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Product and Brand Management

Project: Brand Awareness creation from Mass media days to

online media

Team 9:
Godfrey Royan G15020
Vibhor Chaudhary G15058

Brand awareness indicates the capability of consumers to identify and memorize a brand in a
certain product category. Brand awareness represents the accumulated memory intensity of
consumers for a certain brand. It influences consumers significantly, and consumers may regard
it as the basis for prior consideration while selecting a new product. Therefore, brand awareness
is critical when consumers purchase new products. The importance of brand awareness lies in the
fact that consumers include it in their decision to purchase and evaluate the product. So an
unknown brand is relatively weak in the consideration of consumers, and a famous brand can
effectively reduce the perceived risks of consumers and increase their positive evaluation on the
products. A brand with high awareness and a fine image can further enhance the loyalty of
consumers for the brand, increase the trust of consumers in its products, and strengthen the
purchase intention. Famous brands could effectively help consumers identify the product and
endorse the value. Brand awareness is composed of brand recall and brand recognition, which
can be measured by indicators such as: if one heard the brand, if one is familiar with the brand,
and if one knows the characteristics of the brand. There are two dimensions for measuring brand
awareness, namely the contact with an external brand and customer experience. This study refers
the measurement items to design the measuring dimensions and indices of brand awareness, such
as the level of the awareness of the brand name in this product categories, if this brand was
heard, the meaning represented by the brand, and personal opinions about the brand.

Literature Review
Literature review covers the following topics - Brand awareness through traditional media, brand
awareness through social/online media


How to Advertise and Build Brand Knowledge Globally Comparing Television Advertising
Appeals across Developed and Emerging Economies
Advertising appeals represent a tool that can be used to build brand knowledge and its
components. The process of brand building is similar to the persuasion process generated by
advertising. Advertising appeals have a relationship with the components of brand knowledge
through consumer's internal responses, either cognitive or affective
Below are the suggestions on how to advertise across different countries:
In low-GDP countries, where consumers aspire to being part of global consumer culture,
practitioners should use a global appeal when they want to develop their brand and build brand
knowledge. Cartoons, children, and analogies/metaphors are the elements that should be included
in the message. Also, advertising appeals must convey the idea of "global consumer culture" to
be effective

In mid-GDP countries, practitioners should note that these consumers have, at least partially,
satisfied their global aspirations and look for something different. To address these consumers,
practitioners should adopt an experiential appeal that could help them create brand awareness,
improve brand attitude, and develop brand uniqueness. Messages centered on a product's
functionality should not be used. To design effective messages, marketers should consider using
story-line narratives, strong and emotional tones, fast-paced advertisements with female voiceovers, brand cues, analogies/metaphors, and hyperboles/emphases.
In high-GDP countries, practitioners also should not only adopt experiential appeals as for midGDP countries, but they can increase brand awareness by using advertising appeals with which
consumers are less familiar or using a medium other than television.

Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young

This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in
television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of
persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers.
Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 AM to 1 PM) were recorded from each of 3 stations
airing programming aimed specifically at toddlers and preschool-aged children (Public
Broadcasting Service, Disney, and Nickelodeon). All content that aired in the spaces between
programs was examined. Data recorded for food-related advertisements included the primary
appeals used to promote products or brands, whether advertisements were aimed at children or
adults, whether advertisements used primarily animation or live action, whether advertisements
showed food, and whether licensed characters were used.
In 96 half-hour blocks of preschool programming, the 3 stations had a total of 130 food-related
advertisements. More than one half of all food advertisements were aimed specifically at
children, and the majority of those were for fast food chains or sweetened cereals. The primary
advertising appeals used associated products with fun and happiness and/or with excitement and
energy. Fast food advertisements in particular seemed to focus on building brand recognition and
positive associations, through the use of licensed characters, logos, and slogans.
The majority of child-oriented food advertisements viewed seemed to take a branding approach,
focusing on creating lifelong customers rather than generating immediate sales. Promotional
spots on advertisement-supported (Nickelodeon) and sponsor-supported (Public Broadcasting
Service and Disney) networks took similar approaches and used similar appeals, seeming to
promote the equation that food equals fun and happiness.

