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20 Ansichten8 SeitenHotwire anememotry is a high precision way of measuring airflow. By using it in windtunnels, the turbulence can measured. These instruments are sensitive that they are responsive to 100k hz.

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Hotwire anememotry is a high precision way of measuring airflow. By using it in windtunnels, the turbulence can measured. These instruments are sensitive that they are responsive to 100k hz.

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Hotwire anememotry is a high precision way of measuring airflow. By using it in windtunnels, the turbulence can measured. These instruments are sensitive that they are responsive to 100k hz.

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www.elsevier.com/locate/etfs

jet ow q

S.G. Mallinson

b

a,*

a

Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia

Environmental Engineering Centre, Building Research Establishment Ltd., Garston, Watford WD2 7RJ, UK

Abstract

Synthetic jet actuators show great promise as active ow control devices. Here, we analyze hot-wire anemometry data obtained

along the centre-line of a synthetic jet ow. The value of the Kolmogorov length-scale is estimated from the experimental data, and

it is seen to increase with distance away from the orice. The results suggest that previously used computational meshes may need to

be rened, particularly in the near orice region, if we wish to capture down to the smallest dissipative scales. Finally, wavelet

transforms are applied to the data, which allows the identication of the length-scales for which energy uctuations and intermittency are important.

2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

When a cyclic pressure variation is applied across an

orice, a series of vortex rings are formed which can

coalesce into a jet. This jet is said to be synthesized

from the working uid, and has the curious (cycleaveraged) property of zero mass-ux but nonzero momentum-ux [1,2]. The variation in pressure may be

produced in several ways, such as an oscillating membrane [1], a piston-in-cylinder arrangement [3] and

acoustic excitation [4,5] (see Fig. 1). Our experiments

have focussed on the oscillating membrane conguration, often referred to as a synthetic jet actuator. This

actuator has a number of advantages over other means

of producing the pressure variation, including low

power requirements [6] and compactness, the latter

permitting micro-fabrication of the actuators [7,8]. A

number of dierent types of ows, including laminar,

transitional and turbulent jets and suction, can be produced depending upon the geometric and forcing paq

This work was presented at the ASME Sixth International

Thermal Anemometry Symp., Melbourne, Australia (2001).

*

Corresponding author. Address: Silverbrook Research, 393 Darling Street, Balmain, NSW 2041, Australia.

E-mail address: sam.mallinson@silverbrookresearch.com (S.G.

Mallinson).

0894-1777/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.expthermusci.2003.05.001

surrounding the measurement of velocity in a turbulent

synthetic jet ow, the implications of these measurements on resolution requirements for numerical simulations, and apply wavelet transform analysis to the

experimental data.

2. Experimental details

2.1. Actuator construction and measurement technique

The synthetic jet actuator was constructed from a

brass plate with a circular orice, to the underside of

which was attached a MuRata circular piezoelectric

speaker element. The actuator dimensions and forcing

parameters are as follows (refer to Fig. 1(a)): do 0:75

mm, ho 1:65 mm, dc 36:8 mm, hc 1:35 mm,

fm 1:45 kHz and Dm 2:3 lm. The piezo-element was

driven using a sinusoidal voltage signal.

Velocity measurements were conducted using a

Dantec StreamLine automated anemometry system,

operated in constant temperature mode. The entire

system was connected to a personal computer for data

acquisition and analysis. A single normal probe, Dantec

Type 55H15 with tungsten wire, was employed, having a

probe length lw 1:0 mm, and diameter dw 5 lm. The

266

S.G. Mallinson et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28 (2004) 265272

Fig. 1. Some methods of producing a synthetic jet. In (a) do orice diameter, ho orice height, dc cavity diameter, hc cavity height,

fm membrane forcing frequency, Dm maximum membrane deection.

mean velocity along the centre-line of the jet with NavierStokes predictions. These computations ignored

the cavity and orice ow regions, instead employing a

wall normal velocity boundary condition over the orice

exit plane, and assumed a k turbulence model (see [2]

for a complete discussion of the numerical method). The

comparison is shown in Fig. 2(a). There is fair agreement between experiment and computation in the near

eld region and good agreement farther away from the

orice. The spectra (Fig. 2(b)) exhibit peaks at the

membrane forcing frequency and higher harmonics, and

the amplitude of these peaks diminishes rapidly as the

ow proceeds away from the orice. All of the spectra

have a region wherein the energy decays as f 5=3 , which

is characteristic of turbulent ow.

