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1.1 Objective of the project
1.2 Background of the Project
1.3 Organization of the Thesis

Overview of the technologies used
2.1 Embedded Systems
2.2 GPS Technology

Hardware Implementation of the Project
3.1 Project Design

3.2 Power Supply

3.3 Microcontrollers
3.4 GPS Technology
3.5 Serial Communication
3.6 Switches and Pushbuttons
3.7 IR Section
3.8 Liquid Crystal Display
3.9 L293D- Current Driver

3.10 Electric Motors

Firmware Implementation of the project design
4.1 Software Tools Required

Results and Discussions
5.1 Results
5.2 Conclusion

Chapter 1
The advent of new high-speed technologies and the growing IC technology provided realistic
opportunity for new cost effective technologies and realization of new methods of innovations.
This technical improvement together with the need for high performance techniques created
faster, more accurate and more intelligent products using new drives and advanced control

An automotive guiding system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. It
typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position data to locate the user on a road in the
unit's map database. Using the road database, the unit can give directions to other locations along
roads also in its database.

The project intends to guide the users by giving the directions when they want to go to a new
place using GPS. The user has to enter the place he wishes to go. Then the system gives the
latitude and longitude parameters of the place and guides the user with the directions like East,
West, North and South. These directions will be displayed on the LCD.

The project uses the underlying concept GPS (Global Positioning System). The main application
of this system in this context is to give the directions to the user when he wants to go to a new
place. The GPS antenna present in the GPS module receives the information from the GPS
satellite in NMEA (National Marine Electronics Association) format and thus it reveals the
position information. This information got from the GPS antenna is sent to the controlling unit.
The controlling unit upon receiving the request displays the directions to reach the requested
place on the LCD.

The project also functions as an obstacle detecting device. Whenever the user vehicle finds any
obstacle in the opposite direction, the controlling unit changes the direction of the vehicle
immediately to avoid any kind of accident and moves forward on its way.

This application is very much useful and important mainly during the night times since the user
driving the vehicle may be tired and not in a state of driving and most of the accidents occur
when the driving person is not in complete conscious state. Thus, this system avoids such kind of
accidents. IR sensor is used to detect the vehicle coming in the opposite direction and based on
the output of this sensor, the controlling unit takes the decision whether to stop the vehicle or

1.4 Objective of the project

The project intends to interface the microcontroller with the GPS receiver and give the
latitude and longitude parameters of the place the user wishes to go and displays the directions to
reach the place. The project uses the GPS technology and Embedded Systems to design this
application. The main objective of this project is to design a system that gives the directions to
reach a place, the user wishes to and the system also functions as an obstacle detecting vehicle.

This project is a device that collects data from the GPS receiver, codes the data into a format
that can be understood by the controlling section. This system also collects information from the
master device and implements commands that are directed by the master.

The objective of the project is to develop a microcontroller based obstacle detection and
guiding vehicle. It consists of a GPS receiver, microcontroller, the interfacing unit to allow the
communication between the microcontroller and the GPS receiver, LCD and the motor and its

1.5 Background of the Project

The software application and the hardware implementation help the microcontroller
accept the input from the user, track the place using GPS receiver and give the directions to reach
the place, the user wishes to. The user is provided with switches to enter the place of interest to
the system. The microcontroller displays the directions on the LCD. Thus, the vehicle can reach
the place by following these directions. The system also detects the obstacle if any in its path and
immediately changes the direction of the vehicle so as to avoid the accident. The system is
totally designed using GPS and embedded systems technology.

The Controlling unit has an application program to allow the microcontroller read the
incoming data from the user and provide the information using GPS receiver and make the
vehicle move in the given directions. The performance of the design is maintained by controlling

1.6 Organization of the Thesis

In view of the proposed thesis work explanation of theoretical aspects and algorithms
used in this work are presented as per the sequence described below.

Chapter 1 describes a brief review of the objectives and goals of the work.

Chapter 2 discusses the existing technologies and the study of various technologies in

Chapter 3 describes the Block diagram, Circuit diagram of the project and its description.
The construction and description of various modules used for the application are described in

Chapter 4 explains the Software tools required for the project, the Code developed for the

Chapter 5 presents the results, overall conclusions of the study and proposes possible
improvements and directions of future research work.

Chapter 2
Overview of the technologies used
Embedded Systems:
An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job.
Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD player, printer, fax machine, mobile
phone etc. are examples of embedded systems. Each of these appliances will have a processor
and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the
embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement.

The embedded software is also called “firm ware”. The desktop/laptop computer is a general
purpose computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word
processing, accounting, software development and so on.

In contrast, the software in the embedded systems is always fixed listed below:
· Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do different
things. . Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the memory. Generally,
they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded
systems have to work against some deadlines. A specific job has to be completed within a
specific time. In some embedded systems, called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent.
Missing a deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded
systems are constrained for power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the
power consumption has to be very low.
· Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very
high temperatures and humidity.

Following are the advantages of Embedded Systems:

1. They are designed to do a specific task and have real time performance constraints which
must be met.
2. They allow the system hardware to be simplified so costs are reduced.

3. They are usually in the form of small computerized parts in larger devices which serve a
general purpose.
GPS Technology:
GPS is used in vehicles for both tracking and navigation. Tracking systems enable a base station
to keep track of the vehicles without the intervention of the driver where, as navigation system
helps the driver to reach the destination. Whether navigation system or tracking system, the
architecture is more or less similar. The navigation system will have convenient, usually a
graphic display for the driver which is not needed for a tracking system. Vehicle Tracking
Systems combine a number of well-developed technologies. Irrespective of the technology being
used, VTS consist of three subsystems: a) In-vehicle unit (IVU), b) Base station and c)
Communication link. The IVU includes a suitable position sensor and an intelligent controller
together with an appropriate interface to the communication link.

Network Overlay Systems use cell phone infrastructure for locating vehicles. The cell centers
with additional hardware and software assess the time of arrival (TOA) and angle of arrival
(AOA) of radio signals from vehicles to compute the position of the vehicles. This information is
sent to the tracking centre through the cell link or conventional link. Another technique used for
locating vehicles computes the time difference for signals from two cell centers to reach the
vehicle. This computation is made in the IVU and the position information is sent to the tracking
centre through the cell phone link.

A more common technique used is direct radio link (DRL). In this system, dedicated radio
infrastructure is used along with special IVU to compute vehicle location. However all these
techniques impose limitation on the operational area. Alternatively, embedded GPS receivers
provide absolute position co-ordinates at any point, without any area restrictions.

Chapter 3
Hardware Implementation of the Project
This chapter briefly explains about the Hardware Implementation of the project. It discusses the
design and working of the design with the help of block diagram and circuit diagram and
explanation of circuit diagram in detail. It explains the features, timer programming, serial
communication, interrupts of AT89S52 microcontroller. It also explains the various modules
used in this project.

3.1 Project Design

The implementation of the project design can be divided in two parts.
− Hardware implementation
− Firmware implementation

Hardware implementation deals in drawing the schematic on the plane paper according to the
application, testing the schematic design over the breadboard using the various IC’s to find if the
design meets the objective, carrying out the PCB layout of the schematic tested on breadboard,
finally preparing the board and testing the designed hardware.

The firmware part deals in programming the microcontroller so that it can control the operation
of the IC’s used in the implementation. In the present work, we have used the Orcad design
software for PCB circuit design, the Keil µv3 software development tool to write and compile
the source code, which has been written in the C language. The Proload programmer has been
used to write this compile code into the microcontroller. The firmware implementation is
explained in the next chapter.

The project design and principle are explained in this chapter using the block diagram and circuit
diagram. The block diagram discusses about the required components of the design and working
condition is explained using circuit diagram and system wiring diagram.

3.1.1 Block Diagram of the Project and its Description
The block diagram of the design is as shown in Fig 3.1. It consists of power supply unit,
microcontroller, GSM modem, Serial communication unit and the Robot. The brief description
of each unit is explained as follows.

3.2 Power Supply:

The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from
the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The output
obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the
output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after
rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc

Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these
voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a.c input
available at the mains supply i.e., 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. This
is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a
required level.

The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating
D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is
used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification.
Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier
and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and
load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this
point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.

Voltage regulator:
As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an
electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project,
power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812
voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers
05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels.

3.3 Microcontrollers:
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in embedded systems products.
Microcontroller is a programmable device. A microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed
amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports and a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed amount
of on-chip ROM, RAM and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many
applications in which cost and space are critical.

The Intel 8051 is Harvard architecture, single chip microcontroller (µC) which was developed by
Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. It was popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, but
today it has largely been superseded by a vast range of enhanced devices with 8051-compatible
processor cores that are manufactured by more than 20 independent manufacturers including
Atmel, Infineon Technologies and Maxim Integrated Products.

8051 is an 8-bit processor, meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. Data
larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8-bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. 8051 is available
in different memory types such as UV-EPROM, Flash and NV-RAM.

Features of AT89S52:
8K Bytes of Re-programmable Flash Memory.
RAM is 256 bytes.
4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range.
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz’s
Three-level Program Memory Lock.
256 x 8-bit Internal RAM.
32 Programmable I/O Lines.
Three 16-bit Timer/Counters.
Eight Interrupt Sources.
Full Duplex UART Serial Channel.
Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes.
Interrupt recovery from power down mode.
Watchdog timer.
Dual data pointer.
Power-off flag.
Fast programming time.
Flexible ISP programming (byte and page mode).

The AT89s52 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of
Flash programmable memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high
density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-
standard MCS-51 instruction set. The on chip flash allows the program memory
to be reprogrammed in system or by a conventional non volatile memory
programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel AT89s52 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly
flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

In addition, the AT89s52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and
supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the
CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to
continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes
the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

Pin description:

Vcc Pin 40 provides supply voltage to the chip. The voltage source is +5V.

GND Pin 20 is the ground.

Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight
TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high
impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order
address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this
mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.

Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during
Program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.

Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled
high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal
pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2
external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX),
respectively, as shown in the following table.

Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled
high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal

Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and
during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @
DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s.
During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @
RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. The port also
receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash
programming and verification.

Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled
high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that
are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.
Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the
following table.


Reset input A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the
device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times
out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this
feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during
accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG)
during Flash programming.

In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be
used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse
is skipped during each access to external data memory.

If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set,
ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is
weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the
microcontroller is in external execution mode.

Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the
AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated
twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during
each access to external data memory.

External Access Enable EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch
code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.
Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on

EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-
volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be
configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic
resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source,
XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven. There are no
requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the
internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and
maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

Special Function Registers
A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in
the following table.

It should be noted that not all of the addresses are occupied and unoccupied addresses may not
be implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will in general
return random data, and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect.

User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future
products to invoke new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of the
new bits will always be 0.

Timer 2 Registers:
Control and status bits are contained in registers T2CON and T2MOD for Timer 2. The register
pair (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the Capture/Reload register for Timer 2 in 16-bit
capture mode or 16-bit auto-reload mode.

Interrupt Registers:
The individual interrupt enable bits are in the IE register. Two priorities can be set for each of the
six interrupt sources in the IP register.

Dual Data Pointer Registers:
To facilitate accessing both internal and external data memory, two banks of 16-bit Data Pointer
Registers are provided: DP0 at SFR address locations 82H-83H and DP1 at 84H
and 85H. Bit DPS = 0 in SFR AUXR1 selects DP0 and DPS = 1 selects DP1. The
user should ALWAYS initialize the DPS bit to the appropriate value before
accessing the respective Data Pointer Register.

