Analysis of Traction Forces in a... Kannel 1986

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Analysis of Traction Forces in a... Kannel 1986

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Kannel

Battelle Columbus Laboratory,

Columbus, Ohio 43201

T. A. Dow

Precision Engineering Laboratory,

North Carolina State University,

Raleigh, N.C. 27695-7910

Precision Traction Drive

A theory for the shear stress between a rough elastic cylinder and a cylinder with a

soft layer has been developed. The theory is based on a Fourier transform approach

for the elasticity equations coupled with surface deflection equations for transient

contacts. For thick layers (h > .001 in.) the shear stress on the surface approaches

the shear of the layer alone. The elastic shear deflection (-100 \xin.) as a result of

the tangential load is significant and increases if a surface layer such as a thin

coating is added to one or both cylinders. The predicted interfacial shear stresses are

considerably altered by surface roughness on uncoated surfaces and these effects

are ameliorated by the addition of a thin soft surface coating.

Introduction

Leaf spring

Hydrostatic bearings

location of one part relative to another and smooth motion

between limits. One method of achieving this result [1, 2] is to

use a traction drive on the slideway as illustrated in Fig. 1.

Positioning accuracy below the microinch level is typically

required. When accuracies of this level are involved, virtually

all factors which affect motion must be considered in order to

minimize errors in the system. One such factor is the shear

deformation of the drive system, especially the elasticity of

the traction interface. The elasticity is affected by many

factors, including the Young's modulus of the traction

components, surface layers on the rollers (such as solid film

layers) and the roughness of the rollers and slideway.

The most extensive work reported on the analysis of the

traction interface is by Kalker [3,4]. Kalker traces the traction

interface between two extremes: the Cattaneo [5] problem and

the Carter [6] problem. The Cattaneo problem occurs when a

cylinder is rotated slightly, while in contact with a stationary

surface. The Carter problem occurs when both the cylinder

and the mating surface are moving but at slightly different

speeds. Kalker's study traces the traction forces through the

transients between the two extremes.

Bentall and Johnson [7] analyzed the slip between two

dissimilar cylinders in rolling contact. This research allowed

for tangential deflections due to microslip. Barber [8] conducted research similar to Kalker's, only he analyzed threedimensional contacts of rollers under misalignment. Poritsky

[9] derived basic equations for cylinders in contact and

discussed the problem of rough surfaces. Krause and Senuma

[10] did experimental studies with rollers which developed

surface corrugations. The surface corrugations notably affected the traction behavior of the cylinders.

The work presented here is an extension of the Kalker and

Poritsky work with allowances for surface layers. The surface

layer algorithm is developed from the work of Sneddon [11],

and Gupta and Walowit [12].

Contributed by the Tribology Division of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF

MECHANICAL ENGINEERS and presented at the ASME/ASLE Joint Tribology

Conference, Atlanta, Ga., October 8-10, 1985. Manuscript received by the

Tribology Division, April 19, 1985. Paper No. 85-Trib-45.

Journal of Tribology

Drive motor

Traction bar

Idler roller

Capstan

Hydrostatic

bearings

"The resolution of the slide drive will be

0.2pin. (0.005yumj. This is the equivalent to

0.05 arc."

Fig. 1

Approach

The same general approach used for the normal stress

analysis [13] can be used for the shear stress computations. As

will be shown subsequently, the matrix equation is almost

identical to that developed by Gupta-Walowit for the normal

stress computations. That is the deformation equations can be

put in the matrix form:

CF=e

(1)

where C is the matrix equation with elements c,y that relate the

tangential deflection, e, to the tangential forces. As with the

normal stress equations, a relationship between point-loads

and point stresses can be developed.

Matrix Coefficients

For a solid body, Poritsky derived a similar relationship for

load-deflection coefficients as for normal stress coefficients,

that is

4(1

7rE

v2)

In I/-1

(2)

Table 1

1

-s

zt

\-z

' -

_ (1 + " ! '

1) 3 - z - \'(\-z)

(1 + 1-! ")-2z/s

z-= lsl

? = exp(z)

-,2

-z

where

Z(vx

1

1

(1+z)?

