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Q.1. To which wavelength of light is our eye most sensitive? In which region does this
wavelength lie?
Q.2. A ray of light falls normally on a mirror. What are the values of angle of incidence and
angle of reflection?
Q.3. A person moves with velocity v towards a plane mirror. With what velocity does his
image move towards him?
Q.4. A mirror is turned through 10. By what angle will the reflected ray turn?
Q.5. What is the focal length (or radius of curvature) of a plane mirror?
Q.6. What is the number of images of an object held between two parallel plane mirrors?
Q.7 An object is held between two plane parallel mirrors inclined at 45 to each other. How
many images do you expect to see?
Q.8. What is the minimum size of a plane mirror which can enable a man to see his full
Q.9. How many images of himself can an observer see in a room whose ceiling and two
adjacent walls are mirrors?
Q.10. What is a spherical mirror? What are its two types?
Q.11. Which spherical mirror is called a divergent mirror, concave or convex?
Q.12. Define principal focus of a spherical mirror.
Q.13. Which spherical mirror has (i) a real focus (ii) a virtual focus?
Q.14. Which spherical mirror always forms a virtual, erect and diminished image of an
Q.15. One wants to see an enlarged image of an object in a mirror. Which type of mirror one
should use?
Q.16 Which type of spherical mirror can form a real and diminished image of an object?
Q.17 Where should object be placed so that a concave mirror forms a real, inverted and
magnified image?
Q.18. Can we obtain image of an object formed by convex mirror on a screen? If not, why?
Q.19. Can we photograph a virtual image?
Q.20. A concave mirror has focal length 20 cm. Where should the object be placed in front of
the mirror so that area of image equal to the size of the object is formed?
Q.21. What is the angle of incidence, when a ray of light falls on the spherical mirror from its
centre of curvature?
Q.22. Starting from a large distance, a flame is moved towards a convex mirror. Comment on
how the size and position of the image change?
Q.23. What is refraction?
Q.24. Define refractive index.
Q.25. Define refractive index in terms of wavelength of light.
Q.26. What is meant by relative refractive index of medium?
Q.27. State the factors on which the refractive index of a medium depends.


State Snell's law of refraction of light.

What is lateral shift in refraction?
On what factors does the lateral shift depend?
For what angle of incidence, the lateral shift produced by a parallel sided glass
slab is zero?
Light of wavelength 6000 A0 in air enters a medium of refractive index 1.5.
What will be its frequency in the medium?
When light undergoes refraction, what happens to its frequency?
When light undergoes refraction at the surface of separation of two media, what
happens to its wavelength?
How does the frequency of a beam of ultraviolet light change when it goes from air into
What is a lens?
Define optical centre of a lens.
What is the deviation produced by a thin lens of a ray passing through its optical
Can a lens be used in a medium of which it is made of?
A lens always forms virtual and erect image of the object irrespective of the position of
the object. What type of lens is this?
What should be the position of an object relative to a biconvex lens so that it behaves
like a magnifying glass?
Where should an object be placed from a convex lens to form an image of the
same size? Can it happen in case of concave lens?
Define power of a lens. Give its SI units.
Define one dioptre.
If the power of a lens is + 5 dioptre, what is its focal length?
A lens has a power of - 2.5 D. What is the focal length and nature of the lens?
An object is held at the principal focus of a concave lens of focal length F.
Where is the image formed?
The central portion of a lens is covered with a black paper.
Will the lens form full image of an object?
Which medium is denser in the given ray diagram.

Q.50. Define linear magnification produced by a lens/mirror.

Q.51. Three lenses with magnifications 2, 3 and 10 form a combination. What is its total
Q.52. What is the purpose of adding 'blue' to clothes?
Q.53. What is a prism?
Q.54. Define angle of the prism.
Q.55. Define angle of deviation.
Q.56. What is the effect on a ray of light passing through a prism?
Q.57. Name the factors on which the angle of deviation produced by a prism depends.
Q.58. Define angle of minimum deviation.