Power off Flag:

The Power off Flag (POF) is located at bit 4 (PCON.4) in the PCON SFR. POF is set to “1”
during power up. It can be set and rest under software control and is not affected
by reset.

Memory Organization
MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. Up to 64K bytes
each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed.

Program Memory
If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to external memory. On the
AT89S52, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H
through 1FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 2000H
through FFFFH are to external memory.

Data Memory
The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel
address space to the Special Function Registers. This means that the upper 128
bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from
SFR space.

When an instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH, the address mode used in
the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM
or the SFR space. Instructions which use direct addressing access the SFR space.

For example, the following direct addressing instruction accesses the SFR at location 0A0H
(which is P2).

MOV 0A0H, #data

The instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128 bytes of RAM. For example,
the following indirect addressing instruction, where R0 contains 0A0H, accesses
the data byte at address 0A0H, rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H).

MOV @R0, #data

It should be noted that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so the upper 128
bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.

Watchdog Timer (One-time Enabled with Reset-out)

The WDT is intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may be subjected to
software upsets. The WDT consists of a 14-bit counter and the Watchdog Timer
Reset (WDTRST) SFR. The WDT is defaulted to disable from exiting reset. To
enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST
register (SFR location 0A6H).

When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running.
The WDT timeout period is dependent on the external clock frequency. There is
no way to disable the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT
overflow reset). When WDT overflows, it will drive an output RESET HIGH
pulse at the RST pin.

Using the WDT

To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register
(SFR location 0A6H). When the WDT is enabled, the user needs to service it
regularly by writing 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST to avoid a WDT overflow. The
14-bit counter overflows when it reaches 16383 (3FFFH) and this will reset the
device. When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while
the oscillator is running. This means the user must reset the WDT at least for
every 16383 machine cycles.

To reset the WDT, the user must write 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST. WDTRST is a write-only
register. The WDT counter cannot be read or written. When WDT overflows, it
will generate an output RESET pulse at the RST pin. The RESET pulse duration
is 98xTOSC, where TOSC = 1/FOSC. To make the best use of the WDT, it
should be serviced in those sections of code that will periodically be executed
within the time required to prevent a WDT reset.

WDT during Power-down and Idle

In Power down mode the oscillator stops, which means the WDT also stops. Thus the user does
not need to service the WDT in Power down mode.

There are two methods of exiting Power down mode:

By a hardware reset or

By a level-activated external interrupt which is enabled prior to entering Power down mode.

When Power-down is exited with hardware reset, servicing the WDT should occur as it normally
does whenever the AT89S52 is reset. Exiting Power down with an interrupt is
significantly different.

The interrupt is held low long enough for the oscillator to stabilize. When the interrupt is brought
high, the interrupt is serviced. To prevent the WDT from resetting the device
while the interrupt pin is held low, the WDT is not started until the interrupt is
pulled high. It is suggested that the WDT be reset during the interrupt service for
the interrupt used to exit Power down mode.

To ensure that the WDT does not overflow within a few states of exiting Power down, it is best
to reset the WDT just before entering Power down mode.

Before going into the IDLE mode, the WDIDLE bit in SFR AUXR is used to determine whether
the WDT continues to count if enabled. The WDT keeps counting during IDLE
(WDIDLE bit = 0) as the default state. To prevent the WDT from resetting the
AT89S52 while in IDLE mode, the user should always set up a timer that will
periodically exit IDLE, service the WDT and reenter IDLE mode. With WDIDLE
bit enabled, the WDT will stop to count in IDLE mode and resumes the count
upon exit from IDLE.

The Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers implement three general purpose, 16-bit timers/ counters.
They are identified as Timer 0, Timer 1 and Timer 2 and can be independently configured to
operate in a variety of modes as a timer or as an event counter. When operating as a timer, the
timer/counter runs for a programmed length of time and then issues an interrupt request. When
operating as a counter, the timer/counter counts negative transitions on an external pin. After a
preset number of counts, the counter issues an interrupt request. The various operating modes of
each timer/counter are described in the following sections.

A basic operation consists of timer registers THx and TLx (x= 0, 1) connected in cascade to form
a 16-bit timer. Setting the run control bit (TRx) in TCON register turns the timer on by allowing
the selected input to increment TLx. When TLx overflows it increments THx; when THx

overflows it sets the timer overflow flag (TFx) in TCON register. Setting the TRx does not clear
the THx and TLx timer registers. Timer registers can be accessed to obtain the current count or
to enter preset values. They can be read at any time but TRx bit must be cleared to preset their
values, otherwise the behavior of the timer/counter is unpredictable.

The C/T control bit (in TCON register) selects timer operation or counter operation, by selecting
the divided-down peripheral clock or external pin Tx as the source for the counted signal. TRx
bit must be cleared when changing the mode of operation, otherwise the behavior of the
timer/counter is unpredictable. For timer operation (C/Tx# = 0), the timer register counts the
divided-down peripheral clock. The timer register is incremented once every peripheral cycle (6
peripheral clock periods). The timer clock rate is FPER / 6, i.e. FOSC / 12 in standard mode or
FOSC / 6 in X2 mode. For counter operation (C/Tx# = 1), the timer register counts the negative
transitions on the Tx external input pin. The external input is sampled every peripheral cycle.
When the sample is high in one cycle and low in the next one, the counter is incremented.

Since it takes 2 cycles (12 peripheral clock periods) to recognize a negative transition, the
maximum count rate is FPER / 12, i.e. FOSC / 24 in standard mode or FOSC / 12 in X2 mode.
There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal, but to ensure that a given
level is sampled at least once before it changes, it should be held for at least one full peripheral
cycle. In addition to the “timer” or “counter” selection, Timer 0 and Timer 1 have four operating
modes from which to select which are selected by bit-pairs (M1, M0) in TMOD. Modes 0, 1and
2 are the same for both timer/counters. Mode 3 is different.

The four operating modes are described below. Timer 2, has three modes of operation: ‘capture’,
‘auto-reload’ and ‘baud rate generator’.

Timer 0
Timer 0 functions as either a timer or event counter in four modes of operation. Timer 0 is
controlled by the four lower bits of the TMOD register and bits 0, 1, 4 and 5 of the TCON
register. TMOD register selects the method of timer gating (GATE0), timer or counter operation
(T/C0#) and mode of operation (M10 and M00). The TCON register provides timer 0 control

functions: overflow flag (TF0), run control bit (TR0), interrupt flag (IE0) and interrupt type
control bit (IT0).

For normal timer operation (GATE0= 0), setting TR0 allows TL0 to be incremented by the
selected input. Setting GATE0 and TR0 allows external pin INT0# to control timer operation.

Timer 0 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets TF0 flag, generating an interrupt
request. It is important to stop timer/counter before changing mode.

Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)

Mode 0 configures timer 0 as a 13-bit timer which is set up as an 8-bit timer (TH0 register) with
a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower five bits of the TL0 register. The upper three
bits of TL0 register are indeterminate and should be ignored. Prescaler overflow increments the
TH0 register.

As the count rolls over from all 1’s to all 0’s, it sets the timer interrupt flag TF0. The counted
input is enabled to the Timer when TR0 = 1 and either GATE = 0 or INT0 = 1. (Setting GATE =
1 allows the Timer to be controlled by external input INT0, to facilitate pulse width
measurements). TR0 is a control bit in the Special Function register TCON. GATE is in TMOD.

The 13-bit register consists of all 8 bits of TH0 and the lower 5 bits of TL0. The upper 3 bits of
TL0 are indeterminate and should be ignored. Setting the run flag (TR0) does not clear the

Mode 0 operation is the same for Timer 0 as for Timer 1. There are two different GATE bits, one
for Timer 1 (TMOD.7) and one for Timer 0 (TMOD.3).

Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)
Mode 1 is the same as Mode 0, except that the Timer register is being run with all 16 bits. Mode
1 configures timer 0 as a 16-bit timer with the TH0 and TL0 registers connected in cascade. The
selected input increments the TL0 register.

Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with Auto-Reload)

Mode 2 configures timer 0 as an 8-bit timer (TL0 register) that automatically reloads from the
TH0 register. TL0 overflow sets TF0 flag in the TCON register and reloads TL0 with the
contents of TH0, which is preset by software.

When the interrupt request is serviced, hardware clears TF0. The reload leaves TH0 unchanged.
The next reload value may be changed at any time by writing it to the TH0 register. Mode 2
operation is the same for Timer/Counter 1.

Mode 3 (Two 8-bit Timers)

Mode 3 configures timer 0 so that registers TL0 and TH0 operate as separate 8-bit timers. This
mode is provided for applications requiring an additional 8-bit timer or counter. TL0 uses the
timer 0 control bits C/T0# and GATE0 in the TMOD register, and TR0 and TF0 in the TCON
register in the normal manner. TH0 is locked into a timer function (counting FPER /6) and takes
over use of the timer 1 interrupt (TF1) and run control (TR1) bits. Thus, operation of timer 1 is
restricted when timer 0 is in mode 3.

Timer 1
Timer 1 is identical to timer 0, except for mode 3, which is a hold-count mode. The following
comments help to understand the differences:
• Timer 1 functions as either a timer or event counter in three modes of operation. Timer 1’s
mode 3 is a hold-count mode.
• Timer 1 is controlled by the four high-order bits of the TMOD register and bits 2, 3, 6 and 7 of
the TCON register. The TMOD register selects the method of timer gating (GATE1), timer or
counter operation (C/T1#) and mode of operation (M11 and M01). The TCON register provides
timer 1 control functions: overflow flag (TF1), run control bit (TR1), interrupt flag (IE1) and
interrupt type control bit (IT1).
• Timer 1 can serve as the baud rate generator for the serial port. Mode 2 is best suited for this
• For normal timer operation (GATE1 = 0), setting TR1 allows TL1 to be incremented by the
selected input. Setting GATE1 and TR1 allows external pin INT1# to control timer operation.
• Timer 1 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets the TF1 flag generating an
interrupt request.
• When timer 0 is in mode 3, it uses timer 1’s overflow flag (TF1) and run control bit (TR1). For
this situation, use timer 1 only for applications that do not require an interrupt (such as a baud
rate generator for the serial port) and switch timer 1 in and out of mode 3 to turn it off and on.
• It is important to stop timer/counter before changing modes.

Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)

Mode 0 configures Timer 1 as a 13-bit timer, which is set up as an 8-bit timer (TH1 register)
with a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower 5 bits of the TL1 register. The upper 3
bits of the TL1 register are ignored. Prescaler overflow increments the TH1 register.

Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)

Mode 1 configures Timer 1 as a 16-bit timer with the TH1 and TL1 registers connected in
cascade. The selected input increments the TL1 register.

Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with Auto Reload)
Mode 2 configures Timer 1 as an 8-bit timer (TL1 register) with automatic reload from the TH1
register on overflow. TL1 overflow sets the TF1 flag in the TCON register and reloads TL1 with
the contents of TH1, which is preset by software. The reload leaves TH1 unchanged.

Mode 3 (Halt)
Placing Timer 1 in mode 3 causes it to halt and hold its count. This can be used to halt Timer 1
when TR1 run control bit is not available i.e., when Timer 0 is in mode 3.

