-switched connections are similar to leased lines, except that the line is shared by other
customers. A packet knows how to reach its destination by programming of switches. Frame
Relay is an example of a packet-switched connection.
Define customer premises equipment (CPE), and give an example.
CPE is equipment that is located on the customer's (or subscriber's) premises. It is equipment

owned by the customer or equipment leased by the service provider to the customer. An
example is your router.
What is the demarcation point (demarc)?
The demarc is the point where the CPE ends and the local loop begins. It is the last
responsibility of the service provider and is usually an RJ-45 jack located close to the CPE.
Think of the demarc as the boundary between the customer's wiring and the service provider's
wiring.
What is the local loop?
The local loop is the physical cable that extends from the demarc to the central office.
Describe the central office (CO).
The CO is the telco switching facility that connects the customer to the provider's switching
network. The CO is sometimes referred to as a point of presence. It is the point where the local
loop gains access to the service provider's access lines.
What is the toll network?
All the telco switches, COs, and trunk lines inside the WAN provider's network are the toll
network.
What are synchronous links?
Synchronous links have identical frequencies and contain individual characters encapsulated in
control bits, called start/stop bits, that designate the beginning and end of each character.
Synchronous links try to use the same speed as the other end of a serial link.
What are Asynchronous links?
Asynchronous links send digital signals without timing. Asynchronous links agree on the same
speed, but there is no check or adjustment of the rates if they are slightly different. Only 1 byte
per transfer is sent.
List some typical Layer 2 encapsulation methods for WAN links.
. High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
X.25/Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB)
Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Describe HDLC.
HDLC was derived from Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC). It is the default encapsulation
type on point-to-point dedicated links and circuit-switched connections between Cisco routers. It
is an ISO-standard bit-oriented data-link protocol that encapsulates data on synchronous links.
HDLC is a connection-oriented protocol that has very little overhead. HDLC lacks a protocol
field and therefore cannot encapsulate multiple network layer protocols across the same link.
Because of this, each vendor has its own method of identifying the network-layer protocol. Cisco

offers a propriety version of HDLC that uses a type field that acts as a protocol field, making it
possible for multiple network-layer protocols to share the same link.
By default, Cisco uses HDLC as its default encapsulation method across synchronous lines
(point-to-point links). If a serial line uses a different encapsulation protocol, how do you change
it back to HDLC?
To change a serial line back to HDLC, use the following interface command on the serial
interface you want to change: Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc
What is the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)?
PPP is an industry-standard protocol that provides router-to-router or router-to-host connections
over synchronous and asynchronous links. It can be used to connect to other vendors'
equipment. It works with several network-layer protocols, such as IP and IPX. PPP provides
authentication through PAP or CHAP.
Describe X.25/LAPB.
X.25/LAPB is an ITU-T standard that has a tremendous amount of overhead because of its strict
timeout and windowing techniques. LAPB is the connection-oriented protocol used with X.25. It
uses the ABM (Asynchronous Balance Mode) transfer mode. X.25/LAPB was used in the 1980s
when WAN links were not as error-free as they are today. X.25 is a predecessor of Frame
Relay. X.25 supports both switched and permanent virtual circuits.
What is Frame Relay?
An industry standard, Frame Relay is a switched data link layer protocol that uses virtual circuits
to identify the traffic that belongs to certain routers. It provides dynamic bandwidth allocation
and congestion control.
Quick Notes - INTERNETWORKING
What are the three layers of the Cisco Hierarchical Model?
The three layers of the Cisco Hierarchical Model are: 1
the access layer
The distribution layer
The core layer
In the Cisco Hierarchical Model, what is the function of the access layer?
Sometimes referred to as the desktop layer, the access layer is the point at which users connect
to the network through low-end switches. Some functions of the access layer include:
Connectivity into the distribution layer
Shared Bandwidth
MAC Address filtering (switching)
Segmentation
What is the function of the distribution layer in the Cisco Hierarchical Model?
The distribution layer is also known as the workgroup layer. It is the demarcation point between

the access and core layers of the network. Its primary function is to provide routing, filtering, and
WAN access. The distribution layer determines how packets access the core, so it is the layer at
which to implement policy-based connectivity. Some functions include the following:
Collection point for access layer devices
Broadcast and multicast domain segmentation
Security and filtering services such as firewalls and access lists
Providing translation between different media types
Inter-VLAN routing
What is the role of the core layer in the Cisco Hierarchical Model?
The core layer is the backbone of the network. Its main function is to switch traffic as fast as
possible. Therefore, it should not perform any filtering to slow down traffic.
The ISO's OSI Reference Model contains seven layers. What are they? Include the layer
number and name of each layer in your answer.
The seven layers of the OSI model are as follows:
Layer 7 - Application layer
Layer 6 - Presentation layer
Layer 5 - Session layer
Layer 4 - Transport layer
Layer 3 - Network layer
Layer 2 - Data link layer
Layer 1 - Physical layer
What are some reasons that the industry uses a layered model?
Here are some reasons why the industry uses a layered model:
It encourages industry standardization by defining what functions occur at each level.
It allows vendors to modify or improve components at only one layer versus rewriting the whole
protocol stack.
It helps interoperability by defining standards for the operations at each level.
It helps with troubleshooting.

What does the application layer (Layer 7) of the OSI model do, and what are some examples of
this layer?
The application layer is the layer that is closest to the user. This means that this layer interacts
directly with the software application. The application layer's main function is to identify and
establish communication partners, determine resource availability, and synchronize
communication. Some examples include the following:
TCP/IP applications such as Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP), WWW, and HTTP.
OSI applications such as Virtual Terminal Protocol, File
Transfer, Access, and Management (FTAM), and Common Management Information Protocol
(CMIP).

In the OSI model, what are the responsibilities of the presentation layer (Layer 6)? Give some
examples of this layer.
Also known as the translator, the presentation layer provides coding and conversion functions to
application layer data. This guarantees that the application layer on another system can read
data transferred from the application layer of a different system. Some examples of the
presentation layer are:
Compression, decompression, and encryption
JPEG, TIFF, GIFF, PICT, QuickTime, MPEG, and ASCII
What are the functions of the session layer (Layer 5)? Give some examples.
The session layer is responsible for creating, managing, and ending communication sessions
between presentation layer entities. These sessions consist of service requests and responses
that develop between applications located on different network devices. Some examples include
SQL, RPC, NFS, X Window System, ZIP, NetBIOS names, and AppleTalk ASP.
What is the transport layer (Layer 4) responsible for? Give some examples of transport layer
implementations.
The transport layer segments and reassembles data from upper-layer applications into data
streams. It provides reliable data transmission to upper layers. End-to-end communications,
flow control, multiplexing, error detection and correction, and virtual circuit management are
typical transport layer functions. Some examples include TCP, UDP*, and SPX.
Note: watch out for end-to-end on communications on the exam! Transport layer.
* Error correction does not apply to UDP - connection-less - unreliable.....

What is flow control, and what are the three methods of implementing it?
Flow control is the method of controlling the rate at which a computer sends data, thus
preventing network congestion. The three methods of implementing flow control are
Buffering
Congestion avoidance
Windowing
Almost certain to be on the exam.

Describe the function of the network layer (Layer 3), and give some examples of network layer
implementations.
The network layer provides internetwork routing and logical network addresses. It defines how
to transport traffic between devices that are not locally attached. The network layer also
supports connection-oriented and connectionless service from higher-layer protocols. Routers
operate at the network layer. IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and DDP are examples of network layer
implementations.
Are network layer addresses physical or logical?

Network layer addresses are logical addresses specific to the network layer protocol being run
on the network. Each network layer protocol has a different addressing scheme. They are
usually hierarchical and define networks first and then host or devices on that network. An
example of a network address is an IP address, which is a 32-bit address often expressed in
decimal format. 192.168.0.1 is an example of an IP address in decimal format.
How do routers function at the network layer of the OSI model?
Routers learn, record, and maintain awareness of different networks. They decide the best path
to these networks and maintain this information in a routing table. The routing table includes the
following:
Network addresses, which are protocol-specific. If you are running more than one protocol, you
have a network address for each protocol.
The interface the router uses to route a packet to a different network.
A metric, which is the distance to a remote network or the weight of the bandwidth, load, delay,
and reliability of the path to the remote network.
Routers create broadcast domains. One interface on a router creates a single broadcast domain
and collision domain. However, an interface on a switch creates only a single collision domain.
In addition to learning the remote network and providing a path to the network, what other
functions do routers carry out?
Routers perform these tasks:
Routers, by default, do not forward broadcasts or multicasts.
Routers can perform bridging and routing functions.
If a router has multiple paths to a destination, it can determine the best path to the destination.
Routers forward traffic based on Layer 3 destination addresses.
Routers can connect Virtual LANs (VLANs).
Routers can provide quality of service for specified types of network traffic.
What is the responsibility of the data link layer (Layer 2)?
The data link layer provides functional and procedural means for connectionless mode among
network entities, and for connection mode entities it provides the establishment, maintenance,
and release of data link connections among network entities and for the transfer of data link
service data units. The data link layer translates messages from the network layer into bits for
the physical layer, and it enables the network layer to control the interconnection of data circuits
within the physical layer. Its specifications define different network and protocol characteristics,
including physical addressing, error notification, network topology, and sequencing of frames.
Data link protocols provide the delivery across individual links and are concerned with the
different media types, such as 802.2 and 802.3. The data link layer is responsible for putting 1s
and 0s into a logical group. These 1s and 0s are then put on the physical wire. Some examples
of data link layer implementations are IEEE 802.2/802.3, IEEE 802.5/802.2, packet trailer (for
Ethernet, the FCS or CRC), FFDI, HDLC, and Frame Relay.
The IEEE defines what two sublayers of the data link layer?
The two sublayers of the data link layer are
The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer
The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer
These two sublayers provide physical media independence.

For what is the LLC sublayer responsible?