Aspects of Online Business Communication To Mass Media

This paper aims to identify the trends and characteristics of the online communication as well as
challenges organizations have to cope with. The online communication to mass media is not a

revolutionary concept anymore. In the near future, a synergic mix of the traditional
communication techniques and those inspired by the online communication is expected. The
organisations understand the need to present them as good as possible in the virtual environment,
to optimally manage the relations with various online audiences. The online communication
increasingly becomes complex because of audience diversification: clients, investors, employees.
The modern communication techniques allow reaching a wider public and faster than before. The
online communication offers new ways of transmitting the message, more efficient way to reach
the public and more sophisticated ways to convince it. The emergence of new technologies
brings, besides their many advantages, unexpected challenges, too.
The use of the online communication has some limits and disadvantages as well. As the new
communication technologies ensure high interactivity and bilateral information exchanges, the
quantity and quality of the messages sent increase accordingly. The connection between the
message sender and the receiver is changing and a new type of relationship is being developed.
Internet as a connection between distributed and open systems offers an absolutely free and
global communication. It is the first technology determining a global change of the relations
between people. The online communication technologies allow an increased freedom of action
for the public. The stream of clicks is actually a decision stream. People have the option to
escape from the control of the messages sent by the communication institutions (mass media
institutions, advertising companies or PR departments). Besides its amusement function, the
Internet has two other major functions: information function and commercial function, which are
increasingly interlinked.

Empirical Evidence of TV Advertising Effectiveness

Recent reports in trade journals depicted a series of factors that suggested that TV advertising
has lost effectiveness. These include:
The ability for viewers to control their viewing of TV commercials using DVRs for time
shifting viewing and fast-forwarding past commercials
Reports that over half of consumers do not like TV advertising and would prefer it did not exist
Increase in TV commercial clutter
shift in media consumption patterns that have led 50 percent of TV viewers to multitask,
presumably paying less attention to TV as they are simultaneously browsing the internet, making
telephone calls, reading, etc.
This article checks the effectiveness of TV advertising if it has substantially decreased over time.
Following hypothesis were examined to conclude that the effectiveness of TV advertising has
declined over time

H l (a); Declining elasticity: Controlled test marketing and marketing-mix modeling should show
that the efficiency of generating incremental sales as a percent of the increase in advertising
pressure has declined over time.
H l (b): Declining elasticity controlling for copy effectiveness: After controlling for differences
in communications effectiveness, as measured by copy testing results, the efficiency of
generating incremental sales as a percent of the increase in advertising pressure should have
declined over time.
H2: Low relative effectiveness of the TV medium: In a marketing campaign that uses numerous
advertising platforms, the contribution toward marketing objectives that is attributed to the TV
advertising component should be below the contribution of other media.
Seven different databases, accounting for a total of 388 case histories, were accessed to conduct
a form of meta-analysis to address this issue. These databases include results from advertisingweight tests, marketing-mix modeling, copy testing, return-on-marketing analysis from quasiexperimental design, and media-planning tools. The evidence studied does not support the
acceptance of any of these hypotheses, leading to conclude that impressions from TV advertising
appear to be as effective as ever, even possibly increasing in effectiveness. In terms of specific
marketing objectives, the evidence suggests that the impact of TV on sales lift appears to operate
primarily by generating brand awareness, suggesting that an effective marketing plan that uses
TV should do so in conjunction with multiple forms of marketing in order to impact all stages of
the consumer purchase process.

TV Commercial Recall Correlates

This study demonstrates that at least one factor, program attitude, is significantly related to on-air
recall scores. The data show that the more favorably consumers feel toward a television program,
the more likely they are to remember commercials placed on that program. Since most users of
on-air testing do not "control" for the program factor, this factor probably contributes to the
unreliability (i.e., error) problem associated with on-air testing. To the degree that this factor and
other correlates of on-air scores are better controlled, on-air testing will become a more reliable
instrument for evaluating television commercials.
The findings also suggest that consumer attitudes toward television programs have important
consequences for the penetration of advertising. A commercial placed on a well-liked program,
audience composition and size held constant, may have far greater impact than the same
commercial carried by a less-liked program.