Timer 2
Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event counter. The type
of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON. Timer 2 has three operating modes:
capture, auto-reload (up or down counting), and baud rate generator. The modes are selected by
bits in T2CON. Timer 2 consists of two 8-bit registers, TH2 and TL2. In the Timer function, the
TL2 register is incremented every machine cycle. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator
periods, the count rate is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency.

In the Counter function, the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its
corresponding external input pin, T2. In this function, the external input is
sampled during S5P2 of every machine cycle. When the samples show a high in
one cycle and a low in the next cycle, the count is incremented. The new count
value appears in the register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which
the transition was detected. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) are
required to recognize a 1-to-0 transition, the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the
oscillator frequency. To ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it
changes, the level should be held for at least one full machine cycle.

Capture Mode
In the capture mode, two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2
is a 16-bit timer or counter which upon overflow sets bit TF2 in T2CON. This bit
can then be used to generate an interrupt. If EXEN2 = 1, Timer 2 performs the
same operation, but a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX also causes the
current value in TH2 and TL2 to be captured into RCAP2H and RCAP2L,
respectively. In addition, the transition at T2EX causes bit EXF2 in T2CON to be
set. The EXF2 bit, like TF2, can generate an interrupt.

Auto-reload (Up or Down Counter)
Timer 2 can be programmed to count up or down when configured in its 16-bit auto-reload
mode. This feature is invoked by the DCEN (Down Counter Enable) bit located in the SFR
T2MOD. Upon reset, the DCEN bit is set to 0 so that timer 2 will default to count up. When
DCEN is set, Timer 2 can count up or down, depending on the value of the T2EX pin.

The above figure shows Timer 2 automatically counting up when DCEN = 0. In this mode, two
options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 counts up
to 0FFFFH and then sets the TF2 bit upon overflow. The overflow also causes the
timer registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L.
The values in Timer in Capture ModeRCAP2H and RCAP2L are preset by
software. If EXEN2 = 1, a 16-bit reload can be triggered either by an overflow or
by a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX. This transition also sets the EXF2
bit. Both the TF2 and EXF2 bits can generate an interrupt if enabled.

Setting the DCEN bit enables Timer 2 to count up or down, as shown in Figure 10-2. In this
mode, the T2EX pin controls the direction of the count. A logic 1 at T2EX makes
Timer 2 count up. The timer will overflow at 0FFFFH and set the TF2 bit. This
overflow also causes the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L to be reloaded
into the timer registers, TH2 and TL2, respectively.

A logic 0 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count down. The timer underflows when TH2 and TL2 equal
the values stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L. The underflow sets the TF2 bit and
causes 0FFFFH to be reloaded into the timer registers.

The EXF2 bit toggles whenever Timer 2 overflows or underflows and can be used as a 17th bit
of resolution. In this operating mode, EXF2 does not flag an interrupt.

Baud Rate Generator
Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON. Note
that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if Timer 2 is used for
the receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used for the other function. Setting
RCLK and/or TCLK puts Timer 2 into its baud rate generator mode.

The baud rate generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode, in that a rollover in TH2 causes
the Timer 2 registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in registers RCAP2H
and RCAP2L, which are preset by software.

The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer 2’s overflow rate according to the
following equation.

The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation. In most applications, it is
configured for timer operation (CP/T2 = 0). The timer operation is different for
Timer 2 when it is used as a baud rate generator. Normally, as a timer, it
increments every machine cycle (at 1/12 the oscillator frequency). As a baud rate
generator, however, it increments every state time (at 1/2 the oscillator
frequency). The baud rate formula is given below.

where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L taken as a 16-bit unsigned

Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in the below figure. This figure is valid only if RCLK
or TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set TF2 and will
not generate an interrupt. Note too, that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in
T2EX will set EXF2 but will not cause a reload from (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) to
(TH2, TL2). Thus, when Timer 2 is in use as a baud rate generator, T2EX can be
used as an extra external interrupt.

It should be noted that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator
mode, TH2 or TL2 should not be read from or written to. Under these conditions,
the Timer is incremented every state time, and the results of a read or write may
not be accurate. The RCAP2 registers may be read but should not be written to,
because a write might overlap a reload and cause write and/or reload errors. The
timer should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the Timer 2 or RCAP2

Programmable Clock Out
A 50% duty cycle clock can be programmed to come out on P1.0, as shown in the below figure.
This pin, besides being a regular I/O pin, has two alternate functions. It can be
programmed to input the external clock for Timer/Counter 2 or to output a 50%
duty cycle clock ranging from 61 Hz to 4 MHz (for a 16-MHz operating

To configure the Timer/Counter 2 as a clock generator, bit C/T2 (T2CON.1) must be cleared and
bit T2OE (T2MOD.1) must be set. Bit TR2 (T2CON.2) starts and stops the timer.
The clock-out frequency depends on the oscillator frequency and the reload value
of Timer 2 capture registers (RCAP2H, RCAP2L), as shown in the following

In the clock-out mode, Timer 2 roll-overs will not generate an interrupt. This behavior is similar
to when Timer 2 is used as a baud-rate generator. It is possible to use Timer 2 as a
baud-rate generator and a clock generator simultaneously. Note, however, that the
baud rate and clock-out frequencies cannot be determined independently from one
another since they both use RCAP2H and RCAP2L.


The AT89S52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1), three
timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2) and the serial port interrupt. These interrupts
are all shown in the below figure.

Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit
in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which
disables all interrupts at once. The below table shows that bit position IE.6 is
unimplemented. User software should not write a 1 to this bit position, since it
may be used in future AT89 products.

Timer 2 interrupt is generated by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON.
Neither of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored
to. In fact, the service routine may have to determine whether it was TF2 or EXF2
that generated the interrupt, and that bit will have to be cleared in software.

The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the timers
overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle. However,
the Timer 2 flag, TF2, is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which the
timer overflows.

Power saving modes of operation :
8051 has two power saving modes. They are:
1. Idle Mode
2. Power Down mode.
The two power saving modes are entered by setting two bits IDL and PD in the special
function register (PCON) respectively.
The structure of PCON register is as follows.
PCON: Address 87H

The schematic diagram for 'Power down' mode and 'Idle' mode is given as follows:

Idle Mode:
Idle mode is entered by setting IDL bit to 1 (i.e., IDL=1). The clock signal is gated off to
CPU, but not to interrupt, timer and serial port functions. The CPU status is preserved
entirely. SP, PC, PSW, Accumulator and other registers maintain their data during IDLE
mode. The port pins hold their logical states they had at the time Idle was initialized.
ALE and PSEN(bar) are held at logic high levels.

Ways to exit Idle Mode:

1. 1. Activation of any enabled interrupt will clear PCON.0 bit and hence the Idle
Mode is exited. The program goes to the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). After RETI is
executed at the end of ISR, the next instruction will start from the one following the
instruction that enabled the Idle Mode.
3. 2. A hardware reset exits the idle mode. The CPU starts from the instruction
following the instruction that invoked the Idle mode.

Power Down Mode:
The Power Down Mode is entered by setting the PD bit to 1. The internal clock to the
entire microcontroller is stopped. However, the program is not dead. The Power down
Mode is exited (PCON.1 is cleared to 0) by Hardware Reset only. The CPU starts from
the next instruction where the Power down Mode was invoked. Port values are not
changed/ overwritten in power down mode. Vcc can be reduced to 2V in Power down
Mode. However Vcc has to be restored to normal value before Power down Mode is

Program Memory Lock Bits

The AT89S52 has three lock bits that can be left unprogrammed (U) or can be programmed (P)
to obtain the additional features listed in the table.

When lock bit 1 is programmed, the logic level at the EA pin is sampled and latched during reset.
If the device is powered up without a reset, the latch initializes to a random value and holds that
value until reset is activated. The latched value of EA must agree with the current logic level at
that pin in order for the device to function properly.

Programming the Flash – Parallel Mode

The AT89S52 is shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array ready to be programmed. The
programming interface needs a high-voltage (12-volt) program enable signal and is compatible
with conventional third-party Flash or EPROM programmers. The AT89S52 code memory array
is programmed byte-by-byte.

Programming Algorithm:
Before programming the AT89S52, the address, data, and control signals should be set up
according to the “Flash Programming Modes”. To program the AT89S52, take the following

1. Input the desired memory location on the address lines.

2. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines.

3. Activate the correct combination of control signals.

4. Raise EA/VPP to 12V.

5. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock bits. The byte write
cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 50 µs. Repeat steps 1 through
5, changing the address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object
file is reached.

Data Polling:
The AT89S52 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a byte write cycle. During a write
cycle, an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of
the written data on P0.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data is
valid on all outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any
time after a write cycle has been initiated.

The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. P3.0 is
pulled low after ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.0 is
pulled high again when programming is done to indicate READY.

Program Verify:
If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed, the programmed code data can be read
back via the address and data lines for verification. The status of the individual
lock bits can be verified directly by reading them back.

Reading the Signature Bytes:

The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 000H,
100H, and 200H, except that P3.6 and P3.7 must be pulled to a logic low. The
values returned are as follows.

(000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel

(100H) = 52H indicates AT89S52

(200H) = 06H

Chip Erase:
In the parallel programming mode, a chip erase operation is initiated by using the proper
combination of control signals and by pulsing ALE/PROG low for a duration of
200 ns - 500 ns.

In the serial programming mode, a chip erase operation is initiated by issuing the Chip Erase
instruction. In this mode, chip erase is self-timed and takes about 500 ms. During
chip erase, a serial read from any address location will return 00H at the data

Programming the Flash – Serial Mode
The Code memory array can be programmed using the serial ISP interface while RST is pulled to
VCC. The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO
(output). After RST is set high, the Programming Enable instruction needs to be
executed first before other operations can be executed. Before a reprogramming
sequence can occur, a Chip Erase operation is required.

The Chip Erase operation turns the content of every memory location in the Code array into
FFH. Either an external system clock can be supplied at pin XTAL1 or a crystal
needs to be connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. The maximum serial
clock (SCK) frequency should be less than 1/16 of the crystal frequency. With a
33 MHz oscillator clock, the maximum SCK frequency is 2 MHz.

Serial Programming Algorithm

To program and verify the AT89S52 in the serial programming mode, the following sequence is

1. Power-up sequence:

a. Apply power between VCC and GND pins.

b. Set RST pin to “H”.

If a crystal is not connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2, apply a 3 MHz to 33 MHz clock to
XTAL1 pin and wait for at least 10 milliseconds.

2. Enable serial programming by sending the Programming Enable serial instruction to

pin MOSI/P1.5. The frequency of the shift clock supplied at pin SCK/P1.7
needs to be less than the CPU clock at XTAL1 divided by 16.

3. The Code array is programmed one byte at a time in either the Byte or Page mode. The write
cycle is self-timed and typically takes less than 0.5 ms at 5V.

4. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the content
at the selected address at serial output MISO/P1.6.

5. At the end of a programming session, RST can be set low to commence normal device

Power-off sequence (if needed):

1. Set XTAL1 to “L” (if a crystal is not used).

2. Set RST to “L”.

3. Turn VCC power off.

Data Polling:
The Data Polling feature is also available in the serial mode. In this mode, during a write cycle
an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the
MSB of the serial output byte on MISO.

Serial Programming Instruction Set

The Instruction Set for Serial Programming follows a 4-byte protocol and is shown in the table
given below.

