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# Experiment 1: Flow through a Convergent Divergent Duct

Objective of Experiment
To demonstrate the application of the Bernoulli equation as applied to the flow in a
convergent divergent duct.
Introduction
Bernoullis principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow resulting in what is loosely
denoted as Bernoulli equation. In fact, there are different forms of Bernoulli equation for
different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli equation is valid for incompressible
flow as well as compressible flow. Bernoullis Principle states that the pressure of a fluid
decreases as the speed of the fluid increases. Within the same fluid, high-speed flow is
associated with low pressure. This phenomenon applied to the flow in a convergent-divergent
duct. Fluid (water) may be considered to be incompressible and flow through convergentdivergent duct with a different set of flow rate. Record the pressure head in the manifold in
order to demonstrate the application of the Bernoulli equation.
The fluid can be either is gas or liquid and there are few assumptions to be made which are

## Fluid flows smoothly

Fluid flows without eddies of fluid swirled in the venture duct
Fluid flows everywhere through the pipe
Incompressible fluid has the same density in any position.

## The Bernoulli equation is given by the following relationship:

2

P1 v1
P
v

z1 2 2 z 2 H
1 g 2 g
2 g 2g
Where,
1 & 2

= density of water

= gravitational acceleration

v1

v2

z1 & z 2

= elevation

## Water may be considered to be incompressible, 1 = 2 =

For a horizontal convergent-divergent duct, z1 = z 2 = z
The velocity of the flow v1 & v2 can be calculated from the cross sectional area & the
volume flow rate Q.
The volume flow rate Q = v1 A1 = v2 A2
A1

2
2
d1 & A2 d 2
4
4

## Assuming no frictional losses in the ideal case, H remains constant.

2

P1 v1
P
v

z1 2 2 z 2 H o
1 g 2 g
2 g 2g
The Ideal pressure head is obtained from
2

P2
v
z2 H o 2
2 g
2g

## (Ideal height of manometer column)

However because of frictional losses, the actual H drops along the venturi duct.
Therefore the Actual pressure head is less than the Ideal Pressure Head.

Procedure
1. The water outlet tube is directed to the sump of the apparatus.
2. The water pump is switched on.
3. The main input water flow valve is kept fully open. The bypass water valve is
adjusted to control the volume flow rate.
4. The water flow rate is adjusted to the maximum possible flow rate by closing the
bypass valve. The flow is allowed to stabilize and to remove all air bubbles in the
system.
5. The air pump provided is fit to the right end of the manifold on top of the
manometers.
6. The pump is used to control the base line level of the manometer readings by
increasing or decreasing he pressure in the manifold. The base line need not fall
exactly at the zero line because the velocity calculations used only the pressure
difference.
7. The pressure in the manifold can be increased by pumping action of the air pump.
8. The pressure in the manifold can be decreased by pressing on the needle valve on the
right hand side of the manifold to release the air in the manifold.

are entered into the spreadsheet in the computer provided for the purpose.
10. The bypass valve is adjusted to decrease the flow rate to obtain the different sets of
manometer readings for flow rates of 6.5,6.0,5.0,4.0 and 3.0 gallons/min.

Calculation:

## 1) Flow rate of water, Q= 3gal/min

= 0.0001892m3/s
1000kg / m 3 & g = 9.81m/s2

Elevation, Z

= 30mm

Diameter

= 24mm

Area, A

2
D
4

= 4.5239E-4m2
Velocity, v =

Q
A

0.0001892
4.5234 10 4

= 0.42m/s
v2
0.42 2

2g
2 9.81
2

=8.9mm
= 0.0089m

## For ideal cases: H0 = 221.5mm

2

P2
v
H o 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 221.5mm 8.9mm 30mm
= 182.6mm
For actual cases: H = 218.9mm
2

P2
v
H 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 218.9mm-8.9mm-30mm
= 180mm
Percentage error:
182.6 180
100% 1.42%
182.6

2)

## Flow rate of water, Q = 4gal/min

=0.0002523m3/s
1000kg / m 3 & g = 9.81m/s2

Elevation, Z

= 30mm

Diameter

= 24mm

Area, A

2
D
4

= 4.5239E-4m2
Velocity, v =

Q
A

0.0002523
4.5234 10 4

= 0.56m/s
2
v2

0.56

2g
2 9.81
2

= 0.0159m

## For ideal cases: H0 = 251.5mm

2

P2
v
H o 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 251.5mm 15.9mm 30mm
= 205.6mm