Awareness of Brands and Slogans

In order to assure maximum return for the marketers' efforts, a study to assess the degree to
which the awareness objective is accomplished was conducted. The results suggested that brand
and slogan awareness are dependent on the age, social class, and amount of print media

readership of adolescents. Moreover, brand and slogan awareness were found to be related to the
incidence of opinion leadership. Brand and slogan awareness was greatest among opinion
leaders, adolescents in the upper-class, and adolescents who spent the most time reading
newspapers and magazines.
Important differences were observed between brand and slogan awareness of adolescents. Brand
awareness appeared to increase with age while a reverse relationship was held for slogan
awareness. Also, the amount of television exposure had a completely different impact on brand
awareness than on slogan awareness. Slogan awareness increased with increased television
viewing, while brand awareness was lowest among those who watch television frequently. Brand
and slogan awareness was greatest for adolescents who spent the most time reading newspapers
and magazines.


The Impact of Brand Awareness, Brand Knowledge and Price Positioning on Perceived
Risks Associated to Buying Online from Travel Agencies
As per the article, brand awareness is an important factor to be taken into consideration when
trying to attract new customers to buy online from travel agencies. Perceived risks associated to
buying online are significantly higher in the case of an unknown travel agency in comparison to
a known one. Therefore, travel agencies trying to attract new customers through online channels
must firstly create brand awareness.
It also talked about the fact that price positioning will have minimum influence on the risk
perceived by potential customers in the context of online purchasing from travel agencies.
Therefore, overall perceived risk are always a bit higher in the case of the agency with lower
prices. Thus, travel agencies trying to attract new customers through online channels should
avoid the pitfall of reducing the prices in order to reduce perceived risks.

Lastly, a higher level of brand knowledge can reduce risks perceived by potential customers in
the context of online purchasing, be it performance, privacy/security, financial, or overall
perceived risk. This means that in order to gain new customers using the online environment,
travel agencies must not only create awareness at the recall or recognition level, but also brand

Integrating Your Social Media Activities - How companies are using social media to attract
new employees, land clients, promote their brand and cultivate a better public image for
the credit and collection industry.
Social media gives companies the opportunity to talk about their knowledge and experience, and
cultivate a better public image. Many have launched social media efforts as part of their
reputation management work. Some of these efforts that are discussed in the article are as
Promoting Your Company through Facebook: Facebook is the worlds largest social network and
companys Facebook page reflects its personality. Facebook advertising is a good approach to
reach out to employees/public compared to taking an ad out in a newspaper as its inexpensive
and you reach out to the right information using profile information that may be interested in the
Considering Mobile Apps: Nowadays, there is an app for everything today, so there should be
one for the company too. Mobile app usage continues to grow as consumers seek the platform
that is most convenient for them to reach out for information.
Make Personal Connections: Encourage marketing team to connect with current or prospective
clients through their individual accounts. This will help sales staff make personal connections
with leads and have more productive conversations.
Create specialized content: Companies should focus on content marketing and client education
which will help clients learn and grow. It should proactively share information of interest, such
as articles, white papers, eBooks, videos and infographics.
Tackling SEO: A company should ensure that its audience can easily find its website. Search
engine optimization can help boost websites ranking, but it is a difficult and continuous process.
Continuous Improvement: Social media is a core method of communication to boost a
companys business. Effective social media strategies are ever-evolving and should be integrated
with a companys marketing goals, to help shape its reputation and grow its business.