(l-v,')z?

(1 + I V ) ?

z?

2z/s ]l

Di

(1-K2')Z?

-(1-K2")7?

(y2'

A2

3)7?

1

0

-i

.B2 J

s

. 2z7?/s'

=

=

^oj

/3 = ( 1 - ^ 2 ) E , / ( 1 - . , 2 ) E 3

7 = (l-J'22)Ei/(l-"i2)E2

v'=(2-v)/(\-v)

v"

c,

-?

2

[2 + ( l + z ) ( l - V ) J '

[(l + vx") +

--

=v/(\-V)

corresponding tangential deflections. As with the normal

stress equations, a relationship between point loads and

stresses over a small region is:

F: = rdx

Inlet

(3)

Ax in finite terminology). Then

-4(1 -v2)

7rE

J Xj -

\n\x:x\dx

(4)

Fig. 2

An expression has been developed for the influencecoefficient matrix for shear stresses in a layered solid (see

Appendix A). The solution (assuming no normal pressure on

the surface) can be written as:

2(5

[Jo <

7rE

-Dx)(coss

f-cos5)cte

Kalker has developed the following expression for the

surface deflections:

1 de

--+V dt

V(x,t)=CR(t)+

(5)

de

dx

(6)

where

S

where f =

oo

coss fcoss

ds-2|31n

*0

point on the surface

V= velocity of points on the surfaces

CR = creepage

x = x position

? = time

']

\r\/h

and the coefficients Bt and Z), are computed using the matrix

of Table 1. This equation is identical to Poritsky's formulation for s0 = 0.

Nomenclature

b

=

C, =

Dx =

E =

/ =

F =

F, =

G, =

h =

p =

ph =

pmax =

r =

constant Table 1

half width of contact

constant for Table 1

constant for Table 1

constant for Table 1

Young's modulus

coefficient of friction under

slip conditions (f= 0.3)

point tangential force

tractive force

shear modulus Gm = E/2

d + v)

thickness of layer

pressure

maximum Hertz pressure

maximum contact pressure

distance from point of load

application to deflection

\Xj Xj\

R\,R2

= cylinder radii

1

R

-f-

R{

R2

s = variable derived

from

Fourier transform

s0 = equation (5)

I = exp(z)

/ = time

u = deformation in x direction

v = deformation in j direction

V = velocity of a contact point

AV = slip velocity

x = coordinate

direction

tangential to surface

y = coordinate

direction

normal to surface

v

v

v'

v"

x

=

=

=

=

=

y =

T =

^ =

ratio of E(layer)/E(substrate)

ratio of E(layer)/E(indentor)

Kronecker delta

tangential

deflection

relative to a fixed point

r/h

y/h

Poisson's ratio

(2-v)/{\-v)

v/{\-v)

normal stress in tangential

direction

normal stress in radial

direction

shear stress

Airy's stress function

IOI

T,^iJ~coj)rjAx=ei(t)

Vt/b = 0

(12)

>=i

-VT/D^U.C

e-

Vt/b = 1.2

point (x0 = - 106). For subsequent times equation (7) is used

with AV At being a constant that is added to each time step to

produce a given traction.

In the computations the coefficients c,y were set and the

shear stress computed by a matrix solution of equation (12).

At some points

Tj >f'Pj

where / is a coefficient of friction and Pj is the local pressure

computed using the technique given in reference [12 and 13].

For these points the matrix was adjusted as follows:

n

Y,(l--8jj

)(cu-c0J)TjAx=ei

/ = !

Fig. 3

-HhffPj^iJ-coj)-rJf=fPjf

b = 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) Ft/fW = 0.7

R = 9.4 mm (0.37 in.)

where

develop a somewhat different expression.

