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PROJECT MANAGEMENT WITH MICROSOFT PROJECT

CONTENT
MICROSOFT PROJECT: THE BASICS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What is project management?


The project triangle
The Microsoft Project database
Seeing the data you need
How Microsoft Project schedules
Putting it together
Getting Help

CREATE A PROJECT PLAN


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Set up a project
Enter and organize a task list
When will tasks start and finish
Assign resources
Enter costs
View the schedule and its details
Adjust the schedule
Save the plan along the way

TRACK AND MANAGE PROGRESS


1.
2.
3.
4.

Tracking the actual progress on tasks


Tracking the actual work by resource
Comparing actual costs to budget
Balancing a resource's workload

COMMUNICATING RESULTS
1. Format the schedule to look the way you want
2. Printing the project information
3. Distributing project information online

MICROSOFT PROJECT: THE BASICS


This section provides information about basic project management and Microsoft Project concepts, and
then leads you through lessons where you'll learn how to create a plan, track its progress, and
communicate the results.
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
Project management is the process of planning, organizing, and managing tasks and resources to
accomplish a defined objective, usually within constraints on time, resources, or cost. A project plan can be
simple, for example, a list of tasks and their start and finish dates written on a notepad. Or it can be
complex, for example, thousands of tasks and resources and a project budget of millions of Rs.
Most projects share common activities, including breaking the project into easily manageable tasks,
scheduling the tasks, communicating with the team, and tracking the tasks as work progresses. And all
projects consist of three major phases:
1
2
3

Build the plan


Track and manage the project
Close the project

The more successful these phases are, the greater your chance of a successful project.
The project triangle
In a way you can, if you understand three factors that shape every project:
1. Time: The time to complete the project reflected in your project schedule.
2. Money: The project budget, based on the cost of the resources: the people, equipment, and materials
required to do the tasks.
3. Scope: The goals and tasks of the project and the work required to complete them.
This trio of time, money, and scope is the project triangle. Adjusting one of these elements affects the other
two. While all three elements are important, typically one will have the most influence on your project.
The relationship between these elements differs in every project and determines the kinds of problems
you'll encounter and the solutions you can implement. Knowing where you're constrained or flexible makes
it easier to plan and manage your project.
The Microsoft Project database
As project manager, you have a lot to do. How does Microsoft Project help? First, it stores the details about
your project in its database. And it uses that information to calculate and maintain the project's schedule,
costs, and other elements, creating a project plan. The more information you provide, the more accurate
the plan.
Like a spreadsheet, Microsoft Project displays results of its calculations immediately. But the project plan
isn't done until you enter critical information about all tasks. Only then do you see when your project will
end or the dates when tasks are scheduled.
Microsoft Project keeps the information you enter and the information it calculates in fields, which contain
specific types of information, such as task names or duration. In Microsoft Project, each field usually
appears in a column.
Seeing the data you need
Today, you're focused on deadlines. Tomorrow, costs. The project database contains a lot of information,
but at any given time, you only need a portion of it. To get to information, use these tools:
1. Views present a subset of project information in a format that's easy to interpret. For example, the Gantt
Chart displays basic task information in columns and a bar graph.
2. Tables define the columns displayed.
3. Filters focus on specific tasks or resources
1

.
Like TV channels, each view presents a different kind of information. Tables and filters fine-tune the
information. Just as switching channels doesn't delete them, changing views, tables, or filters may hide
information, but it doesn't delete it. It's still in the database and is still updated.
How Microsoft Project schedules
How does Microsoft Project schedule a task's start and finish? It takes into account many factors, including
task dependencies, constraints, and interruptions, such as holidays or vacation days. Most importantly,
Microsoft Project schedules each task using the formula duration = work/resource effort, where:
1. Duration is the actual amount of time that passes before the task is done.
2. Work is the effort required over a period of time to do the task.
3. Resource effort is the amount of effort resources are assigned to the task and their allocation.
For example, if:
Three painters work two days on a task, with an effort of 8 hours per day, the work for each resource is 16
hours: (2 days * 8 hours).
1. The total effort of the resources is 24 hours per day: (3 painters * 8 hours).
2. The total work for the task is 48 hours: (2 days * 8 hours * 3 painters).
3. The duration is 2 days: 48 hours / (3 painters * 8 hours).
Understanding this formula is important to understanding how changes you make to tasks affect the project
schedule.
Putting it together
After you've created the task list and provided schedule information, your plan is built. You can see a full
model of your project, including its finish date and the start and finish dates for every task.
Review critical paths for potential problems. A critical path is a series of linked tasks that must be done on
time for the project to finish on time. If any task on a critical path is delayed, it can end up delaying the
project's finish date.
Evaluate and optimize the plan until you're satisfied. Before you start your project and periodically during
the project, you'll need to evaluate and adjust the project plan. Consider scope, resources, and schedule.
Update Microsoft Project about the progress of tasks. In return, it'll show you an updated project plan. You
can update the plan yourself, or your team can, with Microsoft Project Central or electronic mail. After the
plan is updated, review it to see the effect of changes. Is the project over budget? Is a team member now
scheduled to work overtime? Is your project going to end late?
Getting Help
This tutorial will help you get started, but you'll find additional components of Help by clicking the Home
button or by using the Help menu.
The Project Map. Click through the phases of a project to learn about all steps of project management,
including project management concepts and practices, as well as how to use Microsoft Project.
1. What's New. See What's New to learn about new features in Microsoft Project 2000.
2. Quick Preview. Get an overview of the key parts of Microsoft Project 2000.
3. The Office Assistant. The Office Assistant can answer your specific questions, leading you to the Help
topics that best answer your questions.
CREATE A PROJECT PLAN
When you have defined project goals and thought out the major phases of your project, it's time to begin
creating your plan.
2

First, enter and organize the list of tasks to be completed, along with each task's duration. Next, add
people, equipment, and materials and their costs to your plan. Then assign these resources to tasks. With
this information, Microsoft Project creates a schedule. You can verify the schedule and adjust it as
necessary.
HOW DO YOU SET UP A PROJECT?
The first steps in creating a schedule are starting a new file, designating a project start or finish date, and
entering general project information.
Create a new project
When you start a new project in Microsoft Project, you can enter your project's start or finish date, but not
both. It's recommended that you enter only your project's start date and let Microsoft Project calculate the
finish date after you have entered and scheduled tasks.
If your project must be finished by a certain date, enter only the project's finish date. Even if you initially
schedule from the project finish date, it's best to schedule from the project start date after work begins on
the project.
Instructions
1 On the File menu, click New .
2 In the Project Information dialog box, type or select a start date or a finish date for your project, and
then click OK.
3 Click Save .
4 In the File name box, type a name for your project, and then click Save.
Project Information
Start Date:
Schedule From:
Current Date:
Status Date:
Priority:

3/1/01
Project Start Date
4/13/02
9/4/01
500

Tip: You can change your project information at any time by clicking Project Information on the Project
menu.
Enter key project information
Each project has a unique set of ingredients: the tasks involved, the people who do them, and the project
goal. To help remember and communicate important details, enter information about the project and refer to
it when necessary.
Instructions
1 On the File menu, click Properties, and then click the Summary tab.
2 Enter any information you'd like about your project, such as the people who will manage it and
maintain the project file, the project goal, any known limitations that may make it difficult to reach
that goal, and other general project notes.
3 Click OK.
Tip: To look for a menu command that doesn't appear, click the arrows at the bottom of the menu. The
menu expands to show more commands. You can also expand a menu by double-clicking it.
Set up the project calendar
You can change the project calendar to reflect the working days and hours for everyone on your project.
The calendar defaults are Monday through Friday, 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M., with an hour off for lunch. You
can specify nonworking times, such as weekends and evenings, as well as special days off, such as
holidays.
3

Instructions
1 On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2 On the Tools menu, click Change Working Time.
3
Select a date on the calendar.
To change one day of the week for the entire calendar, for example, to have Fridays end at 4:00
P.M., click the abbreviation for that day at the top of the calendar.
To change all working days, for example, to begin working days Tuesday through Friday at 9:00
A.M., click the abbreviation (such as T for Tuesday) for the first working day of the week. Hold down
SHIFT, and then click the abbreviation for the last working day of the week (such as F for Friday).
4 Click Non working time for days off or Non default working time to change the hours worked.
5 If you clicked Nondefault working time in step 3, type the times you want work to start in the From
boxes, and the times you want work to end in the To boxes.
6 Click OK.
Calendar Information
Select Change working Time option from Tools menu
Click on New
Name: supriya sankul
Timing
From 8 a.m. to 12 noon
From 1 p.m. to 5 a.m.
Sunday Holiday
Click on Option
Week starts on:
Fiscal year starts in:
Default start time:
Default end time:
Hours per day:
Hours per week:
Days per month:

Sunday
January
8:00 AM
5:00 PM
8.00
40.00
20

Click on set as default


Open Project information from Project menu
Select Calendar:
supriya sankul
HOW DO YOU ENTER AND ORGANIZE A TASK LIST?
First, list the steps needed to accomplish your project's goals. Start with the large chunks of work and then
break down each chunk into tasks with single deliverables. Add milestones. Finally, gather and enter
duration estimates.
After you enter task information, create an outline to help you see the project's structure.
Enter tasks and their duration
A typical project is a series of related tasks. A task represents an amount of work with a clear deliverable; it
should be short enough to track its progress regularly. Tasks should generally be between one day and two
weeks long.
Enter tasks in the order they will occur. Then estimate how long it will take to complete each task, and enter
your estimate as the duration. Microsoft Project uses duration to calculate the amount of work to be done
on the task.
Note: Don't enter dates in the Start and Finish fields for each task. Microsoft Project calculates the start
and finish dates based on how the tasks are related.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. In the Task Name field, type a task name, and then press TAB. Microsoft Project enters an estimated
duration of one day for the task followed by a question mark.
4

3. In the Duration field, type the amount of time each task will take in months, weeks, days, hours, or
minutes, not counting non working time. You can use the following abbreviations:
months = mo
weeks = w
days = d
hours = h
minutes = m
Note: To show an estimated duration, type a question mark after the duration.
4

Press ENTER.