Programming Interface – Parallel Mode
Every code byte in the Flash array can be programmed by using the appropriate combination of
control signals. The write operation cycle is self-timed and once initiated, will automatically time
itself to completion.

After Reset signal is high, SCK should be low for at least 64 system clocks before it goes high to
clock in the enable data bytes. No pulsing of Reset signal is necessary. SCK
should be no faster than 1/16 of the system clock at XTAL1.

For Page Read/Write, the data always starts from byte 0 to 255. After the command byte and
upper address byte are latched, each byte thereafter is treated as data until all 256 bytes are
shifted in/out. Then the next instruction will be ready to be decoded.

3.4 GPS Technology:

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite based navigation system that sends and
receives radio signals. A GPS receiver acquires these signals and provides the user with
information. Using GPS technology, one can determine location, velocity and time, 24 hours a
day, in any weather conditions anywhere in the world for free.

GPS was formally known as the NAVSTAR (Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging). Global
Positioning System was originally developed for military. Because of its popular navigation
capabilities and because GPS technology can be accessed using small, inexpensive equipment,

the government made the system available for civilian use. The USA owns GPS technology and
the Department of Defense maintains it.

A Brief History of Navigation Systems

Navigation can be defined as going from one place to another while logging your position
periodically and as necessary. In older times, our ancestors looked at the sky and made many
calculations to determine their location on earth. For hundreds of years, seamen used celestial
objects and this continued until the 1940s. Then, various navigation systems emerged like
DECCA, LORAN and OMEGA. However, all these required special charts and the positions
calculated were not pinpoint positions in many cases.

The GPS concept originated during the race to space between Russia and the United States.
U.S. scientists realized that they could monitor Sputnik’s transmissions and determine
its position in the sky by measuring the Doppler distortion of the signal’s frequency
between the satellite and their known position on earth. They realized that the converse
would also be true that if the satellites position was known then they could determine a
particular location on earth.

GPS satellites were first launched over 20 years ago in 1978, paid for by the American taxpayer.
However, it was not until 1993, when a full constellation of 24 satellites were deployed, that it
was considered fully operational. Early commercial applications in 1984 were ascertaining
position fixes on offshore oil rigs, and surveying, when GPS equipment was very expensive
($150K) as well as large and unwieldy.

Handheld units arrived on the scene in 1989 and their purchase price was $3,000, still not in the
price range for casual hobbyist users. However, by 1995 this barrier was crossed when handhelds
came down to $200 a unit, making it feasible for hunters, fishermen and hikers. Now GPS is
integrated into the cell phones, even though in most cases it has not been activated by the service
provider. CDMA cell sites use GPS for network synchronization. As a result of the current price
point of GPS receivers and increasing accuracy, GPS is showing up in many new personal and
business applications.

For national security reasons, the civilian signalled was originally deliberately injected with an
error factor, referred to as selective availability (SA). In May 2000, the government turned off
SA. It should be noted that the military can jam GPS signals over a particular geographic region
if necessary for national security purposes.

How GPS works

• GPS is funded by and controlled by the U. S. Department of Defense (DOD). While there
are many thousands of civil users of GPS worldwide, the system was designed for and is
operated by the U. S. military.
• GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver,
enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time.
• Four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions in three dimensions and the time
offset in the receiver clock.

The architectural components of GPS are typically referred to as the control segment (ground
stations), the space segment (satellites) and the user segment (receivers).

Space Segment
• The Space Segment of the system consists of the GPS satellites. These space vehicles
(SVs) send radio signals from space.
A minimum of 24 active satellites is required to be fully functional. These satellites are
constantly streaming data over a downlink. Their signals can be read by GPS receivers anywhere
in the world. However, the receiver must have a minimum of four satellites in view.

Buildings, terrain and electronic interference can block signal reception. The satellites vary in
age and have a lifespan of seven to twelve years and have to be replaced as they expire. Future
satellites will offer additional civilian signals. The progression of satellite series currently
operational starts with 16 II/IIA (in Block II), followed by 12 IIR. Most recently two of IIR-M
series were launched.

Control Segment-Ground Stations
• The Control Segment consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world.
There are six operational control system (OCS) monitoring stations and four ground antenna
stations. These stations track all GPS signals. Three of them are capable of uplinking to the
satellites. In other words, they both speak and listen to the satellites, updating them with regard
to clock corrections and satellite positions. They listen to the satellites to determine their health
by looking at their signal integrity and orbital position stability.

These ground control stations are all under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Defense
(DoD) and are positioned around the world. The master station is located in Colorado Springs at
the Air Force base. The master station can send commands to the satellites to make orbit
adjustments, upload new software and so on.

In 2005, additional feeds from an initial set of six National Geospatial Intelligence Agency
(NGA) stations were included in the OCS data processing and the OCS data modeling was
improved to be able to better use these additional data feeds.

User Segment-Receivers
These receivers read the available satellite signals to determine a user’s position, velocity and
time. Underlying how these components work together is the clock and the satellites’ orbit. To
get an accurate position fix, a receiver “sees” at least four satellites. The receiver uses the time
stamp from the satellite to determine the transmission delay. Getting this information
simultaneously from a minimum of four different satellites is what enables the calculation of a
user’s 3-D position. Position refers to the coordinates in 3-D space – in other words, not just
where one is standing, but how high. 2-D (latitude and longitude) can be determined with only 3
satellite signals.

Determining Position:
Upon taking in all available satellite signals, the receiver compares the time that the satellite sent
the signal to the time it was received for each of the available signals. Trilateralization (similar to
triangulation) then calculates the position by comparing the difference among the signals.

Goal of the Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS) includes 24 satellites, in circular orbits around Earth
with orbital period of 12 hours, distributed in six orbital planes equally spaced in angle.

Each satellite carries an operating atomic clock (along with several backup clocks) and emits
timed signals that include a code telling its location. By analyzing signals from at least four of
these satellites, a receiver on the surface of Earth with a built-in microprocessor can display the
location of the receiver (latitude, longitude and altitude).

Military versions decode the signal to provide position readings that are more accurate, the exact
accuracy. Civilian receivers are the approximate size of a hand-held calculator, cost a few
hundred dollars and provide a position accurate to 100 meters or so. GPS satellites are gradually
revolutionizing driving, flying, hiking, exploring, rescuing and map making.

The goal of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is to determine the position of a person or any
object on Earth in three dimensions: east-west, north-south and vertical (longitude, latitude and
altitude). Signals from three overhead satellites provide this information. Each satellite sends a
signal that codes where the satellite is and the time of emission of the signal. The receiver clock
times the reception of each signal, then subtracts the emission time to determine the time lapse
and hence how far the signal has traveled (at the speed of light).

This is the distance the satellite was from the object when it emitted the signal. In effect, three
spheres are constructed from these distances, one sphere centered on each satellite. Thus, the
object is located at the single point at which the three spheres intersect.

Operating Principles:
The basis of the GPS technology is a set of 24 satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth.
These satellites are equipped with atomic clocks and send out radio signals as to the exact time
and their location. These radio signals from the satellites are picked up by the GPS receiver.
Once the GPS receiver locks on to four or more of these satellites, it can triangulate its location
from the known positions of the satellites.

Regarding the issue of time, UTC time is the basis of all GPS time functions and calculations.
The receiver updates itself from the atomic clocks on the satellites. It is also very important to

understand that the receiver must know the time difference between the user location and of
Greenwich England or UTC time. This is a function in the set-up of all GPS receivers. With
many GPS manufacturers, this is referred to as Offset which is referring to the offset or
difference in time zones from the present location to UTC time.

The functionality of a receiver is dependent on the ability to receive signals from the satellites.
Certain locations such as under very thick foliage or down in the bottom of a slot canyon will
preclude the receiver from getting a good signal from enough satellites to determine the user
location. With many of the newer receivers however, these problems are minimal. All receivers
have warning messages when they are not getting sufficient signal to properly navigate.

Accuracy of GPS:
The accuracy of GPS depends on a number of factors, number of channels on the receiver,
number of satellites in view, and signal interference caused by buildings, mountains and
ionospheric disturbances. Accuracy should be within 15 meters (without SA) provided the
receiver has a clear shot at a minimum of four satellites.

There are several methods that can improve GPS accuracy. Two commonly discussed are
Differential GPS (DGPS) and Wide Area Augmentations System (WAAS). These improve
accuracy to within 1 to 3 meters. DGPS uses fixed, mounted GPS receivers to calculate the
difference between their actual known position and the calculated GPS position. This difference
is then broadcast over a local FM signal. GPS units within range of the local FM signal can
improve their position accuracy to within 1cm over short distances (but more typically 3-5

WAAS, developed and deployed by the FAA, takes this approach a step further. Today there are
25 WAAS ground stations networked together. These communicate errors back to the wide area
master station. The master station applies correction algorithms to the original GPS data stream
and sends a correction message to a geosynchronous satellite. This satellite then transmits on the
same signal as GPS satellites. This correction results in better than a 3 meter degree of accuracy.

Position Fix vs. Waypoints:
When a reading on GPS is taken, it gives a real-time position fix. The memory on the receiver
decides whether to store that information so that the user can return to that exact location and can
be saved in memory as a waypoint. Obviously, the number of waypoints to be stored depends on
how much available memory the receiver has.

GPS Receiver Set-Up:

To be able to properly use a GPS receiver, it needs to be set-up and initialized. Set-up establishes
the basic information about the units of distance, speed, Map Datum, Navigation Grid system,
time difference from Greenwich England or UTC time, and other basics.

The user’s manual that comes with each GPS receiver gives detailed instructions on the process
of selecting the options for initialization and set-up. This must be done to be able to use the unit
for navigation.

Factors that affect GPS

There are a number of potential error sources that affect either the GPS signal directly or the user
ability to produce optimal results:
• Number of satellites-minimum number required:
Atleast four common satellites must be tracked, the same four satellites at both the reference
receiver and rover for either DGPS or RTK solutions. Also to achieve centimeter -level
accuracy, it is necessary to have a fifth satellite for on-the fly RTK initialization. This extra
satellite adds a check on the internal calculation. Any additional satellites beyond five
provide even more checks, which is always useful.

• Multipath-reflection of GPS signals near the antenna:

Multipath is simply reflection of signals similar to the phenomenon of ghosting on our
television screen. GPS signals may be reflected by surfaces near the antennae, causing error
in the travel time and therefore error in the GPS positions.

• Ionosphere - change in the travel time of the signal:

Before GPS signals reach the antenna on the earth, they pass through a zone of charged
particles called the ionosphere, which changes the speed of the signal. If the reference fixed
by the user and rover receivers is relatively close together, the effect of ionosphere tends to
be minimal. And if a lower range of GPS precisions is used, the ionosphere is not a major
consideration. However if the rover is working too far from the reference station, problems
may arise, particularly with initializing the RTK fixed solution.

• Troposphere - change in the travel time of the signal:

Troposphere is essentially the weather zone of our atmosphere, and droplets of water vapour
in it can affect the speed of the signals. The vertical component of the GPS answer
(elevation) is particularly sensitive to the troposphere.

• Satellite Geometry - general distribution of the satellites:

Satellite Geometry or the distribution of satellites in the sky effects the computation of the
position of the user. This is often referred to as Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP).

