Sie sind auf Seite 1von 41

06.

Struktur Sedimen
Petrologi Batuan Karbonat

Kerangka Materi
Pendahuluan: Struktur Sedimen Primer
Definisi
Burrows
Borings
Geopetal fabrics
Fenestral fabrics
Stromatactics
Lamination

Pendahuluan:
Struktur Sedimen Primer

PRIMARY SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES


Primary sedimentary structures are physical and/or biological
features formed during the process of sediment deposition.
Generally such structures are best seen in outcrop, core, or
polished hand sample, but smaller features such as borings or
fenestral fabrics are both readily apparent in thin section and
important to recognize. Their identification can improve
interpretations of depositional environments and can also
help to decipher patterns and timing of diagenesis.
The characteristic features for the recognition and
interpretation of primary sedimentary structures are provided
in the figure captions. Diagenetic sedimentary structures, such
as hardgrounds, soil crusts, or stylolites, are covered in the
appropriate diagenetic chapters.

Definitions
Borings - Openings created in relatively rigid rock, shell, or other material by boring organisms.
The rigid host substrate is the feature that distinguishes borings from soft-sediment burrows.
Burrow porosity - Feature created by organic burrowing in relatively unconsolidated sediment,
in contrast to borings. Most burrows collapse, become filled with sediment, or are back-filled by
the burrow-forming organism itself.

Fenestrae (fenestral fabric) - Primary or penecontemporaneous gaps in rock framework larger


than grainsupported interstices. Such features may be open pores or may have been partially or
completely filled with internal sediment and/or sparry cement. Fenestrae occur as somewhat
rounded features of spherical, lenticular, or more irregular shapes; their large size in comparison
to normal interparticle openings and their multigranular roofs, floors, and other margins are key
characteristics. Fenestrae are commonly somewhat flattened parallel with the laminae. They
may, however, be round or very irregular, and some are elongate in a vertical dimension.
Although isolated fenestrae occur in sedimentary carbonates, it is more common to find many in
close association. Fenestrae are generally associated with microbial mats and result from
shrinkage, gas formation, organic decay, trapping of air through swash-zone wave action, or
other synsedimentary processes (Choquette & Pray, 1970).
Geopetal structure - Any internal structure or organization of a rock indicating original
orientation such as top and bottom of strata. Common examples are internal sediment
accumulating on the floor of a cavity which it partly fills, or solution-collapse residue that has
fallen to the bottom of a vug or cave.
Stromatactis - A cavity structure common in muddy carbonate sediments, typically 3 to 10 cm in
diameter, characterized by a flat floor and an irregular roof. The floor of this former cavity
typically is overlain by peloidal internal sediment; the remaining void is filled with marine
cement or later sparry cement. These poorly understood vugs have been attributed to the decay
of unknown soft-bodied organisms, to gas formation in impermeable sediments, to gravity
sliding and shear, to the alteration of sponges and sponge holdfasts, and to several other causes.

Burrows

Burrow

Burrow

Burrow

Burrow

Borings

Boring

Boring

Boring

Boring

Boring

Boring

Boring

Geopetal Fabrics

Geopetal

Geopetal

Geopetal

Fenestral Fabrics

Fenestral fabrics

Fenestral fabrics

Fenestral fabrics

Fenestral fabrics

Stromatactics

Stromatactics

Stromatactics

Laminations

Lamination

Lamination

Eroded Surface Contact

Terima Kasih...
Ada Pertanyaan?
Minggu Depan:
Semen

Geopetal

Geopetal structure in bivalve boring in coral; bivalve shell


visible; Matmor Formation (Middle Jurassic), southern Israel.