Tasks and Duration Details:


Activity
SITE MOBILIZATION
FOUNDATION
PLINTH WORK
R.C.C COLUMNS
ROOF SHUTTERING & BAR BENDING
ROOF CONCRETING
ROOF DESHUTTERING
"6"" BRICK MASONRY"
INTERNAL PLASTERING
OVERHEAD WATER TANK
WATER PROOFING
FILLING IN SUNLKEN PORTION
EXTERNAL PLASTERING
FLOORING
PLUMBING & SANITARY WORKS
WALL CLADDING FOR KITCHEN & TOILETS
ELECTRIFICATION WORKS
UNDERGROUND WATER TANK
UNDERGROUND SEPTIC TANK
DOOR FRAMES
DOOR SHUTTERS
ALUMINIUM WINDOWS FOR ALL FLOORS
WINDOW GRILLS FOR ALL FLOORS
PAINTING
LIFT INSTALLATION
DRAINAGE WORKS
COMPOUND WALL
MAIN ENTRANCE GATE
KITCHEN SINK FIXING
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
SUB-STATION
PARKING
GENERATOR
SHED (SECURITY & SERVANT)
PUMP FOR CORPN. WATER
ELECTRICITY BOARD WORKS
SITE CLEANING
LAND SCAPING

Duration
11d
23d
31d
214d
201d
185d
179d
114d
101d
31d
50d
17d
51d
40d
69d
16d
87d
28d
36d
93d
53d
44d
34d
83d
28d
43d
52d
5d
26d
27d
31d
20d
15d
15d
2d
3d
7d
12d

Tip: You can also add a note about a task. In the Task Name field, select the task, and then click Task
Notes . Type your information in the Notes box, and then click OK.
5

Note: The toolbar button you want may be temporarily hidden. It may not appear because there is not
enough room to display all the buttons. Click More Buttons , and then click Task Notes .
Create a milestone
A milestone is a task you use to identify significant events in your schedule, such as the completion of a
major phase. When you enter a duration of zero days for a task, Microsoft Project displays the milestone
symbol on the Gantt Chart at the start of that day.
Instructions
1 In the Duration field, click the duration of the task you want to make a milestone, and then type 0d.
2 Press ENTER.
Note: Although a task with a duration of 0 is automatically marked as a milestone, you can make any task a
milestone. To mark a task as a milestone, click the task in the Task Name field. Click Task Information ,
click the Advanced tab, and then select the Mark task as milestone check box.
Tip: To see all milestones, click Milestones in the Filter list. To see the entire project again, click All Tasks
in the Filter list.
Create a recurring task
Recurring tasks are tasks that repeat regularly, such as weekly meetings. A recurring task can take place
daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly. You can specify the duration of each occurrence, when it will occur, and
for how long or how many times it should occur.
Instructions
1. In the Task Name field, click the row below where you want the recurring task to appear.
2. On the Insert menu, click Recurring Task.
3. In the Task Name box, type the task name.
4. In the Duration box, type or select the duration of a single occurrence of the task.
5. Under Recurrence pattern, click Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or Yearly.
6. To the right of Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or Yearly, specify the task frequency.
7. Under Range of recurrence, type a start date in the Start box and then select End after or End by.
If you selected End after, type the number of occurrences for the task.
If you selected End by, type the date you want the recurring task to end.
8. Click OK.
Tip: To view all instances of a recurring task, click the plus sign next to the main recurring task.

Structure tasks into a logical outline


Outlining helps organize your tasks into more manageable chunks. You can indent related tasks under a
more general task, creating a hierarchy. The general tasks are called summary tasks; the indented tasks
below the summary task are subtasks. A summary task's start and finish dates are determined by the start
and finish dates of its earliest and latest subtasks.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. Click the first task you want to make into a subtask.
3. On the Insert menu, click New Task.
4. In the inserted row, type the name of the new summary task in the Task Name field.
5. In the Task Name field, select the tasks you want to make into subtasks.
6. Click Indent to indent these tasks.
SITE MOBILISATION
Site Cleaning & Levelling
Labour Shed
Cement Shed
Borewell Drilling

3d
4d
2d
4d
6

Tools Shed
Site Office
Grid Line Marking
Temporary Electric
Pump Installation

3d
5d
4d
0.5d
1d

FOUNDATION
Marking Of Footing
Excavation Of Footing
Laying P.C.C
Marking Of Column Footing
"Footing, Column Reinforcement"
Footing Shuttering
Footing Concreting
Column Rib
Column Concreting Below P.B

1d
12d
10d
10d
7d
10d
11d
11d
11d

Tip: You can indent or outdent a task quickly with the mouse. Select the task, and then position the pointer
over the first letter of the task name. When the pointer changes to a two-way arrow, drag right to indent the
task or drag left to outdent the task.

Edit a task list


As you create a task list, you will probably want to break large tasks into smaller tasks and rearrange tasks.
You may want to copy, delete, or move tasks in your project.
You can also easily rearrange project phases in an outlined schedule. When you move or delete a
summary task, the subtasks associated are moved or deleted as well.
Instructions
1. In the ID field (the leftmost field), select the task you want to copy, move, or delete.
To select a row, click the task ID number.
To select a group of adjacent rows, hold down SHIFT, and then click the first and last ID numbers of
the group.
To select several nonadjacent rows, hold down CTRL, and then click the task ID numbers.
2. Copy, move, or delete the task.
To copy the task, click Copy.
To move the task, click Cut.
To delete the task, press DELETE.
3. To move the selection you cut or repeat the selection you copied, select the rows where you want to
paste it. Be sure to select entire rows.
4. Click Paste .
Tip: To add a new task between existing tasks, click a task ID number and then press the INSERT key.
Tasks renumber automatically after you insert a new task.
WHEN WILL TASKS START AND FINISH?
After you create and outline your task list, it's time to address how the tasks relate to each other and to
specific dates. There are many types of task relationships, such as links that show one task starting as
another finishes. These links are called task dependencies. Microsoft Project automatically determines the
start and finish dates for tasks that have dependencies to other tasks.
The advantage of dependencies or "linked" tasks is that whenever a task changes, linked tasks are
automatically rescheduled. You can refine task schedules using constraints, overlap or delay tasks, and
split tasks when work stops temporarily.
7

Establish relationships between tasks


To establish relationships between tasks, use task dependencies. First, select the related tasks, link them,
and then change the dependency type, if necessary. The task whose start or finish depends on another
task is the successor. The task that the successor is dependent on is the predecessor.
After the tasks are linked, changes to the predecessor's dates affect the successor's dates. Microsoft
Project creates a finish-to-start task dependency by default. Because a finish-to-start dependency does not
work in every situation, you can change the task link to start-to-start, finish-to-finish, or start-to-finish to
model your project realistically.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. In the Task Name field, select two or more tasks to link in the order you want them linked.
To select adjacent tasks, hold down SHIFT, and then click the first and last task you want to link.
To select nonadjacent tasks, hold down CTRL, and then click the tasks you want to link, in order.
3. Click Link Tasks .
4. To change the task link, double-click the link line between the tasks you want to change. The Task
Dependency dialog box appears. If the Bar Styles dialog box appears, you didn't click precisely on the
task link and need to close this dialog box and click on the task link again.
5 In the Type box, select the task link you want, and then click OK.
Activity
Site Mobilisation
Site Cleaning & Levelling
Labour Shed
Cement Shed
Borewell Drilling
Tools Shed
Site Office
Grid Line Marking
Temporary Electric
Pump Installation
Foundation
Marking Of Footing
Excavation Of Footing
Laying P.C.C
Marking Of Column Footing
"Footing, Column Reinforcement"
Footing Shuttering
Footing Concreting
Column Rib
Column Concreting Below P.B
Water Proofing
Plinth Work
R.C.C Columns
Roof Shuttering & Bar Bending
Roof Concreting
Roof Deshuttering
"6"" Brick Masonry"
Internal Plastering
Overhead Water Tank
Water Proofing
Filling In Sunlken Portion
Filling In Sunlken Portion
External Plastering
Flooring
Plumbing & Sanitary Works

Predecessor
2
2SS+1d
3SS
3SS
3SS
7SS+4d
2SS+1d
4
12SS
13SS+4d
14SS+1d
15SS+1d
16SS+1d
17SS+1d
18SS+3d
19SS+1d

100

Wall Cladding For Kitchen & Toilets


Electrification Works
Underground Water Tank
Underground Septic Tank
Door Frames
Door Shutters
Aluminium Windows For All Floors
Window Grills For All Floors
Painting
Lift Installation
Drainage Works
Compound Wall
Main Entrance Gate
Kitchen Sink Fixing
Fire Protection System
Sub-Station
Parking
Generator
Shed (Security & Servant)
Pump For Corpn. Water
Electricity Board Works
Site Cleaning
Land Scaping

76SS
92
161SS
96
175
132
123
172
183SS+7d
183SS
183
185
190

Note: To unlink tasks, select the tasks you want to unlink in the Task Name field, and then click Unlink
Tasks . The tasks are rescheduled based on existing links to other tasks, or constraints.
Overlap tasks or add lag time between them
After you've sequenced tasks by linking them, you can overlap or delay them as well. In Microsoft Project,
delay tasks by adding lag time to the predecessor task, and overlap tasks by entering lead time. You can
also enter lead or lag time as a percentage of the task.
Instructions
1. In the Task Name field, click the task you want to add lead or lag time to (it must have predecessors),
and then click Task Information .
2. Click the Predecessors tab.
3. In the Lag column, type the lead time or lag time you want, as a duration or as a percentage of the
predecessor task duration.
Type lead time as a negative number (for example, 2d for two days lead time) or as a percentage.
Type lag time as a positive number or as a percentage.
4. Click OK.
Example
Lag Footing Excavation by 2 days after Making of Footing
Task Name
Making of Footing

Type
Start-to-Start (SS)

Lag
2d

Lead Making of Column Footing by 3 days before Laying PCC


Task Name
Laying PCC

Type
Start-to-Start (SS)

Lag
-3d

Tip: To quickly add lead or lag time to a successor task, double-click the link line on the Gantt Chart, and
then type the amount of lead or lag time in the Lag box of the Task Dependency dialog box.
9

