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DESIGN OF FURNACE

Radial section calculation


Total heat duty of radiation and convection region = 1.408

10

Btu/hr (From

simulation)
Assuming overall efficiency of heat transfer, =75%
Required heat duty QT =

1.408 10
0.75

= 1.877 X 107 Btu/hr

Heating value of fuel (NG)= 3.5617 X 105 Btu/lbmol


Fuel conversion = 90%
Fuel quantity =

1.877 107
3.5617 105 0.9

= 58.565 lbmol/hr

Reactions involved:
CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O
C2H6 + 3.5 O2 = 2CO2 + 3H2O

Theoretical quantity of air =

58.565 0.96 2 58.565 0.04 3.5


+
0.21
0.79

= 574.397

lbmol/hr
Assuming 40% excess air,
Required air quantity= 574.397 X 1.4 = 804.156 lbmol/hr

Calculation of exit flue gas temperature, TG


Following Lobo Evans method1
For single row arrangement of tubes:

1 Kern, Donald Q. (1997) Process Heat transfer, international student edition, Tata
McGraw hill, pp.697

Radiant section average flux = 12000 Btu/hr ft2


Average tube temperature in radiant section, TS = 7000F

Performing trial and error calculations:

Q
A cp

=2 X average flux =24000 Btu/hr ft2

Assuming overall exchange factor, F = 0.6

Q
A cp F = 24000 Btu/hr.ft2 X

1
0.6

=40000 Btu/hr.ft2

From graph of fig 19.142


For Ts = 7000F
Exit flue gas temperature, TG = 16800F

Calculation for Qair

29.1

Qair = [ 804.156 X {0.21 X

260

10-3 +1.158 X 10-5T 0.607 X 10-8 T2 + 1.311 X

30

29

10-12)dT +0.79 X

260

10-3 + 0.2199 X 10-5 T + 0.5723 X 10-8 T2 2.871 X 10-12

30

T3)dT}] x 4.303 X 102


= 2.358 X 106 btu/hr

2 Kern, Donald Q. (1997) Process Heat transfer, international student edition, Tata
McGraw hill, pp 699

33.46

Qsteam = [8.583 X {

260

10-3 + 0.0688 X 10-5 T + 0.7604 X 10-8 T2 3.593 X 10-

30

12

) dT}] X 4.303X 102


= 2.843 X 104 Btu/hr

Calculation for QExahust :

H balance: (8.583 x 2) + (58.555 x 0.96 x4) +(6 x 0.04 x 58.555) = 2n 3 + (5.621 x


4) + (6 x 0.234)

n3 = 102.028 lbmol H2O/hr


O balance : 8.583 + (804.126 x 2) = 2n2 + n3

n2 = 122.151 lbmol O2/hr


Similarly carbon balance will yield, n1 = 54.808 lbmol CO2/hr

Component
nin (lbmol/h)
Hin (KJ/mol)
nout (lbmol/h)
Hout (KJ/mol)
CH4
56.213
-74.85
5.621
-72.197
C2H6
2.342
-84.67
0.234
-17.596
O2
168.872
7.21
122.151
29.45
N2
635.283
7.1
635.283
27.714
H2O (v)
8.583
8.146
8.583
34
CO2
54.808
-349.68
H2O (g)
93.445
-207.83
From Felder, Richard M, Rousseau, Ronald W.(2000) Elementary Principles of
Chemical processes, 3rd edition, John Wiley & sons,appendix
QExhasut = (nout Hout nin Hin) x 4.303 X 102
= 8.128 X 106 Btu/hr

Heat duty at radiation zone, QR = QT + Qair + Qsteam Qwall + Qexhaust


= 1.877 X 10 7 + 2.358 X 106 + 2.843 X 104 - (0.02 X
7

1.877 X 10 ) - 8.128 X 10

= 1.27 X 107 Btu/hr

Assuming Qwall is 2% of the QT

Calculation of tube no.


Tube dimensions

Nominal tube size = 2 2


Schedule no. 80
Inside diameter, Di = 2.323
Outside diameter, Do = 2.88

Pitch, P =4
Length, L = 40 ft

2.88

35 ) = 30.159 ft2
Tube surface area per tube= (
12
Q
No of tubes = Surface area per tube average heat flux

1.27 107
= 30.159 12000

= 35

For rectangular furnace of dimensions 40 X 28 X 12


Dimension ratio = 40:28:12= 3:2:1
Mean beam length =

23
40 28 12
3

Gas Emissivity Calculation

x CO =
2

lbmolesco
lbmolesco +lbmoles N +lbmolesO +lbmolesH O +lbmolesCH +lbmolesC
2

H6

54.808
920.128

= 0.0596 lbmol CO2 / lbmol air


Similarly xH2O = 0.111 lbmol H2O /lbmol air
Pco2 = 0.0596 X 1.6 = 0.0953 atm
Pco2L = 0.0953 X 15.85 = 1.511

From figure 19.123


Radiant heat transfer flux for CO2, (qw)1300 = 2300 , (qw)370 = 120
3 Kern, Donald Q. (1997) Process Heat transfer, international student edition, Tata
McGraw hill,pp 693

pH2OL = 0.111 X 15.85 =1.759


Radiation heat transfer flux for H2O, (qw)1300= 2500, (qw)370 = 145

Correction factor:

Abscissa ratio =

p co
p H O + pco
2

0.0953
0.0953+ 0.111

= 0.462

For curve corresponding t, Pco2L + pH2OL =3.27


Correction factor = 8%

Corrected emissivity,

G=

(qc +q w )Tg ( qc +q w )Ts 100correction factor

(q bTgq bTs )
100

( 2500+ 2300 )( 145+120) 1008

16577818.658
100

= 0.265

Now, Equivalent cold plane surface = Acp

A cp
4.5
=
40 =15 ft2
tube
12

Effectiveness factor,

Acp
no .of tubes
tube

Refractory surface

=0.965

= (0.965 X 15 X 35)= 506.625 ft2

End wall =(2 X 28 X 12)= 672 ft2


Side wall = (12 X 40) = 480 ft2
Bridge wall = (4 X 40) = 160 ft2
Floor arch = (2 X 12 X40) = 960 ft2
AT = 960 + 160 + 480 +672 = 2272 ft2
A R = AT -

Acp

= 2272 506.625= 1765.375 ft2

AR
1765.375
=
=3.485
A cp 506.625
From fig 19.154, overall exchange factor, F= 0.65

Q = 1.27 107
A cp F 506.625 0.65

=38566 Btu/hr.ft2

From fig 19.14, exit flue gas temperature, T G = 1650

Average flux,

Q 1
A cp 2

= 12534 Btu/hr.ft2

Which is 4.5% larger than assumed value.


This arrangement is taken as final.

CONVECTION SECTION CALCULATION

Total heat loss, QL = 1.877 X 107 1.408 X 107 = 4.69 X 106 Btu/hr
Heat output by flue gas from convection, Q E = QL (2% of QT) (2% of Qex)
4 Kern, Donald Q. (1997) Process Heat transfer, international student edition, Tata
McGraw hill,pp 700

= 4.15 X 106 Btu/hr


Qconvection = QR QE (2% of QR)
= 8.296X 106 Btu/hr
Heat capacity of crude oil, Cp = 0.72 Btu/lb oF
Mass flow rate of crude = 6 X 104 lb/hr
Qconvection = Mass flow rate of crude x Cp x (Tc Temperature of entering furnace)
TC = 692 0F
Calculation of flue gas temperature leaving radiant section T
Simplifying equation,
8.296X 106 = {920.128 X 0.247 X (898.889-T)} X 4.303 X 102
T= 851.667 0C= 1565 0F

T1 = T-t1 = (1565-500)= 1065 0F


T = T -T = (1650-692)= 958
2
G
c

LMTD =

T 1T 2
T 1
ln
T 2

= 1011

Calculation of UD
Tube side heat transfer coefficient, hi

Velocity of crude oil =

Mass flow rate


6 104
1
1
=

2
Density Flow area 52.29
3600
2.88
(
)
4
12

Mass velocity, G= Density x Velocity

= 7.045 ft/s

= 52.29 x 7.045
= 368.414 lb/s.ft2
From figure 17-115
Tube side heat transfer coefficient, hi = 337 Btu/hr.ft2.0F
Thermal conductivity of high temperature steel tubes, k=21 Btu/hr.ft 0F
Heat transfer coefficient of flue gas, ho = 3.2 Btu/hr.ft2 0F

1
Overall heat transfer coefficient, Uc =

Ao 1
A
d
1
+ +( o ln o )+
Ai hi 2 kL
di ho

1
2.88
2.88
1
2 12
2.88
1
+
+(
ln
)+
2.323 337
21
2.323 3.2
= 3.151 Btu/ hr.ft2. oF

Dirt factor, Rd = 0.003

1
1
= + Rd
U d Uc

1
+0.003
3.151

Overall heat transfer coefficient, Ud = 3.122 Btu/ hr.ft2.oF


Total exchange area, A=

Q
U d T lm

8.296 106
3.122 1011

= 2628.359ft2

No. of tubes =

Total area
2628.359
=
86
Area per tube
2.88

40
12

5 Nelson, W.L. Petroleum Refinery Engineering, 4 th edition, McGraw hill.

Heat loss, QL = KAT x


For brick wall (fire clay missouri), K= 3.352 Btu/hr. ft. 0F
So

x=

3.352 2307 ( 165086)


1.27 107

= 0.952 ft = 11.428 in

TUBE SIDE PRESSURE DROP IN FURNACE


Reynolds no, Re =

DV

2.323

52.29 7.045 3600


12
4
0.2928 2.42

= 2.85 x 105
Friction factor, f= 0.0035+

= 0.0035

0.264
0.42

+0.264
(2.85 106 )0.42

= 0.0049
2

P=

4 fL V 2 4 0.0049 2 40 (7.045)
=
2 gc D
2.323
2 32.2
12
= 2.27 psi < 10 psi

Which is allowable.

Figure: Schematic diagram of fired heater furnace.

LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION OF FURNACE

Figure : Tube distribution in radiant section of furnace.

Figure: P&ID of furnace.