An Integrated Approach to Sports Branding: Examining the Influence of Social Media on

Brand Outcomes
Professional sports are a billion dollar industry that depends on fans for much of its success and
profit. Sports fans purchase tickets to sporting events and buy apparel and merchandise that helps

extend the teams bottom line. Research on Integrated Marketing Communication and sports is
therefore particularly important. Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) is the development
of relationships with consumers through strategic messages and dialogue. Sports teams have
embraced IMC by using social media to connect with fans and strengthen their identification
with the team. It is suggested that brands with a strong social media presence are better equipped
to increase brand awareness and maintain communication with consumers. Current study
evaluates the influence of social media on desirable brand outcomes, including brand
relationships, fan identification with a team, and also the influence of these desirable brand
outcomes on brand equity. Using social media, consumers can provide direct feedback and feel
more engaged with the brand, thus strengthening the brand relationship. A survey of NBA fans
found that using the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter had a significant influence on
each of the brand outcomes. Results revealed Twitter to have a slightly stronger influence on
brand relationships and fan identification than Facebook. Therefore, marketers should use a
variety of communication channels to maintain and enhance relationships with consumers.

How Do Consumer Buzz and Traffic in Social Media Marketing Predict the Value of the
Consumer buzz in the form of user-generated reviews, recommendations, and blogs signals that
consumer attitude and advocacy can influence firm value. Web traffic also affects brand
awareness and customer acquisition, and is a predictor of the performance of a firms stock in the
market. The information systems and accounting literature have treated buzz and traffic
separately in studying their relationships with firm performance.

In the journal, interactions between buzz and traffic as well as competitive effects that have been
overlooked. To study the relationship between user-initiated Web activities and firm
performance, a unique data set with metrics for consumer buzz, Web traffic, and firm value was

collected. A vector auto regression with exogenous variables model is employed that captures the
evolution and interdependence between the time series of dependent variables. This model
enables to examine dynamic effects, interaction effects, and market competition effects.
Results from the study support that dynamic relationships of buzz and traffic with firm value.
They also reveal significant market competition effects from both- firms own and its rivals
buzz and traffic. The findings also provide insights for e-commerce managers regarding Website
design and customer relation management to best respond to competitors strategic moves.

The Influence of Perceived Innovation and Brand Awareness on Purchase Intention of

Innovation Product An Example of iPhone
The number of mobile phone users has increased steadily in recent years. Mobile phone
manufacturers continuously compete to be the first to introduce innovative products to the
market in the hope to gain a larger market share. This study uses 3G mobile phone as an example
to examine whether perceived innovation and brand awareness have a significant impact on the
perceived quality, perceived value, and purchase intention toward innovation products.
An analysis had 595 effective questionnaires which produced five main findings:

consumer-perceived innovation has significant and positive impact on the perceived

quality and purchase intention
brand awareness has significant and positive impact on the consumer-perceived
perceived quality has significant and positive impact on perceived value
consumer-perceived value has significant and positive impact on purchase intention
Consumer-perceived quality has significant and negative impact on purchase

Moreover, this study evidences that consumer-perceived innovation has higher effect on
purchase intention than brand awareness. These results can provide useful information to mobile
phone industry to carry out innovation planning and marketing strategy.

Is a Picture Always Worth a Thousand Words? Attention to Structural Elements of eWOM for Consumer Brands within Social Media
The article talks about consumer attention, which has been known to influence advertising, has
changed dramatically in at least two ways:
Firstly, with the emergence of social media massive amounts of image and text-based messages
get created. According to a recent report (Bennett, 2012), consumers share more than 600,000
pieces of content and create over 25,000 social media posts every sixty seconds. In such an oversaturated environment, text and image elements must compete to get noticed at all. This is

significant because in order for message elements to have an impact on consumers, they must
first be noticed.
Secondly, the growing influence of consumer-generated electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has
become a critical component of marketing with user-generated reviews perceived as more
credible and less biased than company-generated. New customer acquisition, increased sales and
product-use decisions have all been directly linked to WOM communication. Negative word-ofmouth (NWOM) introduces the possibility of product reviews being harmful as opposed to
promotional. It could be leveraged as a valuable tool to bring attention to important issues where
difference-making is needed.

Making it work: 5 steps to social media success

The article talks about creating a social media plan in this competitive industry to effectively
reach out to the audience. It has summarized five steps to create an effective strategy:
1. Know your audience: It is important to study your current and potential audiences and
how they use social media. It would be better to research their social media using habits
to better reach out to them.
2. Identify your goals: It is also important to identify your goal of marketing plan. Changing
the tone of the marketing plan may confuse audience and may lead to decrease in
3. Develop a social voice: Have conversations and Engage with audiences interested in the
brand to grow your following.
4. Measure your performance: Use monitoring tools to measure success of marketing
campaigns, increase in following, no of likes, increase in downloads or higher traffic.
5. Evaluate content: Try different approaches from time to time and evaluate the type of
content that generates highest interest.