Q.59. How is the angle of minimum deviation related to the angle of incidence and the angle
of prism?
Q.60. Write the relation for the refractive index of the prism in terms of the angle of
minimum deviation and the angle of prism.
Q.61. What is dispersion of light?
Q.62. For which colour, the refractive index of prism material is (i) minimum and
(ii) maximum?
Q.63. Which colour is deviated (i) most (ii) least, on passing through a prism?
Q.64. Does the angle of minimum deviation produced by a prism depend on wavelength?
Q.65. Out of red and blue lights, for which colour is the refractive index of glass greater?
Q.66. A glass prism is held in water. How is the angle of minimum deviation affected?
Q.67. A monochromatic ray of light is made to fall on a normal 60 prism under minimum
deviation condition. What is the relation between the angle of incidence and the angle
of emergence?
Q.68. Draw a properly labelled graph between the angle of incidence and the angle of
deviation for a prism and show the point of minimum deviation.
Q.69. State Rayleigh's law of scattering.
Q.70. What is monochromatic light? Give one example of a source of monochromatic light.
Q.71. What is the nature of the final image formed in an astronomical telescope?
Q.72. What is the basic difference between the actions of telescope and microscope?
Q.73. How does the power of a convex lens vary, if the incident red light is replaced by violet
Q.74. A diverging lens of focal length F is cut into two identical parts each forming a
plano-concave lens. What is the focal length of each part?
Q.75. Draw a plot showing the variation of power of a lens, with the wavelength of the
incident light.
Q.76. Two thin lenses of power + 4D and -2D are in contact. What is the focal length of the
Ans.1: Our eye is most sensitive to wavelength = 5500 A0. This wavelength lies in the
yellow-green region of the visible spectrum.
Ans.2: Angle of incidence = 0, Angle of reflection = 0.
Ans.3: The image moves towards the person with velocity 2 v.
Ans.4: 20, because the reflected ray turns through twice the angle through which the plane
mirror is rotated.
Ans.5: Infinity.
Ans.6: For parallel plane mirrors, = 0, therefore,

Ans.7: 7 images.
Ans.8: The minimum size (vertical length) of the plane mirror should be equal to half the
height of the man.
Ans.9: Six images. The two adjacent walls inclined at 90 will make three images and the
ceiling will repeat them.
Ans.10: A spherical mirror is a reflecting surface which forms part of a hollow sphere.
Spherical mirrors are of two types (i) concave mirror and (ii) convex mirror.
Ans.11: A convex mirror is called a divergent mirror because it diverges a parallel beam of
light incident on it.

Ans.12: A narrow beam of light parallel to the principal axis either actually converges to or
appears to diverge from a point F on the principal axis after reflection from the
spherical mirror. This point is called principal focus of the mirror.
Ans.13: (i) A concave mirror has a real focus. (ii) A convex mirror has a virtual focus.
Ans.14: Convex mirror.
Ans.15: A concave mirror, because it forms an erect and enlarged image when the object is
placed between the focus and the mirror.
Ans.16: A concave mirror, when the object is placed beyond 2F, it forms a real and
diminished image.
Ans.17: A concave mirror forms a real, inverted and diminished image if the object is placed
(i) at F and (ii) between F and 2F.
Ans.18: No. A convex mirror always forms a virtual image which cannot be obtained on a
Ans.19: Yes, because the rays diverging from the virtual image are real and can be focused.
Ans.20: The object should be placed at 40 cm from the mirror.
Ans.21: A ray of light from the centre of curvature falls normally on the spherical mirror. So
its angle of incidence is 0.
Ans.22: Size of the image increases and image shifts towards the pole of the mirror.
Ans.23: Refraction is the phenomenon of the change in path of light as it passes from one
transparent medium to another.
Ans.24: The refractive index of a medium for a light of given wavelength may be defined as the
ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to its speed in that medium.
Ans.25: The ratio of the wavelength of light in vacuum to its wavelength in a medium is called
refractive index of that medium.
Ans.26: The relative refractive index of medium 2 with respect to medium 1 is defined as the
ratio of speed of light (V1) in medium 1 to the speed of light (V2) in medium 2.
Ans.27: Refractive index of a medium depends on (a) Nature of the medium
(b) Wavelength of light used (c) Nature of surrounding medium.
Ans.28: According to Snell's law, the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence and the sine of
the angle of refraction is constant for a given pair of media. This constant is called
refractive index () of second medium w.r.t. first medium.
Ans.29: The sidewise shift in the path of light on emerging from a refracting medium with
parallel faces is called lateral shift.
Ans.30: Lateral shift depends on angle of incidence, the refractive index and thickness of the
refracting medium.
Ans.31: For i = 0, lateral shift is zero.
Ans.32: The frequency of light remains same as it travels form air to the given medium.
Ans.33: The frequency does not change when light undergoes refraction.
Ans.34: The wavelength changes when light undergoes refraction from one medium to
Ans.35: Frequency of the ultraviolet light remains unchanged.
Ans.36: A lens is a piece of refracting medium bounded by two surfaces at least one of which
is a curved surface.
Ans.37: It is a point situated within the lens through which a ray of light passes undeviated.
Ans.38: 0.
Ans.39: No, it cannot be used as a lens because there would be no refraction of light.
Ans.40: Concave lens.