Assume that the lower surface in Fig. 2 is moving slower

(velocity = Vx) than the upper surface (velocity = V2); and,

for the first step in the iteration, that no slip occurs in the

interface. Based on these assumptions the deflection of a

point in the interface at a new time (t + At) can be written

e(x+VAt,t

+ At)=e(x,t)+AVAt

(7)

Note the point itself has advanced V A t and the deflection has

increased by an amount AV At. If the left side of this expression is expanded in a Taylor series we have

(JC,0+ -^- VAt+-At

dx

dt

= e(x,t)+AVAt

(8)

or

ii + J_A = ^

dx

dt

(9)

where

AV=V2-Vi

V=Vl

This expression is consistent with Kalker's equation. For the

steady state situation, equation (9) becomes

AV

e=x+CRi

(10)

If K, = 0 in equation (9), the horizontal deformation becomes:

e = AVt + CR2

(11)

at a previous time must be known. Many of the calculations

were performed using equation (11) for the tangential

deflection at t = 0. The time transient problem when both

cylinders move was analyzed using equation (7).

Solution Technique

The method of solution involves solving equation (1) with

equation (5) in the form (see Appendix)

Journal of Tribology

(13)

J=Jj

jf are the points where ry > fpj. The essential size of the

matrix will be reduced by one row for each value of jf. The

computations involved a simple iteration starting with a full

matrix and subsequently reducing the matirx for each value of

Tj > fPj until further iterations produced no changes.

Discussion

Figure 3 illustrates the shear stress at the interface for the

case of a stationary lower cylinder (Vt/b = 0) and for a series

of relative slip values (Vt/b > 0). The slip values are expressed in terms of the half width, b. If Vt/b = 0.8, a point

on the upper cylinder has moved a distance equivalent to 80

percent of the half-width of contact between the cylinders.

For the case of a stationary lower disk (analogous to the

Cattaneo problem), the shear stresses are the lowest in the

center of contact and rise toward the edges. This rise is due to

the contribution of each element to support the shear

deformation outside the contact region. The rise in shear

stress is limited at x/b = 0.6 by slip between the cylinder

surfaces; that is, the shear stress becomes equal to the friction

coefficient times the normal stress. Thus, the shear stress

curve has the same shape as the normal stress distribution

where slip is present. For this example the horizontal load was

105 N/mm (600 lb/in.), and to produce this force, the upper

cylinder was rotated 2 X 10 ~4 rad (the upper surface moved 2

/mi).

Continued rotation of the upper cylinder would produce

rotation of the lower disk because the loading was assumed to

remain constant (analogous to Carter problem). Different

values of the upper cylinder motion are also illustrated in Fig.

3. For the largest rotation of the upper cylinder shown in Fig.

3 (Vt/b = 1.2, corresponding to 3.2 x 10 2 rad (about 2 deg)

of rotation), a point on the upper cylinder has moved a total

of 2.5 ^m from a point on the lower cylinder which was

adjacent at no load. This means that the driving cylinder will

rotate 2.7 x 10 4 rad more than the driven cylinder for an

average rotation of 3.2 X 10~2 rad against a load of 6001b.

One purpose of the analytical traction model was to

JULY 1986, Vol. 108/405

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

- 0 . 8 -0.6 -0.4 - 0 . 2

b = .89 mm (.035 in.)

Load = 543 N/mm (3099 lb/in.)

F, = 14.5 N/mm (83 lb/in.)

R = 9.44 mm (.37 in.)

ET = 2 GPa (290 ksi)

p h =.44 GPa (64 ksi)

e = 2.5 pm (100 ^in.)

(14)

0.8

45

40

G, is the shear modulus of the layer (G, = E/2(l + v) =

780 MPa)

For the 250 /xm layer shown in Fig. 4, the predicted shear

stress using equation 14 is 7.8 MPa (1.125 ksi). This predicted

stress is consistent with the stress near the center of contact of

Fig. 4. At the edges of the contact (x = b) the stress rises

considerably above this level to compensate for the forces

required to tangentially deflect the layer outside of the contact

region. Very near the edges, the shear stress is limited by the

coefficient of friction times the normal pressure.