Set a specific start or finish date for a task


You can schedule your tasks most effectively by entering task duration, creating dependencies between
tasks, and then letting Microsoft Project calculate the start and finish dates for you. However, you can set a
specific start or finish date for a task if necessary.
Task constraints that tie tasks to specific dates are called inflexible constraints; the most inflexible
constraints are specific start or finish dates. Because Microsoft Project takes constraints into account when
calculating your schedule, use these inflexible constraints only when tasks must start or finish on a specific
date.
In the Task Name field, click the task you want to set a start or finish date for, and then click Task
Information .
Instructions
1. Click the Advanced tab.
2. In the Constraint type box, click a constraint type.
3. Type or select a date in the Constraint date box, and then click OK.
Site Mobilisation
Site Cleaning & Levelling
Labour Shed
Cement Shed
Borewell Drilling
Tools Shed
Site Office
Grid Line Marking
Temporary Electric
Pump Installation
Foundation
Marking Of Footing
Excavation Of Footing
Laying P.C.C
Marking Of Column Footing
"Footing, Column Reinforcement"
Footing Shuttering
Footing Concreting
Column Rib
Column Concreting Below P.B
Plinth Work
R.C.C Columns
Roof Shuttering & Bar Bending
Roof Concreting
Roof Deshuttering
"6"" Brick Masonry"
Internal Plastering
Overhead Water Tank
Water Proofing
Filling In Sunlken Portion
External Plastering
Flooring
Plumbing & Sanitary Works
Wall Cladding For Kitchen &
Toilets
Electrification Works
Underground Water Tank

As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
Start No Earlier Than
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
Start No Earlier Than
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible

NA
NA
3/5/01
3/2/01
3/5/01
3/5/01
3/5/01
NA
NA
NA
NA
3/14/01
3/14/01
3/19/01
3/20/01
3/21/01
3/22/01
3/23/01
3/27/01
3/28/01
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1/17/02
NA
NA
NA

As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible

NA
NA
10

Underground Septic Tank


Door Frames
Door Shutters
Aluminium Windows For
Floors
Window Grills For All Floors
Painting
Lift Installation
Drainage Works
Compound Wall
Main Entrance Gate
Kitchen Sink Fixing
Fire Protection System
Sub-Station
Parking
Generator
Shed (Security & Servant)
Pump For Corpn. Water
Electricity Board Works
Site Cleaning
Land Scaping

As Soon As Possible
Start No Earlier Than
As Soon As Possible
All Finish No Earlier Than

NA
9/20/01
NA
2/21/02

Finish No Earlier Than


As Soon As Possible
Finish No Earlier Than
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
Finish No Earlier Than
Finish No Earlier Than
Finish No Earlier Than
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible
As Soon As Possible

3/21/02
NA
2/28/02
NA
NA
6/7/02
4/11/02
4/26/02
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

Note: If you select a start date for a task in the Start field of the Gantt Chart, or if you drag a Gantt bar to
change the start date, Microsoft Project sets a Start No Earlier Than (SNET) constraint based on the new
start date. If you select a finish date for a task, Microsoft Project automatically assigns a Finish No Earlier
Than (FNET) constraint.
Add a deadline to a task
When you set a deadline for a task, Microsoft Project displays an indicator if the task is scheduled to finish
after the deadline. Setting a deadline doesn't affect how tasks are scheduled. It's just a way to have
Microsoft Project inform you that a task will finish past its deadline. You then have the option of adjusting
the schedule to meet that deadline.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. In the Task Name field, click the task that you want to set a deadline for.
3. Click Task Information and then click the Advanced tab.
4. Under Constrain task, type or select the deadline date in the Deadline box, and then click OK.
Example
Add dead line as, Footing must finish on 6 April 2001
Task Name: Footing Concreting
Deadline : NA
Constraint Type: Must Finish On

Duration: 11d
Constraint Date: 4/6/01

Tip: You can drag the deadline symbol on the Gantt Chart to change the deadline date.
Split a task into segments
You can split a task if work on the task is interrupted and then resumes later in the schedule. This is useful,
for example, when you need to temporarily stop work on a task to work on another task. You can split a
task as many times as necessary.
Note that splitting a task into parts is not the same as entering a recurring task, a task that occurs at regular
intervals, such as a staff meeting.
11

Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. Click Split Task .
3. On the task's Gantt bar, click the date where you want the split to occur and drag the second part of the
bar to the date that you want work to begin again.
Example
Split Brick Work Masonry into 2 segments
Segment 1: From 1/3/01 to 20/4/01
Segment 2: From 15/5/01 to 22/8/01
Tip: You can remove the split by dragging a portion of a split task so that it touches another portion.
How do you assign resources?
You should assign resources to tasks when you want to:
1. Track the amount of work done by people and equipment assigned to tasks or monitor materials used.
2. Have more flexibility in scheduling tasks.
3. Monitor resources with too little or too much work assigned.
4. Keep track of resource costs.
If you don't enter resource information, Microsoft Project calculates your schedule using only task duration
and dependencies.
Create a resource list
You can use the Resource Sheet in Microsoft Project to create a list of the people, equipment, and material
resources that make up your team and carry out the project tasks. Your resource list will consist of work
resources or material resources. Work resources are people or equipment; material resources are
consumable materials or supplies, such as concrete, wood, or nails.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Entry.
3. In the Resource Name field, type a resource name.
4. To designate resource groups, in the Group field for the resource name, type the name of the group.
5. In the Type field, specify the resource type:
For a work resource (people or equipment), set the resource type to Work.
For a material resource (consumed throughout the project) set the resource type to Material.
6. For each work resource (people or equipment), type the number of resource units available for this
resource in the Max. Units field, as a percentage. For example, type 300% to indicate three full-time
units of a particular resource.
7. For each material resource (supplies consumed throughout the project), in the Material Label field, type
a measurement unit for the material resource, such as ton.
Resource
Name
Project
Manager
Site
Engineers
Site
Supervisors
Foreman
Head
Mason
Mason
Male coolie

Type

Max Unit

Std. Rate

Ovt. Rate
Rs125.00/h

Cost/
Use
Rs0.00

Accrue
At
Prorated

Base
Calendar
supriya sankul

Work

10

Rs125.00/h

Work

15

Rs40.00/h

Rs40.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work

19

Rs19.00/h

Rs19.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work
Work

20
8

Rs16.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs16.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul

Work
Work

50
70

Rs25.00/h
Rs12.50/h

Rs25.00/h
Rs12.50/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul
12

Female
coolie
Bisthy
Bar Bender
Bar Bender
helper
Plumber
Plumber
helper
Electrician
Electrician
Helper
Carpentor
Carpenter
helper
Shuttering
carpenter
Shuttering
carpenter
helper
Aluminium
subcontract
or
Fire
protection
contrcator
Lift installing
contractor
Painter
Painter
helper
Security
Watchman
store keeper
office boy
concreting
gang
stone
dressors
borewell
contrctor
steel
fabricator
contractor

Work

80

Rs9.00/h

Rs9.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work
Work
Work

25
25
25

Rs12.50/h
Rs25.00/h
Rs12.50/h

Rs12.50/h
Rs25.00/h
Rs12.50/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul
supriya sankul

Work
Work

22
30

Rs30.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs30.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul

Work
Work

25
25

Rs26.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs26.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul

Work
Work

7
6

Rs30.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs30.00/h
Rs15.00/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul

Work

30

Rs20.00/h

Rs20.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work

35

Rs14.00/h

Rs14.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work

Rs60.00/h

Rs60.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work

Rs60.00/h

Rs60.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work

Rs60.00/h

Rs60.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work
Work

6
6

Rs25.00/h
Rs12.00/h

Rs25.00/h
Rs12.00/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul

Work
Work
Work
Work
Work

1
1
5
2
55

Rs16.00/h
Rs12.50/h
Rs12.50/h
Rs12.50/h
Rs60.00/h

Rs16.00/h
Rs12.50/h
Rs12.50/h
Rs12.50/h
Rs60.00/h

Rs0.00
Rs0.00
Rs0.00
Rs0.00
Rs0.00

Prorated
Prorated
Prorated
Prorated
Prorated

supriya sankul
supriya sankul
supriya sankul
supriya sankul
supriya sankul

Work

Rs25.00/h

Rs25.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work

Rs60.00/h

Rs60.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Work

Rs60.00/h

Rs60.00/h

Rs0.00

Prorated

supriya sankul

Notes:
Resource groups can be used for sorting, filtering, or grouping tasks by resources belonging to a
particular group. You can use groups to indicate the department a human resource belongs to or to
specify accounting codes for billing purposes.
You cannot assign resource groups to tasks. If you want to specify consolidated resources, such as
"Carpenters" or "Editors" or "Engineers," enter that as the resource name, and then assign the
consolidated resource name to tasks.
Tip: As you work in the Gantt Chart or other task views, you can enter additional resource names. To
assign additional resources, click Assign Resources , and then type a resource name in the Name field.
You can also click Address and select a resource from your e-mail address book.

13

Change the work schedule for a resource


The working hours and days off defined in the project calendar are the default working hours and days off
for each resource. When an individual resource works a different schedule entirely, or when you need to
account for vacations or equipment downtime, you can modify an individual resource calendar.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet, and then select the resource whose schedule you want to
change.
2. On the Project menu, click Resource Information, and then click the Working Time tab.
3. On the calendar, select the days you want to change.
To change a day of the week for the entire calendar, click the abbreviation for the day at the top of the
calendar.
4. Click Use default, Non working time, or Non default working time.
When you click Use default, the selected days return to the Microsoft Project Standard calendar default,
which is Monday through Friday, 8:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M., and 1:00 P.M. to 5:00 P.M.
5. If you clicked Nondefault working time in step 4, type the times that you want work to start in the From
boxes and the times that you want work to end in the To boxes.
6. Click OK.
Example
Change the working timings of Borewell Contractor to 6.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m.
Tip: If a group of resources has the same special working hours and days off, you can create a new base
calendar for them. On the Tools menu, click Change Working Time. Click New, and type a name for the
new base calendar. Click Create new base calendar to begin with a default calendar.
Or to base the new calendar on an existing calendar, click Make a copy of, and then click the calendar
name of the existing calendar in the Calendar box. Click OK, and then modify the days and hours on the
calendar. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet, and select the new base calendar in the Base
Calendar field for each resource that you want to assign the calendar to.