The Logical Link Control (802.2) sublayer is responsible for identifying different network layer
protocols and then encapsulating them to be transferred across the network. An LLC header
tells the data link layer what to do with a packet after it is received.
What functions does the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer provide?
The MAC sublayer specifies how data is placed and transported over the physical wire. The
LLC layer communicates with the network layer, but the MAC layer communicates downward
directly to the physical layer. Physical addressing (MAC addresses), network topologies, error
notification, and delivery of frames are defined at this sublayer.
What are some network devices that operate at the data link layer?
Bridges and switches are network devices that operate at the data link layer. Both devices filter
traffic by MAC addresses.
What is the function of the OSI model's physical layer (Layer 1)? Give some examples of
physical layer implementations.
The physical layer defines the physical medium. It defines the media type, the connector type,
and the signaling type (baseband versus broadband). This includes voltage levels, physical data
rates, and maximum cable lengths. The physical layer is responsible for converting frames into
electronic bits of data, which are then sent or received across the physical medium. Twisted
pair, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable operate at this level. Other implementations at this layer
are repeaters/hubs, RJ-45.
The Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards define what three physical wiring standards that
operate at 10 Mbps?
These physical wiring standards operate at 10 Mbps:
10Base2
10Base5
10BaseT
What are collision domains?
In Ethernet segments, devices connect to the same physical medium. Because of this, all
devices receive all signals sent across the wire. If two devices send a packet at the same time,
a collision occurs. In the event of a collision, the two devices run a backoff algorithm and resend
the packet. The devices retransmit up to 15 times. The first station to detect a collision issues a
jam signal. When a jam signal is sent from a workstation, it affects all of the machines on the
segment, not just the two that collided; when the jam signal is on the wire, no workstations can
transmit data. The more collisions that occur in a network, the slower it will be, because the
devices will have to resend the packet. A collision domain defines a group of devices connected
to the same physical medium.
What are broadcast domains?
A broadcast domain defines a group of devices that receive each others' broadcast messages.

As with collisions, the more broadcasts that occur on the network, the slower your network will
be. This is because every device that receives a broadcast must process it to see if the
broadcast is intended for it.
What devices are used to break up collision and broadcast domains?
Switches and bridges are used to break up collision domains. They create more collision
domains and fewer collisions. Routers are used to break up broadcast domains. They create
more broadcast domains and smaller broadcast areas.
How do the different layers of the OSI model communicate with each other?
Each layer of the OSI model can communicate only with the layer above it, below it, and parallel
to it (a peer layer). For example, the presentation layer can communicate with only the
application layer, session layer, and presentation layer on the machine it is communicating with.
These layers communicate with each other using protocol data units (PDUs). These PDUs
control information that is added to the user data at each layer of the model. This information
resides in fields called headers (the front of the data field) and trailers (the end of the data field).
What is data encapsulation?
A PDU can include different information as it goes up or down the OSI model. It is given a
different name according to the information it is carrying (the layer it is at). When the transport
layer receives upper layer data, it adds a TCP header to the data; this is called a segment. The
segment is then passed to the network layer, and an IP header is added; thus, the data
becomes a packet. The packet is passed to the data link layer, thus becoming a frame. This
frame is then converted into bits and is passed across the network medium. This is data
encapsulationApplication layer -- Data
Transport layer -- Segment
Network layer -- Packet
Data link layer -- Frame
There is also the Physical Layer -- Bits
What is the difference between a routing protocol and a routed protocol?
Routing protocols determine how to route traffic to the best location of a routed protocol.
Examples of routing protocols are RIP, EIGRP, OSFP, and BGP. Examples of routed protocols
are IP and IPX.
What 3 devices are used to segment a LAN?
Router
Switch
Bridge

Quick Notes - CABLING TECHNOLOGY


What is a straight-through cable, and when would you use it?
A straight-through cable is the same at both ends. A straight-through cable uses pins 1, 2, 3,
and 6. The send and receive wires are not crossed. You should use a straight-through cable

when connecting dissimilar devices. Examples include connecting PCs to switches or hubs or a
router to a switch or a hub.
What is a crossover cable, and when would you use it?
A crossover cable is a cable that has the send and receive wires crossed at one of the ends. On
a Category 5 cable, the 1 and 3 wires and the 2 and 6 wires are switched on one of the cable's
ends. You should use a crossover cable when connecting similar devices, such as connecting a
router to a router, a switch to a switch or hub, a hub to a hub, or a PC to a PC.
Important tip -- Router (think of it as a PC) to PC via 10BaseT (NIC) uses a "crossover cable".
(contradicts the rule)
How do you set up a console session to a Cisco device?
To set up a console session to a Cisco device, you connect a rollover cable to the console port
on the Cisco device. You then connect the other end to your PC and configure a terminal
emulation application to the following com settings: 9600 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit,
and no flow control.
What is the maximum cable length for each of the following?
The maximum cable lengths are as follows:
10Base2 (thinnet) 185 meters
10Base5 (thicknet) 500 meters
10BaseT 100 meters
10BaseFL 2000 meters (400 meters in a shared environment and 2000 meters in a point-topoint environment)
100BaseT 100 meters
What does Base stand for in 10BaseT and 100BaseT?
Base in 10BaseT and 100BaseT stands for baseband. Baseband is a network technology in
which only one carrier frequency (signal) is used.
What is the difference between baseband and broadband?
Baseband is a network technology in which only one carrier frequency is used (such as
Ethernet). Broadband is a network technology in which several independent channels are
multiplexed into one cable (for example, a T1 line).

Quick Notes - ACCESS LISTS


Besides named access lists, what are the two types of IP access lists?
The two types of IP access lists are standard and extended.
What criteria do standard IP access lists use to filter packets?
Standard IP access lists filter packets by the source address. This results in the packet's being
permitted or denied for the entire protocol suite based on the source network IP address.

What criteria do extended IP access lists use to filter packets?


Extended IP access lists filter packets by source address, destination address, protocols, and
port numbers.
In what two ways can IP access lists be applied to an interface?
Access lists can be applied as inbound or outbound access lists. Inbound access lists process
packets as they enter a router's interface and before they are routed. Outbound access lists
process packets as they exit a router's interface and after they are routed.
How many access lists can be applied to an interface on a Cisco router?
Only one access list per protocol, per direction, per interface can be applied on a Cisco router.
Multiple access lists are permitted per interface, but they must be for a different protocol.
How are access lists processed?
Access lists are processed in sequential, logical order, evaluating packets from the top down,
one statement at a time. As soon as a match is made, the permit or deny option is applied, and
the packet is not applied to any more access list statements. Because of this, the order of the
statements within any access list is significant.
What is at the end of each access list?
At the end of each access list, an implicit deny statement denies any packet not filtered in the
access list.
What are the number ranges used to define standard and extended IP access lists?
The number ranges used to define standard and extended IP access lists are as follows:
Standard IP access lists 1 to 99 and 1300 to 1999 Extended IP access lists 100 to 199
and 2000 to 2699
When implementing access lists, what are wildcard masks?
Wildcard masks define the subset of the 32 bits in the IP address that must be matched.
Wildcards are used with access lists to specify a host, network, or part of a network. Wildcard
masks work exactly the opposite of subnet masks. In subnet masks, 1 bits are matched to the
network portion of the address, and 0s are wildcards that specify the host range. In wildcard
masks, when 0s are present, the octet address must match.
What is the IOS command syntax used to create a standard IP access list?
Here is the command syntax to create a standard IP access list:
access-list access-list-number {permit deny} source-address [wildcard mask]access-list-number
is a number from 1 to 99.
For example:
RouterA(config)#access-list 10 deny 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.255
How can you display all access lists on a Cisco router?
To display all access lists on a Cisco router, use the show access-list command: RouterA#show

access-list Standard IP access list 10 deny 192.168.0.0, wildcard bits 0.0.0.255Extended IP


access list 101 permit tcp any any eq www permit udp any any eq domain permit udp any eq
domain any permit icmp any any deny tcp 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255 any eq wwwRouterA#

Quick Notes - FRAME RELAY


What protocol does Frame Relay rely on for error checking?
Frame Relay does not rely on any certain protocol for error checking. Instead, it relies on upperlayer protocols to provide error checking. For example, Frame Relay relies on TCP to provide
error checking in an IP network.
At what layers of the OSI model does Frame Relay operate?
Frame Relay operates at the two lower layers of the OSI model (data link and physical).
What is the difference between switched virtual circuits (SVCs) and permanent virtual circuits
(PVCs)?
SVCs are virtual circuits that are dynamically established when data needs to be transferred
and that are terminated when data transmission is complete. SVCs consist of four states: call
setup, data transfer, idle, and call termination. PVCs are permanently established virtual circuits
that operate in one of two states: idle or data transfer. When the PVC is idle, the connection
between the DTE devices is still active.
What is a Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)?
A DLCI is a number that identifies the logical circuit between the router and the Frame Relay
switch. It is the Frame Relay Layer 2 address. The Frame Relay switch maps DLCIs between
each pair of routers to create a PVC. For IP devices at the end of each virtual circuit to
communicate, their IP addresses need to be mapped to DLCIs. If you are running Cisco IOS
11.2 or later, mapping is done automatically using Inverse ARP. DLCIs have local significance.
Think of DLCIs as the MAC address of the Frame Relay network.
What is the committed information rate (CIR)?
The CIR is the committed information rate, by the service provider, in bits per second, at which
data will be transferred. The service provider sends any data in excess of this rate if its network
has capacity at that time.
How does Frame Relay use Inverse ARP?
Frame Relay uses Inverse ARP as a way to dynamically map a network layer address to a
DLCI. With Inverse ARP, the router can discover the network address of a device associated
with a VC.
What is the Local Management Interface (LMI)?
The LMI is a signaling standard between a CPE device (a router) and the Frame Relay switch
that is responsible for managing and maintaining status between the devices. It is autosensed
with Cisco IOS Release 11.2 and later.

In Frame Relay, what is Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN)?


The FECN is the bit in the Frame Relay header that signals to anyone receiving the frame
(switches and DTEs) that congestion is occurring in the same direction as the frame. Switches
and DTEs can react by slowing the rate at which data is sent in that direction.

What is Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN)?