Ans.41: The object should be placed between the optical centre and the focus of the biconvex
Ans.42: The object should be placed at a distance equal to 2f from the lens. This cannot
happen in a concave lens which always forms a diminished image.
Ans.43: The power of a lens is defined as the reciprocal of its focal length expressed in metres.
Ans.44: One dioptre is the power of a lens whose principal focal length is 1 metre.
Ans.45: Focal length = + 0.2 m
Ans.46: Focal length= - 40 cm.
The negative sign shows that the lens is concave.
Ans.47: Image is formed at f/2.
Ans.48: Yes, each part of the lens will form full image. But the intensity of the image is
Ans.50: The ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object is called linear magnification
m= size of image / size of object
Ans.51: Total magnification = m1 x m2 x m3=2x3xl0 =60.
Ans.52:When washed, the clothes get a yellowish tint. Blue and yellow are complimentary
colours and they give white colour.
Ans.53: Any portion of a refracting medium bounded by two plane faces inclined to each other
at a certain angle is called a prism.
Ans.54:The angle between the refracting faces of a prism is called angle of the prism.
Ans.55:The angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray is called
angle of deviation .
Ans.56:It bends towards the base of the prism.
Ans.57:The angle of deviation produced by prism depends on
(i) Angle of incidence (ii) Material of the prism (iii) Wavelength of light used
(iv) Angle of the prism.
Ans.58: The minimum value of the angle of deviation suffered by a ray of light on passing
through a prism is called angle of minimum deviation ( ).
Ans.59: Angle of minimum deviation,
Ans.61: Dispersion is the phenomenon of splitting of white light into the constituent colours
on passing through a prism.
Ans.62: Refractive index of prism material is (i) minimum for red colour
(ii) maximum for violet colour.
Ans.63: (i) Violet colour is deviated most (ii) Red colour is deviated least, on passing through a
Ans.64: Yes, it depends on the wavelength of light.
Ans.65: B


.According to Cauchys formula

Ans.66: The angle of minimum deviation decreases in water.

Ans.67: In the minimum deviation condition,
Angle of incidence = Angle of emergence.


Ans.69: According to Rayleigh's law of scattering, the intensity of light of wavelength

present in the scattered light is inversely proportional to fourth power of


Ans.70: A light of single wavelength is called monochromatic light. The commonly used
source of monochromatic light is a sodium lamp.
Ans.71: The final image formed is virtual, magnified and inverted with respect to the object.
Ans.72: A telescope increases the visual angle subtended by the large distant object, while a
microscope increases the visual angle subtended by the nearly tiny object.
Ans.73: Power of the convex lens increases, because P (
Ans.74: Focal length of each part will be 2F.

Ans.76: P= P1 + P2

= + 4-2 = + 2D

f = + 50 cm.


Q.1. In the potentiometer circuit shown below, the balance (null) point is at X.
State with reason, where the balance point will be shifted when
(i) Resistance R is increased, keeping all parameters unchanged.
(ii) Resistance S is increased, keeping R constant.
(iii) Cell P is replaced by another cell whose emf is lower
than that of cell Q.

Q.2. A potentiometer wire of length 1 m is connected to a driver cell of e.m.f. 3 V as

shown in the figure. When a cell of 1.5 V e.m.f. is used in the secondary circuit,
the balance point is found to be 60 cm. On replacing this cell and using a cell of
unknown e.m.f, the balance point shifts to 80 cm.
(i) Calculate unknown e.m.f. of the cell.
(ii) Explain with reason, whether the circuit works, if
the driver cell is replaced with a cell of e.m.f. 1 V.

(iii) Does the high resistance R, used in the secondary circuit affect the balance point?
Justify your answer.
Q.3. Potential wire, PQ of 1m lengths is connected to a standard cell E1.
Another cell E2 of e.m.f. 1.02 V is connected as shown in Fig. The circuit diagram
with a resistance r and a switch, S.When switch S open, null position is obtained
at a distance of 51 cm from P. Calculate
(i) Potential gradient of the potentiometer wire and (ii) e.m.f. of the cell E1.
(iii) When switch S is closed, will null point move towards P or towards Q?
Give reason for your answer.