Assign resources to tasks


When you assign a resource to a task, you create an assignment. You can assign any resource to any task
and change assignments at any time.
You can assign more than one resource to a task and specify whether a resource works full-time or parttime on a task. If the work assigned to a resource exceeds the daily full-time allotment indicated in the
resource's working times calendar, Microsoft Project displays the name of the overallocated resource in red
in resource views.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. In the Task Name field, click the task to which you want to assign a resource, and then click Assign
Resources
3. In the Name field, click the resource you want to assign to the task.
4. To assign a resource part-time, type or select a percentage less than 100 in the Units column to
represent the percentage of working time you want the resource to spend on the task.
To assign several different resources, hold down CTRL and click the names of the resources.
To assign more than one of the same resource (such as two carpenters), type or select a
percentage greater than 100 in the Units column. If necessary, type the name of a new resource in
the Name column.
5. Click Assign. A check mark to the left of the Name column indicates that the resource is assigned to the
selected task.
14

6. Click Close.
Site mobilisation
Foundation
Plinth work
R.c.c columns
Roof shuttering & bar bending
Roof concreting
Roof deshuttering
"6"" brick masonry"
Internal plastering
Overhead water tank
Water proofing
Filling in sunlken portion
External plastering
Flooring
Plumbing & sanitary works
Wall cladding for kitchen & toilets
Electrification works
Underground water tank
Underground septic tank
Door frames
Door shutters
Aluminium windows for all floors
Window grills for all floors
Painting
Lift installation
Drainage works
Compound wall
Main entrance gate
Kitchen sink fixing
Fire protection system
Sub-station
Parking

Generator

Shed (security & servant)

Pump for corpn. Water

"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site Supervisors[2],


Foreman[2],Head Mason,Mason[800 ],Male coolie[15],Female
coolie[15],Bisthy[3]"

"Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Carpentor[4],Carpenter


helper[3]"
"Site Engineers,Project Manager,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Head
Mason,Mason[5],Male coolie[2],Aluminium subcontractor"
"steel fabricator contractor,Site Engineers,Project Manager,Site
Supervisors,Male coolie[3],Mason[2]"
"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site Supervisors[2],
Foreman[2],Lift installing contractor"
"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site
Supervisors,Foreman,Mason[3],Male coolie[4],Female coolie[2]"
"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Head
Mason,Plumber[4],Plumber helper[6]"
"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Fire
protection contrcator"
"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Head
Mason,Mason[8],Male coolie[10],Female coolie[12],Bisthy[2
],Plumber,Plumber helper,Electrician,Electrician Helper,Fire
protection contrcator,concreting gang[10],
"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Head
Mason,Mason[3],Male coolie[5],Female coolie[5],Bisthy[2],Bar
Bender[2],Bar Bender helper[2],Plumber,Plumber
helper,Electrician[4 ],Electrician Helper[4],Shuttering
"Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Head
Mason,Mason[3],Male coolie[5],Female coolie[5],Bisthy[2],Bar
Bender,Bar Bender helper,Plumber,Plumber
helper,Electrician,Electrician Helper,Carpentor,Carpenter
helper,Shuttering carpenter[2],
"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site
Supervisors,Plumber[2],Plumber helper[4]"

Electricity board works


15

Site cleaning
Land scaping

"Project Manager,Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Male


coolie[15],Female coolie[15],Bisthy[2]"
"Site Engineers,Site Supervisors,Foreman,Male coolie[5],Female
coolie[5],Bisthy[],Project Manager,Head
Mason,Mason[3],Electrician,Electrician Helper,stone dressors[2]"

Tip: You can replace one resource with another. Select the task whose resource you want to replace. In
the Assign Resources dialog box, select the assigned resource and click Replace. Select one or more
resources to assign, and then click OK.
Fix the duration of a task
As you assign more resources to a task, Microsoft Project automatically decreases the duration of the task.
For example, a task with a one-day duration and one assigned resource has 8 hours of work. With effortdriven scheduling, if you assign a second resource, the task still has 8 hours of work, but its duration is
reduced to half a day. If you want to change the amount of work on the task instead, you can turn off effortdriven scheduling and assign another resource. The task will then have 16 hours of work and still have a
one-day duration.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. In the Task Name field, select the tasks for which you want to turn off effort-driven scheduling.
3. Click Task Information , and then click the Advanced tab.
4. Clear the Effort driven check box, and then click OK.
Now when you assign an additional resource, the task's duration will not change.
Tip: You can turn off effort-driven scheduling for all new tasks you create. Existing tasks will not be
affected. On the Tools menu, click Options, click the Schedule tab, and then clear the New tasks are effort
driven check box.
Check and edit resource assignments
The Resource Usage view shows project resources with their assigned tasks grouped underneath them.
Using the Resource Usage view, you can find out how many hours each resource is scheduled to work on
specific tasks and see which resources are overallocated. You can also determine how much time each
resource has available for additional work assignments.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Usage.
To see different information about resource assignments, such as work and cost, point to Table on the
View menu, and then click the table you want to see in the Resource Usage view.
2. In the Resource Name column, review the resource assignments.
3. To reassign a task from one person to another, select the entire row, position the pointer over the ID
field (the leftmost column), and then drag the task to its new location.
Notes:
You can change the timescale to another scale, such as weeks, if that is more appropriate for your
project. On the Format menu, click Timescale, and change the values in the Units boxes under
Major scale and Minor scale.
Changing the view or table does not add information to or remove information from your project; it
only changes the project information that is displayed.
If a resource name is red and bold, the resource is overallocated.
HOW DO YOU ENTER COSTS?
Whether you need to account for each task's expenses or the overall cost of the project, entering rates for a
resource's work on tasks or for fixed task costs enables you to see whether you are staying within budget.
You can choose when to accrue costs, enter per-use and overtime rates for resources, and plan for raises.

16

Assign costs to resources


Microsoft Project allows you to assign rates to human and material resources so you can manage project
costs accurately. You can assign standard rates, overtime rates, or per-use rates to resources.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Entry.
3. In the Resource Name field, select a resource or type a new resource name.
4. In the Type field, click Work if the resource is a worker or machine, or Material if the resource is material
or supplies (such as cement).
5. For a work resource, in the Std. Rate, Ovt. Rate, or Cost/Use fields, type the resource rates. For a
material resource, in the Material Label field, type a measurement unit for the material resource (such
as ton), and in the Std. Rate or Cost/Use fields, type a rate.
6. Press ENTER.
Tip: You can set the default standard and overtime rates for any new resources you enter. On the Tools
menu, click Options, and then click the General tab. In the Default standard rate and Default overtime rate
boxes, type the new rates. If you want to set this default for all future projects, click Set as Default.
Note: If the rate for a resource will change over the course of the project or if the resource will be paid at
different rates for different assignments, or if you work with different grades of material, click Resource
Sheet on the View menu. In the Resource Name field, select a resource and then click Resource
Information . Then, enter the information on the Costs tab.

Set fixed task costs


When you know an exact cost associated with a task, such as equipment costs, you can enter a fixed cost.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost.
3. In the Fixed Cost field for the task, type the cost.
4. Press ENTER.
Tip: In the Cost table, you can also change when the fixed cost is accrued by selecting an accrual method
in the Fixed Cost Accrual field.

Define when costs accrue


In Microsoft Project, resource costs are prorated by default. Their accrual is distributed over its duration.
You can, however, change the accrual method so that resource costs take effect at the start or end of the
task instead.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Entry.
3. In the Accrue At field, click the accrual method you want to use.
Notes:
When you enter timephased rate changes for a resource and use the prorated cost accrual method,
your costs will be calculated using the rates for the appropriate time periods and may change during
the completion of the task.
You cannot prorate per-use resource costs or accrue them at the end of a task assignment. They
always accrue at the start of the assignment.

17

See the cost of tasks or resources


After you assign rates to resources or fixed costs to tasks, you may want to review the total cost of these
assignments to make sure they fall within your expectations. If the total cost of a task or resource does not
meet your budget, you may need to examine each individual task's costs and each resource's task
assignments to see where costs can be reduced.
Instructions
1. To see task costs, on the View menu, click More Views, and then click Task Sheet. To see resource
costs, on the View menu, click Resource Sheet.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost.
Tips:
You can also view how costs are distributed over a task's duration in the Task Usage view by
displaying its cost details. On the View menu, click Task Usage. On the Format menu, point to
Details, and then click Cost.
You can view resource costs in more detail by clicking Resource Usage on the View menu, pointing
to Details on the Format menu, and then clicking Cost. You can also see resource cost totals
displayed graphically by clicking Resource Graph on the View menu, pointing to Details on the
Format menu, and then clicking Cost or Cumulative Cost.

See the cost of the entire project


You can view your project's current, baseline, actual, and remaining costs to see whether you're staying
within your overall budget. These costs are updated each time Microsoft Project recalculates your project.
Instructions
1. On the Project menu, click Project Information.
2. Click Statistics.
3. Under Cost in the Current row, view the total planned cost of the project.
Tips:
After you set a baseline and begin to track actual costs, you can compare the Baseline and Actual
fields to see if total project costs are progressing as expected.
As actual work progresses, you can also compare the variance between the Current and Remaining
fields to see if you will have enough money to complete the project.
How do you view the schedule and its details?
After entering the basic project data, review it. Will you meet your deadlines? If not, examine the tasks
leading up to milestones and make sure you have scheduled them efficiently.
First, look at the big picture: the start and finish date and the critical path. Then check the details. Display
tasks and resources in views that you can change to suit your needs.
See the entire project on the screen
You can get an overview of your project's start and finish dates and see when major phases will occur by
zooming in and out on the Gantt Chart.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the View menu, click Zoom, click Entire project, and then click OK.
Tips:
To see the Gantt bars on a larger or smaller timescale, click Zoom In or Zoom Out .
18

If you have to scroll down to see the project's finish date, and you have outlined tasks in a hierarchy,
you can look at just the top-level summary tasks. Click the ID field heading (the left uppermost cell
in the Gantt Chart) and then click Hide Subtasks .
To see tasks to a specific outline level, click the ID column heading (the left uppermost field in the
Gantt Chart). Click Show , and then click the outline level you want.

Check the project's finish or start date


You can review important project information, such as the finish date, to see if the project will meet your
expectations as it is currently scheduled.

On the Project menu, click Project Information, and then click Statistics.
The project's start and finish dates are shown, as well as the project's total work and cost.

Identify the critical path


The critical path is a series of tasks that must be completed on time for a project to finish on schedule. Most
tasks in a typical project have some slack and can therefore be delayed a little without affecting the
project's finish date. Those tasks that cannot be delayed without affecting the project finish date are the
critical tasks. As you modify tasks to resolve overallocations or other problems in your schedule, be aware
of the critical tasks; changes to critical tasks will affect your project finish date.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. Click GanttChartWizard .
3. Follow the GanttChartWizard instructions to format critical path tasks.
Tips

You can filter your schedule so that only the critical tasks are displayed. On the Project menu, point
to Filtered for, and then click Critical. Click All Tasks in the Filter list to display all the tasks again.
After filtering critical tasks, you can sort them by duration so that the critical tasks will be in order,
from the longest to the shortest. Sorting the critical tasks helps you see where to put your efforts in
shortening tasks.