The BECN is the bit in the Frame Relay header that signals to switches and DTEs receiving the
frame that congestion is occurring in the direction opposite (backward) that of the frame. If
switches and DTE devices detect that the BECN bit in the Frame Relay header is set to 1, they
slow the rate at which data is sent in that direction.
In the Frame Relay header, what is the discard eligibility (DE) bit?
If congestion is detected on the Frame Relay network, the DE bit is turned on in the Frame
Relay header. The DE bit is turned on for frames that are in excess of the CIR. The DE bit tells a
switch which frames to discard if they must be discarded.
What is the default LMI type for Cisco routers that are configured for Frame Relay?
The default LMI for Cisco routers configured for Frame Relay is Cisco. If you are running Cisco
IOS Release 11.2 or later, the Cisco router tries to autosense which LMI type the Frame Relay
switch is using. If it cannot autosense the LMI type, the router uses Cisco as its LMI type. The
three types of LMIs supported by Cisco routers are:
Cisco
ANSI
Q933a
When a router receives LMI information, it updates its VC status to one of three states. What
are these three states?
The three states that a VC uses to update its status are as follows:
Active state The connection is active, and routers can exchange data.
Inactive state The local connection to the Frame Relay switch is working, but the remote router's
connection to the Frame Relay switch is not working.
Deleted state Indicates that no LMIs are being received from the Frame Relay switch or that
there is no service between the router and the Frame Relay switch.
How do you enable Frame Relay on a Cisco router?
To enable Frame Relay on a Cisco router, you must first enable the serial interface for Frame
Relay encapsulation with the encapsulation frame-relay interface command:
RouterB(config)#int s 0
RouterB(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
RouterB(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay

The default encapsulation for a serial interface configured for Frame Relay is cisco. If you are
connecting to a non-Cisco router, how do you change the encapsulation type?
If you are connecting to a non-Cisco router in a Frame Relay network, you need to specify ietf
as the encapsulation type:
RouterB(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
RouterB(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf

If you are using Cisco IOS Release 11.1 or earlier, or if you do not want to autosense the LMI
type, how do you define the LMI type on a Cisco router?
To define the LMI type on a Cisco router, use the frame-relay lmi-type {ansi cisco q933a}
interface command:
RouterB(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
RouterB(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
RouterB(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type ansi
If Inverse ARP is disabled on your router, how do you reenable it?
Inverse ARP is enabled by default on a Cisco router. If it is disabled, reenable it by using the
following command:
RouterB(config-if)#frame-relay inverse-arp [protocol] [dlci]
Supported protocols indicated by the protocol option include ip, ipx, decnet, appletalk, vines,
and xns.
If a remote router does not support Inverse ARP, you must define the address-to-DLCI table
statically. How do you create these static maps?
To define static maps on a Cisco router, use the following command:
RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay map protocol protocol-address dlci [broadcast] [ietf cisco]
[payload-compress packet-by-packet]
where:
protocol defines the supported protocol bridging or LLC.
protocol-address is the remote router's network layer address.
dlci defines the remote router's local DLCI.
broadcast specifies whether you want to forward broadcasts over the VC, permitting
dynamic routing protocols over the VC. ietf cisco is the encapsulation type.
What Cisco IOS command displays the LMI traffic statistics and LMI type?
The show frame-relay lmi command displays the LMI traffic statistics and LMI type:
RouterA#show frame-relay lmi
LMI Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE)
LMI TYPE = CISCO Invalid Unnumbered info 0

Invalid Prot Disc 0 Invalid dummy Call Ref 0


Invalid Msg Type 0 Invalid Status Message 0
Invalid Lock Shift 0 Invalid Information ID 0
Invalid Report IE Len 0 Invalid Report Request 0
Invalid Keep IE Len 0 Num Status Enq. Rcvd 1748
Num Status msgs Sent 1748 Num Update Status Sent 0
Num St Enq. Timeouts 0
routera#
How do you display the current Frame Relay map entries and information about these
connections on a Cisco router?
To view the current map entries and information about the connections, use the show framerelay map command:
RouterA#show frame-relay map
Quick Notes - ROUTING
How do OSPF-enabled routers build adjacencies and exchange their routing tables?
OSPF-enabled routers build adjacencies by sending Hello packets out through all OSPFenabled interfaces.
If these routers share a command link and agree on parameters set within their Hello packets
then they become neighbors. If these parameters differ then the routers do not become
neighbors and communication stops.
OSPF routers form adjacencies with certain routers. These routers are determined by the layer
2 (data link) media type and as soon as the adjacencies are formed each router sends LSAs
(Link State Advertisements) to all adjacent routers. The LSAs describe the state of each router's
links. There are multiple LSA types and a route that receives an LSA from a neighbor records
the LSA in a link-state database and floods a copy of the LSA to all its other neighbors.
When all databases are complete - then each router uses the SPF (Shortest-Path First)
algorithm to calculate a loop-free topology and builds its routing table based on this topology.
It is important to note that the Hello protocol is bidrectional and is the means by which neighbors
are discovered and acts as keepalives between neighboring routers. It also establishes and
maintain neighbor relationships and elects the DR (Designated Router) and BDR (Backup
Designated Router) to represent the segment on Broadcast and NBMA (nobroadcast
multiaccess) networks.
Note: Hello protocols are sent periodically sent out each OSPF-enabled interface using IP
multicast address 224.0.0.5. The default interval on NBMA (nonbroadcast multiaccess)
networks is 30 seconds. The default interval on Broadcast, Point-to-point, and point-tomultipoint networks is 10 seconds.
What are LSAs (link-state advertisements)?
LSAs are sent out all OSPF-enabled router interfaces describing the state of the router's links.
They are also packets that OSPF uses to advertise changes in the condition of a link or other
OSPF routers.

Name two LSA (link-state advertisement) types?


Type 1 LSAs are router LSAs and are generated by each router for the area to which the router
belongs. These LSAs describe the states of the router'links to the area (area 0 for example) and
are flooded within a single area (area 0 for example).
Type 2 LSAs are network LSAs and are generated by the DR (Designated Router) and the BDR
(Backup Designated Router). They describe the routers attached to a particular network and are
flooded within a single area (area 0 for example).

What is the routing metric OSPF is based on?


Bandwith.
Formula: Cost = 100,000,000 / bandwidth in bits per seconds
The cost of a 100 MBbps connection would be:
1000,000,000 / 100,000,000 =1
Based on the schema above -- if adjacencies are established with only with the DR (Designated
Router) and BDR (Backup Designated Router)- what is the circuit count?
Formula:
2(n - 1) where n is the number of routers in the network.
2(5 - 1) = 8 circuits.
A circuit can also be thought of as an adjacency or connection.
Count four going into the DR and 4 going into the BDR for a total of 8.
Note: OSPF avoids synchronizing between every pair of routers in the network by using a DR
and BDR. This way adjacencies are formed only to the DR and BDR, and the number of LSAs
sent over the network is reduced. Now only the DR and BDR have four adjacencies, and all the
other routers have two.
On an OSPF-enabled router -- what is the router ID and where does an OSPF-enabled router
receive its router ID?
To initialize - OSPF must be able to define a router ID. The most common and stable source for
a router ID is the IP address set on the logical loopback interface that is always available. If no
logical interface is defined -- then the router receives its ID from the highest IP address on the
physical interfaces.
Note: If two loopback addresses are defined -- it will use the highest loopback address. Think
highest logical or highest physical interface address.
Name five OSPF network types:
Broadcast networks: Ethernet/Token Ring. OSPF-enabled routers on broadcast networks elect a
DR (Designated Router) and BDR (Backup Designated Router). All the routers in the network
form adjacencies with the DR and BDR. Note: OSPF packets are multicast to the DR and BDR.
NBMA (nonbroadcast multiaccess) networks: Frame Relay/X.25/ATM. NBMA networks can
connect more than two routers but have no broadcast functionality. These networks elect an DR
and BDR. Note: OSPF packets are unicast.
Point-to-point networks: A physical DS1 (T1) for example.
Point-to-point networks connect a pair of routers and always becomes adjacent.
Point-to-multipoint networks: Point-to-multipoint networks are a special configuration of NBMA

networks in which networks are treated as a collection of point-to-point links. Point-to-multipoint


networks do not elect a DR or BDR. Note: OSPF packets are multicast.
Virtual links: Virtual links area special configuration that the router interprets as unnumbered
point-to-point networks. The network administrator creates/defines virtual links.

What is routing?
Routing is the process in which items are forwarded from one location to another. Routing is a
hop-by-hop paradigm.
A Cisco router performs routing and switching functions. Describe what each function does.
Routing is a way to learn and maintain awareness of the network topology. Each router
maintains a routing table in which it looks up the destination Layer 3 address to get the packet
one step closer to its destination.
The switching function is the actual movement of temporary traffic through the router, from an
inbound interface to an outbound interface.
What are the three types of routes you can use in a Cisco router?
The three types of routes are static routes, dynamic routes, and default routes.
What is the difference between static and dynamic routes?
Static routes are routes that an administrator manually enters into a router. Dynamic routes are
routes that a router learns automatically through a routing protocol.
What is a default route?
Also known as the gateway of last resort, a default route is a special type of static route with an
all-zeros network and network mask. The default route is used to route any packets to a network
that a router does not directly know about to a next-hop router. By default, if a router receives a
packet to a destination network that is not in its routing table, it drops the packet. When a default
route is specified, the router does not drop the packet. Instead, it forwards the packet to the IP
address specified in the default route.
What is a routing protocol?
A routing protocol defines the set of rules used by a router when it communicates with
neighboring routers. Routing protocols listens for packets from other participants in order to
learn and maintain a routing table.
What is administrative distance?
Administrative distance (AD) is an integer from 0 to 255 that rates the trustworthiness of routing
information received on a router from a neighboring router. The AD is used as the tiebreaker
when a router has multiple paths from different routing protocols to the same destination. The
path with the lower AD is the one given priority.

What are the three classes of routing protocols?


1) Distance vector 2) Link-state 3) Balanced hybrid
What is the AD for each of the following?
Directly connected interface 0
Static route 1
EIGRP 90
IGRP 100
OSPF 110
RIP 120
External EIGRP 170
Unknown 255
How do distance vector routing protocols function?
Also known as Bellman-Ford-Fulkerson algorithms, distance vector routing protocols pass
complete routing tables to neighboring routers. Neighboring routers then combine the received
routing table with their own routing table. Each router receives a routing table from its directly
connected neighbor. Distance vector routing tables include information about the total cost and
the logical address of the first router on the path to each network they know about.
How do distance vector routing protocols keep track of any changes to the internetwork?
Distance vector routing protocols keep track of an internetwork by periodically broadcasting
updates out all active interfaces. This broadcast contains the entire routing table. This method is
often called routing by rumor.
Slow convergence of distance vector routing protocols can cause inconsistent routing tables
and routing loops.
What are some mechanisms that distance vector protocols implement to prevent routing loops
and inconsistent routing tables?
Here are some of the ways distance vector routing protocols prevent routing loops and
inconsistent routing tables:
Maximum hop count Split horizon
Route poisoning Holddowns
What is split horizon?
The rule of split horizon is that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the
direction from which the original update came.
What is convergence?
Convergence is when all routers have consistent knowledge and correct routing tables.
What is route poisoning?
With route poisoning, when a distance vector routing protocol notices that a route is no longer
valid, the route is advertised with an infinite metric, signifying that the route is bad. In RIP, a

metric of 16 is used to signify infinity. Route poisoning is used with holddowns.


