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Etiology: Mycobacterium

Tuberculosis

Precipitating factors:

Predisposing factors:

Malnutrition
Immunocompromised
diseases (HIV, AIDS,

Cancer)
Diabetes
Age (<2 years old and
>60 years)
Air pollution

Mode of
transmiinhalation of
droplet nuclei

Tobacco

Smoke
Alcohol Abuse
History of

Tuberculosis
Crowded Areas
Poor Hygiene

Incomplete
Vaccination

Microorganism get past


upper airway defense
mechanism.

Cough reflex and


mucociliary clearance

Next line of defense is


alveolar macrophage .

If microorganisms are
virulent they multiply in
a large number.

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Granulomatous
inflammatory
response (Ghons
focus)

Central portion of Ghons focus


undergoes soft, caseous necrosis

Fibrosis and
calcification happens
as the lesion ages.

Some mycobacterial organisms are


carried off by the lymphatics to the hilar
lymph nodes

Ghons Complex

As the process progress the bacteria may


or may not be killed and it continue to
grow and multiply resulting to a cell
mediated immunity (which can be
detected through PPD)

Symptoms:

Cough (usually
with mucus)
Hemoptysis
Excessive
sweating at night
Fatigue
Fever
Weight loss

B
PULMONARY

Diagnostic test:

PPD(Purified
Protein40
Derivative)
Chest
Radiograph

C
TYPES

Secondary Tuberculosis

Primary Tuberculosis

If left untreated
If treated

If left untreated
TB medicines:

If treated

TB medicines:
Isoniazid,
rifampicin,
Streptomycin,
ethambutol,
pyrazinamide

Reactivati
on of
tuberculo
sis

Others:
Balanced diet,
cough etiquette,
handwashing,
wearing of mask,
religious
E of
compliance

Others:
Balanced diet,
cough etiquette,
handwashing,
wearing of mask,
religious
compliance of

Good Prognosis

Good Prognosis

The
bacteria
a
Some
lobe ofcause
the lungs
progressive
lung
poorly oxygenated
destruction by forming

Isoniazid,
rifampicin,
Streptomycin,
ethambutol,
pyrazinamide

Extensive
erosion/
Spread of
infection in
Lung
destruction
the pleural
cavity
Reduced
Abscess
of the lung
Atelectasi
Empyema
Lung
(Tuberculosis
Respiratory
lunglung
Ruptured

Massive flooding
of blood in
Hypoxia
of of
Erosion
tracheobronchial
diapedesis
major
organ
Hemorrhage
arteries in
tree

Hematogenous
dissemination
occurs
F outside
the lungs and
extends to an
adjacent organ
41
outside the
lungs

Bon

Biopsy of
affected
area
Bronchoscop
y
CSF analysis
CT Scan

Hea

Uterus

pericarditi

Symptoms:

Diagnostic test:

Extrapulmonary
Tuberculosis

Liv
er

Meninge
s

endometr

meningi

Bone
marrow

Pain
Discomfort
Fever
Chills
Night sweats
Weight loss

Abdom
en
peritonit

Multiple Organ
dysfunction

Death

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