One possible reason for the poor agreement in the

near-eld region is that the probe length is comparable

with the jet diameter. We corrected the prediction for

this eect by taking the average velocity over a distance

equal to the probe length (dashed line). This improved

the comparison dramatically. Another potential problem is that ow reversal occurs near the orice, and this

cannot be resolved using the standard hot-wire techniques available in our laboratory. Instead of derectifying the experimental signal, we have rectied the

numerical signal to permit comparison. This is shown

in Fig. 2(a) as the dot-dashed line, and it is clear that

rectication greatly improves the agreement close to the

orice. This curve also indicates that reversed ow occurs on the centre-line for y=do < 1, consistent with the

experimental data. This is signicantly smaller than the

(a)

experiment

CFD

CFD, averaged

CFD, averaged and rectified

10

15

y / do

20

25

30

10

(b)

10

10

12

E / <u >

applied at 10 kHz. The uncertainty in the mean velocity

measurements has been estimated to be approximately

2% [2]. The hot-wire was calibrated using a Dantec

54H10 automated calibration system, and it was found

that the calibration drifted by less than 1% over the

course of the study. A dynamic calibration procedure

(see, for example, [9]) was felt unnecessary, as it typically

has only a small eect for isothermal ows [10].

10

10

10

10

y / do = 4

y / do = 8

y / do = 12

y / do = 16

y / do = 32

10

0.1

1.0

f / fm

10.0

Fig. 2. Previous work [2]: (a) mean velocity distributions along jet

centre-line, y streamwise distance from the orice; (b) energy spectra.

diameters, depending on a variety of factors including

the ow conditions, orice geometry and wall roughness.

Velocity uctuations can have an eect on hot-wire

signals. Perry and Morrison [11] showed that a skipping

S.G. Mallinson et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28 (2004) 265272

A more probable cause of discrepancies is weaknesses

in the computational method [14]. A simple wall-normal

velocity boundary condition for the velocity, coupled

with a k turbulence model, cannot be expected to

reproduce all of the details of the complex vortical-dissipative ow produced by the actuator. Ideally, we

would like to perform three-dimensional simulations of

the cavity, orice and external ow-elds, together with

a more accurate dissipation scheme, such as a sub-grid

scale model employed in large-eddy simulations (LES).

In this type of computation, the mesh is supposed to

resolve down to the Kolmogorov length-scale, g, which

is representative of the smallest eddies in the ow. Before proceeding to more advanced computational efforts, it is therefore important to estimate g, using

3 1=4

m

g

1

where m is the kinematic viscosity, is the dissipation

rate and the overbar denotes average values. We can

estimate from the experimental data [15] using the

isotropic relation

2

ou

15m

2

ox

and invoking Taylors hypothesis, whereby o=ox

U 1 o=ot, with U being the mean velocity (that is, as-

100

wire, could result in errors in the measured velocity of

25% or more in unsteady ows. The skipping rope mode

normally has a strong eect on the high frequency

content of the signal, and so the mean value might be

only weakly aected. In the present study, the energy

spectra (Fig. 2(b)) close to the orice have well dened

peaks at a range of frequencies, and it is this type of

excitation that typically induces skipping rope modes

[10,11]. Davies [12] found that at high frequencies, there

is a phase lag between the velocity and the ow-induced

heat transfer, and noted that the minimum Strouhal

number, Smin , for this to occur was approximately

0:1 Pr Red , where Smin fd=U , Pr is the Prandtl number,

Red Ud=m is the Reynolds number and d is the hotwire diameter. For the present study, Smin 0:25, giving

a minimum frequency for phase lag eects of f

500 kHz. This is well above the maximum frequency

response of the wire, which is approximately 10 kHz.

The computational simulations of Apelt and Ledwich

[13] are in general agreement with the study of Davies.

The signicance of velocity uctuations is therefore

likely to be small, although it would be of interest to

determine more precisely the eect of skipping rope

modes, for example, by varying the wire overheat-ratio.

267

Eqn. (2), modified Taylors hypothesis

Eqn. (3)

80

60

40

20

10

20

y / do

30

40

comparison of dierent estimates.

The distribution of g with distance along the jet

centre-line is presented in Fig. 3, with the variation being

nearly linear. The use of Taylors hypothesis is questionable, in that the mean ow velocity varies with time.