What are hold-down timers?
Hold-down timers prevent regular update messages from reinstating a route that might have
gone bad. Hold-down timers also tell routers to hold for a period of time any changes that might
affect routes.
What are triggered updates?
When a router notices that a directly connected subnet has changed state, it immediately sends
another routing update out its other interfaces rather than waiting for the routing update timer to
expire. Triggered updates are also known as Flash updates.
What is IP RIP?
IP RIP is a true distance vector routing protocol that sends its complete routing table out all
active interfaces every 30 seconds. IP RIP uses a hop count as its metric to determine the best
path to a remote network. The maximum allowable hop count is 15, meaning that 16 is
unreachable. There are two versions of RIP. Version 1 is classful, and version 2 is classless. IP
RIP can load-balance over as many as six equal-cost paths.
What four timers does IP RIP use to regulate its performance?
Here are the four timers that IP RIP uses to regulate its performance: Route update timer
Time between router updates. The default is 30 seconds. Route invalid timer Time that must
expire before a route becomes invalid. The default is 180 seconds. Route hold-down timer If
IP RIP receives an update with a hop count higher than the metric recorded in the routing table,
the router goes into holddown for 180 seconds. Route flush timer Time from when a route
becomes invalid to when it is removed from the routing table. The default is 240 seconds.
How do you stop RIP updates from propagating out an interface on a router?
Sometimes you do not want RIP updates to propagate across the WAN, wasting valuable
bandwidth or giving out valuable information about your internetwork. The easiest way to stop
RIP updates from propagating out an interface is to use the passive-interface global
configuration command.
How do you display the contents of a Cisco IP routing table?
The show ip route command displays the Cisco routing table's contents.
What is Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)?
IGRP is a Cisco proprietary distance vector routing protocol. IGRP has a default hop count of
100 hops, with a maximum hop count of 255. IGRP uses bandwidth and line delay as its default
metric, but it can also use reliability, load, and MTU.

How do you enable IGRP on a Cisco router?

The way you enable IGRP on a Cisco router is similar to the way you enable RIP, except you
specify IGRP as the protocol and add an autonomous system number. For example:
RouterA(config)#router igrp 10 (10 is the AS number)
RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0
RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
RouterA(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
What four timers does IGRP use to regulate its performance?
The four timers IGRP uses to regulate its performance are as follows:
Route update timer Time between router updates The default is 90 seconds.
Route invalid timer Time that must expire before a route becomes invalid . The default is
270 seconds.
Route hold-down timer If a destination becomes unreachable, or if the next-hop router
increases the metric recording in the routing table, the router goes into holddown for 280
seconds.
Route flush timer[md]Time from when a route becomes invalid to when it is removed from
the routing table. The default is 630 seconds.

Quick Notes - SWITCHING


What are three types of LAN traffic?
Unicasts - intended for one host.
Broadcasts - intended for everyone.
Multicasts - intended for a only a subset or group within an entire network.
What are unicast frames?
Unicast frames are the most common type of network traffic. A unicast frame is a frame
intended for only one host. The only station that processes this frame is one station that has its
own MAC address in the destination portion of packet.
What are broadcast frames?
Broadcast frames are frames intended for everyone. Stations view broadcast frames as public
service announcements. All stations receive and process broadcast frames. In large networks,
broadcasts can cause serious performance degradation in network hosts - (broadcast storm).
The destination address of broadcast frames (Data Link / Layer 2 broadcast addresses is FFFF-FF-FF-FF-FF or alternatively all 1s in binary (11111111).
What are multicast frames?
Multicast frames address a group of devices that have a common interest. These frames allow
the source to send only one copy of the frame on the network even though it is intended for
several stations. Only stations that have a card that is configured by software to receive
multicast frames for a particular multicast group can process a frame to that multicast address all other stations discard multicast frames

What three major functions do Data Link Layer / Layer 2 Switches perform?
Address learning
Packet forwarding/filtering
Loop avoidance by spanning tree
What will occur when you attempt to segment a network with hubs and repeaters?
Basically, hubs and repeaters become extensions of the physical cable plant. All devices that
connect to either a hub or a repeater share the same bandwidth and by definition hubs and
repeaters create a single broadcast and collision domain.
Think of both devices are pass-through devices much like a electrical power-strip. Hubs and
repeaters reside on the Physical Layer / Layer 1 of the OSI model where they pass 0s and 1s
along the wire or up to the Data Link Layer. CSUs / Channel Service Units fall into the same
category. All are regarded as unintelligent devices. No addressing takes place on the Physical
layer.
What three devices are used to segment a LAN?
Router - logical addressing - IP address
Switch - physical addressing - MAC address
Bridge - physical addressing - MAC addres
What is microsegmentation?
Each workstation or network device on the network has its own dedicated segment - also known
as a Collision Domain - to a switch. Each device gets the segments full bandwidth and does not
have to share the dedicated segment with other devices. Collisions are reduced because each
segment is its own Collision Domain.
Important: Full-duplex transmission is achieved by microsegmentation. Each device can send
and receive at the same time which doubles the amount of bandwidth between nodes.
What are the three switching methods in Cisco Catalyst switches?
The three frame operating modes to handle frame switching are
Store-and-forward
Cut-through
Fragment-free
What is the Cisco Catalyst store-and-forward switching method?
In the store-and-forward switching method, the switch receives the entire frame before it
forwards it. The switch reads the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) to make sure the frame is not
bad. If the frame is good, the switch forwards it. Because the switch stores the frame before
forwarding it, latency is introduced in the switch. Latency through the switch varies with the size
of the frame.
What is the Cisco Catalyst cut-through switching method?
In cut-through switching mode, the switch only checks the frame's destination address and
immediately begins forwarding the frame out the appropriate port. Because the switch checks
the destination address in only the header and not the entire frame, the switch forwards a
collision frame or a frame that has a bad CRC.

What is the Cisco Catalyst fragment-free switching method?


Also known as modified cut-through, fragment-free switching checks the first 64 bytes before
forwarding the frame. Ethernet specifications state that collisions should be detected during the
first 64 bytes of the frame. By reading the first 64 bytes of the frame, the switch can filter most
collisions, although late collisions are still possible.

What is the default switching mode in Cisco Catalyst 1900 switches?


The default switching mode for the Catalyst 1900 is fragment-free.
What is half-duplex transmission mode?
Half-duplex transmission is the default mode that Ethernet functions in. In half-duplex
transmission, a device can only send or receive--not do both at once. In half-duplex mode,
stations are susceptible to collisions, and efficiency is rated at 50 to 60 percent.
What is full-duplex transmission mode?
In full-duplex mode, a station can send and receive at the same time. In full-duplex mode,
collision detection is disabled. This mode offers 100 percent efficiency in both directions.
On a Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch, what are the default duplex settings for 10BaseT/100BaseT
ports, default switching mode, and default protocols?
What are dynamic addresses on a Catalyst switch?
Dynamic addresses are addresses that the switch learns about dynamically through the learning
process. If the switch does not see a MAC address for a certain amount of time, it drops the
MAC address.

What are permanent MAC addresses on a Catalyst switch?


Permanent MAC addresses are entered manually by the administrator and are not aged out.

uestion#1:What is OSI model?


Answer: OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model define the process of networking
between the two devices in terms of layers, OSI model have the following layers:

Application layer

Presentation layer

Session layer

Transport layer

Network layer

Data link layer

Physical layer

In the OSI model, data flow starts from the top layer at the sending side, travels down the
OSI models layers to the physical layer and then on receiving side data goes up from
physical to application layer of OSI model stack.
For more details you can visit OSI network Model

Top Interview Questions for a Network Engineer/Network Administrator (Data


LAN) Position
All of the questions below are very common and must be prepared for before facing any interview for
the data-LAN environment.
Q: What is Ethernet? Define the different types of Ethernet.
A: Ethernet is a physical and data link layer LAN technology for connecting a number of computer
systems with network protocols.
The Ethernet system called 10BASE-T provides transmission speeds of up to 10 Mbps. Devices are
connected to the cable and compete for access using a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol.
Fast Ethernet or 100BASE-T provides transmission speeds of up to 100 megabits per second and is
typically used for LAN backbone systems. Gigabit Ethernet provides an even higher level of
backbone support at 1,000 megabits per second (1 gigabits per second).
Q: What do broadcast and collision domains mean?
A: A broadcast domain is a logical boundary of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach
each other by broadcast in a LAN environment.
A collision domain is a section of a network where data packets can collide with one another when
being sent on a shared medium.
Only one device in the collision domain may transmit at one time, and the other devices in the
domain listen to the network in order to avoid data collisions.
Q: What are the basic differences between a hub and a switch?
A: Both hubs and switches are centralised devices that connect multiple network devices over LAN
but their functionalities are different. Hubs operate at layer 1 whereas switches operate at layer 2.
Hubs support half duplex transmission while switches support full duplex. There is one broadcast
and collision domain in a hub, but a switch has one broadcast plus as many collision domains as the
number of switch ports.
A hub operates at Ethernet but switches operate at Fast-Ethernet/Gig-Ethernet.

Q: What is a switch? What is the difference between manageable and


unmanageable switches?
A: A switch is a multi-port network bridge used to connect multiple network devices over the same
geographical location. It processes and forwards data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI
model.
Unmanaged switches have no configuration interface or options. They are typically used in small
offices or home environments.
A managed network switch is configurable and provides the control to manage Spanning Tree
Protocol, Port Speed, VLANS, etc. They provide a serial console and command-line access via
telnet and SSH, as well as management via SNMP.
Q: What is VLAN and why is it used?
A: A VLAN (Virtual LAN) is a logical broadcast domain which allows a network administrator to
create groups of logically networked devices based on functions, departments, or projects. The basic
reason for splitting a network into VLANs is to reduce congestion on a large LAN.
The primary benefits of using VLANs are:

Security

Cost reduction

High performance

Broadcast storm mitigation

Improved IT staff efficiency

Simple project or application management

Q: What is a native VLAN?


A: A native VLAN is an untagged VLAN on an 802.1q trunked switch port. If a switch receives
untagged frames on a trunk port, they are assumed to be part of the VLAN that are designated on
the same switch port as the native VLAN. Frames that pass through a switch port on the native
VLAN are not tagged.
Q: What is VLAN pruning?
A: By default, a trunk port allows all VLANs through the trunk; all switches in the network receive all
broadcasts, even in situations in which few users are connected to that VLAN. Pruning is a method
to prevent flooding across the network from unnecessary traffic.
Q: Define the role of access and trunk ports.

A: A Switch port plays two common roles as access and trunk.