Switch to a different view


You can display project information in task views or resource views. Some task and resource views are in
sheet views, containing columns (called fields) of related information. You can change the table in a sheet
view to see different fields of information. Other views show tasks or resource allocation graphically (such
as the Calendar, Network Diagram, and Resource Graph views), or tasks and resources related to a
timescale (such as the Task Usage and Resource Usage views).

On the View menu, click the task or resource view you want.
If the view you want to see isn't on the View menu, click More Views for more choices. Click a view
in the Views list, and then click Apply.

Note: Changing the view neither adds information to nor removes information from your project; it only
changes what is displayed.

See different fields in a view


Instructions
1. As you plan and track your schedule, it's useful to look at different combinations of information. By
changing the table applied to a sheet view, you can change the fields of information displayed in that
view.

19

2. If necessary, on the View menu, click the view you want. To use a view that is not on the View menu,
click More Views, click the view you want in the Views list, and then click Apply.
3. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click the table you want to apply. To apply a table that isn't
on the Table submenu, click More Tables, click the task or resource table you want, and then click
Apply.
Note that the field headings change as you switch between tables.

Display specific information by using a filter


When you want to focus on certain tasks or resources in the current view, you can apply a filter to the view.
You can specify that the filter show or highlight only those tasks or resources that meet the filter criteria.
Instructions
1. On the Project menu, point to Filtered for, and then click the filter you want to apply. To apply a filter
that isn't on the Filtered for submenu or to apply a highlighting filter, click More Filters.
2. Click Apply to apply the filter, or click Highlight to apply a highlighting filter.
3. If you apply an interactive filter, type the requested values, and then click OK.
4. To turn off a filter, point to Filtered for on the Project menu, and then click All Tasks or All Resources.
Note: You cannot apply task filters to resource views or apply resource filters to task views.
Tip: You can set an AutoFilter in many views to quickly find a subset of data in a field. On the Project
menu, point to Filtered for, and then click AutoFilter. Click the arrow in the column that contains the
information you want to display, and then click a value you want to use to filter the table. To turn off
AutoFilters, point to Filtered for on the Project menu, and then click AutoFilter again.

Sort information in a view


You can sort tasks or resources by criteria such as task name, finish date, and resource name. Sorting can
be useful when you want to see tasks in sequence. For example, you can see which tasks should start or
finish sooner. Sorting is maintained when you switch views and is saved when you close a project file.
However, a custom sort cannot be saved.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the Project menu, point to Sort, and then click the sorting option you want.
3. To customize a sort, on the Project menu, point to Sort, and then click Sort by.
4. In the Sort by box, click the field you want to sort by, and then click Ascending or Descending to specify
the sort order. Specify sorting options.
To sort by an additional field, click the field in the first Then by box, and then click Ascending or
Descending to specify the sort order.
To permanently renumber your tasks, select the Permanently renumber tasks check box.
To sort tasks within their outline structure so that subtasks remain with their summary tasks, select
the Keep outline structure check box.
To reset the sort order back to the default sort order, click Reset.
Note: Clicking Reset only resets the sort options in the Sort dialog box to their default order. If your tasks
were permanently reordered by using the Permanently renumber tasks check box, then clicking Reset will
not reset the numbered order of the tasks.

Group information in a view


In many views, you can group information for tasks or resources to compare and contrast data. For
example, you may want to see all tasks that have a similar duration grouped together.
Instructions
20

1. To group task information, on the View menu, click More Views, and then click Task Sheet. To group
resource information, on the View menu, click Resource Sheet.
2. On the Project menu, point to Group by, and then click the group you want to apply. To apply a group
that isn't on the Group by submenu, click More Groups. For example, for the Task Sheet, click Duration
to see tasks grouped by duration. For the Resource Sheet, click Resource Group to see resources
grouped by the information in the Group field.
3. To remove the grouping you applied, on the Project menu, point to Group by, and then click No Group.
HOW DO YOU ADJUST YOUR SCHEDULE?
If, after viewing your schedule, you find that you won't meet your project finish date, you can adjust tasks to
shorten your schedule. Pay special attention to critical tasks because any changes to those tasks may
affect the finish date.
Can a task begin earlier? Use lead time. Is there a date that a task must absolutely start? Add a constraint.
Are some resources overworked and others free? Reassign resources to shorten tasks.
Check and adjust a task dependency
A task dependency describes how a task is related to the start or finish of another task. Microsoft Project
provides four task dependencies you can use to connect a series of tasks in a schedule: finish-to-start (the
most commonly used dependency), start-to-start, start-to-finish, and finish-to-finish. By using these
dependencies effectively, you can modify the critical path and shorten your project schedule.
Microsoft Project assigns a finish-to-start task dependency when you link tasks. If another relationship
better models your tasks, change the dependency type. For example, when two tasks need to start at the
same time, you can create a start-to-start link. When tasks need to finish at the same time, you can use a
finish-to-finish link.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. Double-click the link line of the tasks you want to check. The Task Dependency dialog box appears. If
the Bar Styles dialog box appears, you didn't click precisely on the task link and need to close this
dialog box and double-click the task link again.
3. In the Type box, check the task dependency.
4. To change the dependency, in the Type box, click the task link you want to use.
Tips:
If you have tasks that can be worked on at the same time, you can shorten the critical path most by
changing the task dependency. For example, if two tasks can be started at the same time, you can
change the task dependency to start-to-start. If two tasks should finish at the same time, you can
change the task dependency to finish-to-finish.
You can add lead or lag time to tasks to make their start or finish dates overlap each other or to
delay a predecessor task. To quickly add lead or lag time to a successor task, double-click the link
line on the Gantt Chart, and then type the amount of lead or lag time in the Lag box of the Task
Dependency dialog box. Type lead time as a negative number (for example, 2d for two days of
lead time) or as a percentage. Type lag time as a positive number or as a percentage.

Overlap tasks
If you have tasks that can begin earlier than shown in your schedule, you can overlap (add lead time) to
more accurately model how the work will be done. For example, if the electricians can begin wiring outlets
before the walls are all finished, you can use time more efficiently by starting the "Wire outlets" task after
half of the walls have been roughed in. To do this, you set up a lead time between the finish of the "Roughin walls" task and the start of the "Wire outlets" task. In Microsoft Project, you type lead time as a negative
number or as a negative percentage, such as 50 or 30%.
Instructions
1. In the Task Name field, click the task you want, and then click Task Information .
2. Click the Predecessors tab.
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3. In the Lag field, type the lead time you want, as a negative number or as a percentage.
Tips:

You can quickly add lead time to a successor task by double-clicking the link on the Gantt Chart,
and then typing the amount of lead time in the Task Dependency dialog box.
You can also delay tasks by adding lag time. For example, if you need a 2-day delay between the
finish of one task and the start of another, double-click the link line on the Gantt Chart, and then
type 2d in the Lag field of the Task Dependency dialog box.

Check and adjust constraints on tasks


Task constraints can help you create a more accurate schedule by tying tasks to specific dates. For
example, you can specify that a task must start no earlier than a particular date or finish no later than a
particular date. You can change the constraint on a task from the default, As Soon As Possible, to seven
other constraints or reset it to the default constraint to better reflect when the task will be done.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click More Tables.
3. In the Tables list, click Constraint Dates, and then click Apply.
You may need to drag the divider bar to the right to view the Constraint Type and Constraint Date fields.
The Constraint Dates table shows the task name, duration, constraint type for all constraints, and the
constraint date, as applicable.
If the field you want to see isn't visible, press TAB to move to it.
4. For each task with a constraint other than the default, As Soon As Possible, look at the predecessor
tasks and successor tasks on the Gantt Chart to determine if you really need the constraint.
5. Change a constraint if necessary.
To change a constraint type, in the Constraint Type field, click the arrow, and then click the
appropriate constraint.
To change a constraint date, type or select the date in the Constraint Date field.
Notes:
If you type a start date for a task or drag a Gantt bar to change the start date, Microsoft Project sets
a Start No Earlier Than (SNET) constraint based on the new start date. If you type a finish date for a
task, Microsoft Project automatically assigns a Finish No Earlier Than (FNET) constraint.
If you're scheduling your project from a finish date, typing a start date for a task or dragging a Gantt
bar to change the start date sets a Start No Later Than (SNLT) constraint. If you type a finish date
for a task, Microsoft Project automatically assigns a Finish No Later Than (FNLT) constraint.

Make tasks shorter by adding more resources


After you've assigned resources to a task, Microsoft Project recalculates the task's duration if you add or
remove additional resources. For example, if you add another resource to an effort-driven task with a fourday duration and one assigned resource, the task will be shortened to two days. If you have more flexibility
with your resource assignments than schedule deadlines, adding resources can be an effective way to
shorten your schedule.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. In the Task Name field, click the task to which you want to assign more resources, and then click
Assign Resources .
3. In the Name field, click the resource you want to assign to the task. If necessary, type the name of a
new resource in the Name field.
4. Click Assign.
5. A check mark to the left of the Name field indicates that the resource is assigned to the selected task.
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Note: If the task duration isn't affected by adding resources, ensure the scheduling options are set to effortdriven scheduling. Click Task Information and then click the Advanced tab. Be sure the Effort driven check
box is selected and the task type is Fixed Units or Fixed Work.
Tips
If you don't know which resources are available to take on more work, you can see current resource
allocations by clicking Resource Usage on the View menu.
To assign a resource part-time, type a value less than 100 in the Units field to represent the
percentage of working time you want the resource to spend on the task. To assign more than one of
the same resource (such as two carpenters), type a percentage amount greater than 100 in the
Units field.
To assign several different resources, hold down CTRL as you click nonadjacent resources or hold
down SHIFT as you click adjacent resources.

Split a task into segments


Splitting tasks may help adjust your schedule. You can split a task so that the task is interrupted, and then
resumes later in the schedule.
Splitting tasks is useful when you need to stop work on a task temporarily to work on another task. You can
split a task as many times as necessary. Splitting a task into parts is not the same as entering a recurring
task scheduled to occur at regular intervals, such as a staff meeting.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. Click Split Task .
3. Move the pointer over the taskbar you want to split, and then click the taskbar where you want the split
to occur.
Note: The toolbar button you want may be temporarily hidden. It may not appear because there is not
enough room to display all the buttons. Click More Buttons , and then click Split Task .
Tips
You can create a longer split by clicking and dragging the taskbar to the right.
You can remove the split by dragging a portion of a split task so that it touches another portion.

HOW DO YOU SAVE THE PLAN ALONG THE WAY?