Social Media in Advertising Campaigns Examining the Effects on Perceived Persuasive

Intent, Campaign and Brand Responses
Because of increasing popularity of advertising on social media, and social network sites (SNSs),
the aim of this study is to give insight into the effectiveness of SNS advertising. The
experimental study compares consumer responses to advertising on SNSs and television (TV).
This study not only examines the relative persuasive impact of SNS campaigns, as compared to
traditional advertising formats, but also tests the effectiveness of integrating SNSs into
traditional advertising campaigns. Four findings regarding the impact of such campaigns are
obtained from the three empirical studies. First, affective responses are more favourable
regarding TV campaigns. Second, cognitive and behavioural responses are more favourable
regarding SNS-only campaigns. Third, cross-media campaigns that combine TV and SNS
formats can be equally effective or more effective to campaigns using only TV or only social
media, but do not necessarily result in direct synergy effects. Fourth, campaigns in which SNSs

are combined with messages in traditional media are perceived as less persuasive, and this
difference in the perceived persuasive intent subsequently influences consumers attitudes and
buying intention. Thus, the overall conclusion is that social media can play an important and
distinguishing role in advertising campaigns: on the one hand, because they lead to enhanced
buying intentions and cognitive responses; and on the other hand, because consumers are not, or
at least less, aware of the persuasive nature of campaigns on SNSs. Therefore, for advertisers,
such campaigns are an interesting supplement to traditional advertising campaigns.

Relevance and Application in the Indian Market

With the advent of multiple social media, companies have stepped up brand awareness creation
activities. Because of this, India's top brands achieved record-breaking total value growth of 33%
in 2015.

This year-on-year brand value increase is highest in 10-year history exceeding that of the Global
Top 100 as well as the rankings for China, Latin America and Indonesia. This reflects a new
sense of consumer empowerment, and smart business management by corporates
Key highlights of the 2015 BrandZ Top 50 Most Valuable Indian Brands study include:
Financial brands continue to dominate. With 13 brands in the Top 50, accounting for 41% of its
value ($38.1bn), the financial sector has built brand strength by making a consistent effort to
serve consumers better. Biggest risers: Union Bank of India (no.46, +72%), Punjab National
Bank (no.22, +61%) and IndusInd Bank (no.13, +46%).
Home and personal care brands grew 32%, driven by increased disposable income and
spending on premium products, and investment by marketers across traditional and new media.
These 12 brands hold 15% ($13.4bn) of the rankings total brand value. Fastest risers: Lakme
(no.44, +69%), Lifebuoy (no.31, +49%) and Colgate (no.26, +44%).
Purpose is power. Indian consumers expect brands to actively participate in building a better
society, and those that do have a higher brand value. Lifebuoy (no.31) has a social mission to

change consumers hygiene behavior, while Asian Paints (no.5) aspires to rejuvenate peoples
living spaces and bring joy to their lives.
Indian consumers trust brands. In stark contrast with other markets, trust in brands is growing
steadily. Consumers in India appreciate brands, and 33% say they trust them. Among the most
trusted are jeweler Tanishq (no.21), part of the respected Tata conglomerate, and Colgate, which
is part of Indian folklore, and has been instrumental in organizing dental check-up camps to raise
dental hygiene awareness.
All four new entrants are of Indian origin Axis Bank, Canara Bank, MRF and Royal Enfield.
Three are privately owned, and one is an SOE.
Disruption is on the horizon from e-commerce and mobile brands that are building scale and
connecting with consumers at a frenetic pace. These are not yet eligible to be ranked in the Top
50 because they are not publicly traded.
The BrandZ India Top 50 outperforms SENSEX (a weighted index of 30 stocks on the Bombay
Stock Exchange), showing how valuable brands deliver superior returns. A stock portfolio
comprised of the Top 50 increased their share value 18.6% between August 2014 and July 2015,
while Indias SENSEX index increased only 1.5%. The ROI produced by the BrandZ portfolio
was over 12 times greater.