Access Port: Carries single VLAN traffic. Mostly used to connect end devices (routers, IP phones,
printers, desktops, etc.)
Trunk Port: Transports multi-VLAN traffic. Mostly used between switches configured with multiple
VLANs.
Q: Why do we use VTP and what is the transparent mode in VTP?
A: VTP is a Cisco proprietary switching technology, used for VLAN database replication in a
switching environment. VTP has four modes: server, client, transparent and off. VLANs created on a
VTP server synchronises with VTP clients automatically.
The VTP configuration has a revision number which will increase when you make a change on a
VLAN database.
VTP Transparent switches forwards VTP advertisements (server to client, client to client) but will not
synchronize itself. It manages its own VLAN database, which will not be shared with any other
switch.
Q: What is Spanning Tree Protocol and root bridge election?
A: Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is one of the most important switching technologies to eliminate
layer 2 switching loops. The root bridge serves as an administrative point for all spanning-tree
calculations to determine which redundant links to block.
All switches send BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Unit) every 2 seconds from its ports which contain
bridge-id, bridge-mac, cost, port-priority, etc.
For root bridge selection, STP prefers lowest bridge-priority if there is a tie in priority, then the lowest
MAC address will determine which bridge becomes the root. Lower priority is preferred compared to
a higher. The default bridge priority is 32768 and you can set it in multiples of 4096.
Q: What is the difference between PVST, PVST+ and RPVST?
A: Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) is a Cisco proprietary technology used to configure a separate
spanning tree instance for each VLAN. It supports ISL trunking encapsulation whereas PVST+
supports Dot1Q trunking encapsulation.
Rapid PVST (RPVST) works the same as PVST, but their main difference is fast convergence.
RPVST skips the listening state during the transition.
Q: Give a reason for selecting MST rather than PVST.

A: The main reason for selecting MST rather than PVST/STP is the number of different VLANs
involved. With 30 to 40 VLANs you can use PVST without any concerns.
However, if there are 40 VLANs in a switch, it has to maintain 40 spanning tree databases (a
separate database for each VLAN) and if you decide to use MST, you need to provision some
instances (logical grouping of VLANs).
Lets say you configure two instances, each with 20 VLANs. The switch has to maintain only two
spanning tree databases (a separate database for each instance) then.
Q: What is EtherChannel and is it possible to achieve load balancing using
EtherChannels?
A: EtherChannel is a LAN port aggregation technology which allows grouping of several physical
Ethernet links to create one logical Ethernet link for the purpose of providing fault-tolerance and
high-speed links between switches, routers and servers.
Yes, EtherChannel supports load balancing on the basis of predefined hash algorithms but you
cannot control the port that a particular flow uses.
The hash algorithm cannot be configured or changed to load balance the traffic among the ports in
an EtherChannel.
Main hash algorithms are src_ip_addr | dest_ip_addr | src_mac_addr | dest_mac_addr | src_port |
dest_port} [dest_ip_addr | dest_mac_addr | dest_port.
Q: What is DHCP, DHCP relay, and DHCP snooping?
A: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that automatically assigns IP
addresses to hosts with other related configuration information such as the subnet mask and default
gateway.
DHCP Relay is just a proxy that is able to receive a DHCP request and resend it to the real DHCP
server. It means a DHCP server is installed at a remote location and your LAN gateway is acting as
a DHCP relay agent (proving the information of DHCP server using ip helper address command).
DHCP snooping is a security mechanism which enables you to configure a switch port connected to
a DHCP server as a trusted port. The trusted port is responsible for the reply DHCP requests. DHCP
snooping is the best solution to prevent man-in-the-middle DHCP attacks.
Q: What are the basic differences between HSRP and VRRP?

A: Both HSRP and VRRP are high availability protocols that provide first hop redundancy.
HSRP

Cisco proprietary

1 Active + 1 standby router and 1 or more listening routers

Uses separate virtual IP addresses as gateway

Hello timer is 3 seconds and hold-down timer is 10 seconds

Preempt is disabled by default

Multicast at 224.0.0.2 (ver1), multicast at 224.0.0.102 (ver2). Both versions


use UDP port 1985

HSRP (v2) supports IPv6

VRRP

Open standard (IETF)

1 master and 1 or more backup routers

Physical IP address can be used for Virtual IP

Hello timer is 1 second and hold-down timer is 3 seconds

Preempt is enabled by default

Multicast at 224.0.0.18 IP 112

VRRP does not support IPv6

The questions above are very tricky and important from the standpoint of
clearing any interview for a network engineer/administrator LAN Switching
position. It is not possible for anyone to list every possible question, but you
can get more frequently asked interview questions for LAN Switching
Jobs from thedownload link posted here. If you find any difficulty in answering
any questions, then you can write me @ the Comments section.
Tips for Preparing for an Interview

Study: Before an interview, do a quick recap of relevant technologies.

Update resume: Read your resume through; dont copy and paste anything
in it. You must be aware of your strengths and weaknesses.

Prepare professional certifications: One of the best ways to prove the


technical skills mentioned in your resume is through certifications. This gives a
new employer an easy way to understand your knowledge level.

Update LinkedIn profile: Update your LinkedIn profile regularly; make sure
that your work experience, qualifications, and project details match your
resume.

Question#2: What is DNS?


Answer: DNS stand for domain name system and it is an internet service or protocol that
resolves IP address into domain/device name and vice versa. It is difficult to remember the
IP addresses of each host but with DNS you have the alphabetic-names and they are easier
to remember. For example, the domain name www.w7cloud.com has the IP address
203.124.114.1, with DNS you can access it with its name that is w7cloud.com. Similarly
in LAN environment you can resolve IP addresses of computers into system-names for
example you access a system named marketing-PC by its name instead of it IP address
192.168.1.3.
Question#3: What is DNS reverse Zone?
Answer: DNS reverse zone resolve IP address into a device name.

Question#4: What is DNS Forward Zone?


Answer: DNS reverse zone resolve domain name into IP subnet or IP address.

What is DHCP?
Dynamic host configuration protocol assigns the IP settings automatically to
hosts/computers and other network devices like IP phones. In presence of DHCP you dont
need to manually assign an IP address, every network device is assigned with an IP by DHCP
from DHCP IP range/pool.

What is ICMP?

Normally work with Ping protocol, provide different message like echo reply, request time
out destination unreachable etc. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is an error
reporting and diagnostic utility and is considered a required part of any IP implementation.

What is ARP and reverse ARP?

ARP stand for address resolution protocol, and provide the IP address against a MAC address
when data packets/frames wants to move from layer2 to layer3.

Reverse ARP
Reverse ARP perform the reverse resolution, it resolve or provide the MAC address against
the IP address.

What is switch and router? Differences


between switch and router?
Normally router is the layer3 device which forwards the packets base on IP address and
considers making communication between the two networks. Router performs the packet
switching.
Whereas switch is consider as a layer2 device deal with the MAC address and forwards the
packets base on MAC address. Switches perform the circuit switching which is faster as
compare to packet switching.
What is the Difference between hub and switch?
Hub is physical layer device and use the broadcast to transmit its data, mean wherever hub
want to send a data to some destination its will transmit/send data on its each and every
port.
On the other hand switch is more intelligent, forward the packet base on MAC address, it do
the broadcast once then build its MAC table and next time it forward the packets directly to
destination according to MAC address route or path.

What is cross and straight cables?


This Ethernet network cable is made of 4 pair high performance cable that consists of
twisted pair conductors that used for data transmission. Both end of cable is called RJ45
connector. There are two most commonly used Ethernet cable types which are as following.
Usually use straight cable to connect different type of devices, the device which are on
different OSI-layer for example you can connect a PC with switch using straight cable.
RJ451 Connected to RJ452
Pin1 > Pin1
Pin2 > Pin2
Pin3 > Pin3
Pin4 > Pin4
Pin5 > Pin5
Pin6 > Pin6

Pin7 > Pin7


Pin8 > Pin8
Cross cable used to connect same type of devices/ devices on same layer of OSI-layer. For
example you can Connect two computers directly with cross cable.
RJ451 Connected to RJ452
Pin1 > Pin3
Pin2 > Pin6
Pin3 > Pin1
Pin4 > Pin4
Pin5 > Pin5
Pin6 > Pin2
Pin7 > Pin7
Pin8 > Pin8

What is difference between routing and


routed protocols?
Routing protocols define the path for forwarding packets; they find the best path for each
destination using different programming algorithms. Example of routing protocols
includes OSPF, RIP, EIGRP and IS-IS. You can also learn about best routing protocol.

Routed protocols:

Routed protocols carry the actual data using the routing protocols for example IP is the
routed protocol. Cisco defines the routed protocol as a protocol by which data can be
routed. IP, AppleTalk, and IPX are examples of routed protocols.

What is VPN?
VPN stand for the virtual private network and now days it is considered to the best solution
or most secure way for connecting the remote users or site offices to main office. VPN create
a virtual tunnel through the service provide network or through internet cloud and provide
you the secure connectivity to remote offices. You can learn more about VPNs.

What is IPSec?

IP Sec is the group of security protocols for securing the IP communication. Security
protocols includes like authentication protocols, encryption, etc.

What is Subnetting and its advantages?


Subnetting is used for dividing the large IP-network into smaller sub network which are
called subnets. It is also known as the variable length subnet mask and it has the numerous
advantages like:
By subnetting you can utilize the maximum number of network.

You can divide you network into different sub-network which provide you security and
easy management of IP addresses.
By subnetting you can reduce the size of routing tables in a large internetwork.

What are the Public and private IPs?

Private IP addresses are used within LAN or MAN, you cannot route the private IP
addresses over the internet. These IP are only used for building the internal network and
cannot be accessible from over the internet. Following are the private IP addresses ranges
from different IP classes:
First IP in block

Last IP in block

Network Size

10.0.0.0

10.255.255.255

You can used it for larger LAN

172.16.0.0

172.31.255.255

Suitable for medium network.

192.168.0.0

192.168.255.255

Small network

Public IP addresses are the live IP address and router over the internet, also accessible
from anywhere. Our all internet traffic and communication is based on Public IPs, on internet
every website and server have public IPs due to which they are accessible from anywhere
via internet.

What is collision domain, broadcast domain?


Collision domain is number of device which can send/receive data at the same time, for
example 12 ports switch have 12 collision domains. Whereas the broadcast domain can be
within the same LAN segment and whenever a broadcast frame is sent, all computers on the
broadcast domain receive the frame.

What is Multicasting or multicast??

In Multicast data or information is transferred from one to many, it is the advance version of
broadcast in which you define a multicast group and wherever you transmit information on
this multicast group everyone belong to this group can have this information.

What is NAT?
Network address translation is useful protocol for mapping the public IPs on private IPs and
vice versa. We know that our private IP addresses are not capable for routing our data over
the internet, for internet traffic we have the public IP addresses. NAT made the mapping of
private IP address on the single or multiple public IP addresses, by which a user having
private IP address on LAN can send his request over the internet.

What is firewall?

A firewall is a device or a program that protects the resources of a private network from
users from other networks/threats /attacks.

What is difference between UDP and TCP?