## For actual cases: H = 250.9mm

2

P2
v
H 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 250.8-15.9-30
= 204.9mm
Percentage error:
205.6 204.9
100% 0.34%
205.6

3)

=0.0003154m3/s

1000kg / m 3 & g

= 9.81m/s2

Elevation, Z

= 30mm

Diameter

= 24mm

Area, A

2
D
4

= 4.5239E-4m2
Velocity, v =

Q
A

v2
0.70 2

2g
2 9.81

0.0003154
4.5234 10 4
= 0.70m/s

=24.8mm

## For ideal cases: H0 = 278.0mm

2

P2
v
H o 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 278mm24.8mm 30mm
= 223.2mm

## For actual cases: H = 279.8mm

2

P2
v
H 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 279.8-24.8-30
= 225.0mm

Percentage error:
223.2 225.0
100% 0.806%
223.2

4)

= 6gal/min
= 0.0003785m3/s

1000kg / m 3 & g

= 9.81m/s2

Elevation, Z

= 30mm

Diameter

= 24mm

Area, A

2
D
4

= 4.5239E-4m2
Velocity, v =

Q
A

0.0003785
4.5234 10 4

= 0.84m/s
v2
0.84 2

2g
2 9.81
2

= 0.0357 m

2

P2
v
H o 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 310.9-35.7-30
= 245.2mm

## For actual cases: H = 310.7mm

2

P2
v
H 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 310.7-35.7-30
= 245.0mm
Percentage error:
245.2 245
100% 0.08%
245.2

5)

1000kg / m 3 & g

= 6.5gal/min
=0.0004100m3/s

= 9.81m/s2

Elevation, Z

= 30mm

Diameter

= 24mm

Area, A

2
D
4

= 4.5239E-4m2
Velocity, v =

Q
A

0.0004100
4.5234 10 4

= 0.91m/s
2
v2

0.91

2g
2 9.81
2

= 0.0419m

2

P2
v
H o 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 325.4-41.9-30
= 253.5mm

## For actual cases: H = 326.9mm

2

P2
v
H 2 z2
2 g
2g
= 326.9-41.9-30
= 255.0mm

Percentage error:
253.5 255
100% 0.59%
253.5

Discussion
From the calculation has shown, the actual pressure head is differ than ideal pressure
head this is due to the frictional losses occurred when the water flow through the convergentdivergent duct. There are two types of frictional losses occurred in the duct where the first
friction is called the skin-friction which is due to the roughness in the inner part of the where

the fluid comes in the contact of the pipe material. The second one is called form friction
which is due to the obstructions present in the line flow and it may be due to a band and
control valve or anything which changes the course of motion of the flowing fluid.
Furthermore, the fluid is assumed without any eddies of fluid swirled in the venture duct
however, this will only happen in the ideal condition and ideal apparatus only and in actual
case there are frictional losses and eddies of fluid swirled in the venture duct and caused the
results that we obtained is different. Lastly, the parallax error is also one of the causes that
caused actual cases result different with the expectation results. This phenomenon occurred
when we recorded the reading from the manifolds.
If the Convergent-Divergent duct is inclined upwards, the
corresponding total head H, will stay constant and the pressure head will
increase at the upstream due to the difference in height The flow will continue until the
velocity head will decrease until zero when the fluid comes to rest. This is
based on the theory of Bernoulli equation where the velocity of fluid
increases when the pressure decreased and vice versa.
Moreover, the velocity of the fluid will get affected by the cross sectional area . From
the graphs has shown it is obvious that the pressure head will decrease from wide area duct to
narrow area duct. This phenomenon is due to the velocity increase when the water reaches the
narrow area than decrease again when it pass through the wide area duct. where the velocity
increases when the fluid flows through a small cross sectional area and vice versa.
Few precautions must be taken in this experiment. First of all, the readings must be
taken carefully to prevent parallax error and our eyes must be parallel with the measurement
so that accurate date can be obtained. All the bubbles are make sure to be removed when