You are on page 1of 10

RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of Introduction of Biotechnology practicum with title


Simple of Biogas that arranged by:
Name

: Andi Alfina Ulandari

ID

: 1214441015

Class

: ICP A

Group

: 1 (One)

After it were checked and consulted by Assistant and Assistant


Coordinator, so this report were accepted.
Makassar, December
Assistant Coordinator,

Assistant,

Muh. Dwi Prasetyo


ID. 101414041

Muhayyirah
ID. 1214140003

Known lecturer,

Prof. DR. Ir. Hj.Yusminah Hala,M.S


NIP. 196112121986012002

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background

2016

Biogas is produced by anaerobic activity is very popular for treating


biodegradable waste as fuel can be produced while destroying bacterial pathogens
and reducing the volume of the waste. Methane in the biogas, when it burns more
cleanly than coal, and produces greater energy with carbon dioxide emissions are
less. Utilization of biogas plays an important role in waste management because
methane is a greenhouse gas that is more harmful to global warming compared
with carbon dioxide.
Carbon in the biogas is carbon taken from the atmosphere by
photosynthesis of plants, so that when released back into the atmosphere will
increase the amount of atmospheric carbon than the burning of fossil fuels.
Nowadays, many developed countries increase the use of biogas generated from
wastewater and solid waste or resulting from mechanical biological treatment
systems for municipal waste.
Various cases of environmental pollution and the deterioration of public
health is the case today due to wastewater from industrial activities, hospitals,
markets, restaurants to households. This is due to the handling and processing of
waste is less serious. various processing techniques both liquid and solid waste
fatherly designated pollutant materials that have been tried and dikembangankan
has not give optimal results. To overcome these problems, we need a proper waste
handling methods, targeted and sustainable. One method that can be applied is to
BIO-PROCESS, namely organic waste processing both organic and biological
liquid into biogas and other alternative products such as ethanol and methanol
sources. With this method, waste treatment is not merely a "handling", but also
has a use value / benefit.
Processing technology both liquid and solid waste are key in maintaining
environmental sustainability. Whatever kind of liquid waste treatment technology
and solid waste industry, both domestic and built to be able to operate and
maintain the local community. So the technology chosen should be appropriate to
the technological capabilities of the community.
Based on the explanation , so we are interested to make some experiment about
how to make Biogas .
B. Purpose

The purpose of this experiments is the students can know the techniques and
process of making yoghurt and applied knowledge of biotechnology in process to
making waste biogas and hyacinth.
C. Benefit
The benefit that can we accept from this experiment are:
1. The students can know about the techniques and process of making biogas
2. The student can applied knowledge that related with the biotechnology
process to make biogas

CHAPTER II
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
Biogas is a flammable gas and activity generated by anaerobic or
fermentation of organic materials including; human and animal waste, domestic
waste (household), biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable organic
waste in anaerobic conditions. The main content in biogas is methane and carbon
dioxide. simple biogas systems. Besides, in many areas of food processing

industries, among others, tofu, tempeh, boiled fish or berm can unite channel
waste into biogas system. So that industrial waste does not contaminate the
surrounding environment. This allows for the above-mentioned industrial waste
originating from organic material is homogeneous (Herly, 2011).
The type of organic material processed greatly affect the productivity of
biogas systems in addition to other parameters such as temperature digester, pH,
pressure and humidity. One way of determining the appropriate organic material
to be input Biogas system is to determine the ratio of Carbon (C) and nitrogen
(N) or the so-called C / N ratio. Several experiments have been conducted by
ISAT indicate that the metabolic activity of bacteria will methanogen optimal
value of C / N ratio of about 8-20 (Septia,2014).
Biogas is produced by anaerobic activity is very popular for treating
biodegradable waste as fuel can be produced while destroying bacterial
pathogens and reducing the volume of the waste. Methane in the biogas, when it
burns more cleanly than coal, and produces greater energy with carbon dioxide
emissions are less. Utilization of biogas plays an important role in waste
management because methane is a greenhouse gas that is more harmful to global
warming compared with carbon dioxide. Carbon in the biogas is carbon taken
from the atmosphere by photosynthesis of plants, so that when released back into
the atmosphere will increase the amount of atmospheric carbon than the burning
of fossil fuels (Krisna, 2011).
Biogas does not produce smoke is a superior replacement to replace fuel
oil or natural gas. This gas is produced in a process called anaerobic digestion, a
gas mixture of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and a small amount of
nitrogen, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen. Naturally, this
gas is formed at the disposal of waste water, waste pile, the bottom of lakes or
swamps. Mammals including humans produce biogas in the digestive system, the
bacteria in the digestive system produces biogas for the process of digesting
cellulose. Biomass containing high water content such as animal manure and food
processing waste materials suitable for biogas production (Darmono, 2001).
Livestock waste is one of the source material that can be used to produce
biogas, while the development or growth of the livestock industry poses a problem