Q.4. Two primary cells of e.m.f. E1 and E2 (E1 > E2) are connected to the
Potentiometer wire AB as shown in Fig. If the balancing lengths for the two
combinations of the cells are 250 cm and 400 cm, find the ratio of E1 and E2.
Q.5. State Kirchhoff s laws for electrical circuits and explain them giving illustrations.
Q.6. State Kirchhoff's loop law for electrical circuits. Show that it is in accordance with
the conservation law of energy.
Hint: Electrostatic force is conservative in nature, so work done by it along any
closed path must be zero.
Q.7. Define the term potential gradient. With the help of a circuit diagram, explain how a
potentiometer can be used to compare the emfs of two primary cells.
Q.8. State the principle of a potentiometer. With the help of a circuit diagram, describe a
method to find the internal resistance of a primary cell.
How can the sensitivity of a potentiometer be increased?
Q.9. Explain the principle on which working of a potentiometer is based.
Why is the use of a potentiometer preferred over that of a voltmeter for the
measurement of emf of a cell?
Q.10. For the potentiometer circuit, shown in Fig. points x and y represent the two
terminals of an unknown emf E. A student observed that when the jockey is moved
from the end A to the end B of the potentiometer wire, the deflection in
the galvanometer remains in the same direction. What are the two possible faults
in the circuit that could result in this observation?

If the galvanometer deflection at the end B is (i) more (ii) less than that at the
end A which of the two faults, listed above, would be there in the circuit?
Give reasons in support of your answer in each case.

Q.11. Two students X and Y perform an experiment on potentiometer separately using

the circuit diagram shown here. Keeping other things unchanged,
(a) X increases the value of resistance R, and
(b) Y decreases the value of resistance S in the set up.
How would these changes affect the position of null point in each case and why?
Q.12. Why do we use copper wires as connecting wires?
Solution: This is because copper has a high electrical conductivity.
Q.13. How does the drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor vary with the
increase in temperature?
Solution: The drift velocity decreases because of the increase in collision frequency of free
electrons at higher temperature.
Q.14. If the temperature of a good conductor increases how does the relaxation time of
electrons in the conductor change?
Solution: With the increase in temperature, the electrons collide more frequently with
positive metal ions. So their relaxation time decreases.
Q.15. If potential difference V applied across a conductor is increased to 2 V, how will
the drift velocity of the electrons change?
Solution: Drift velocity,


clearly, when V is increased to 2 V, drift velocity also

gets doubled.
Q.16. Of metals and alloys, which have greater value of temperature coefficient of
Solution: Metals have greater value of temperature coefficient of resistance than alloys.
Q.17. Write two special characteristics of manganin due to which it is used in making
standard resistances.
Solution: (i) The temperature coefficient of resistance for manganin is low.
(ii) Manganin has a high value of resistivity.
Q.18. Why a potentiometer is named so?
Solution: Because it is used to measure potential difference.
Q.19. State the principle of working of a potentiometer.
Solution: A potentiometer works on the principle that when a steady current flows
through a wire of uniform cross-section and composition, the potential drop
across any length of the wire is directly proportional to that length.