TCP

UDP

TCP is connection orient,


mean you need to create the
connection first for

UDP is connectionless communication; you can send the data

communication.

without creating the connection.

TCP is reliable because of its


connection oriented nature;
you have the guaranty for

UDP suppose to be unreliable because of its connection less

delivering your information.

nature.

What is difference between Packet-Switched


VS Circuit-Switched Networks?
In packet switch before the communication you dont have the full path for transmitting
data, data is divide into different chunks and route on per-node basic.
Whereas in Circuit Switch you have a dedicated path for communication, path is decided
before the communication. Circuit switch is faster than packet switching.

Networking Questions related to Routing


protocols:

What are routing protocols? Name some famous


ones?
Routing protocols perform the layer-3 communication by finding the best path for all
destinations. There are two type of routing protocols one type is distance vector
protocol and other type is link state routing protocols.
Some of famous routing protocols are the RIP (Routing Information Protocol), OSPF (Open
Shortest Path First), EIGRP (Enhance intererial Gateway routing protocol), BGP (Border
Gateway protocol) and IS-IS.

What is default gateway?


Default gateway is used for handling the request for unknown network (the network which is
not present in routing table).

What are static route?


When you define or tell a path for a specific destination to router with its source IP,
destination IP and with subnet-mask without using any routing protocol is called static route.

What is Difference between IGP and EGP


protocols?

Interior Gateway protocols are used for communication within one autonomous system or
within LAN/MAN. RIP and EIGRP are the example of IGP protocols.
EGPs (Exterior Gateway Protocols) are used to make the communication between different
autonomous system and between different IGPs. BGP is the example of EGP.

What is difference between distance vector


and link-state routing protocols?
Distance vector protocols find the best path base on hop-count, a path with less hop-count is
consider to be best path for a distance vector protocol even there are some slow speed links.
Link-State routing protocols are more intelligent and they used some better programming
algorithm for choosing the best path, link-state routing protocols find the best path by
determining different factors like bandwidth and delay for a link/path/route. They build three
types of tables i.e. neighbor table, topology table and routing table.

What is difference between OSPF and EIGRP?

Some of important differences are mention in following table.


OSPF

EIGRP

OSPF is link-state routing


protocol.

EIGRP is distance vector protocol.

OSPF is open standard and


you can run it on any vendor
for example Cisco, Huwaei
and juniper.

EIGRP is Cisco proprietary protocol.

Keep the entire route-map of


all area in its topology table.

There is topology table but dont have complete route map.

Use the SPF algorithm for


finding the best path.

EIGRP is distance vector protocol.

You can divide the OSPF


network into different area
and can make the smaller
routing table.

There is no concept of areas in OSPF.

What is Difference RIP and RIP v2?


RIP version 2 is the modified or updated version of RIP v1 which support IPV6, VLMS
(subnetting) and authentication. But there is no such feature in RIP version1.

What is Administrative distance?

Every routing protocol has the administrative distance, it is a numeric number and router
preferred or selects the best route/path base on the lowest administrative distance. You can
find Administrative distances of all routing protocols from this link.

Network Questions related to


Switching:
What is CDP?

CDP (Cisco Discovery protocol) determine the connected neighbor to a router and provide
the different detail related for connected devices.

What are STP and RSTP?


STP (Spanning tree protocol) is a Cisco proprietary switching protocol that prevents loops
when switches are connected with each other via multiple links for redundancy purpose.
STP removes the loops in Ethernet network by shutting down the extra port.

What is Rapid STP?

Rapid spanning tree is advance version of STP which provides you faster spanning tree
convergence after a topology change.

What is VLAN and its Advantage?


A switch or switching network may be divided into multiple distinct broadcast domains,
which are mutually isolated so that packets can only pass between them via one or
more routers; such a domain is called Virtual LAN or VLAN. VLAN have many advantages
like:

You can isolate different types of traffic like voice, video and data traffic with
VALNs.

Provide security and privacy between different VLANs.

VLAN divide a switch into different broadcast domains.

You can use different IP scheme among different VLANs.

What is VTP?
VLAN trunking protocol is used for transferring the VLANs database among different switches
in a switching network. VTP is used for managing VLANs, VTP reduces administration in a
switched network. When you configure a new VLAN on one VTP server, the VLAN is
distributed through all switches in the domain..

Networking Questions related to


Microsoft:

What is ISA SERVER? Exchange server?


Microsoft active directory
ISA Server:

Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration Server (ISA Server) provide different features
mainly used for web caching and web filtering but you can use ISA server like a
network router, firewall, antivirus program, VPN server and web cache.
Exchange server:
Exchange server is email server from Microsoft.
Microsoft active directory

What is an organizational unit in active


directory?
Organizational units are created for management of active directory users; you can create
different OU like marketing, HR, IT etc. for your company and can implement different group
policies on these OU according to department requirements. You can learn more about
Organization unit in Active Directory.

What is group policy?


In Active directory group policy is used for applying different rules/policies on organization
units. You can learn more aboutgroup policy.

Practical Questions related to


networking
What type of network currently you have and
what are your responsibilities??
In answer you need to explain your companys network and your responsibilities, try to
highlight the responsibilities which are required for this new job.

Do you ever configure VPNs?


Share your experience.
Do you work on Microsoft active directory?
Share your experience.

I was interviewed last week and I received a job offer and I would like to share the question
that I was asked. Remember this job was only for routing and switching technologies, no
security or other thechnologies.

Interview Question for Network Engineer Job


Switch to Switch Connectivity
1. Name the VTP Modes?

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

How can you configure a switch port to be a trunk?


What command do you use to allow Vlans on a trunk?
How can you assign a vlan to a switch port?
Can you explain PortFast on a switch?
What the steps that PortFast ignore?

HSRP
1. Explain HSRP?
2. What command do you use to make sure that a wanted device is going to be an active
mode?
3. How can you make all the Vlan uses the HSRP active device without using the switchport
trunk allow vlan command?
4. What is the default priority number on HSRP?
Spanning Tree
1.
2.
3.
4.

Explain spanning tree?


How can you configure a switch to be a root-bridge?
What is the default priority on a switch?
What command to use to change the priority on a switch?

Etherchannel Port Channel


1.
2.
3.
4.

Explain Etherchannel?
Can I bundle two different type of interface ex. a fastethernet with gigabitethernet?
How can you configure Etherchannel?
Is Etherchannel a layer 2 or layer 3 technology?

Routing Protocols
1. Explain EIGRP?
2. Explain BGP?
3. If you have two ISP provider and you want to have a primary line and backup, how can
you control the flow from you side to the provider and coming back from the provider?
4. What is the AD for EIGRP and BGP
5. What command you use to establish neighbor with a BGP peer?
6. What command to use to advertise neighbor on EIGRP?
Troubleshooting
1. Explain how trace route works?
2. What command to use to verify that BGP neighbor has been established?
3. What extra option do you have beside the basics when using ping?

just had a phone interview for a Jr. Network Engineer position that is Cisco focused and
wanted to share the technical questions that I was thrown. I figure those hanging around
this forum would be interested to know.
1) Explain the difference between a collision domain and broadcast domain.
2) How would you configure a trunk port on a switch?
3) How would you allow only certain VLANs to traverse a particular trunk?
4) Which routing protocol are you most comfortable with? How would you set that up on a
router?
5) How would you list the contents of a directory from a linux command line? (Because I
listed basic linux/unix skills)
That's all there was to it. I drew a blank on the command for question 3, but still got the
job. It's hell not knowing what kind of questions you might get. That's always one of the
most nerve racking parts of interviews for me.

What is difference between packet switch and circuit switch network?


To make a baseband network practical for many computers to share, the data transmitted by each system is
broken up into separate units called packets. When your computer transmits data it might be broken up into
many packets, and the computer transmits each packet separately. When all of the packets constituting a
particular transmission reach their destination, the receiving computer reassembles them back into original
data. This is the basis for a packet-switching network.
Circuit-switching means that the two systems wanting to communicate establish a circuit before they transmit
any information. That circuit remains open throughout the life of the exchange, and is only broken when the two
systems are finished communicating. Circuit switching is more common in environments like the public
switched telephone network (PSTN), in which the connection between your telephone and that of the person
you're calling remains open for the entire duration of the call.

What is difference between Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex


Communications?
In half-duplex communication data travels in only one direction at a time.
In full-duplex mode two systems that can communicate in both directions simultaneously are operating.

Which is the most popular international cable standard?


TIA/EIA-568-B

Describe UTP cable


UTP cable comes in a variety of different grades, called "categories" by the Electronics Industry Association
(EIA) and the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), the combination being referred to as EIA/TIA.

Cat 1 :- Used for voice-grade telephone networks only; not for data transmissions

Cat 2 :- Used for voice-grade telephone networks

Cat 3 :-Used for voice-grade telephone networks, 10 Mbps Ethernet, 4 Mbps Token Ring,

Cat 4 :-Used for 16 Mbps Token Ring networks

Cat 5 :-Used for 100BaseTX Fast Ethernet, SONet, and OC-3 ATM
Cat 5e:- Used for Gigabit (1000 Mbps) Ethernet protocols

What is TIA/EIA?
A cooperative trade association responsible for the "Commercial Building Telecommunication Cabling
Standard," also known as EIA/TIA 568, which specifies how network cables should be installed in a commercial
site.

What is attenuation ?
The progressive weakening of a signal as it travels over a cable or other medium. The longer the distance a
signal travels, the weaker the signal gets, until it becomes unreadable by the receiving system

What is Crosstalk ?
A type of signal interference caused by signals transmitted on one pair of wires bleeding over into the other
pairs. Crosstalk can cause network signals to degrade, eventually rendering them unviable.

Where would you use cross and straight cable?


A straight-through cable is used for DTE-to-DCE connections.
1. A hub to a router, PC, or file server
2.A switch to a router, PC, or file server
Crossover cables should by used when you connect a DTE to another DTE or a DCE to another DCE.

1. A hub to another hub

2. A switch to another switch

3. A hub to a switch

4. A PC, router, or file server to another PC, router, or file server

Describe different types of connector used in LAN


RJ-11 ( Registered Jack-11) a four- or six-wire connector primarily used to connect telephone equipment.
RJ-45 (Registered Jack-45) connector is an eight-wire connector that is commonly used to connect computers
to a local area network (LAN), particularly Ethernet LANs.
AUI( Attachment Unit Interface.) is the part of the Ethernet standard that specifies how a Thicknet cable is to be
connected to an Ethernet card. AUI specifies a coaxial cable connected to a transceiver that plugs into a 15-pin
socket on the network interface card (NIC).
BNC stand for British Naval Connector (or Bayonet Nut Connector or Bayonet Neill Concelman)a type of
connector used with coaxial cables such as RG-58.BNC connectors are used on both Thicknet and Thinnet.