for the environment because livestock waste accumulated. Pollutants resulting


from the decomposition of animal manure that is BOD (Biological Oxygen
Demand) and COD (chemical Oxygen Demand), bacterial pathogens, water
pollution, dust and odor pollution. In many developing countries livestock waste,
agricultural waste, and wood is used as fuel. This is of concern because of
methane and carbon dioxide emissions that cause the greenhouse effect
(Siregar, 2009).
When viewed in terms of waste treatment, anaerobic processes also
provide several advantages: lower the COD and BOD, total solid, volatile solid,
nitrate nitrogen, and organic nitrogen. Coliform bacteria and other pathogens,
eggs insecticides, parasites, odors eliminated or decreased (Darmono, 2001).
According to Darmono, (2001),Biogas formation process includes three
stages, namely:
a. Hydrolysis, at this stage of degradation of organic materials soluble and
digestion of complex organic materials into simple, change shape structure
polymers into monomers;
b. Acidification, the acid stage monomer components (simple sugars) are formed
in the hydrolysis step will be groceries acid bacteria. The end product of an
overhaul of these simple sugars are acetic acid, propionic, formic, lactic,
alcohol, and little butyrate, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and ammonia.
c. Methanogen, in this phase a process of formation of methane gas. Sulfate
reducing bacteria are also included in this process, which is to reduce sulfate
and other sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide.
The bacteria that play a role in the process of anaerobic digestion are
hydrolytic bacteria break down organic matter into sugars and amino acids, which
fermentative bacteria convert sugars and amino acids into organic acids, organic
acids alter asidogenik bacteria into hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid, and
methanogen bacteria that produce methane from acetic acid, hydrogen, and carbon
dioxide. Methanogen bacteria will produce biogas which is good (high methane
gas content) at a temperature of 25o-30o C. In the biogas digester there are two
types of bacteria that was instrumental ie asidogenik bacteria and methanogen

bacteria. Both of these bacteria must be maintained equal amount. Bacteria,


changed the organic material into methane (Narsito, 1990).
The bacteria involved in the anaerobic process requires several elements in
accordance with the needs of living organisms as a source of food and optimum
environmental conditions. Anaerobic bacteria consume carbon about 30 times
faster than nitrogen. The relationship between the amount of carbon and nitrogen
is expressed by the ratio of carbon / nitrogen (C / N), the optimum ratio for
anaerobic digester ranged from 20 - 30. If the C / N is too high, the nitrogen will
be consumed rapidly by methanogen bacteria to meet the needs of growth and
only slightly which reacts with carbon gas reult consequently be lower.
Conversely, if the C / N is low, the nitrogen will be released and accumulate in the
form of ammonia (NH 4) which can increase the pH. If the pH is higher than 8.5
would indicate a negative effect on the population of methanogen bacteria
(Purnomo, 1997).

CHAPTER III
PRACTICUM METHOD
A. Time and Place
Day/date : Monday, November 9th 16th 2015
Time
: 01.00 pm 03.00 pm
Place
: Green House and Experimantal Farm in Biology Department,
Mathematics and Science Faculty, UNM
B. Tools and Materials
1. Tools:
a. Bottle
b. Plastic hose aquarium
c. Fragments thermometer
2. Materials
:
a. Eichornia crassipes
b. Cow manure, goat manure, horse manure and dirt duck or chicken
c. Vegetable
C. Work procedure
1. Prepare all equipment and materials required

2. Holed bottle cap, and enter the aquarium hose, and at the end of the hose
insert the thermometer pieces.
3. Enter the dirt that will be used, then cut into small Eichornia crassipes and
vegetable scraps are in use, and also enter into the bottle by using the same
composition.
4. Cap and folding aquarium hose so the gas does not come out.
5. Save for 7 days.
6. Turn the match, and see.

CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Observation result
This observation done for 7 day using animal dung, and vegetable
wastes.
Group

Composition

Produce methane (CH4)


Yes
No

1
2

Cow manure
Horse manure

Chicken manure

Goat manure

B. Discussion
In practice this simple biogas production, we use fases of some animals.
This practicum we use four kind of fases from different animals. As we know, the
fecal ruminant contain of some bacteria which can parse the fases to produce
methane gas. Based on the observation table, horse and goat produced methane
gases, this marked when the sample produce gases voice. W Where as chicken and

cow not produce methane, it happened cause the fecal/ dung is take one days
before, so the bacteria not growth well. In this experiment the animals dung as a
strarter to make the biogas.
This biogas is more efficient than LPG because it does not require the cost
of manufacture.. Besides useful as a substitute fuel, there are a number of
advantages that can be obtained from the biogas to the environment, among
others:
1. People do not need to cut down trees for firewood.
2. The process of cooking so much cleaner, and healthier because it does not
emit smoke.
3. The cage the animals become increasingly cleaner because sewage can be
processed directly cage.
4. The rest of the waste produced from the biodigester can be used as
fertilizer so it does not pollute the environment.
5. Can contribute to lowering greenhouse gas emissions by reducing fuel
consumption and fuel wood.
6. A relative safer from the threat of fire hazard.
The utilization of fecal as a biogas expeience anaerobic fermentation.
According to Krisna (2011) Biogas is produced by anaerobic activity is very
popular for treating biodegradable waste as fuel can be produced while destroying
bacterial pathogens and reducing the volume of the waste.
For the last treatment, we also use vegetable waste. Vegetable also use as
a biogas in community level of plant. It is produced when bacteria degrade
organic matter in the absence of air. Biogas is produced from organic wastes by
concerned action of various group of anaerobic bacteria through anaerobic
decomposition. While the water hyacinth used in this experimnent in the biogas
production because it contains large number of hemiselulose. Processing water
hyacinth with the addition of cow manure is expected to produce methane gas.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
From the experiment, that we had done, we can conclude that the Biogas.
Biogas is a gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic
materials including; human and animal waste, domestic waste (household),
biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable organic waste in anaerobic
conditions.
The advantages that can be obtained from the biogas to the environment, among
others:
1. People do not need to cut down trees for firewood.
2. The process of cooking so much cleaner, and healthier because it does not emit
smoke.
3. The cage the animals become increasingly cleaner because sewage can be
processed directly cage.
B. Suggestion
1. For the laboratory
Laboratory advisable to always chek the condition and quality of the tools
that will be use in the practicum to avoid the damage of the yoghurt that
will produced.
2. For the assistant
Assistant advisable to always accompany the apprentice during the
experiment to avoid the mistake in work procedure.
3. For the apprentice
Apprentice should be careful and precise when doing the work procedure to
get a good result of product that being produce

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Darmono, 2001, Environment and Pollution Relationship with Metal Compounds
Toxicology, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, 142-147.Lehninger, AL 1998a.
Fundamentals of Biochemistry Volume 1. Translation: M. Thenawidjaja.
Erland, Jakarta.
Herly,Evanuarini. 2011. Pengaruh Feses Terhadap Gas. Malang: Universitas
Brawijaya.
Krisna Agus. 2011. Pemanfaatan Mikroorganisme di Bidang Peternakan
Berbasis Bioteknologi Konvensional. http://aguskrisnoblog.wordpress.com.
Accesed at December 18th 2015.
Narsito, 1990, Basics Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Chemical and
Physical Analysis Laboratory Center, Yogyakarta, 16-31, 42. Olson,
Kent R., Poisoning And Drug Overdose, University of California, San
Francisco,
Septia, Intan. 2014. Pemanfaatan Biogas.
Accessed at December 18th 2015.

http://itaseptia.blogspot.com.

Siregar. 2009. Biologi Makhluk Hidup dan Lingkungan. Jakarta: Pustaka


Pembukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.
Purnomo, H. 1997. biogass. Faculty of Animal Husbandry. Brawijaya University,
Malang.