In Fig. 5 the predicted shear stress using equation (14)

would be 78 MPa (11.25 ksi). This stress is higher than the

stress at the center of contact given in Fig. 5. That is, for thin

films, the shear stresses tend to be high enough to deflect the

substrate as well as the surface. When the substrate is

deflected this deflection must be subtracted from e in computing the surface shear. For very thin films (h = 2.5 /xm) as

shown in Fig. 6 the center shear stress is considerably lower

than predicted by shearing of the layer alone. For this case the

equation (14) shear stress would be 780 MPa (112.5 ksi) or

about four times that given in Fig. 6. Clearly then the

evaluation of this surface films requires the use of comprehensive theories and cannot be achieved by simple

analyses.

Figures 7 and 8 illustrate the comparison between a layered

and a nonlayered body. For the conditions given here a

surface "wind-up" of 2.5 /tin produces a tangential load of

105 N/mm when the soft layer (E = 2 GPa) is in place. If

there were no layer, 105 N/mm could be obtained with a

psi

35

"o

where

0.6

30

~ / ^\

\ -

Stress,

= Gmy = Gme/h

0.4

b = .44 mm (.0173 in.)

Load = 490 N/mm (2800 lb/in.)

F ( = 45 N/mm (258 lb/in.)

R = 9.4(.37 in.)

E = 2 GPa (290 ksi)

p h =.8 GPa (117 ksi)

e = 2.5/im(100x10%in.)

evalaute the role of surface layers on traction drive performance. Figures 4 to 6 show the shear stress distribution for

the condition of a uniform tangential displacement of 2.5 xim

but with a soft surface layer (E = 2 GPa) on one of the

cylinders. Surface layer thicknesses of 250 /xm, 25 ttm and 2.5

/xm are illustrated.

All curves show peak shear stresses at the edges of contact

and reasonably uniform shear stress in the center. For the

thicker layers this center shear stress should approach the

shearing of a soft layer of known thickness a known amount.

That is:

T

0.2

20

CO

\-

15

10

-I.0

I

I

I

!

- 0 . 8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

I.O

b = .29 mm (.0115 in.)

Load = 544 N/mm (3110 lb/in.)

F ( = 103 N/mm (591 lb/in.)

R = 9.4 mm (.37 in.)

E = 2 GPa (290 ksi)

ph =1.28 GPa (187 ksi)

c = 2.5/im(100/iin.)

soft layer also increases the amount of "wind-up" required to

move the driven cylinder against the load. For example, for

the bare cylinder (Fig. 8) a "wind-up" of 2.5 /xm occurs in

traversing through 1.2 half widths 0.3 mm). For the layered

cylinder (Fig. 3) a "wind-up" of 3.5 tun occurs in traversing

the same distance.

For the above examples the surface of the drive cylinder

would move 2.5 ttm farther than the driven cylinder over 0.3

mm traverse. If one of the cylinders contained a soft layer the

differential traverse would be increased by about 1 /xm. In a

precision control system, all errors must be minimized to

reduce the level of error compensation required of the control

system. Based on error minimization alone then, it would

seem that bare cylinders would be superior to coated cylinders. However, when surface roughness factors are included

Transactions of the ASME

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

I.0"

-1.0 - 0 8 -0,6 -0.4 -0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

b = .29 mm (.0115 in.)

Load = 544 N/mm (3110 lb/in.)

Ft = 105 N/mm (600 lb/in.)

R = 9.4 mm (.37 in.)

D = 2 GPa (290 ksi)

ph = 1.28 GPa (187 ksi)

Fig. 9 Shear stress distribution with 1 p in. CLA surface roughness (no

layer)

b = .25 mm (.01 in.)

Load: : 639 N/mm (3649 lb/in.)

F, = 105 N/mm (600 lb/in.)

R- 9.4 mm (.37 in.)

E = 200GPa(29Mpsi)

Pmax = 2 GPa (295 ksi)

= 1.9 pm (75 pin.)

-10

-OB - 0 6 -0.4 - 0 . 2

0.2

0.4

06

OB

10

-I.O -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

b = .25 mm (.01 in.)

Load = 607 N/mm (3470 lb/in.)