After you've entered task, resource, and cost information for your project, you can save a snapshot of your
original plan, called a baseline.
To save a checkpoint of actual progress on the project, you can save an interim plan and compare changes
to your baseline plan.
After the project is underway, you can enter actual information and compare that data to the baseline.
Save a baseline plan
When you've entered all of your project information and you're ready to start actual work, you can save a
baseline of your project's information to compare with the actual progress of your project. Using a baseline,
you can track the progress of your schedule so you can make the necessary corrections. For example, you
can see which tasks started later than planned, how much work resources performed, and whether your
budget's on track.
Instructions
1. On the Tools menu, point to Tracking, and then click Save Baseline.
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2. Click Entire project to save a project baseline. Click Selected tasks to add new tasks to an existing
baseline.
3. Click OK.
Tip: To create a budget, first assign resources and enter rate information or any fixed costs, and then save
a baseline. The cost information in the baseline plan can serve as a budget. You cannot save this
information in an interim plan.
Note: If you haven't yet entered all your basic project information when you first save your file, you can
choose to save it without a baseline.

Save an interim plan


After you save a baseline of your project's information, you can save up to 10 interim plans as checkpoints
during the project.
Instruction
1. On the Tools menu, point to Tracking, and then click Save Baseline.
2. Click Save interim plan.
3. In the Copy box, click the name of the current interim plan.
4. In the Into box, click a name for the next interim plan, or specify a new name.
5. Click Entire project to save an interim plan for the whole project. Click Selected tasks to save a portion
of the schedule.
6. Click OK.
Note: An interim plan saves the tasks' start and finish dates into Start and Finish fields. You can display
these interim plan dates by adding the Start and Finish fields to a table.
TRACK AND MANAGE PROGRESS
When you manage a project, you need to monitor the elements of the project triangle: time, money, and
scope. Adjusting one of these elements affects the other two. Events such as unexpected delays, cost
overruns, and resource changes can cause problems in your schedule.
If you keep your project information up to date, you can always see the latest status of the project. That
way, you can identify problems early that might affect your project's success and use Microsoft Project to
find solutions.
HOW DO YOU TRACK THE ACTUAL PROGRESS ON TASKS?
Once you've set up your project and work has begun, you can keep track of actual start and finish dates,
tasks' percentage of completion, and actual work. Tracking actuals shows you how changes affect other
tasks and, ultimately, the project's finish date.
Check if tasks are progressing according to plan
To keep your project on schedule, make sure that tasks start and finish on schedule. The Tracking Gantt
view helps find trouble spots, tasks that vary from the baseline plan. You can then adjust task
dependencies, reassign resources, or delete some tasks to meet your deadlines. The Tracking Gantt view
pairs the current schedule with the original schedule for each task. When you've saved the project with a
baseline, but before you've entered actual data on progress, the Tracking Gantt view shows tasks with the
baseline bars and the scheduled or actual bars synchronized.
As you enter actuals, the top bar may move to show a departure from plan. For example, if the start date of
a task moves by two days and is over half complete at 55%, the red scheduled bar extends two days
beyond the lower baseline bar.
Instructions
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

On the View menu, click Tracking Gantt.


To view the variance fields, on the View menu, point to Table, and then click Variance.
If necessary, press TAB to see the variance fields.
On the View menu, point to Toolbars, and then click Tracking.
Update the progress of the tasks in your project.
If the task has started as scheduled, click the task, and then click Update as Scheduled .
If the task is not progressing as scheduled, to enter actual start and finish dates, enter the actual
duration of the task, or update a task's progress as a percentage.

Note: You must have saved a baseline in order to have variance information.

Enter actual start and finish dates for a task


Tasks that start or finish late can throw an entire project off schedule by delaying the start or finish dates of
related tasks. Tasks that start or finish early can free resources to work on other tasks that are behind
schedule. Microsoft Project uses the actual values you enter to reschedule the remaining portions of your
project.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the View menu, point to Toolbars, and then click Tracking if it is not already selected.
3. In the Task Name field, select the tasks you want to update. To select nonadjacent tasks, hold down
CTRL, and then click the tasks. To select adjacent tasks, hold down SHIFT, and then click the first and
last task to update.
4. Click Update Tasks
5. Under Actual, type or select a date in the Start or Finish box.
6. If you enter a finish date, make sure that the task is 100% complete; Microsoft Project will assume the
date is correct and reschedule tasks accordingly.
7. Click OK.
Note: Entering an actual start date or actual finish date for a task changes the corresponding scheduled
date for that task. Baseline dates, however, are not affected.

Enter the actual duration of a task


If you know the number of days a task has been in progress and if it is progressing as planned, you can
track progress by entering the duration that the resource has been working on the task.
When you enter the actual duration of a task, Microsoft Project updates the actual start date, the task's
percentage of completion, and the duration of the task remaining in the schedule.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. In the Task Name field, click the task for which you want to enter the actual duration.
3. On the Tools menu, point to Tracking, and then click Update Tasks.
4. In the Actual dur box, type the actual duration of the task.
5. Click OK.
Tip: If you think the task is going to be finished sooner or later than originally scheduled, you can enter a
new value in the Remaining dur box.
Note: If you enter an actual duration longer than or equal to the scheduled duration, the task becomes
100% complete, and the scheduled duration then equals the actual duration.

Update a task's progress as a percentage


You can indicate how much progress has been made on a task by entering the percentage of the task
duration that is complete. For relatively short tasks, it may not be worthwhile to track progress in such
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detail; but for long tasks, indicating the percentage of completion for the task helps you track actual
progress against the baseline plan.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart
2. In the Task Name field, click the task for which you want to update progress.
3. Click Task Information and then click the General tab.
4. In the Percent complete box, type a whole number between 0 and 100.
5. Click OK.
Notes:
Microsoft Project calculates the summary task's percentage of completion based on the progress of
its subtasks. You can also manually enter the summary task's percentage of completion, which
Microsoft Project will use to calculate the percentage of completion for its subtasks.
By default, Microsoft Project indicates the task's percentage of completion as a thin, black line
drawn horizontally through the middle of each Gantt bar on the Gantt Chart.
When you mark a task as 100% complete, Microsoft Project displays a check mark in the Indicators
field.
Tip: You can use the buttons on the Tracking toolbar to update progress on a task and to perform other
tracking activities. To view the Tracking toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View menu, and then click
Tracking.
Update actual work by time period
You can track actual work using the timephased fields in Microsoft Project. Tracking using the timephased
fields helps you keep your project up to date periodically because you can enter information for a particular
day in your schedule.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Task Usage.
2. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Actual Work.
3. In the timephased portion of the view, in the Actual Work field, type the actual work of each assigned
resource.
Tips:
If it makes no difference which of the resources assigned to a task performs the work, in the Actual
Work field for the task, type a value for the combined work done on the task by all the resources.
Microsoft Project divides the actual and remaining work among the resources based on when they
are scheduled on the task and the remaining work for each assignment.
You can also type actual work for a week at a time. On the View menu, click Zoom, and click 1
month to display the timescale in weekly increments. Then, type actual work for the week in the
Actual Work field.

See if tasks have more or less work than planned


If you're managing resource assignments in your project, you need to make sure resources complete tasks
in the time scheduled. If you've saved a baseline for your project, you can check the variance information.
Variances in your schedule can be good as well as bad, depending on the type and severity of the
variance. A task with less work than planned, for example, is usually good news but may indicate that your
resources are not allocated efficiently.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work. If necessary, press TAB to view the Actual
field.

26

3. Compare the values in the Work, Baseline, and Actual fields. The values in the Variance field show the
difference between the work scheduled and the originally planned amount of work saved in the
baseline.
Compare actual task information to the baseline
When you save a baseline plan and then update your schedule, you can compare the baseline plan to your
actual progress to identify variances. Variances alert you to the areas of the project that are not going as
planned. To keep your project on schedule, make sure that tasks start and finish on time as much as
possible. Every project has variances, but it is important to find tasks that vary from the baseline plan as
soon as possible so you can adjust task dependencies, reassign resources, or delete some tasks to meet
your deadlines.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Tracking Gantt. The Tracking Gantt view shows task variances graphically,
making it easier to see variances in your schedule.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Variance. If necessary, press TAB to view the
variance fields.
Note: You must update tasks' actual start and finish dates, actual work values, or actual durations before
variances will appear. Microsoft Project calculates the other task information based on the information you
enter.
HOW DO YOU TRACK THE ACTUAL WORK BY RESOURCE?
You may need to track how much work each resource on your project completes task by task or
cumulatively for the project. Then you can compare the planned and actual amounts of work. This
comparison can help you keep track of your resources' performance and plan workloads for future projects.
Enter the total actual work done by a resource
If you schedule tasks based on the availability of resources, track the progress of your
the work completed on a task. Using this approach, you can track the work that
performing. When you update the actual work a resource has done on a task,
automatically calculates the work remaining by subtracting the actual work done by the
total work the resource is scheduled to do.

tasks by updating
each resource is
Microsoft Project
resource from the

Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Task Usage.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work. In the Task Name field, both task and resource
names are listed. If necessary, press TAB to view the Actual field.
3. In the Actual field for each resource, type the updated work value and the duration abbreviation for the
actual work of each assigned resource.
Tip: If it makes no difference which resource assigned to a task performs the work, then type a value for
the combined work done on the task by all the resources in the Actual field for the task. Microsoft Project
divides the actual and remaining work among the resources based on when they are scheduled on the task
and the remaining work for each assignment.
Update a resource's actual work by time period
You can track actual work for individual resources using the timephased fields in Microsoft Project. Tracking
resources' actual work by using the timephased fields can help you keep your project up to date by time
period because you can enter information for a particular day (or other time period) in your schedule.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Usage.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work.
3. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Actual Work.
4. In the Act. Work field for the resource, type the actual work value.