Q.20. Why should the potentiometer wire be of uniform cross-section and composition?
Solution: Only then it will have same resistance per unit length throughout. Then potential
difference will be proportional to length of the wire, as required by the principle of
Q.21. Why should the material of the potentiometer wire be of high specific resistance?
Solution: This makes the resistance of the entire length of the wire sufficiently large and
hence for a given current, there is an appreciable potential drop.
Q.22. Why should the material of the potentiometer wire be of low temperature coefficient
of resistance?
Solution: A material having low temperature coefficient of resistance ensures that its
resistance does not change appreciably due to heating.
Q.23. Can we use copper wire as a potentiometer wire?
Solution: No. Resistivity of copper is small, so there will not be an appreciable potential
drop across the ends of potentiometer wire.
Also temperature coefficient of resistance of copper is large.
Q.24. Why should the current be not passed through potentiometer wire for a long time?
Solution: This will heat up the potentiometer wire and will change its resistance.
Potential drop per unit length of the wire will also change.
Q.25. What type of cell should be used in the main circuit of the potentiometer and why?
Solution: A Leclanche cell should be used in the main circuit of the potentiometer.
This is because of the fact that Leclanche cell is useful, when the current is drawn
for a short time.
Q.26. The emf of the cell used in the main circuit of the potentiometer should be more
than the potential difference to be measured. Why?
Solution: If it is not so, the balance point will not be obtained on the potentiometer wire.
Q.27. Why should the jockey be not rubbed against the potentiometer wire?
Solution: Rubbing of jockey against the potentiometer wire affects the uniformity of the
cross-sectional area of the wire and hence changes the potential drop across
the wire.
Q.28. What is meant by the sensitivity of a potentiometer?
Solution: A potentiometer is said to be sensitive if
(a) It can measure very small potential differences, and
(b) For a small change in potential difference being measured,
it shows a large change in balancing length.
Q.29. How can the sensitivity of potentiometer be increased?
Solution: The sensitivity can be increased by reducing the potential gradient.
This can be done by (i) increasing the length of the wire and
(ii) by reducing the current in the main circuit.
Q.30. How can you make a potentiometer of given wire length more sensitive using a
resistance box?
Solution: This can be done by introducing some resistance in the circuit through the
resistance box. This decreases the current in the circuit.
Consequently, the potential gradient decreases and hence sensitivity of the
potentiometer increases.
Q.31. Why do we prefer a potentiometer with a longer bridge wire?
Solution: A potentiometer with a longer bridge wire has a small potential gradient.
Consequently, it is more sensitive and hence preferred.

Q.32. Why is a ten-wire potentiometer more sensitive than a four-wire one?

Solution: This is because potential gradient for ten wire potentiometer is smaller than that
for a four-wire one.
Q.33. Why is a Wheatstone bridge so called?
Solution: It is so called because this method was first suggested by a British physicist,
Sir Charles F. Wheatstone in 1843. It is called a bridge because the galvanometer
circuit forms a kind of bridge by connecting two points having the same potential.
Q.34. When is a Wheatstone bridge said to be balanced?
Solution: A Wheatstone bridge is said to be balanced if no current flows through its
galvanometer arm. When the Wheatstone bridge is balanced,
Q.35. What do you mean by sensitiveness of a Wheatstone bridge?
Solution: A Wheatstone bridge is said to be sensitive, if it produces more deflection
in the galvanometer for a small change of resistance in resistance arm.
Q.36. When is Wheatstone bridge most sensitive?
Solution: When all the four resistors P, Q R and S are nearly of the same magnitude.
Q.37. Why a slide wire bridge or metre bridge is named so?
Solution: As in it a jockey is made to slide over the bridge wire to get a null point, so it is
called a slide-wire bridge. As it uses one metre long wire, so it is called a
metre bridge.
Q.38. Why should we get the null point in the middle of the metre bridge wire?
Solution: The metre bridge is most sensitive when the four resistances forming the
Wheatstone bridge are equal. This is possible only if the balance point is
somewhere near the middle of the wire.
Q.39. What is the end error in a metre bridge?
Solution: The end error in a metre bridge is due to the following reasons:
(a) The zero mark of the scale provided along the wire may not start from the
position where the bridge wire leaves the copper strip and 100 cm mark of the scale
may not end at position where the wire touches the copper strip.
(b) The resistance of copper wires and copper strips of metre bridge has not been
taken into account.
Q.40. What are the advantages of a Wheat- stone bridge method of measuring resistance
over other methods?
Solution: (i) It is a null method, hence the result is free from the effect of extra resistances
(cell resistances) of the circuit,
(ii) Being null method, it is easier to detect a small change in deflection than to
read a deflection directly.
Q.41. Why are the connecting resistors in a metre bridge made of thick copper strips?
Solution: Thick copper strips offer minimum resistance and hence avoid the error due to
end resistance which has not been taken into account in the bridge formula.
Q.42. Why is Wheatstone bridge (or metre bridge) method considered unsuitable for the
measurement of very low resistances?