F, = 105 N/mm (600 lb/in.)

R = 9.4 mm (.37 in.)

= 200 GPa (29M psi)

ph = 1.5 GPa (219 ksi)

becomes clear. Figure 9 indicates the shape of the shear stress

distribution for a stationary lower cylinder without a layer but

with a 0.025 pm center line average (cla) surface roughness.

The increased deformations due to the surface roughness

produces peaks in the shear stress distribution in the slip

regions (x/b > 0.7). The addition of a soft, thin layer (2.5

nm) cushions the surface asperities and produces a smoother

shear stress curve as indicated in Fig. 10. Based on the results

of Figs. 9 and 10, it would be difficult to compensate for the

erratic stresses for a nonlayered cylinder. However, it is quite

reasonable to attempt to predict the stresses where a layer is

present.

Journal of Tribology

(100 pin. layer)

Load = 545 N/mm (3114 lb/in.)

b = .29 mm (.0115 in.)

F ( = 100 N/mm (601 lb/in.)

R = 9.4 mm (.37 in.)

= 2 GPa (29 ksi)

Pmax = 1 - 3 3 G P a < 1 9 5 k s i >

e = 2.5 pm (100 pm)

Conclusions

Traction drive systems represent reasonable devices for

traversing slideways in precision machining. However, one

inherent problem with traction is that the traction interface

must incur sizable elastic "wind-up" before the driven

cylinder will move against a given load. For one specific case

analyzed the "wind-up" was on the order of 2 ^m for a 105

N/mm traction load. The amount of "wind-up" increased as

the driven cylinder moved.

In order to achieve precision control in a traction drive,

some type of compensation algorithm must be employed to

eliminate "wind-up" errors. It would be expected that a

compensation algorithm of the type presented herein could be

employed provided good reproducibility of the traction inJULY1986, Vol. 108/407

surface roughness. Even small levels of roughness (0.025 tim

cla) can cause wild variations in interfacial shear stresses. A

thin coating such as a 2.5 fim molybdenum disulfide coating

can absorb the roughness and create a much smoother (and

hence more reproducible) shear stress distribution. T h e

presence of the soft layer would cause a slight ( 0.6 itm)

increase in " w i n d - u p " b u t presumably the " w i n d - u p " would

be predictable.

.Body 3

.4$2b*

,v

)

T(X)

Body 1

w

7

yE..

'

Body 2

References

1 Bryan, J. B., "Design and Construction of an Ultraprecision 84 Inch Diamond Turning Machine," Precision Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1979, pp.

13-17.

2 Barkman, W. E., "Machine and Tool Drive System," Precision Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1980, pp. 141-146.

3 Kalker, J. J., "Transient Rolling Contact Phenomena," Trans. ASLE,

Vol. 14, 1971, pp. 177-184.

4 Kalker, J. J., "Rolling With Slip and Spin in the Presence of Dry Friction," Wear, 9, 1966, pp. 20-38.

5 Cattaneo, C , "Sul Contatto di du Corpi Elastici: Destribuzione Locale

Degli Sfoizi," fiend. Acad. Lincei, Series 6, Vol. 27, 1938, pp. 342-348,

434-436, 474-478.

6 Carter, F. W., "On the Action of a Locomotive Driving Wheel," Proc.

Royal Soc, a 112, 1926, pp. 151-157.

7 Bentall, R. H., and Johnson, K. L., "Slip in the Rolling Contact of Two

Dissimilar Elastic Rollers," J. Mech. Eng. Sci., Vol. 9, 1967, pp. 389-404.

8 Barber, J. R., "The Rolling Contact of Misaligned Elastic Cylinders," / .

Mech. Eng. Sci., (I. Mech. E.), Vol. 22, No. 3, 1980, pp.. 125-128.

9 Poritsky, H., "Stress and Deflections of Cylindrical Bodies in Contact

With Application to Contact Gears and Locomotive Wheels," ASME Journal

of Applied Mechanics, 1950, pp. 191-201.