PDOP is expressed as a number, where lower numbers are preferable to higher numbers. The
best results are obtained when PDOP is less than about 7. PDOP is determined by the
geographic location, the time of day of working and any site obstruction, which might block
satellites. When satellites are spread out, PDOP is Low (good). When satellites are closer
together, PDOP is High (weak).

• Satellite Health - Availability of Signal:

While the satellite system is robust and dependable, it is possible for the satellites to
occasionally be unhealthy. A satellite broadcasts its health status based on information from
the U.S. Department of Defense. The receivers have safeguards to protect against using data
from unhealthy satellites.

• Signal Strength - Quality of Signal :

The strength of the satellite signal depends on obstructions and the elevation of the satellites
above the horizon. To the extent it is possible, obstructions between the setup GPS antennae
and the sky should be avoided. It is also suggested to watch out for satellites which are close
to the horizon, because the signals are weaker.

• Distance from the Reference Receiver :
The effective range of a rover from a reference station depends primarily on the type of
accuracy trying to achieve. For the highest real time accuracy (RTK fixed), rovers should be
within about 10-15 Km (about 6-9 miles) of the reference station. As the range exceeds this
recommended limit, it is difficult to initialize and will be restricted to RTK float solutions
(decimeter accuracy).

• Radio Frequency (RF) Interference:

RF interference may sometimes be a problem both for GPS reception and the radio system.
Some sources of RF interference include:

o Radio towers
o Transmitters
o Satellite dishes
o Generators

One should be particularly careful of sources which transmit either near the GPS frequencies
(1227 and 1575 MHz) or near harmonics (multiples) of these frequencies. One should also be
aware of the RF generated by his own machines.

• Loss of Radio Transmission from Base:

If, for any reason, there is an interruption in the radio link between a reference receiver and a
rover, then the rover is left with an autonomous position. It is very important to set up a
network of radios and repeaters, which can provide the uninterrupted radio link needed for
the best GPS results.

GPS Receiver:
When people talk about "a GPS," they usually mean a GPS receiver. The Global Positioning
System (GPS) is actually a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites (24 in operation and
three extras in case one fails).

A GPS receiver's job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each,
and use this information to deduce its own location. This operation is based on a simple
mathematical principle called trilateration. Trilateration in three-dimensional space can be a
little tricky.

Trilateration in GPS
Global Positioning System (GPS) navigators use the mathematical technique of trilateration to
determine user position, speed, and elevation. GPS navigators constantly receive and analyze
radio signals from GPS satellites, calculating precise distance (range) to each satellite being

The data from a single satellite narrows position down to a large area of the earth's surface.
Adding data from a second satellite narrows position down to the region where two spheres
overlap. Adding data from a third satellite (see illustration) provides relatively accurate position.
Data from a fourth satellite (or more) enhances precision and also the ability to determine

accurate elevation or altitude (in the case of aircraft). GPS receivers routinely track 4 to 7 or
more satellites simultaneously.

If a GPS navigator is receiving insufficient satellite data (not able to track enough satellites) it
will notify the user, rather than providing incorrect position information.

GPS Calculations
At a particular time (let's say midnight), the satellite begins transmitting a long, digital pattern
called a pseudo-random code. The receiver begins running the same digital pattern also exactly
at midnight. When the satellite's signal reaches the receiver, its transmission of the pattern will
lag a bit behind the receiver's playing of the pattern.

The length of the delay is equal to the signal's travel time. The receiver multiplies this time by
the speed of light to determine how far the signal travelled. Assuming the signal travelled in
a straight line, this is the distance from receiver to satellite.

In order to make this measurement, the receiver and satellite both need clocks that can be
synchronized down to the nanosecond. To make a satellite positioning system using only

synchronized clocks, atomic clocks are needed not only on all the satellites, but also in the
receiver. But atomic clocks cost somewhere between $50,000 and $100,000, which makes them
a just a bit too expensive for everyday consumer use.

The Global Positioning System has a clever, effective solution to this problem. Every satellite
contains an expensive atomic clock, but the receiver itself uses an ordinary quartz clock, which it
constantly resets. In a nutshell, the receiver looks at incoming signals from four or more satellites
and gauges its own inaccuracy. In other words, there is only one value for the current time that
the receiver can use. The correct time value will cause all of the signals that the receiver is
receiving to align at a single point in space. That time value is the time value held by the atomic
clocks in all of the satellites. So the receiver sets its clock to that time value and thus has the
same time value that all the atomic clocks in all of the satellites have. The GPS receiver gets
atomic clock accuracy for free.

When the distance to four located satellites is measured, four spheres that all intersect at one
point can be drawn. Three spheres will intersect even if the given numbers are way off, but four
spheres will not intersect at one point if measured incorrectly. Since the receiver makes all its
distance measurements using its own built-in clock, the distances will all be proportionally

The receiver can easily calculate the necessary adjustment that will cause the four spheres to
intersect at one point. Based on this, it resets its clock to be in sync with the satellite's atomic
clock. The receiver does this constantly whenever it's on, which means it is nearly as accurate as
the expensive atomic clocks in the satellites.

In order for the distance information to be of any use, the receiver also has to know where the
satellites actually are. This isn't particularly difficult because the satellites travel in very high and
predictable orbits. The GPS receiver simply stores an almanac that tells it where every satellite
should be at any given time. Things like the pull of the moon and the sun change the satellites'
orbits very slightly, but the Department of Defense constantly monitors their exact positions and
transmits any adjustments to all GPS receivers as part of the satellites' signals.

The most essential function of a GPS receiver is to pick up the transmissions of at least four
satellites and combine the information in those transmissions with information in an electronic
almanac, all in order to figure out the receiver's position on Earth.

Once the receiver makes this calculation, it can provide the latitude, longitude and altitude (or
some similar measurement) of its current position. To make the navigation more user-friendly,
most receivers plug this raw data into map files stored in memory.

A standard GPS receiver will not only place the user on a map at any particular location, but will
also trace the path across a map as the user moves. If a receiver is left on, it can stay in constant
communication with GPS satellites to see how the user location is changing. With this
information and its built-in clock, the receiver can give several pieces of valuable information:

• How far the person have travelled (odometer)

• How long he has been traveling
• The current speed (speedometer)
• The average speed
• The estimated time of arrival at the destination if he maintains the current speed.

GPS Applications
One of the most significant and unique features of the Global Positioning Systems is the fact that
the positioning signal is available to users in any position worldwide at any time. With a fully
operational GPS system, it can be generated to a large community of likely to grow as there are
multiple applications, ranging from surveying, mapping and navigation to GIS data capture. The
GPS will soon be a part of the overall utility of technology.

There are countless GPs applications, a few important ones are covered in the following section.

Surveying and Mapping

The high precision of GPS carrier phase measurements, together with appropriate adjustment
algorithms, provides an adequate tool for a variety of tasks for surveying and mapping. Using
DGPs methods, accurate and timely mapping of almost anything can be carried out. The GPS is

used to map cut blocks, road alignments, and environmental hazards such as landslides, forest
fires, and oil spills. Applications, such as cadastral mapping, needing a high degree of accuracy
also can be carried out using high grade GPS receivers. Continuous kinematic techniques can be
used for topographic surveys and accurate linear mapping.

Navigation using GPS can save countless hours in the field. Any feature, even if it is under
water, can be located up to one hundred meters simply by scaling coordinates from a map,
entering waypoints and going directly to the site. Examples include road intersections, corner
posts, plot canters, accident sites, geological formations etc. GPS navigation in helicopters, in
vehicles, or in a ship can provide an easy means of navigation with substantial savings.

Remote Sensing and GIS

It is also possible to integrate GPS positioning into remote-sensing methods such as
photogrammetry and aerial scanning, magnetometry and video technology. Using DGPS or
kinematic techniques, depending upon the accuracy required, real time or post-processing will
provide positions for the sensor which can be projected to the ground, instead of having ground
control projected to an image. GPS are becoming very effective tools for GIS data capture.

The GIS user community benefits from the use of GPS for locational data capture in various GIS
applications. The GPS can easily be linked to a laptop computer in the field, and, with
appropriate software, users can also have all their data on a common base with every little
distortion. Thus GPS can help in several aspects of construction of accurate and timely GIS

Geodetic mapping and other control surveys can be carried out effectively using high-grade GPs
equipment. Especially when helicopters were used or when the line of sight is not possible, GPS
can set new standards of accuracy and productivity.

The GPS was primarily developed for real time military positioning. Military applications
include airborne, marine, and land navigation.

Future of GPS Technology

Barring significant new complications due to S/A (Selective Availability) from DOD, the GPS
industry is likely to continue to develop in the civilian community. There are currently more than
50 manufacturers of GPs receivers, with the trend continuing to be towards smaller, less
expensive, and more easily operated devices. While highly accurate, portable (hand-held)
receivers are already available, current speculation envisions inexpensive and equally accurate
'wristwatch locators' and navigational guidance systems for automobiles. However, there is one
future trend that will be very relevant to the GIS user community, namely, community base
stations and regional receive networks, as GPS management and technological innovations that
will make GPS surveying easier and more accurate.

3.5 Serial Communication:

The main requirements for serial communication are:
1. Microcontroller
2. PC
3. RS 232 cable
4. MAX 232 IC
5. HyperTerminal

When the pins P3.0 and P3.1 of microcontroller are set, UART which is inbuilt in the
microcontroller will be enabled to start the serial communication.

The 8051 has two timers: Timer 0 and Timer 1. They can be used either as timers to generate a
time delay or as counters to count events happening outside the microcontroller.

Both Timer 0 and Timer 1 are 16-bit wide. Since the 8051 has an 8-bit architecture, each 16-bit
timer is accessed as two separate registers of low byte and high byte.

Lower byte register of Timer 0 is TL0 and higher byte is TH0. Similarly lower byte register of
Timer1 is TL1 and higher byte register is TH1.

TMOD (timer mode) register:

Both timers 0 and 1 use the same register TMOD to set the various operation modes. TMOD is
an 8-bit register in which the lower 4 bits are set aside for Timer 0 and the upper 4 bits for Timer
1. In each case, the lower 2 bits are used to set the timer mode and the upper 2 bits to specify the

Every timer has a means of starting and stopping. Some timers do this by software, some by
hardware and some have both software and hardware controls. The timers in the 8051 have both.
The start and stop of the timer are controlled by the way of software by the TR (timer start) bits
TR0 and TR1. These instructions start and stop the timers as long as GATE=0 in the TMOD
register. The hardware way of starting and stopping the timer by an external source is achieved
by making GATE=1 in the TMOD register.

Timer or counter selected. Cleared for timer operation and set for counter operation.

Mode bit 1

Mode bit 0

Mode Selection
M1 M0 Mode Operating Mode
0 0 0 13-bit timer mode
8-bit timer/counter THx with TLx as 5-bit prescaler
0 1 1 16-bit timer mode
16-bit timer/counters THx and TLx are cascaded
1 0 2 8-bit auto reload timer/counter
THx holds a value that is to be reloaded into TLx each time
it overflows
1 1 3 Split timer mode

The mode used here to generate a time delay is MODE 2. This mode 2 is an 8-bit timer and
therefore it allows only values of 00H to FFH to be loaded into the timer’s register TH. After TH
is loaded with the 8-bit value, the 8051 give a copy of it to TL. When the timer starts, it starts to
count up by incrementing the TL register. It counts up until it reaches its limit of FFH. When it
rolls over from FFH to 00H, it sets high the TF (timer flag). If Timer 0 is used, TF0 goes high
and if Timer 1 is used, TF1 goes high. When the TL register rolls from FFH to 0 and TF is set to
1, TL is reloaded automatically with the original value kept by the TH register.