If we assume, instead, that the turbulence is convected at

the instantaneous, rather than mean, velocity, then we

obtain: o=ox ut1 o=ot, where ut is the local instantaneous velocity. This seems reasonable, as over the

course of a cycle, the ow consists of a vortex which is

ejected from the orice and then dissipates [1,2]: most of

the ow, including the turbulence is carried along by this

vortex. It is also possible to estimate from the energy

spectra, Ek Ef U =2p [10]

Z 1

15m

j2 Ek dj

3

0

where j 2pf =U is the wavenumber. 1 These two estimates are also shown in Fig. 3 and it is seen that the

distributions are quite similar.

If the turbulence scales are smaller than the hot-wire

probe length, then the signals are spatially ltered

[10,1618]. To obtain reliable information about the

turbulence quantities, as is required for our estimate of

, we need to correct for these spatial resolution errors.

Turan and Azad [17] compared three corrections

which assumed isotropic ow with one that relaxed this

assumption. The isotropic corrections are derived by

considering the response of the hot-wire to an assumed

turbulence spectrum, whilst the nonisotropic correction relies on making measurements at several dierent

1

This method is equivalent to the rst from a signal analysis point

of view.

268

S.G. Mallinson et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28 (2004) 265272

zero length. The comparison took the form of evaluating the terms in a turbulent kinetic energy balance

(TKEB) equation. All four corrections performed well

in isotropic ows, but only the nonisotropic correction

satised the TKEB for nonisotropic ows.

The ow considered in this study is highly nonisotropic due to its pulsatile nature; unfortunately, we are

unable to make the necessary measurements to correct

properly for nonisotropic ow behaviour. We can,

however, make an estimate of the potential uncertainties

in our measurements. The isotropic correction of

Wyngaard [18] suggests the present experimental results

for need to be increased by approximately 30%. The

work of Turan and Azad [17] suggests that: applying an

isotropic correction to nonisotropic ow data results in

approximately 100% overestimation of the true value of

; high turbulence intensity eects can cause approximately 100% overestimation of the true value of , with

the greatest eect in nonisotropic ow regions; and that

data not corrected for yaw eects may underestimate the

true value by upto 40%. We might thus tentatively

suggest approximate errors in our estimates of to be

+140%/)50%, which translate into +35%/)15% uncertainty in the values of Kolmogorov length-scale presented in Fig. 3.

Arpaci [19] has found that for velocity uctuations at

a frequency x, the Kolmogorov length-scale, gx>0 is

given by

gx>0 h

m3 =1=4

gx0

m 1=2 i1=2 h

1=2 i1=2

1x

1 x m

For the present study, this equation suggests that at the

membrane forcing frequency, the eect would be to reduce g by 17% compared to an equivalent unforced

ow.

In the computations, twenty points were placed

across the orice radius of 0.375 mm, giving a mesh

spacing of approximately 19 lm. Notwithstanding the

uncertainties in the measured values of g, it would seem,

from Fig. 3, that the mesh is capable of capturing scales

down to approximately g for the far-eld, but in the

near-eld, the mesh will need to be rened.

2.4. Wavelet transform analysis

Wavelet transforms separate a signal into a series of

self-similar functions of scale and time, allowing both

spectral and spatial information to be obtained simultaneously. This is in contrast with Fourier transforms

which are inherently nonlocal, and as the wavelets are

localized in space, the local character of the signals can

be determined [20], which is clearly of interest in this

periodically excited ow. In the broader sense, wavelets

oer the tantalizing possibility of reconciling the statistical and coherent structure points of view of turbulence

by providing an orthonormal basis for computations

which require less degrees of freedom than suggested by

Fourier modes [20,21]; that is, it reduces the computational power required for a given problem. In this study,

we will use wavelet transforms to examine the cyclic

variation of energy scales.

The wavelet transform, ^u, of a signal u is dened as

[20,22]

Z

t t

o

^ua; to a1=r utg

dt

5

a

where g is the analysing function, a is the scale for dilatation of g, t is time, the superscript denotes complex

conjugation, the subscript o denotes local values, and r

is set equal to 2 to allow us to examine the energy distribution at dierent scales [2022]. In this paper, we will

apply wavelet transforms for the rst time to velocity

data obtained in a synthetic jet ow.