10 Krause, H., and Senuma, T., "Investigation of the Influence of Dynamic

Forces on the Tribological Behavior of Bodies in Rolling/Sliding Contact With

Particular Regard to Surface Corrugations," ASME JOURNAL OF LUBRICATION

TECHNOLOGY, Vol.

103,

1981.

12 Gupta, P. K., and Walowit, J. A., "Contact Stresses Between a Cylinder

and a Layered Elastic Solid," ASME JOURNAL OF LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY,

Apr. 1974, pp. 250-257.

13 Kannel, J. W., and Dow, T. A., "Evaluation of Contact Stresses Between

a Rough Elastic and a Layered Cylinder," to be presented at the Leeds-Lyon

Conference, Sept. 1985.

APPENDIX

Development of Shear-Deflection Equations

Fourier Transform Equation. The objective of this

analysis is to develop a relationship between surface shear

stresses and tangential deflections in absence of applied

normal stresses at the boundary. The analyses are based on

elasticity theory using the Fourier transform approach given

by Sneddon and Gupta and Walowit. These equations are

given in the following form (see Fig. Al).

2

00

d^

=

dx2

d2V

dy2

d2V

dxdy

v=

u=

l-v2

2TTE

If

\

2 i r J -oo

co 2 Gexp(- f'cox)da>

d2G

exp(-/cox)a'co

dy2

2TT J

i:

(Al)

w

(co

exp(t - /cox)

aco

dy

2ir J ("

\

fd3G

(2-v)\

n3 (

[d2G

J-ooLcfy

\ l-v

v \

doi

.

2dG-\

) u exp( - /cox)

dy 1

, -1.

du

Fig. A1

oo

$ exp(,iwx)dx

resulting differential equation in G, we get a solution of the

form

G=(A+By)exp(\u\y) + (C+Dy)exp(\o)\y)

(A4)

where A , B, C, a n d D are constants of integration to be

evaluated at the b o u n d a r y .

Boundary Conditions

The b o u n d a r y conditions for the traction analysis are:

1)

2)

3)

stress a n d deflections a r e continuous across the layer

interface

stress goes to zero at j oo;

at the surface,

1 p

d2*

dG

= -I

1

/'co

exp( iu>x)du

dxdy

2irJ-=

dy

,dG

If

is an odd function, Sneddon shows that:

dy

1 f d G

J

co

cos wx aco

Based on Fourier Transform dy

theory;

IT

biharmonic equation a n d G is the Fourier transform of Sf,

that is

V4^ = 0

and

408/Vol. 108, JULY 1986

(A2)

(A6)

(A7)

JO

dG

oo

(A8)

cos OJX dx

dy

at the surface v = 0 r = - r 0 . Letting T0 be defined over the

interval Ax and letting T0 = 1 /Ax then lim we have

dG

co = 1

(A9)

dy

Letting s = hu, G = G/h2, r\ - y/h, the first boundary

condition becomes

dG

(A10)

57- = 1 for n = 0

d{ of no normal stress on the surface

Also for the case

G=0

2TTE

(A3)

(All)

^,+C,=0

-^4 1 5 2 +5 1 s-t-C 1 i' 2 +i? 1 i'=l

(A12)

Fig. 1.

Transactions of the ASME

same approach as used for the normal stress conditions [12].

These conditions yield the matrix given in Table 1.

Green's Function for Shear

The tangential deflection on the surface from equation (Al)

can be expressed as:

(l-i> 2 ) I"30 d2G cos i f

'-ds

(A 13)

7rE

dv2

I;

where

d2G

~~chf

-2(5, -D{)s

(A14)

arbitrary displacement Vx at f = 1

values of s, (B, - > , ) - \/s. Equation (A15) can be expressed as two integrals (0 < s < s0) and (s0 < s), as given in

the text.