Asynchronous and Synchronous Serial Communication

Computers transfer data in two ways: parallel and serial. In parallel data transfers, often 8 or
more lines are used to transfer data to a device that is only a few feet away. Although a lot of
data can be transferred in a short amount of time by using many wires in parallel, the distance
cannot be great. To transfer to a device located many meters away, the serial method is best

In serial communication, the data is sent one bit at a time. The 8051 has serial communication
capability built into it, thereby making possible fast data transfer using only a few wires.

The fact that serial communication uses a single data line instead of the 8-bit data line instead of
the 8-bit data line of parallel communication not only makes it cheaper but also enables two
computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone.

Serial data communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous. The synchronous
method transfers a block of data at a time, while the asynchronous method transfers a single byte
at a time. With synchronous communications, the two devices initially synchronize themselves to
each other, and then continually send characters to stay in sync. Even when data is not really
being sent, a constant flow of bits allows each device to know where the other is at any given
time. That is, each character that is sent is either actual data or an idle character. Synchronous
communications allows faster data transfer rates than asynchronous methods, because additional
bits to mark the beginning and end of each data byte are not required. The serial ports on IBM-
style PCs are asynchronous devices and therefore only support asynchronous serial

Asynchronous means "no synchronization", and thus does not require sending and receiving idle
characters. However, the beginning and end of each byte of data must be identified by start and
stop bits. The start bit indicates when the data byte is about to begin and the stop bit signals when
it ends. The requirement to send these additional two bits causes asynchronous communication to
be slightly slower than synchronous however it has the advantage that the processor does not
have to deal with the additional idle characters.

There are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. These
chips are commonly referred to as UART(universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter) and
USART(universal synchronous-asynchronous receiver-transmitter). The 8051 has a built-in

In the asynchronous method, the data such as ASCII characters are packed between a start and a
stop bit. The start bit is always one bit, but the stop bit can be one or two bits. The start bit is
always a 0 (low) and stop bit (s) is 1 (high). This is called framing.

The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated as bps (bits per second). Another
widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. The data transfer rate of a given computer system
depends on communication ports incorporated into that system. And in asynchronous serial data
communication, this baud rate is generally limited to 100,000bps. The baud rate is fixed to
9600bps in order to interface with the microcontroller using a crystal of 11.0592 MHz.

To allow compatibility among data communication equipment, an interfacing standard called
RS232 is used. Since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its
input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. For this reason, to connect any RS232 to
a microcontroller system, voltage converters such as MAX232 are used to convert the TTL logic
levels to the RS232 voltage levels and vice versa.

MAX 232:
Max232 IC is a specialized circuit which makes standard voltages as required by RS232
standards. This IC provides best noise rejection and very reliable against discharges and short
circuits. MAX232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers.

To ensure data transfer between PC and microcontroller, the baud rate and voltage levels of
Microcontroller and PC should be the same. The voltage levels of microcontroller are logic1 and
logic 0 i.e., logic 1 is +5V and logic 0 is 0V. But for PC, RS232 voltage levels are considered
and they are: logic 1 is taken as -3V to -25V and logic 0 as +3V to +25V. So, in order to equal
these voltage levels, MAX232 IC is used. Thus this IC converts RS232 voltage levels to
microcontroller voltage levels and vice versa.

Interfacing max232 with microcontroller:

SCON (serial control) register:

The SCON register is an 8-bit register used to program the start bit, stop bit and data bits of data

SM0 SCON.7 Serial port mode specifier
SM1 SCON.6 Serial port mode specifier
SM2 SCON.5 Used for multiprocessor communication
REN SCON.4 Set/cleared by software to enable/disable reception
TB8 SCON.3 Not widely used
RB8 SCON.2 Not widely used
TI SCON.1 Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the
beginning of the stop bit in mode 1. Must be
cleared by software.
RI SCON.0 Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the
beginning of the stop bit in mode 1. Must be
cleared by software.


0 0 Serial Mode 0
0 1 Serial Mode 1, 8-bit data, 1 stop bit, 1 start bit
1 0 Serial Mode 2
1 1 Serial Mode 3

Of the four serial modes, only mode 1 is widely used. In the SCON register, when serial mode 1
is chosen, the data framing is 8 bits, 1 stop bit and 1 start bit, which makes it compatible with the
COM port of IBM/ compatible PC’s. And the most important is serial mode 1 allows the baud
rate to be variable and is set by Timer 1 of the 8051. In serial mode 1, for each character a total
of 10 bits are transferred, where the first bit is the start bit, followed by 8 bits of data and finally
1 stop bit.

8051 Interface with any External Devices using Serial Communication:

3.6 Switches and Pushbuttons

This is the simplest way of controlling appearance of some voltage on microcontroller’s input
pin. There is also no need for additional explanation of how these components operate.

This is about something commonly unnoticeable when using these components in everyday life.
It is about contact bounce, a common problem with mechanical switches. If contact switching
does not happen so quickly, several consecutive bounces can be noticed prior to maintain stable
state. The reasons for this are: vibrations, slight rough spots and dirt. Anyway, this whole process
does not last long (a few micro- or milliseconds), but long enough to be registered by the
microcontroller. Concerning the pulse counter, error occurs in almost 100% of cases.

The simplest solution is to connect simple RC circuit which will suppress each quick voltage
change. Since the bouncing time is not defined, the values of elements are not strictly
determined. In the most cases, the values shown on figure are sufficient.

If complete safety is needed, radical measures should be taken. The circuit (RS flip-flop) changes
logic state on its output with the first pulse triggered by contact bounce. Even though this is more
expensive solution (SPDT switch), the problem is definitely resolved. Besides, since the
condensator is not used, very short pulses can be also registered in this way. In addition to these
hardware solutions, a simple software solution is also commonly applied. When a program tests
the state of some input pin and finds changes, the check should be done one more time after
certain time delay. If the change is confirmed, it means that switch (or pushbutton) has changed
its position. The advantages of such solution are: it is free of charge, effects of disturbances are
eliminated and it can be adjusted to the worst-quality contacts.

Switch Interfacing with 8051:

In 8051 PORT 1, PORT 2 & PORT 3 have internal 10k Pull-up resistors whereas this Pull-up
resistor is absent in PORT 0. Hence PORT 1, 2 & 3 can be directly used to interface a switch
whereas we have to use an external 10k pull-up resistor for PORT 0 to be used for switch

interfacing or for any other input. Figure 1 shows switch interfacing for PORT 1, 2 & 3. Figure 2
shows switch interfacing to PORT 0.

For any pin to be used as an input pin, a HIGH (1) should be written to the pin if the pin will
always to be read as LOW. In the above figure, when the switch is not pressed, the 10k resistor
provides the current needed for LOGIC 1 and closure of switch provides LOGIC 0 to the
controller PIN.

3.7 IR Section:

TSAL6200 is a high efficiency infrared emitting diode in GaAlAs on GaAs technology, molded
in clear, bluegrey tinted plastic packages. In comparison with the standard GaAs on GaAs
technology these emitters achieve more than 100 % radiant power improvement at a similar
wavelength. The forward voltages at low current and at high pulse current roughly correspond to
the low values of the standard technology. Therefore these emitters are ideally suitable as high
performance replacements of standard emitters.


• Extra high radiant power and radiant intensity
• High reliability
• Low forward voltage
• Suitable for high pulse current operation
• Standard T-1¾ (∅ 5 mm) package
• Angle of half intensity ϕ = ± 17°
• Peak wavelength λp = 940 nm
• Good spectral matching to Si photodetectors

• Infrared remote control units with high power requirements
• Free air transmission systems
• Infrared source for optical counters and card readers
• IR source for smoke detectors.

Most photo-detecting modules for industrial use are using modulated light to avoid
interference by the ambient light. The detected signal is filtered with a band pass filter and
disused signals are filtered out. Therefore, only the modulated signal from the light emitter can
be detected. Of course, the detector must not be saturated by ambient light because it is effective
when the detector is working in its linear region.

In this project, pulsed light is used to cancel ambient light. This is suitable for arrayed
sensors that are scanned in sequence to avoid interference from the next sensor. The
microcontroller starts to scan the sensor status, sample the output voltage, turns on the LED and
samples again the output voltage. The difference between the two samples is the optical current
created by the LED, as the output voltage produced by the ambient light is canceled. The other
sensors are also scanned the same way in sequence.

The IR TX and RX are placed adjacent to each other. The TX transmits the IR radiation
continuously and these will pass away when there is no object interrupting the signal. The IR
receiver does not receive the IR radiation in this case. When there is an obstacle or when some
one interrupts the IR signal, the rays transmitted by the IR transmitter will get reflected back and
these reflected rays will be received by the IR receiver. Thus, the IR receiver receives the signal
now in this case. The microcontroller detects this change and does the necessary action.

IR Rx:
The TSOP17.. – series are miniaturized receivers for infrared remote control systems. PIN diode
and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, the epoxy package is designed as IR filter. The
demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microprocessor. TSOP17XX is the
standard IR remote control receiver series, supporting all major transmission codes.

• Photo detector and preamplifier in one package
• Internal filter for PCM frequency
• Improved shielding against electrical field disturbance

• TTL and CMOS compatibility
• Output active low
• Low power consumption
• High immunity against ambient light
• Continuous data transmission possible (up to 2400 bps)
• Suitable burst length .10 cycles/burst.

Block Diagram

Application Circuit

The circuit of the TSOP17.. is designed in that way that unexpected output pulses due to noise or
disturbance signals are avoided. A bandpass filter, an integrator stage and an automatic gain
control are used to suppress such disturbances. The distinguishing mark between data signal and
disturbance signal are carrier frequency, burst length and duty cycle.

The data signal should fulfill the following condition:
1. Carrier frequency should be close to center frequency of the band pass (e.g. 38 kHz).
2. Burst length should be 10 cycles/ burst or longer.
3. After each burst which is between 10 cycles and 70 cycles a gap time of at least 14 cycles
is necessary.
4. For each burst which is longer than 1.8ms a corresponding gap time is necessary at some
time in the data stream. This gap time should have at least same length as the burst.
5. Up to 1400 short bursts per second can be received continuously.

When a disturbance signal is applied to the TSOP17.. it can still receive the data signal.
However the sensitivity is reduced to that level that no unexpected pulses will occur.


LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD is finding wide spread use replacing LEDs (seven
segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs) because of the following reasons:

1. The declining prices of LCDs.

2. The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs,
which are limited to numbers and a few characters.
3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the
task of refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep
displaying the data.
4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

These components are “specialized” for being used with the microcontrollers, which means that
they cannot be activated by standard IC circuits. They are used for writing different messages on
a miniature LCD.

A model described here is for its low price and great possibilities most frequently used in
practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two
lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the alphabets, Greek letters, punctuation marks,
mathematical symbols etc. In addition, it is possible to display symbols that user makes up on its
Automatic shifting message on display (shift left and right), appearance of the pointer, backlight
etc. are considered as useful characteristics.