27

See the variance between a resource's planned and actual work


If you schedule tasks based on the availability of resources and you track actual work, you can analyze how
much total work a resource is accomplishing by looking at the variance between the baseline work and
actual work. You can also compare those figures to the baseline work and actual work over time to see how
the resource's work is progressing in greater detail.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Usage.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work. If necessary, press TAB to view the Baseline
and Actual fields.
3. Compare the values in the Baseline and Actual fields for each resource.
4. Make sure the Work and Act. Work fields are displayed in the the timescaled portion of the view. On the
Format menu, point to Details, and then click Work if it's not already selected. On the Format menu,
point to Details, and then click Actual Work, if it's not already selected, to display it as well.
5. In the timescale portion of the view, compare the Work and Act. Work fields for a daily summary of each
resource's work.
HOW DO YOU COMPARE ACTUAL COSTS TO BUDGET?
You may want to track cost overruns in a phase of your project or learn how much a particular resource
costs you on a certain day. Or you may simply need to see how much total cost has accrued.
Tracking costs for your project can help you see where changes need to be made to finish your project on
time and within budget and can help in planning budgets for future projects.
Enter actual task costs manually
Microsoft Project automatically updates actual costs as a task progresses based on the task's accrual
method and the rates of the resources. But if you want to track actual costs separately from the actual work
on a task, you can enter costs manually instead.
To update costs manually you must first turn off the automatic updating of actual costs and then enter your
own actual cost for an assignment after the remaining work is zero.
Instructions
1. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Calculation tab.
2. Clear the Actual costs are always calculated by Microsoft Project check box.
3. Click OK.
4. On the View menu, click Task Usage.
5. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Tracking.
6. If necessary, press TAB to view the Act. Cost field.
7. In the Act. Cost field, type the actual cost for the assignment whose costs you are updating.
Tips:
You can set the fixed cost for a task to accrue at the beginning or the completion of a task or to be
prorated for the length of the task. Click Gantt Chart on the View menu. On the View menu, point to
Table, and then click Cost. In the Fixed Cost Accrual field, type or select the accrual method you
want.
In addition to a standard rate, sometimes assignment costs include a fixed amount charged for a
resource each time the resource is assigned to a task, such as equipment costs, setup charges,
delivery, or rental fees. You can enter this per-use cost by clicking Resource Sheet on the View
menu, and then typing a new cost in the Cost/Use field for the resource whose per-use cost you
want to change.
Update actual costs by time period
You can track actual costs using the timephased fields in Microsoft Project. Tracking actual costs using the
timephased fields can help you keep your project up to date by time period because you can enter
information for a particular day or other time period in your schedule.

28

Microsoft Project automatically updates actual costs as a task progresses based on the accrual method you
set. You must first turn off the automatic updating of actual costs to edit actual costs. On the Tools menu,
click Options, and then click the Calculation tab.
Instructions
1. Clear the Actual costs are always calculated by Microsoft Project check box.
2. Click OK.
3. On the View menu, click Task Usage.
4. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost.
5. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Cost.
6. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Actual Cost.
7. To enter actual cost values for a task, select a day or other time period in the timescale portion of the
view, and then type a value into the Act. cost field for the task. To enter actual values for a resource,
select a day or other time period in the timescale portion of the view, and then type a value into the Act.
cost field for the resource.
8. Tip: You can enter actuals in other time increments, such as weeks. On the View menu, click Zoom,
and click the increment you want.
See if tasks cost more or less than budgeted
If you assign fixed costs to tasks or specify wages for resources, you may want to see tasks that cost more
than budgeted. By creating a budget using a baseline plan and closely tracking your project costs, you can
catch cost overruns early and adjust either your schedule or your budget accordingly.
Microsoft Project calculates the cost of each resource's work, the total cost for each task and resource, and
the total project cost. These costs are considered scheduled or projected costs, which reflect the latest cost
picture as the project progresses.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. If necessary, press TAB to view the Total Cost
and Baseline fields.
3. Compare the values in the Total Cost and Baseline fields. For the cost variance, look at the value in the
Variance field.
Tips:
To see the total cost, baseline, and variance information for the entire project, you can display the
project summary task. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the View tab. Under Outline
options, select the Project summary task check box, and then click OK.
You can view the resources assigned to a task and the resource costs related to that task. On the
View menu, click Task Usage. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. Drag the
divider bar to the right and compare the values in the Total Cost, Baseline, Actual, and Remaining
fields for the resources assigned to that task.
See the total project costs
You can view your project's current, baseline, actual, and remaining costs to see whether you're staying
within your budget. These costs are updated each time Microsoft Project recalculates your project.
Instructions
1. On the Project menu, click Project Information.
2. Click Statistics. The current, baseline, actual, and remaining costs are displayed in the Costs column.
Analyze costs with the Earned Value table
When you want to compare your expected progress with the actual progress to date, you can use the
Earned Value table. It compares, in terms of costs, each task's baseline schedule with the actual schedule.
You can also use the Earned Value table to forecast whether the task will finish under or over budget based
on the cost incurred while the task is in progress. For example, if a task is 50% complete and the actual
cost incurred to date is $200, you can see if $200 is more than, less than, or equal to 50% of the baseline
(or budgeted) cost. The VAC field displays the variance at completion between baseline cost and
scheduled cost for a task.
29

Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click More Tables.
3. In the Tables list, click Earned Value, and then click Apply.
4. Drag the divider bar to the right to display all of the Earned Value table fields. The values are calculated
based on the actual work and costs up through and including the current date. To change the
calculation date, on the Project menu, click Project Information. In the Status date box, type the date
you want to use, and then click OK.
Tips:
Move the mouse pointer over a field name to get a description of the field; for example, position the
pointer over the VAC field and click Help on VAC for a description of the field.
In the Task Usage view, you can view earned value data over time periods such as daily, weekly,
monthly, quarterly, or yearly. On the Format menu, click Detail Styles, and then click the Usage
Details tab. In the Available fields list, hold down CTRL, click the earned value fields you want to
display (such as ACWP, BCWP, CV, or SV), and then click Show. Double-click the timescale to
change the time periods that you see.
To see cost variances for the entire project, you can display the project summary task. On the Tools
menu, click Options. Click the View tab and under Outline options, select the Project summary task
check box.
HOW DO YOU BALANCE A RESOURCE'S WORKLOAD?
You should check your schedule for resources with too much or too little work. If some resources are
overallocated, see if adding more resources to a task or reassigning a task will give you the results you
want.
If this doesn't work, you can delay tasks assigned to an overworked resource until later in the schedule or
reduce the amount of work for tasks.
Find overallocated resources and their task assignments
People and equipment are overallocated when they are assigned more work than they can complete in
their scheduled working hours. Before you can resolve overallocations, you must determine which
resources are overallocated, when they are overallocated, and what tasks they are assigned to at those
times. To resolve the problem, the people and equipment must be allocated differently or the task must be
rescheduled to a time when the resource is available.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Usage. The Resource Usage view shows the total hours the
resource is working, the total hours the resource is working on each task, and the hours worked per
time period on the timescale.
Resources with no tasks yet assigned do not have tasks listed under their names.
Tasks with no resources assigned are listed under Unassigned in the Resource Name field.
2. On the Project menu, point to Filtered for and then click Overallocated Resources. Any work resources
that are overallocated are displayed and highlighted.
Tips:
If you see number signs (##) in the timescale portion of the Resource Usage view, the columns in
the timescale are not wide enough to display the information. To change the width of the columns,
click Timescale on the Format menu, and then increase the value in the Size box.
You can see how much of a resource's work is allocated to particular tasks and per time period. On
the Format menu, click Detail Styles. Click the Usage Details tab and in the Available fields list, click
Percent Allocation, and then click Show.
Reduce a resource's work
After you've assigned a resource to a task, you can change the total work values for the resource's work on
the task or change work values for a specific time period when the resource works on the task. Tailoring
work values this way can make your schedule more accurate at a finer level of detail.
30

Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Task Usage. Resources are grouped under the tasks they are assigned to.
2. In the table (left) portion of the view, enter a new value in the Work field to change the total work value
for an assignment.
Tip: You can also use the Resource Usage view to see and edit work values for tasks grouped under the
resources are assigned to them. On the View menu, click Resource Usage.
Note: You can also change the individual work values (or hours) for the assigned resources on the
timescale portion of the view.
Reassign work to another resource
If you have tried to resolve a resource overallocation using other methods and the overallocation persists, it
may be time to reassign the task to another resource with more time. This is an alternate method of
manually leveling your schedule by reassigning work rather than delaying work.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Resource Usage.
2. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Overallocation.
3. Look at the timescale on the right and, for each highlighted overallocation, examine the availability of
other resources on that day.
4. Click the ID field to select the entire row of the task you need to reassign.
5. Drag the task to the resource that you want to reassign it to.
Delay a task
A simple way to resolve a resource overallocation is to delay a task assigned to the resource until the
resource has time to work on it. You can add delay to a task, check the effect on the resource's allocation,
and then adjust the delay further if necessary.
Delaying a task also delays the start dates of its successors and can affect the finish date of your schedule.
To avoid this, delay tasks with free slack first (noncritical tasks) and only delay them up to the amount of
slack that is available for each task. Experiment with adding delay to different tasks to see the effect on
your schedule.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click More Views.
2. In the Views list, click Resource Allocation, and then click Apply.
In the timephased portion on the top right, overallocation for a resource is displayed in red.
In the bar chart below, slack for tasks to which the resource is assigned appears graphically as a
thin slack bar adjoining the regular Gantt bar.
3. In the Resource Name field in the top left portion of the view, click the resource name for the
overallocated resource with a task you want to delay.
4. In the Leveling Delay field (bottom left portion of the view) for the task you want to delay, type the
amount of time that you want the task to be delayed. To ensure that successor tasks are not affected,
do not enter more lag than the amount of free slack for that task.
5 To return to a single view, on the Window menu, click Remove Split.
Change a resource's working days and hours
The project calendar designates the default work schedule for the project, but you can create a resource
calendar to indicate work hours, vacations, leaves of absence, and sick time for individual resources.
Instructions
1. On the Tools menu, click Change Working Time.
2. In the For box, click the resource whose calendar you want to change.
3. On the calendar, select the days you want to change. To change a day of the week for the entire
calendar, select the day at the top of the calendar.
4. Click Use default, Nonworking time, or Nondefault working time.
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5. If you clicked Nondefault working time in step 4, type the times you want work to start in the From boxes
and the times you want work to end in the To boxes.
6. Click OK.
Tip: If a group of resources will have the same special working hours and days off, you can create a new
base calendar for them. Click New in the Change Working Time dialog box, and type a name for the new
base calendar. Click Create new base calendar to begin with a default calendar. Or, to base it on an
existing calendar, click Make a copy of, and then click the calendar name in the Calendar box. Click OK,
and then modify the days and hours on the calendar. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet, and select
the new base calendar in the Base Calendar field for each resource you want to assign it to.
COMMUNICATING RESULTS
To manage a project effectively, you need to communicate and distribute project information. You might
prepare reports or presentations; publish information on a Web site; or use Microsoft Project Central to
communicate with your workgroup on the Web.
With Microsoft Project, you can format and publish views and print reports to meet the needs of a particular
person or group. You can publish the information in Web format (HTML) or include it in a presentation using
a program such as Microsoft PowerPoint.
HOW DO YOU FORMAT THE SCHEDULE TO LOOK THE WAY YOU WANT?
When you have a large task list, it can be difficult to focus on areas that concern you. To emphasize what
you need to see, you can customize the format of the task list and the Gantt bars.
You can format categories of information, such as all tasks that must end by a certain date. You can also
make some tasks bold or use a different font for them.
Use the GanttChartWizard for easy formatting
The GanttChartWizard is a series of interactive dialog boxes containing options that you select to format the
Gantt Chart, such as highlighting the critical path. When you finish selecting the options you want, the
GanttChartWizard formats your Gantt Chart for you.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. Click GanttChartWizard .
3. Follow the GanttChartWizard instructions.
Tip: To undo the formatting you chose with the GanttChartWizard, click GanttChartWizard and reapply the
default options by clicking Next for each step to return the Gantt Chart to its default settings.
Format a category of Gantt bars
To call attention to all tasks of a certain category, you can change the format of the Gantt bars that
represent that category on the Gantt Chart. A category can, for example, include specific task types such
as milestones or critical tasks or tasks that have finished.
Instead of selecting Gantt bars manually and applying formatting to them, you can create or modify a bar
style. Any change you make to the style will affect all bars in the category.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.
2. On the Format menu, click Bar Styles.
3. To modify an existing style, in the Name field, click the name of the bar style.
4. Click the Bars tab in the bottom portion of the Bar Styles dialog box.
5. To create a new style, click in the Show For ... Tasks column, and then click the arrow next to the
selection to select a new category (such as Critical or Finished).
6. If you are creating a new style, type its name in the Name field, and then click the Bars tab.
7. Under Start, Middle, and End, select shapes, patterns or types, and colors for the bar.
8. Click OK.
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Tip: To change the formatting of an individual Gantt bar, select the task, and then click Bar on the Format
menu. Click the Bar Shape tab, and format the Gantt bar.
Format a category of tasks in your task list
To distinguish a category of tasks, such as critical tasks, from other tasks in your project, you can change
the text formatting for all tasks in that category by modifying the text style. You can also change the look of
row and column headings, the timescale, and Gantt bar text.
You can change text styles in any view except the Network Diagram and form views. (In some views,
however, not all formatting options are available.) Changes you make apply only to the current view.
If certain information in your view requires urgent attention, such as the completion date of a slipped task,
you can call attention to that information by formatting it individually.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click a sheet view such as the Gantt Chart.
2. On the Format menu, click Text Styles.
3. In the Item to Change box, click the type of information you want to change, and then select formatting
options for that information.
4. To change the formatting of another type of information without closing the dialog box, click a new type
in the Item to Change box, and then select formatting options for that information.
5. Click OK.
Tips:
To change the format of an individual task, select the task, click Font on the Format menu, and then
select formatting options for that text.
To quickly copy the text formatting of one task to another, select the task with formatting you want to
copy, click Format Painter and then select the task to which you want to apply that formatting.
Format text
If certain information in your view requires urgent attention, such as the completion date of a slipped task,
you can call attention to that information by formatting it individually. In most views, you can change the
font, font style, color, and size of the text.