What is protocol?
A set of standards that define all operations within a network. There are various protocols that operate at
various levels of the OSI network model such as transport protocols include TCP.

Who develop the OSI modal?


The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Reference Model to describe how information is transferred from one machine to another.

What is Micro segmentation?


Micro segmentation is a term used with switches when each networking device has its own dedicated port on a
switch.

What are the advantages of OSI modal?

Defines the process for connecting two layers, promoting interoperability between vendors.
Separates a complex function into simpler components.

Allows vendors to compartmentalize their design efforts to fit a modular design, which eases
implementations and simplifies troubleshooting

What are the port number / socket number and Connection Multiplexing?
Transport layer assigns a unique set of numbers for each connection. These numbers are called port or socket
numbers TCP, and UDP, provide a multiplexing function for a device: This allows multiple applications to
simultaneously send and receive data.

What is virtual path?


Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be
grouped together into what is called path.

What is virtual channel?


Virtual channel is normally a connection from one source to one destination, although multicast connections
are also permitted. The other name for virtual channel is virtual circuit.

What is logical link control?


One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This
sublayer is responsible for maintaining the link between computers when they are sending data across the
physical network connection.

Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model?


It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design.

What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols?


Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. Non-Routable protocols are
designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be used with a router

What is MAU?
In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU).

Explain 5-4-3 rule


In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network
segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated.

What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer


protocols?

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows a local host to obtain files from a remote host but does not
provide reliability or security. It uses the fundamental packet delivery services offered by UDP.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard mechanism provided by TCP / IP for copying a file from one
host to another. It uses the services offered by TCP and so is reliable and secure. It establishes two
connections (virtual circuits) between the hosts, one for data transfer and another for control information.

What is the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP
segment and IP datagram?
The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes.

What is difference between ARP and RARP?


The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical
address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a
ARP
query
packet
that
includes
the
IP
address
of
the
receiver.
The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows
only its physical address.

What is ICMP?
ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and
gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test
whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages.

What is Bandwidth?
Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is
called the bandwidth.

Difference between bit rate and baud rate.


Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal
units
per
second
that
are
required
to
represent
those
bits.
Baud
rate
=
bit
rate
/
N
Where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift.

What is MAC address ?


The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network
architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique.

What is attenuation?
The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation.

What is cladding?
A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable.

What is RAID?
A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives.

What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI?


NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote
computer
and
it
hides
the
networking
hardware
from
applications.
NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by Microsoft and IBM for the use
on small subnets.

What is redirector?
Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This
comes under presentation layer.

What is Beaconing?
The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the
other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and
FDDI networks.

What is terminal emulation, in which layer it comes?


Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer.

What is frame relay, in which layer it comes?


Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer.

What do you meant by "triple X" in Networks?


The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard
protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists
between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations are often called "triple
X".

What is SAP?
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol
stack.

What is subnet?
A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router.

What is subnet mask?


It is a term that makes distinguish between network address and host address in IP address. Subnet mask
value 0 defines host partition in IP address and value 1 255 defines Network address.

BOOTP helps a diskless workstation boot. How does it get a message to


the network looking for its IP address and the location of its operating
system boot files?
BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnet work broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that
gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it.
If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another UDP message to query the server.

What is a DNS resource record?


resource record is an entry in a name server's database. There are several types of resource records used,
including name-to-address resolution information. Resource records are maintained as ASCII files.

What protocol is used by DNS name servers?


DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved
speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transmission reliability suffers with UDP.

What is the difference between interior and exterior neighbor gateways?


Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to
the outside world.

What is the HELLO protocol used for?


The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing. It is an alternative to the
Routing Information Protocol.

What are the three type of routing tables and What are the advantages
and disadvantages of these?
The
three
types
of
routing
tables
are
fixed,
dynamic,
and
fixed
central.
A
fixed
table
must
be
manually
modified
every
time
there
is
a
change.
A dynamic table changes its information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual
maintenance.

A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. The fixed
central table reduces the need to update each machine's table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table
causes the fewest problems for a network administrator, although the table's contents can change without the
administrator being aware of the change.

What is source route?


It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be
included in an IP datagram header.

What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)?


It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.

What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)?


It is a simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.

What is Proxy ARP?


It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a
destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.

What is OSPF?
It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of
an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions.

What is Kerberos?
It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses
encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.

What is a Multi-homed Host?


It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a
Multihomed Host.

What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)?


It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet
session.

What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?

It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.

What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?


It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP
enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway
Protocol).

What is autonomous system?


It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior
Gateway Protocol.

What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)?


t is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be
reached within or via each autonomous system.

What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)?


It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.

What is Mail Gateway?


It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.

What is wide-mouth frog?


Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol.

What is silly window syndrome?


It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP
entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time.

What is region?
When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing
all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the
internal structure of other regions.

What is multicast routing?


Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.

What is traffic shaping?


One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a
uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is
forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping.

What is packet filter?


Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every
incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those
that fail the test are dropped.

When were OSI model developed and why its standard called 802.XX
and so on?
OSI model was developed in February1980 that why these also known as 802.XX Standard (Notice 80 means
==> 1980, 2means ==> February)

What is Full form of ADS?


Active Directory Structure

How will you register and activate windows?


If you have not activated windows XP, you can do so at any time by clicking the windows Activation icon in the
system tray to initiate activation. Once you have activated windows XP, this icon disappears from the system
tray.
For
registration
Start ==> Run ==> regwiz /r

Where do we use cross and standard cable?


Computer
to
Switch/hub
to
Computer to switch/hub ==>standard

computer

==>
switch/hub

How many pins do serial ports have?


In computer it's known as com port and could be available in 9pin or 25 pin. On router it have 60 pins.

How will check ip address on 98?


Start ==> Run ==> command ==> winipcfg

How will you make partition after installing windows?

cross
==>cross

My
computer
==>
right
click
==>
select free space ==> right click ==> New partition

manage

==>

disk

management

==>

What is IP?
It's a unique 32 bits software address of a node in a network.

What is private IP?


Three ranges of IP addresses have been reserved for private address and they are not valid for use on the
Internet. If you want to access internet with these address you must have to use proxy server or NAT server (on
normal cases the role of proxy server is played by your ISP.).If you do decide to implement a private IP address
range,
you
can
use
IP
addresses
from
any
of
the
following
classes:
Class
A
10.0.0.0
10.255.255.255
Class
B
172.16.0.0
172.31.255.255
Class C 192.16.8.0.0 192.168.255.255

What is public IP address?


A public IP address is an address leased from an ISP that allows or enables direct Internet communication.

What's the benefit of subnetting?


Reduce
the
size
of
the
Reduce network traffic. Broadcast traffic can be isolated within a
Provide a way to secure network traffic by isolating it from the rest of the network.

routing
single logical

tables.
network.

What are the differences between static ip addressing and dynamic ip


addressing?
With static IP addressing, a computer (or other device) is configured to always use the same IP address. With
dynamic addressing, the IP address can change periodically and is managed by a centralized network service

What is APIPA?
Automatic private IP addressing (APIPA) is a feature mainly found in Microsoft operating systems. APIPA
enables clients to still communicate with other computers on the same network segment until an IP address
can be obtained from a DHCP server, allowing the machine to fully participate on the network. The range of
these IP address are the 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254 with a default Class B subnet mask of 255.255.0.0.

What are the LMHOSTS files?


The LMHOSTS file is a static method of resolving NetBIOS names to IP addresses in the same way that the
HOSTS file is a static method of resolving domain names into IP addresses. An LMHOSTS file is a text file that
maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses; it must be manually configured and updated.

What is DHCP scope?


A scope is a range, or pool, of IP addresses that can be leased to DHCP clients on a given subnet.

What is FQDN?
An FQDN contains (fully qualified domain name) both the hostname and a domain name. It uniquely identifies a
host within a DNS hierarchy

What is the DNS forwarder?


DNS servers often must communicate with DNS servers outside of the local network. A forwarder is an entry
that is used when a DNS server receives DNS queries that it cannot resolve locally. It then forwards those
requests to external DNS servers for resolution.

Which command will you use to find out the name of the pc in networks?
NSLOOKUP
[Ip of target computer]

[192.168.0.1]

How will enable sound service in 2003?


By
default
this
service
remain
disable,
to
enable
this
Start ==> administrative tools ==> service ==> windows audio ==> start up type ==> automatic

service

How will enable CD burning service in 2003?


By
default
this
service
remain
disable,
to
enable
this
service
Start ==> administrative tools ==> service ==> IMAPI CD burning com service ==> start up type ==> automatic
1: Which command in OSPF shows the network LSA information?
** The command show ip ospf [process-id area-id] database network displays the network link-state
information.
2: What command would you use to create a totally stubby area?
** The command area area-id stub no-summary will create a totally stubby area. This is a subcommand to the
router ospf process-id command. It is necessary only on the ABR, but all the other routers in the area must
be configured as stub routers.
3: What is a virtual link, and what command would you use to create it?
** A virtual link is a link that creates a tunnel through an area to the backbone (Area 0). This allows an area
that cannot connect directly to the backbone to do so virtually. The command to create the link is area areaid virtual-link router-id. Note that the area-id that is supplied is that of the transit area, and the router-id is
that of the router at the other end of the link. The command needs to be configured at both ends of the

tunnel.
4: Where would you issue the command to summarize IP subnets? State the command that is used.
** Summarization is done at area boundaries. The command to start summarization is the area range
command, with the syntax area area-id range address mask. To summarize external routes, use the
summary-address command on the ASBRs.
5: How would you summarize external routes before injecting them into the OSPF domain?
** The command summary-address address mask is the command that you would use.
6: When is a virtual link used?
** A virtual link is used when an area is not directly attached to the backbone area (Area 0). This may be due
to poor design and a lack of understanding about the operation of OSPF, or it may be due to a link failure.
The most common cause of an area separating from the backbone is link failure, which can also cause the
backbone to be segmented. The virtual link is used in these instances to join the two backbone areas
together. Segmented backbone areas might also be the result of two companies merging.
7: Give the command for defining the cost of a default route propagated into an area.
** The command to define the cost of a default route propagated into another area is area area-id defaultcost cost.
8: Give an example of when it would be appropriate to define a default cost.
** It is appropriate to define a default cost for the default route when a stub area has more than one ABR.
This command allows the ABR or exit point for the area to be determined by the network administrator. If
this link or the ABR fails, the other ABR will become the exit point for the area.
9: On which router is the area default cost defined?
** The default cost for the default route is defined on the ABR. The ABR will then automatically generate and
advertise the route cost along with the default route.
10: Give the command to configure a stub area and state on which router it is configured.
** The command syntax to configure a stub area is area area-id stub. This command is configured on the ABR
connecting to the area and on all the routers within the area. Once the configuration is completed, the
Hellos are generated with the E bit set to 0. All routers in the area will only form adjacencies with other
routers that have the E bit set.
11: What is the purpose of the area range command, and why is it configured on the ABR?
** The area range command is configured on an ABR because it dictates the networks that will be advertised
out of the area. It is used to consolidate and summarize the routes at an area boundary.
12: Give the commands to configure a router to place subnets 144.111.248.0 through to 144.111.255.0
in Area 1 and to put all other interfaces into Area 0.
** The commands are as follows:

network 144.111.248.0 0.0.7.255 area 1

network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0

13: Give the syntax to summarize the subnets 144.111.248.0 to 144.111.254.255 into another
autonomous system.
** The syntax is as follows:

summary-address 144.111.248.0 255.255.248.0

14: Explain briefly the difference between the area range command and the summary-address
command.
** The area range command is used to summarize networks between areas and is configured on the ABR. The
summary-address command is used to summarize networks between autonomous systems and is configured
on the ASBR.
15: Explain the following syntax and what it will achieve: area 1 stub no-summary.
** The command area 1 stub no-summary creates a totally stubby area. The number after the word area
indicates the area that is being defined as a totally stubby area. This is necessary because the router might
be an ABR with connections to many areas. Once this command is issued, it prevents summarized and
external routes from being propagated by the ABR into the area. To reach the networks and hosts outside the
area, routers must use the default route advertised by the ABR into the area.
16: Why would you configure the routing process to log adjacency changes as opposed to turning on
debug for the same trigger?
** The reason to configure the router process to log adjacency changes to syslog as opposed to running debug
is an issue of resources. It takes fewer router and administrator resources to report on a change of state as it
happens than to have the debugger running constantly. The debug process has the highest priority and thus
everything waits for it.
17: Give some of the common reasons that neighbors fail to form an adjacency.
** Many OSPF problems stem from adjacency problems that propagate throughout the network. Many
problems are often traced back to neighbor discrepancies.
If a router configured for OSPF routing is not seeing an OSPF neighbor on an attached network, do the
following:
- Make sure that both routers are configured with the same IP mask, MTU, Interface Hello timer, OSPF Hello
interval, and OSPF dead interval.

- Make sure that both neighbors are part of the same area and area type.
- Use the debug and show commands to trace the problem.
18: When configuring a virtual link, which routers are configured?
** The configuration is between the ABRs, where one of the ABRs resides in Area 0 and the other in the area
that is disconnected from the backbone. Both of the ABRs are also members of the transit area. Having
created the virtual link, both ABRs are now members of Area 0, the disconnected area, and the transit area.
19: What does the command area 1 default-cost 15 achieve?
** The command area 1 default-cost 15 will assign a cost of 15 to the default route that is to be propagated
into the stub area. This command is configured on the ABR attached to the stub area.
20: Explain what is placed in the parameters area-id and router-id for the command area area-id virtuallink router-id.
** The parameter area-id is the area ID of the transit area. So if the ABR in Area 0 is creating a virtual link
with the ABR in Area 3 through Area 2, the area ID stated in the command is Area 2. The router ID is the
router ID of the router with whom the link is to be formed and a neighbor relationship and adjacency
established.
1: What is the definition of a network?
** A network is a system of lines or channels that cross or interconnect, or a group or system of electrical
components and connecting circuitry designed to function in a specific manner.
2: What are network models?
** Network models provide the guiding principles behind the development of network standards.
3: What is a network standard, and why are there network standards?
** Network standards define the rules of network communication and are like laws that must be followed for
different equipment vendors to work together.
4: What is a proprietary feature?
** If a vendor implements a feature that does not adhere to any network standards, it is called a proprietary
feature.
5: What are the three data transmission modes, and how do they operate?
** Simplex mode, half-duplex mode, and full-duplex mode. Simplex mode is one-way communication only.
Half-duplex mode is two-way communication, but not at the same time. Full-duplex mode is simultaneous
two-way communication.
6: List the major characteristics of a LAN.
** The primary characteristic of a LAN is its geographic coverage. LANs are found in a small geographic area

where there is a short distance between connected computers, as in small offices or on each floor of a larger
office building. LANs enable the sharing of office resources, such as file servers for file sharing among users
or print servers for shared printers.
7: List the major characteristics of a MAN.
** MANs are found in a metropolitan, or citywide, geographic area, interconnecting two or more office
buildings in a broader geographic region than a LAN would support, but not so broad that a WAN would be
required.
8: List the major characteristics of a WAN.
** WANS are found in broad geographic areas, often spanning states and countries, and are used to connect
LANs and WANs together.
9: What are the three parts of a frame? What is a function of each part?
** Header, data (or payload), trailer. The header is the beginning of the frame, significant in that the frame's
source and destination are found in the frame header. The payload is the data part of the frame, the user's
information. The trailer identifies the end of the frame.
10: What function in a network does cabling provide?
** Cabling provides the physical interconnection between network devices and nodes.
11: List some examples of user data.
** Examples of user data include e-mail, web-browsing traffic, word-processed documents, spreadsheets,
database updates.
12: What is the best definition of network topology?
** Network topology refers to the physical or logical geometric arrangement of interconnected network
devices.
13: What is the best definition of network protocol?
** A network protocol is the communication rules and formats followed by all interconnected devices on a
network requiring communication with one another.
14: What is the definition of network media?
** Network media refers to the physical component of a network. Communication signals traverse network
media from source to destination. Some examples of network media are copper and fiber-optic cabling.
15: What is a network origination point?
** A network connection has two ends: the origination and termination points. The origination point is the
source of the datathe location from which the data is being sent.
16: What is a network termination point?

** A network connection has two ends: the origination and termination points. The termination point is the
destination of the datathe location to which the data is being sent.
UES 1 What OSPF stands for?
Ans OSPF is a standardized Link-State routing protocol, designed to scale efficiently to supportlarger
networks.
QUES 2 Mention some characteristics of OSPF
Ans-1) OSPF supports only IP routing.
2) OSPF routes have an administrative distance i.e. 110.
3) OSPF uses cost as its metric, which is computed based on the bandwidth of the link. OSPF has no
hop-count limit.
QUES 3 What are different neighbour states in OSPF ?
Ans- Neighbor adjacencies will progress through several states, including:

OSPF Interview Questions and Answers

1)Down
2)Init
3)2-Way
4)ExStart
5)Exchange
6)Loading
7)Advertisements
8)Full
QUES 4 What is role of topology and routing table in OSPF ?
Ans- The OSPF process builds and maintains three separate tables:
1) A neighbor table contains a list of all neighboring routers.
2) A topology table contains a list of all possible routes to all known networks within an area.
3) A routing table contains the best route for each known network.

QUES 5 What different activities neighbour router perform in OSPF?


Ans- A neighbor table includes the following information:
1) The Router ID of each neighbouring router
2) The current state of each neighbouring router
3) The interface directly connected to each neighbour
4) The IP address of the remote interface of each neighbour
QUES

On

which

algorithms

OSPF

depends?

What

is

the

principle

behind

it?

Ans- OSPF uses the Dijkstra Shortest Path First algorithm to determine the shortest path and LinkState Advertisements (LSAs).
Ques 7 Name few types of LSA ?
Ans1) Router LSA
2) Network LSA
3) Network Summary LSA
4) ASBR Summary LSA
5) External LSA
QUES

Ans1)
2)

Briefly

explain

functioning

Following

are

working

OSPF
OSPF

forms

employs

neighbor

and

working
and

hierarchical

relationships

different

functioning

network

with

of

of

design

adjacent

routers

OSPF

OSPF

using

in

the

Areas.

same

Area.

3) Instead of advertising the distance to connected networks, OSPF advertises the status of directly
connected

links

using

Link-State

Advertisements

(LSAs).

4) OSPF sends updates (LSAs) when there is a change to one of its links, and will only send the
change

during

the

updation.

LSAs

are

additionally

refreshed

every

30

minutes.

5) OSPF uses the Dijkstra Shortest Path First algorithm to determine the shortest path.
6) OSPF is a classless protocol, and thus supports VLSMs.
Ques 9 What are the different OSPF network types and give an example for each ?
Ans1)

Different
Broadcast

OSPF

network

Multi-Access

types
indicates

with
a

their

examples

topology

where

are

given

broadcast

below:
occurs.

Examples include Ethernet, Token Ring, and ATM.


2)

Point-to-Point

indicates

topology

An example would be a point-to-point T1.

where

two

routers

are

directly

connected.

3) Point-to-Multipoint indicates a topology where one interface can connect to multiple destinations.
Each

connection

between

source

and

destination

is

treated

as

point-to-point

link.

An example would be Point-to-Multipoint Frame Relay.


4) Non-broadcast Multi-access Network (NBMA) indicates a topology where one interface can
connect to multiple destinations; however, broadcasts cannot be sent across a NBMA network.
An example would be Frame Relay.
Ques
Ans
1)

10

The
neighbor

Name
OSPF
table

tables

process

builds
contains

which
and
a

OSPF

maintains
list

of

maintain

three
all

separate

neighboring

?
tables:
routers.

2) A topology table contains a list of all possible routes to all known networks within an area.
3) A routing table contains the best route for each known network.

Here Today i am going to discuss about some questions which are typically asked in
any interview . Also I would say to every reader that networking questions may be ask
by tech leaders in many ways. We have to understand what he is asking basic about it.
Here we will discuss few questions about OSPF protocol.
1.What the Hello packet carries when we enable OSPF ?
2.What are LSA types?
3.What are area types? Why there are different area concepts?
4. What is the main importance of STUB network? Why it is been developed in
OSPF?
5.what will happen if we redistribute between different process ?
6.How to generate default route in OSPF?
7.How external routes are advertised generally(E1 or E2)? How to change from E2 to
E1?
8.What are the LSAs available in STUB and totally stub network?
9.What is OSPF super BackBone area?

10. What is the concept of auto-cost in OSPF?


11. IS there any DR and BDR concept in /31 network?
12. What are the different network types in OSPF?
13.what are the adjacency type ? Is adjacency is formed in between all the OSPF
enabled routers or not ? Explain
14.What are EXSTART and EXCHANGE state?
15. If router ID are same between OSPF enabled routers will they form adjacency or
not?
16.what is LSA 7 and how it can be used?
17.How we can connect a normal area to a backbone area if they are not directly
connected.
18.What is LFA in case of OSPF? It resemblance to which properties of EIGRP?