If we let

Because the shear deformation is calculated as a relative

displacement, a reference point must be selected. The

displacements calculated from equation (A 15) becomes small

for large f; therefore a reasonable assumption for the

reference point is 5 contact widths (x = -106). Then the

relative tangential deflection (e,-) is:

1_2

u u, =

rfHL"2(5'

-D,)s

(A16)

<= Z / (Cij-C0J)TjAX

efe-2j31nf]

(A15)

DISCUSSION

S. H. Loewenthal1 and D. A. Rohn1

The authors deserve much credit for extending the well

known tangentially strained, rolling element contact problem

to include the effects of a soft layer. This study is particularly

timely since the use of simple, zero backlash, low torque ripple, traction drive positioning mechanisms is currently receiving greater scrutiny [14].

The initial impetus for this line of investigation stems from

the classic, 1927 Carter study [6] of a locomotive wheel in driving contact against a rail. The present work is a welcome

departure from Carter's and subsequent analyses which are

restricted to homogeneous, isotropic bodies in driving contact.

The layered cylinder solution not only has relevance to the

numerous paper and tape handling machines which generally

employ elastomer coated, pinch roller drive mechanisms, but

moreover has implications for high precision actuators for

spacecraft. Examples include a wide class of pointing and

tracking mechanisms such as optical and antenna positioners,

robotic hinges and pivots as well as control moment gyro gimbal drives. Here the introduction of a self-lubricating

polymeric, organic, or soft metal film coating is particularly

advantageous to avoid the difficulties of liquid lubrication in

space. However, the detrimental effects of such coatings on

open loop positional accuracy needs to be addressed.

In the authors' investigation, the "start-up" problem that is

the transition from a stationary, unloaded roller contact to a

tangentially loaded rolling one, appears to be handled in two

parts, judging from the discussion of Fig. 3. First the static

contact is strained to the desired traction level and then the

rollers are allowed to rotate under constant traction, that is

fresh roller material is allowed to "flow" through the contact

under a strain field that is invariant with time. In practice, a

two mode start-up would not occur since torque buildup and

rolling would occur simultaneously as the shaft and components downstream of the driver roller experienced torsional

"windup." In this latter case, "fresh" or unstrained material

region which was steadily increasing and changing position

within the contact with respect to torque, hence time. Intuitively, one would expect a different displacement to occur

than when this sweeping action took place while the locked

and microslip regions were "frozen" at the pre-selected value

of torque. In an attempt to address this time dependent aspect

of the start-up problems, a stepwise method was used to combine the static and rolling solution in an approximate fashion

in the discussers' analysis of a torsionally strained, point contact roller appearing in [15]. Can the authors' analysis account

for the simultaneous torque/rolling buildup case and, if so,

what is the magnitude of the error in separating these effects?

In most pointing and tracking mechanisms applications, as

with servo positioners, the actuator will be required to " h u n t "

or "dither" around a demand position or a part may need to

be reregistered. For such applications, the roller drive would

be torqued while moving in one direction, stop and have

negative torque applied while moving in the opposite direction, thereby forming a hysteresis loop. Would the authors'

care to comment on how their analysis could be adapted to

predict a hysteresis loop? Presumably the width of this loop,

hence hysteresis loss, would be quite sensitive to the thickness

of the soft layer due to its low stiffness characteristics.

Finally, the discussers would have liked to have seen some

comparison of the results of the authors' analysis with some of

the classical, non layered contact solutions as identified in the

paper's introduction. Can the authors comment as to the extent of agreement they found with previous methods? Are

there any experimental data which may help our understanding of the tangentially strained, line contact problem?

In closing, the discussers would like to commend Dr. Kannel and Professor Dow for tackling a relatively formidable

problem in contact mechanics. We look forward to subsequent work in this area from them.

Additional References

'Deputy Branch Manager and Senior Research Engineer, respectively, Advanced Concepts and Application Branch, NASA Lewis Research Center,

Cleveland, Ohio.

Journal of Tribology

Traction Drives as Servo Mechanisms," Proceedings of the 19th Aerospace

Mechanisms Symposium, NASA CP-2371, 1985.

15 Rohn, D. A., and Loewenthal, S. H., "An Analysis of Traction Drive

Torsional Stiffness," NASA Paper 84-DET-100, 1984.

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