Pins Functions
There are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the
microcontroller. There are total of 14 pins marked with numbers (16 in case the background light
is built in). Their function is described in the table below:

Pin Logic
Function Name Description
Number State

Ground 1 Vss - 0V

Power supply 2 Vdd - +5V

Contrast 3 Vee - 0 – Vdd

Control of D0 – D7 are interpreted as

operating 4 RS commands
D0 – D7 are interpreted as data

5 R/W 0 Write data (from controller to

1 LCD)
Read data (from LCD to


0 Access to LCD disabled

1 Normal operating
6 E
From 1 to Data/commands are transferred to

7 D0 0/1 Bit 0 LSB

8 D1 0/1 Bit 1

9 D2 0/1 Bit 2

10 D3 0/1 Bit 3
Data / commands
11 D4 0/1 Bit 4

12 D5 0/1 Bit 5

13 D6 0/1 Bit 6

14 D7 0/1 Bit 7 MSB

LCD screen:
LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of 5x7 dot
matrix. Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are
displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied on pin marked as
Vee. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have
built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during operating, a resistor for current
limitation should be used (like with any LE diode).

LCD Basic Commands
All data transferred to LCD through outputs D0-D7 will be interpreted as commands or as data,
which depends on logic state on pin RS:

RS = 1 - Bits D0 - D7 are addresses of characters that should be displayed. Built in processor

addresses built in “map of characters” and displays corresponding symbols. Displaying position
is determined by DDRAM address. This address is either previously defined or the address of
previously transferred character is automatically incremented.

RS = 0 - Bits D0 - D7 are commands which determine display mode. List of commands which
LCD recognizes are given in the table below:

Command RS RW D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

Clear display 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1.64Ms

Cursor home 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 x 1.64mS

Entry mode set 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 S 40uS

Display on/off control 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 D U B 40uS

Cursor/Display Shift 0 0 0 0 0 1 D/C R/L x x 40uS

Function set 0 0 0 0 1 DL N F x x 40uS

Set CGRAM address 0 0 0 1 CGRAM address 40uS

Set DDRAM address 0 0 1 DDRAM address 40uS

Read “BUSY” flag (BF) 0 1 BF DDRAM address -

Write to CGRAM or
1 0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 40uS

Read from CGRAM or

1 1 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 40uS

I/D 1 = Increment (by 1) R/L 1 = Shift right

0 = Decrement (by 1) 0 = Shift left

S 1 = Display shift on DL 1 = 8-bit interface

0 = Display shift off 0 = 4-bit interface

D 1 = Display on N 1 = Display in two lines

0 = Display off 0 = Display in one line

U 1 = Cursor on F 1 = Character format 5x10 dots

0 = Cursor off 0 = Character format 5x7 dots

B 1 = Cursor blink on D/C 1 = Display shift

0 = Cursor blink off 0 = Cursor shift

LCD Connection
Depending on how many lines are used for connection to the microcontroller, there are 8-bit and
4-bit LCD modes. The appropriate mode is determined at the beginning of the process in a phase
called “initialization”. In the first case, the data are transferred through outputs D0-D7 as it has

been already explained. In case of 4-bit LED mode, for the sake of saving valuable I/O pins of
the microcontroller, there are only 4 higher bits (D4-D7) used for communication, while other
may be left unconnected.

Consequently, each data is sent to LCD in two steps: four higher bits are sent first (that normally
would be sent through lines D4-D7), four lower bits are sent afterwards. With the help of
initialization, LCD will correctly connect and interpret each data received. Besides, with regards
to the fact that data are rarely read from LCD (data mainly are transferred from microcontroller
to LCD) one more I/O pin may be saved by simple connecting R/W pin to the Ground. Such
saving has its price.

Even though message displaying will be normally performed, it will not be possible to read from
busy flag since it is not possible to read from display.

LCD Initialization
Once the power supply is turned on, LCD is automatically cleared. This process lasts for
approximately 15mS. After that, display is ready to operate. The mode of operating is set by
default. This means that:
1. Display is cleared
2. Mode
DL = 1 Communication through 8-bit interface
N = 0 Messages are displayed in one line
F = 0 Character font 5 x 8 dots
3. Display/Cursor on/off
D = 0 Display off
U = 0 Cursor off
B = 0 Cursor blink off
4. Character entry
ID = 1 Addresses on display are automatically incremented by 1
S = 0 Display shift off

Automatic reset is mainly performed without any problems. If for any reason power supply
voltage does not reach full value in the course of 10mS, display will start perform completely

If voltage supply unit cannot meet this condition or if it is needed to provide completely safe
operating, the process of initialization by which a new reset enabling display to operate normally
must be applied.

Algorithm according to the initialization is being performed depends on whether connection to

the microcontroller is through 4- or 8-bit interface. All left over to be done after that is to give
basic commands and of course- to display messages.

Contrast control:
To have a clear view of the characters on the LCD, contrast should be adjusted. To adjust the
contrast, the voltage should be varied. For this, a preset is used which can behave like a variable
voltage device. As the voltage of this preset is varied, the contrast of the LCD can be adjusted.

Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three terminals connected. This arrangement
is normally used to vary voltage, for example to set the switching point of a circuit with a
sensor, or control the volume (loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the terminals at the ends of the
track are connected across the power supply, then the wiper terminal will provide a voltage
which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply.

These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. They are designed to be mounted
directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. For example, to set the
frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit, a small screwdriver or
similar tool is required to adjust presets.

Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects
where a standard variable resistor would normally be used.

Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. The screw must be
turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other, giving very
fine control.

LCD interface with the microcontroller (4-bit mode):

3.9 L293D- Current Driver

• Wide Supply-Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V
• Separate Input-Logic Supply
• Internal ESD Protection
• Thermal Shutdown
• High-Noise-Immunity Inputs
• Functionally Similar to SGS L293 and SGS L293D
• Output Current 1 A Per Channel (600 mA for L293D)
• Peak Output Current 2 A Per Channel (1.2 A for L293D)
• Output Clamp Diodes for Inductive Transient Suppression (L293D)

The L293 and L293D are quadruple high-current half-H drivers. The L293 is designed to provide
bidirectional drive currents of up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. The L293D is designed
to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 600-mA at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. Both
devices are designed to drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, dc and bipolar stepping
motors, as well as other high-current/high-voltage loads in positive-supply applications.

All inputs are TTL compatible. Each output is a complete totem-pole drive circuit, with a
Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo- Darlington source. Drivers are enabled in pairs, with
drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4 enabled by 3,4EN. When an enable input is

high, the associated drivers are enabled and their outputs are active and in phase with their
inputs. When the enable input is low, those drivers are disabled and their outputs are off and in
the high-impedance state. With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H (or
bridge) reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications. On the L293, external high-
speed output clamp diodes should be used for inductive transient suppression.

A VCC1 terminal, separate from VCC2, is provided for the logic inputs to minimize device
power dissipation. The L293 and L293D are characterized for operation from 0 to 70 degree

This chip contains 4 enable pins. Each enable pin corresponds to 2 inputs. Based on the input
values given, the device connected to this IC works accordingly.

L293D Interfacing with 8051:

3.10 Electric Motors:

Electric motors are used to efficiently convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Magnetism is the basis of their principles of operation. They use permanent magnets,
electromagnets, and exploit the magnetic properties of materials in order to create these amazing

There are several types of electric motors available today. The following outline gives an
overview of several popular ones. There are two main classes of motors: AC and DC. AC motors
require an alternating current or voltage source (like the power coming out of the wall outlets in
your house) to make them work. DC motors require a direct current or voltage source (like the
voltage coming out of batteries) to make them work. Universal motors can work on either type of
power. Not only is the construction of the motors different, but the means used to control the
speed and torque created by each of these motors also varies, although the principles of power
conversion are common to both.

Motors are used just about everywhere. In our house, there is a motor in the furnace for the
blower, for the intake air, in the sump well, dehumidifier, in the kitchen in the exhaust hood

above the stove, microwave fan, refrigerator compressor and cooling fan, can opener, garbage
disposer, dish washer pump, clocks, computer fans, ceiling fans, and many more items.

In industry, motors are used to move, lift, rotate, accelerate, brake, lower and spin material in
order to coat, paint, punch, plate, make or form steel, film, paper, tissue, aluminum, plastic and
other raw materials.

They range in power ratings from less than 1/100 hp to over 100,000 hp. The rotate as slowly as
0.001 rpm to over 100,000 rpm. They range in physical size from as small as the head of a pin to
the size of a locomotive engine.

What happens when a wire carrying current is within a magnetic field?

This is the Left Hand Rule for motors.

The first finger points in the direction of the magnetic field (first - field), which goes from the
North pole to the South pole.
The second finger points in the direction of the current in the wire (second - current).
The thumb then points in the direction the wire is thrust or pushed while in the magnetic field
(thumb - torque or thrust).

So, when a wire carrying current is perpendicular to a magnetic field, a force is created on the
wire causing it to move perpendicular to the field and direction of current. The greater the
current in the wire, or the greater the magnetic field, the faster the wire moves because of the
greater force created. If the current in the wire is parallel to the magnetic field, there will be no
force on the wire.

DC Motors

DC motors are fairly simple to understand. They are also simple to make and only require a
battery or dc supply to make them run.

A simple motor has six parts, as shown in the diagram below:

• Armature or rotor
• Commutator
• Brushes
• Axle
• Field magnet
• DC power supply of some sort

An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion.
If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets:
Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north"
and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other
hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will
repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational

The armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the
field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it is not in order to save

When you put all of these parts together, here is a complete electric motor:

In the above figure, the armature winding has been left out so that it is easier to see the
commutator in action. The key thing to notice is that as the armature passes through the
horizontal position, the poles of the electromagnet flip. Because of the flip, the north pole of the

electromagnet is always above the axle so it can repel the field magnet's north pole and attract
the field magnet's south pole.

Even a small electric motor contains the same pieces described above: two small permanent
magnets, a commutator, two brushes, and an electromagnet made by winding wire around a
piece of metal. Almost always, however, the rotor will have three poles rather than the two poles
as shown in this article. There are two good reasons for a motor to have three poles:
• It causes the motor to have better dynamics. In a two-pole motor, if the electromagnet is
at the balance point, perfectly horizontal between the two poles of the field magnet when
the motor starts, one can imagine the armature getting "stuck" there. This never happens
in a three-pole motor.
• Each time the commutator hits the point where it flips the field in a two-pole motor, the
commutator shorts out the battery (directly connects the positive and negative terminals)
for a moment. This shorting wastes energy and drains the battery needlessly. A three-pole
motor solves this problem as well.

It is possible to have any number of poles, depending on the size of the motor and the specific
application it is being used in.

Types of Motors
Split Phase
The split phase motor is mostly used for "medium starting" applications. It has start and run
windings, both are energized when the motor is started. When the motor reaches about 75% of its
rated full load speed, the starting winding is disconnected by an automatic switch.
Uses: This motor is used where stops and starts are somewhat frequent. Common applications of
split phase motors include: fans, blowers, office machines and tools such as small saws or drill
presses where the load is applied after the motor has obtained its operating speed.

Capacitor Start
This motor has a capacitor in series with a starting winding and provides more than double the
starting torque with one third less starting current than the split phase motor. Because of this

improved starting ability, the capacitor start motor is used for loads which are hard to start. It has
good efficiency and requires starting currents of approximately five times full load current. The
capacitor and starting windings are disconnected from the circuit by an automatic switch when
the motor reaches about 75% of its rated full load speed.
Uses: Common uses include: compressors, pumps, machine tools, air conditioners, conveyors,
blowers, fans and other hard to start applications.