To change the font, font style, color, and text size, select the text you want to change, click Font on
the Format menu, and then select the formatting you want to apply.
You can quickly apply character formatting such as bold, italic, or underlining by using the
Formatting toolbar. Select the text you want to format, and then click Bold , Italic , or Underline .
To change text alignment, click Align Left, Align Center, or Align Right .

Note: This type of formatting won't change if you change the data later. You'll need to individually change
the formatting you added.
HOW DO YOU PRINT PROJECT INFORMATION?
After you've entered the basic information about your project, you may want to print it and review the plan.
To make it easy to identify your project, you can add headers, footers, and page numbers. If you want to
review certain areas of the plan, you can change to another view, customize the view to show only the
information you need, and print it.
Add a title, page number, or other project information
You can add project information to the header, footer, or legend of a view. The project information can be
data you entered (such as your company's name or manager's name) or data provided by Microsoft Project
(such as the page number or project finish date). You can choose the project information that adds the
most impact to your printed view.
Instructions
1. On the File menu, click Page Setup.
2. Click the Header, Footer, or Legend tab.
3. Click the Left, Center, or Right tab.
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4. In the text box, place the insertion point where you want to add the project information.
5. In the General and Project fields boxes, click each type of information you want, and then click Add.
6. Microsoft Project will use the information you typed into the Project Information and Properties dialog
boxes to fill in each type of information.
Note: To format project information, you need to select the ampersand (&) that precedes it, or select the
entire line, and then click Format Text Font . Select the font, font style, size, and color you want; select the
Underline check box if you want; and then click OK.
Preview the printed schedule
Before printing a view, it is useful to see what the information will actually look like when printed. You can
adjust the page orientation and size, edit headers, footers, and legends, and set print options.

To see what a project view will look like when printed, click Print Preview .

Print the view that appears on the screen


Most often, a printed view includes only the information that's displayed on your screen when you use the
Print command. When you want to print what you see on your screen, print a view. You can print sheet
views, graph views, and most chart views, that is, any view except form views and the Relationship
Diagram view.

To print a view using the default settings, click Print .

Tips:
To change options, such as printing notes or a specific number of columns, click Page Setup on the
File menu, click the View tab, and then select the options you want.
If you preview a view and then decide to change the appearance of the view pages, click Page
Setup in the Print Preview window, and then make the changes you want. To return to the Print
Preview window, click Print Preview in the Page Setup dialog box.
Note: To change the default print settings, click Print on the File menu, and then specify the printer and
printer properties, the print range, the number of copies, and the date range. To see the results of your
changes immediately, click Preview in the Print dialog box.
Print a standard report
A report is a predefined set of detailed information about a specific part of your plan. Microsoft Project
provides more than 20 predefined reports; for example, the Who Does What report automatically includes
each resource's task assignments, as well as the work, delay, and start and finish dates for each
assignment.
Instructions
1. On the View menu, click Reports.
2. Click the report type you want, and then click Select.
3. Click the specific report you want to print, and then click Select.
4. Click Print.
Tips:
You can change the appearance of your report pages and see the results before you print. Click
Page Setup in the Print Preview window, make the changes you want, and then click Print Preview
to return to the Print Preview window. You can switch between Print Preview and Page Setup as
many times as necessary before printing your report.
You can print any report without using Print Preview. On the View menu, click Reports, click
Custom, and then click Select. In the Reports list, click the report you want to print, and then click
Print. Make any necessary changes to the print options, and then click OK.
How do you distribute project information online?
Microsoft Project puts the communication potential of the World Wide Web at your fingertips with a variety
of Internet and intranet features. With Microsoft Project, you can take advantage of the power of the Web
by:
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Instructions
1. Communicating project plans and collecting project information from team members.
2. Copying information as a static picture and saving the picture in a Web-compatible file format.
3. Distributing documents on the Web related to your project.
Set up a workgroup system
A workgroup system allows you to electronically link team members in tightly knit workgroups, making it
easier for team members to exchange information about your project. In Microsoft Project there are two
ways to set up workgroup systems: using the Web with Microsoft Project Central, or using e-mail to
communicate basic task information and update tasks.
Using the Web
Microsoft Project Central is a Microsoft Project companion product that enables in-depth collaborative
planning among workgroup members, project managers, and other stakeholders.
Microsoft Project Central offers additional benefits and much more flexibility than an e-mail based
workgroup system:
Workgroup members can view tasks for all of their projects at once. Workgroup members can see
their tasks in a Gantt Chart and can group, sort, and filter their tasks.
Workgroup members can view the latest information for the entire project, and not just their
assigned tasks.
Workgroup members can create new tasks and send them for incorporation into the project file, as
well as delegate tasks to other workgroup members.
Project managers can request, receive, and consolidate status reports.
Project managers can establish message rules to automatically accept updates from workgroup
members.
Anyone working with Microsoft Project Central needs a Microsoft Project Central license; however only the
project manager/administrator is required to have a Microsoft Project 2000 license when maintaining a
Microsoft Project Central database. All users must use duly licensed copies of either Microsoft Project 2000
or Microsoft Project Central.
Using e-mail:
Once connected electronically and linked, a workgroup can use special e-mail to:
Assign tasks.
Accept or decline task assignments.
Request and submit status reports.
Send and receive task updates.
While the requirements vary, to communicate on an e-mail system the project manager and all workgroup
members must:
Be connected to a network.
Use a MAPI-compliant, 32-bit e-mail system.
Install WGsetup.exe on their computers.
For more information on using Microsoft Project Central or e-mail for your workgroup, see All about
Microsoft Project Central, or All about workgroup messaging.
Publish information in Web format
You can include information from a Microsoft Project schedule in an HTML document for the World Wide
Web. Microsoft Project uses import/export maps to determine which fields are exported to HTML format
and may use a template to determine how and where the information is displayed in the HTML file. You can
create or edit both the HTML import/export maps and the HTML templates.
Instructions
1. On the File menu, click Save As Web Page.
2. If necessary, type a name for the exported file in the File name box, and then click Save.
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3. In the Import/export map list, click the name of the map you want to use for exporting your data, such as
Export to HTML using standard template.
Note: You can define a new map or edit an existing map by clicking New Map.
4 Click Save.
Note: You can edit the sample templates that Microsoft Project provides for creating formatted HTML files
from exported data or you can create your own templates. For more information on using sample HTML
templates, see HTML export templates and tags.
Publish information as a graphic
You can copy information as a static picture from the active Microsoft Project view and paste it into any
program capable of displaying graphical information as images. You can also save the picture in a Webcompatible file format for use on the Web. In many views, you can copy a picture of the entire view or select
and copy a portion of the view.
Instructions
1. Select the rows in your project you want to copy or display the area you want to copy on your screen.
2. On the Edit menu, click Copy Picture.
3. Under Render image, specify how you want the image rendered:
To copy the information for display on a screen, such as for a Microsoft PowerPoint slide, click For
screen.
To copy the information as it would be printed, click For printer.
To copy the information as a GIF image file, for use in a Web page or in other programs, click To
GIF image file, and then specify the path and file name you want to copy the image to.
4. Under Copy, click Rows on screen to copy all visible portions of your plan, or click Selected rows to copy
only the row you have selected.
5. To copy information for a range of dates other than those currently displayed in the timescale, under
Timescale, enter a starting and ending date in the From and To boxes.
6. Click OK.
7. Switch to the program where you want to paste the Microsoft Project information, and then paste the
picture using the program's Paste command.

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