The BrandZ Top 50 Most Valuable Indian Brands 2015



Brand value
2015 (US $M)


Brand value

Rank 2014









State Bank of India








Asian Paints




Bajaj Bank








Axis Bank






Kotak Mahindra Bank Banks




Maruti Suzuki

















IndusInd Bank

















The BrandZ Ranking system is done by WPP and Millward Brown every year.
The valuation methodology behind the BrandZ Top 50 Most Valuable Indian Brands ranking
is the only one that combines financial data with the perceptions of Indian consumers, making it
the definitive study of the most accomplished brands in this fast-growing market. The ranking is
accompanied by a detailed report that analyzes the success of the Top 50, identifies the key
forces driving brand growth in India, and makes action-oriented recommendations to help brands
successfully navigate this environment.
The valuation combines rigorously analyzed financial data from Bloomberg and Kantar World
panel with the opinions of more than 50,000 Indian consumers, gathered for over 600 brands in
50+ categories. All brands meet these two eligibility criteria:
The brand is owned by an enterprise listed on a stock exchange in India
In the case of banks, at least 25 percent of earnings were derived from retail business.
The 2015 study shows that India is a market of great opportunities where consumers are feeling
empowered, and this is increasingly reflected in their brand choices. The new Modi government
is committed to creating an environment in which brands can flourish. India is distinct in many
ways from other fast-growing markets, however, so simply applying strategies that have proved
successful elsewhere will not work in India. Any brand intending to compete in India must gain
deep insights into its nuances such as the need to modernize while respecting the past, and the
desire to remain fundamentally Indian.


Brand Awareness metrics

The goal of a company is to assess its marketing campaign and effectiveness. Below are the
metrics for the same:
1. Reach and frequency

Reach is the number of visitors exposed to an ad. Increased reach means that an ad is exposed to
more potential customers, which may lead to increased awareness. Frequency is the average
number of times a visitor was exposed to an ad over a period of time.
2. Mentions Per Time Period/Impressions
The online equivalent of "impressions", looking simply at how many times your brand is talked
about online during a given time period can give you a sense of overall awareness and chatter.
3. Inbound Links
Inbound links or back links are the incoming links to a website or web page.
4. Share of Voice
Share of Voice measures is a way of measuring an amount of advertising presence or strength for
a particular brand or product, or essentially: how much is our brand or product talked about
compared to our competitors
5. Share of Conversation
Share of Conversation measures how often you or your company are mentioned in context of the
conversations that are most relevant to you.
6. Subscribers to Content
Related to potential reach, number of subscriptions can function as both an awareness and an
engagement metric. Whether you're talking email subscribers, blog subscribers, or even
subscribers to your print publication, subscriptions represent conscious interest in your content
and a focused group of potential reach for that media.
7. Referral and Recommendation Ratio
This metric really ends up in the camp of engagement, too, as well as sales. If you can
successfully increase the ratio of direct brand recommendations as an overall share of reach and
awareness, you'll better make a case for designing efforts to reach larger audiences.
8. Brand Recognition
It can be an interesting broad-brush look at whether you're present in people's minds in the ways
that matter to you. Sometimes called recall, the idea here is looking at everything from whether
people can and do name your brand inside of a relevant market category, or in association with
other relevant ideas or concepts.

9. Brand-Specific Searches
Keyword searches represent a broader need, while brand-specific searches are an indicator that
you're being sought out specifically.
10. Sentiment Trends
While impressions can tell you volume of mentions, coupling them with sentiment trends can tell
you whether the brand impression overall is favorable or not
11. Content Resonance
This looks at who in your network reshared and passed along your content: retweets, reblogs,
shares, or inbound links from spinoff content.
12. Clickthrough rate
It is used to measure customer engagement for Search Network ads. It's more important to try to
achieve a good CTR on the Search Network (1% or higher) than on the Display Network, where
click through rates are frequently lower.

E-Journals from EBSCO and Emerald database