Horsepower & RPM

Electric motors are rated by horsepower, the home shop will probably utilize motors from 1/4 HP
for small tools and up to 5 HP on air compressors. Not all motors are rated the same, some are
rated under load, others as peak horsepower and hence we have 5 HP compressors with huge
motors and 5 Hp shopvacs with tiny little motors. Unfortunately all 5 HP compressor motors are
not equal in actual power either, to judge the true horsepower the easiest way is to look at the
amperage of the motor. Electric motors are not efficient, most have a rating of about 50% due to
factors such as heat and friction and some may be as high as 70%.

This chart will give a basic idea of the true horse power rating compared to the ampere rating.
Motors with a higher efficiency rating will draw fewer amps, for example a 5 HP motor with a
50% efficiency rating will draw about 32 amps at 230 VAC compared to about 23 amps for a
motor with a 70% rating.

A quick general calculation when looking at a motor is 1 HP = 10 amps on 110 volts and 1 HP =
5 amps on 220 volts.

The shaft on a typical shop motor will rotate at either 1725 or 3450 RPM (revolutions per

The speed of the driven machine will be determined by the size of pulleys used, for example a
3450 RPM motor can be replaced by a 1750 RPM motor if the diameter of the pulley on the
motor is doubled. The opposite is true as well but if the pulley on the 1750 RPM motor is small it
is not always possible to replace it with one half the size. It may be possible to double the pulley
size on the driven machine if it uses a standard type of pulley, (not easily done on air
compressors for example).

Electronic speed reducers such as the ones sold for routers will not work on induction type

Phase, Voltage & Rotation

Whether or not you can use a motor will likely depend on these factors.

Single Phase
Ordinary household wiring is single phase, alternating current. Each cycle peaks and dips as
shown. To run a three phase motor a phase converter must be used, usually this is not practical, it
is often less expensive to change the motor on a machine to a single phase style.

Three Phase
This is used in industrial shops, rather than peaks and valleys the current supply is more even
because of the other two cycles each offset by 120 degrees.

Many motors are dual voltage i.e., by simply changing the wiring configuration, they can be run
on 110 volts or 220 volts. Motors usually run better on 220 volts, especially if there is any line
loss because of having to use a long wire to reach the power supply.

Motors are available for both AC and DC current, our typical home wiring will be AC. There are
DC converters available which are used in applications where the speed of the motor is

The direction the shaft rotates can be changed on most motors by switching the right wires. The
direction of rotation is usually determined by viewing the motor from the shaft end and is
designated as CW (clockwise) or CCW (counter-clockwise).

Inside the Wipers

The wipers combine two mechanical technologies to perform their task
1. A combination electric motor and worm gear reduction provides power to the wipers.
2. A neat linkage converts the rotational output of the motor into the back-and-forth motion
of the wipers.

On any gear, the ratio is determined by the distances from the center of the gear to the
point of contact. For instance, in a device with two gears, if one gear is twice the diameter of the
other, the ratio would be 2:1.
One of the most primitive types of gears we could look at would be a wheel with wooden
pegs sticking out of it.
The problem with this type of gear is that the distance from the center of each gear to the
point of contact changes as the gears rotate. This means that the gear ratio changes as the gear
turns, meaning that the output speed also changes. If you used a gear like this in your car, it
would be impossible to maintain a constant speed you would be accelerating and decelerating

Worm gears
These are used when large gear reductions are needed. It is common for worm gears to
have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater.

Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can
easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is because the angle on the worm is
so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between the gear and the worm holds
the worm in place. The worm gear is shown in the below figure.

Motor and Gear Reduction
It takes a lot of force to accelerate the wiper blades back and forth across the windshield
so quickly. In order to generate this type of force, a worm gear is used on the output of a small
electric motor.

The worm gear reduction can multiply the torque of the motor by about 50 times, while
slowing the output speed of the electric motor by 50 times as well. The output of the gear
reduction operates a linkage that moves the wipers back and forth.

Inside the motor/gear assembly is an electronic circuit that senses when the wipers are in
their down position. The circuit maintains power to the wipers until they are parked at the bottom
of the windshield, and then cuts the power to the motor. This circuit also parks the wipers
between wipes when they are on their intermittent setting.

A short cam is attached to the output shaft of the gear reduction. This cam spins around
as the wiper motor turns. The cam is connected to a long rod; as the cam spins, it moves the rod
back and forth. The long rod is connected to a short rod that actuates the wiper blade on the
driver's side. Another long rod transmits the force from the driver-side to the passenger-side
wiper blade.

Operational Specifications of Motors are shown in below Table.

Description of the wiper motors selected

The motor is two pole design having high energy permanent magnets, together with a
gear box housing, having two stages of gear reduction .power from the motor is a transferred by
a three start worm on a extension of the armature shaft through a two stage gear system.

A ball bearing system is provided on the commutator end of the armature to minimize the
friction losses and thereby increase torque of the wiper motor. Power from the final gear arm
spindles .A special inbuilt limit switch ensures in applying regenerative braking to the OFF

Thermal protector is connected in series with armature to avoid burning of armature

under locked position. Consistent parking of the wiper arms and blades in the correct position is
there by ensured. The side on which the arms come to rest is preset to requirements.

Electrical connections are made to the motor via a non-reversible in line plug and socket
assembly .This type of connections ensures that the correct motor polarity is maintained when
the motor is connected to the vehicle wiring. The wiper motor incorporates radio interference

Chapter 4
Firmware Implementation of the project design
This chapter briefly explains about the firmware implementation of the project. The required
software tools are discussed in section 4.2. Section 4.3 shows the flow diagram of the project
design. Section 4.4 presents the firmware implementation of the project design.

4.1 Software Tools Required

Keil µv3, Proload are the two software tools used to program microcontroller. The
working of each software tool is explained below in detail.

4.1.1 Programming Microcontroller

A compiler for a high level language helps to reduce production time. To program the
AT89S52 microcontroller the Keil µv3 is used. The programming is done strictly in the
embedded C language. Keil µv3 is a suite of executable, open source software development tools
for the microcontrollers hosted on the Windows platform.

The compilation of the C program converts it into machine language file (.hex). This is
the only language the microcontroller will understand, because it contains the original program
code converted into a hexadecimal format. During this step there are some warnings about
eventual errors in the program. This is shown in Fig 4.1. If there are no errors and warnings then
run the program, the system performs all the required tasks and behaves as expected the software
developed. If not, the whole procedure will have to be repeated again. Fig 4.2 shows expected
outputs for given inputs when run compiled program.

One of the difficulties of programming microcontrollers is the limited amount of

resources the programmer has to deal with. In personal computers resources such as RAM and
processing speed are basically limitless when compared to microcontrollers. In contrast, the code
on microcontrollers should be as low on resources as possible.

Keil Compiler:
Keil compiler is software used where the machine language code is written and compiled.
After compilation, the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped
into the microcontroller for further processing. Keil compiler also supports C language code.

Proload is software which accepts only hex files. Once the machine code is converted
into hex code, that hex code has to be dumped into the microcontroller and this is done by the
Proload. Proload is a programmer which itself contains a microcontroller in it other than the one
which is to be programmed. This microcontroller has a program in it written in such a way that it
accepts the hex file from the Keil compiler and dumps this hex file into the microcontroller
which is to be programmed. As the Proload programmer kit requires power supply to be
operated, this power supply is given from the power supply circuit designed above. It should be
noted that this programmer kit contains a power supply section in the board itself but in order to
switch on that power supply, a source is required. Thus this is accomplished from the power
supply board with an output of 12volts.

• Supports major Atmel 89 series devices
• Auto Identify connected hardware and devices
• Error checking and verification in-built
• Lock of programs in chip supported to prevent program copying
• 20 and 40 pin ZIF socket on-board
• Auto Erase before writing and Auto Verify after writing
• Informative status bar and access to latest programmed file
• Simple and Easy to use
• Works on 57600 speed

It is simple to use and low cost, yet powerful flash microcontroller programmer for the
Atmel 89 series. It will Program, Read and Verify Code Data, Write Lock Bits, Erase and Blank
Check. All fuse and lock bits are programmable. This programmer has intelligent onboard
firmware and connects to the serial port. It can be used with any type of computer and requires
no special hardware. All that is needed is a serial communication ports which all computers

All devices have signature bytes that the programmer reads to automatically identify the
chip. No need to select the device type, just plug it in and go! All devices also have a number of
lock bits to provide various levels of software and programming protection. These lock bits are
fully programmable using this programmer. Lock bits are useful to protect the program to be
read back from microcontroller only allowing erase to reprogram the microcontroller. The

programmer connects to a host computer using a standard RS232 serial port. All the
programming 'intelligence' is built into the programmer so you do not need any special hardware
to run it. Programmer comes with window based software for easy programming of the devices.

Programming Software
Computer side software called 'Proload V4.1' is executed that accepts the Intel HEX format file
generated from compiler to be sent to target microcontroller. It auto detects the hardware
connected to the serial port. It also auto detects the chip inserted and bytes used. Software is
developed in Delphi 7 and requires no overhead of any external DLL.

Chapter 5
Results and Discussions

5.1 Results
Assemble the circuit on the PCB as shown in Fig 5.1. After assembling the circuit on the
PCB, check it for proper connections before switching on the power supply.

5.2 Conclusion
The implementation of Obstacle detecting and guiding vehicle using GPS using
microcontroller is done successfully. The communication is properly done without any
interference between different modules in the design. Design is done to meet all the
specifications and requirements. Software tools like Keil Uvision Simulator, Proload to dump the
source code into the microcontroller, Orcad Lite for the schematic diagram have been used to
develop the software code before realizing the hardware.

The performance of the system is more efficient. Guiding the user by giving the
directions to reach to the requested place and detect the obstacles if any and change the direction
of the vehicle is the main job carried out by the microcontroller. The mechanism is controlled by
the microcontroller.

Circuit is implemented in Orcad and implemented on the microcontroller board. The

performance has been verified both in software simulator and hardware design. The total circuit
is completely verified functionally and is following the application software.

It can be concluded that the design implemented in the present work provide portability,
flexibility and the data transmission is also done with low power consumption.

Working Procedure:
Obstacle detecting and guiding vehicle using GPS is an effective, real time product that enables
the user to reach a place very easily and also acts as an obstacle detecting vehicle. This project
uses the most effective communication technique: GPS.

The main aim of this project is to locate the area of interest, wherever it may be on the Earth’s
surface, using GPS receiver, send the information to the controlling unit. The controlling unit
reads the output of the GPS receiver and displays the directions, by which the user can reach the
place he wishes to, on the LCD.

The GPS receiver tracks the location, gives the latitude and longitude parameters and the
directions to reach the place of interest to the controlling unit. The system provides the user with
switches to enter the place of interest. The controlling unit receives the information from the
GPS receiver and displays the directions on the LCD. Thus, the vehicle follows these directions
to reach the place very easily.

The system also has the task of detecting the obstacles on the way where the vehicle is moving.
The vehicle is fixed with an IR sensor in front of it. If any obstacle comes in the opposite
direction, the output of the IR sensor changes and this change will be detected by the
microcontroller and it immediately changes the direction of the vehicle so as to save the person
in the vehicle. The system finally reaches the requested place safely.