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9/22/2014

Simple Stress Analysis


in Machine Parts
(review)
Meifal Rusli
Mechanical Engineering
Department, Andalas University,
2014

Load
It is defined as any external force acting upon amachine
part. Four types of the load are important from the subject
point of view:
Dead or steady load. A load is said to be a dead or
steady load, when it does not change in magnitude
or direction.
Live or variable load. A load is said to be a live or
variable load, when it changes continually.
Suddenly applied or shock loads. A load is said to be
a suddenly applied or shock load, whenit is suddenly
applied or removed.
Impact load. A load is said to be an impact load,
when it is applied with some initial velocity.

Introduction
In engineering practice, the machine parts are subjected
to various forces which may be due :
Energy transmitted,
Weight of machine,
Frictional resistances,
Inertia of reciprocating parts,
Change of temperature, and
Lack of balance of moving parts.
The different forces acting on a machine part produces
various types of stresses,

Stress-strain Diagram
1.
2.
3.
4.

Normal Stress Stress and Strain

Proportional limit
Elastic limit
Yield point
Ultimate stress

5. Breaking stress

Normal
Stress

Normal
Strain

Young's Modulus or
Modulus of Elasticity

9/22/2014

Example

Torsion of circular shaft


Maximum value of shearing stress

If the base plate carries a load of


120 kN (including self-weight,
which is equally distributed on the
four corners), calculate the stress
on the lower washers before the
nuts are tightened.

d4
32

For hollow shaft

4
d o d i4
32

Angular deflection

What could be the stress in the


upper and lower washers, when
the nuts are tightened so as to
produce a tension of 5 kN on each
bolt?

Shear Stress and Strain

T r 16 T

J
d3

T l
J G

Bending Stress in Straight Beams

Single Shear Stress

Normal Stress
Example A pull of 80 kN is transmitted
from a bar X to the bar Y through a pin as
shown. If the maximum permissible tensile
stress in the bars is 100 N/mm2 and the
permissible shear stress in the pin is 80
N/mm2, find the diameter of bars and of the
pin.

My
I

M = Bending moment acting at the given section,


= Normal stress,
I = Moment of inertia of the cross-section
y = Distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fibre,

Bearing Stress
A localized compressive stress
at the surface of contact
between two members of a
machine
part, that are relatively at rest is
known as bearing stress or
crushing stress.
The bearing stress is taken into
account in the design of riveted
joints, cotter joints, knuckle
joints, etc.

Calculate Stress in A and


B

9/22/2014

Stress Transformation
Given combination stress in xy coordinate system,
what are the components of these stresses in t-n
coordinates?

Mohrs Circle

Principal Stresses
The two principal stresses

the two extreme-value shear stresses