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9/13/2014

Synchronous Motor Drives | Electrical4u

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Synchronous Motor Drives

Electrical Drives
Dynamics of Electrical Drives
Electric Motor Power Rating
Thermal Model of Motor
Motor Duty Class
DC Motor Drives
Induction Motor Braking
Induction Motor Drives
Types of Braking
Control of Electrical Drives
Synchronous Motor Drives
Stepper Motor Drive
Variable Frequency Drive
Field Oriented Control

Starting Synchronous Motors


Pull in of Synchronous Motors
Braking of Synchronous Motors

As the name suggests the synchronous motorsrotates at synchronous speed. The main advantage of synchronous
motors are that they run on 3 ac supply and dc supply is given to the rotor when they run on synchronous speed the
loss is very minimal. We can say that if the synchronous motors are designed to run only at rated synchronous speeds,
then what is the use of introducing drives to them. The answer is pretty simple, synchronous motor drives makes the
starting, pull in and braking process smooth and without any problems. We shall discuss about them one by one.

Starting Synchronous Motors


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9/13/2014

Synchronous Motor Drives | Electrical4u

The problem with synchronous motors are that they are not self- starting. Before discussing the starting method of this
motor, we should know about the type of supply and the rotor and the stator of the motor brie y. The stator of
synchronous motors are similar to that of an induction motors but the only di erence lies in the rotor, the rotor of the
synchronous motors are given dc supply.

Now before knowing, how the synchronous motors are started, we should know why they are not self started? The
answer can be given as, when 3 phase supply is given to the stator, there is a rotating magnetic ux which rotates at
synchronous speed, and if the rotor is also given dc supply, rotor acts as a magnetic ux which rotates at synchronous
speed, and if the rotor is also given dc supply, rotor acts as a magnet having two salient poles. As the rotor is at
standstill position, it cannot follow the magnetic eld which is rotating at synchronous speed. The rotor stacks at its
position because the opposite poles move so rapidly that the rotor locks, this is the reason why synchronous motors
are not self starting. Now coming to the point how synchronous motors are started. At rst the synchronous motors
are started as a normal induction motors, the rotor of the motor is not given dc supply, when the motor reaches the
rotor and pull in takes place, which is discussed later.

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Another method of starting the synchronous motor drives is by external motor. In this method the rotor of the
synchronous motor is rotated by an external motor and when the speed of the rotor reaches near synchronous speed,
the dc- eld is switched on and pull in takes place. In this method, the starting torque is very low and it is not very
popular method also.

Pull in of Synchronous Motors


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9/13/2014

Synchronous Motor Drives | Electrical4u

When the rotor of the synchronous motors reaches near synchronous speed, then the dc eld supply is switched on
and the pull in process begins. As during switching on the dc supply due to the phase angle and torque angle there are
various disturbances seen in the motor and there are several slip of poles of air gap ux is also seen. As the pull in
process is completed the rotor acquires synchronous speed. The complete pull in as fast as possible the dc supply
should be switched on at the most favourable angle. Like when the synchronous motor is running as induction motor
the dc supply should be fed when the induction motor is at top speed, this will be the best moment because the speed
di erence will be
least at that point of time.

Braking of Synchronous Motors


As we know, there are three types of braking i.e, regenerative, dynamic and plugging type braking. But for
synchronous motor drives only dynamic braking can be applied though plugging can be applied theoretically.
Regenerative braking cannot be applied to them as they need higher speed than synchronous speed. Dynamic braking
is done by disconnecting the motor from supply and connecting it across a three phase resistor. At that time the motor
works as asynchronous generator and energy is dissipated at the resistors. Plugging is not used for synchronous
motors as high plugging electric current can cause severe disturbance and damage in line.

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