The analysing function, or wavelet, employed in the

present study is the second derivative of the Gaussian,

commonly referred to as the Maar wavelet or Mexican

hat [20]

(

)

2

t

t 2

t=a

g

1

exp

6

a

a

2

In practice, the integrand in Eq. (5) is obtained as the

inverse Fourier transform of the product of the Fourier

transforms of the signal and the wavelet. The Fourier

transform of the Maar wavelet is [20,22]

x2

1=2

Gx 2p x2 exp

7

2

where x is the frequency.

The physical signal varies with time. Taylors hypothesis can again be invoked to permit the denition of

a spatial scale, l aU , where U is the local mean velocity. The transform is performed for a range of scales,

with the minimum and maximum values of l being equal

to twice the hot-wire sample period and 10 times the

orice diameter, respectively.

The wavelet transform for signals obtained at various

locations along the jet centre-line are shown in Fig. 4.

The coordinates are l0 l=g and t0 t=s, where

s 1=fm ; that is, t0 is the period number. For comparison, the raw signals are shown in Fig. 5. Closer to the

orice, the wavelet transform exhibits periodic increases

and decreases, corresponding to the cyclic forcing of the

actuator, which is clearly seen in the raw data. Farther

away, the wavelet transform does not exhibit the same

level of regularity, and the raw data has more gradual,

as opposed to spiky, peaks and troughs.

The variance, r2 , and atness (or kurtosis), K, of the

wavelet transform with respect to t0 allows us to examine

S.G. Mallinson et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28 (2004) 265272

269

Fig. 4. Wavelet transform of velocity signals obtained in synthetic jet ow: (a) y=do 4, (b) y=do 8, (c) y=do 12, (d) y=do 16, (e) y=do 32.

l0 l=g and t0 t=s, where s 1=fm .

respectively [20,21]. Here we take

r2

^

u2i

n1

^u4i

2

r2

where the overbar indicates averaged values. Fig. 6 presents the distributions of S r2 =u2 and K versus l0 for

270

S.G. Mallinson et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28 (2004) 265272

20

30

(b)

(a)

15

velocity (m s1)

velocity (m s1)

20

10

10

5

0

120

125

130

t

135

0

120

140

125

130

t

135

12

12

(d)

(c)

8

velocity (m s1)

velocity (m s1)

0

120

140

125

130

t

135

0

120

140

125

130

t

135

140

(e)

velocity (m s1)

0

120

125

130

t

135

140

Fig. 5. Raw velocity signals obtained in synthetic jet ow: (a) y=do 4, (b) y=do 8, (c) y=do 12, (d) y=do 16, (e) y=do 32.

the energy uctuations occurs predominantly for lengthscales of approximately 70g, and that there is very little

activity at scales approaching g. For the atness distributions, the two locations closest to the orice have a

strong minimum near to the same value of l0 as for the

peaks observed in their energy spectra (Fig. 2(b)). The

other locations do not exhibit a strong minimum, and all

curves show an increasing intermittency with decreasing

scale, below a certain value of l0 . This critical value of l0

becomes smaller with increasing distance from the ori-

S.G. Mallinson et al. / Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 28 (2004) 265272

smaller length-scale uctuations are not as important far

from the orice. Thus, computations may not need to

resolve down to g to account for most of the energy

processes in the ow.

80000

(a)

60000

y / do = 3

y / do = 6

y / do = 9

y / do = 12

y / do = 24

40000

Acknowledgements

20000

0 0

10

271

10

10

10

l

10

Research Council. The rst author would like to acknowledge the generous support provided by the Australian Academy of Science Scientic Visits to Europe

Scheme and the Department of Aeronautics, Imperial

College, UK. The authors would also like to acknowledge several invaluable comments from the reviewers

and Dr. B. Pearson, University of Nottingham, UK.

(b)

y / do = 3

y / do = 6

y / do = 9

y / do = 12

y / do = 24

References

0

0

10

10

10

10

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atness.

occur less frequently as we move away from the orice.

The raw data (Fig. 5) certainly seem to support this

observation, and it is consistent with the experimental

data for g: the dissipation length scale increases with

distance from the orice along the centre-line.

3. Conclusions

Hot-wire signals obtained in a synthetic jet ow have

been analysed. The values of Kolmogorov length-scale

estimated from the data suggest that there may be

problems with experimental spatial resolution, particularly near the orice; similar comments apply to computations if we wish to capture down to dissipation

scales. Finally, wavelet transform analysis suggests that

energy uctuations occur predominantly at approxi-

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