Solution: For measuring low resistance, all other resistances used should have low value to
ensure the sensitivity of the bridge. This requires a galvanometer of very low
resistance which itself would be very sensitive. Also, the end-resistances and
resistances of connecting wires become comparable to the resistance being
measured and introduce error in the result.
Q.43. Why is metre bridge method considered unsuitable for the measurement of very
high resistance?
Solution: For measuring high resistance, all other resistances forming the bridge should
also be high so as to ensure the sensitivity of the bridge. But this reduces the
current through the galvanometer which becomes insensitive.
Q.44. Why is Wheatstone bridge method suitable for comparing the resistances of the
same order of magnitude?
Solution: Metre bridge is based on the principle of Wheatstone bridge which is most
sensitive when all the resistances are nearly of the same magnitude.
So metre bridge is suitable for comparing the resistances of the same order of
Q.45. What happens if the galvanometer and cell are interchanged at the balance point of
the bridge? Would the galvanometer show any current?
Solution: When galvanometer and cell are interchanged, condition for balance of the bridge
remains satisfied. So galvanometer will show no current.
Q.46. (i) State the principle of working of a metre bridge, (ii) In a metre bridge balance
point is found at a distance l1 with resistances R and S
as shown in the figure.
When an unknown resistance X is connected in parallel with the resistance S,
the balance point shifts to a distance l2. Find the expression for X in terms of
l1,l2 and S.

Q.47. The Figure shows experimental set up of a metre bridge. When the two unknown
resistances X and Y are inserted, the null point D is obtained 40 cm from the end A.
When a resistance of 10 is connected in series with X, the null point shifts by
10 cm. Find the position of the null point when the 10 resistance is instead
connected in series with resistance 'Y'.
Determine the values of the resistances X and Y.
Q.48. In a metre bridge (refer to Figure below), the null point is found at a distance
of 40 cm from A. If a resistance of 12 is connected in parallel with S, the null point
occurs at 50.0 cm from A. Determine the values of R and S.


Q.49. In a metre bridge (refer to Figure above), the null point is found at a distance
of 60 cm from A. If a resistance of 5 is connected in series with S, the null point
occurs at 50.0 cm from A. Determine the values of R and S.
Q.50. Four cells of identical emf E, internal resistance r, are connected in series to a
variable resistor. The graph (Fig) shows the variation of terminal voltage of the
combination with the current output:
(a) What is the emf of each cell used?
(b) Calculate the internal resistance of each cell.
(c) For what current from the cells, does maximum power dissipation occur in the
Q.51.Calculate the value of unknown resistance X and the current drawn by the circuit,
assuming that no current flows through the galvanometer. Assume the resistance
per unit length of the wire AB to be 0.01 /cm.

Q.52. You are given n resistors each of resistance r. These are first connected to get
minimum possible resistance. In the second case, these are again connected
differently to get maximum possible resistance. Compute the ratio between the
minimum and maximum value of resistances so obtained.
Q.53. Two wires X, Y have the same resistivity, but their cross-sectional areas are in the
ratio 2:3 and lengths in the ratio 1:2. They are first connected in series and then in
parallel to a d.c. source. Find out the ratio of the drift speeds of the electrons in the
two wires for the two cases.
Q.54. A cell of emf 'E' and internal resistance Y is connected across a variable resistor 'R'.
Plot a graph showing the variation of terminal potential 'V' with resistance R.
Predict from the graph the condition under which 'V' becomes equal to 'E'.


Q.55. If the current supplied to a variable resistor is constant, draw a graph between
voltage and resistance.
Q.56. The current voltage graphs for a given metallic wire at different temperatures
T1 and T2 are shown in Fig. Which of the temperatures T1 and T2 is greater?

Q.57. V-I graphs for parallel and series combination of two metallic resistors are as
shown in Fig. Which graph represents parallel combination? Justify your answer.

Q.58.The voltage current variation of two metallic wires X and Y at constant temperature
are shown in Fig. Assuming that the wires have the same length and the same
diameter, explain which of the two wires will have larger resistivity.


Q.59.The voltage-current graphs for two resistors of the same material and the same
radii with lengths L1 and L2 are shown in Fig. If L1 > L2, state with reason,
which of these graphs represents voltage-current change for L1.

Q.60. A potential difference V is applied to a conductor of length L, diameter D.

How are the electric field E, the drift velocity vd and the resistance R affected when
(i) V is doubled (ii) L is doubled (iii) D is doubled?
Q.61. A set of n identical resistors, each of resistance R , when connected in series have
an effective resistance X , and when the resistors are connected in parallel, their
effective resistance is Y , Find the relation between R, X and Y.
Q.62. A steady current flows in a metallic conductor of non-uniform cross-section.
Which of these quantities is constant along the conductor: current, current density,
electric field, drift speed?
Q.63. Define drift velocity. A conductor of length L is connected to a dc source of emf E.
If the length of conductor is tripled by stretching it, keeping E constant, explain
how do the following factors would vary in the conductor?
(i) Drift speed of electrons,
(ii) Resistance and
(iii) Resistivity.